WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained power decreases

  1. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Making nuclear power sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B

    2003-01-01

    According to the present data, we must double our energy production while dividing by a factor of two the greenhouse gases emissions, knowing that today, 80% of our energy comes from the combustion of coal, gas and oil, all of which produce CO, released in the atmosphere. This is the toughest challenge facing us in the next few decades, and I include the water challenge, since producing drinking water will also increase our energy needs. This formidable challenge will not be easily met. No magic bullet is in sight, not even a nuclear bullet. To have any chance of success, we must actually implement all the available measures, and invent some more. In fact, we shall certainly need a three-pronged approach: Increase energy efficiency to limit energy consumption in our developed countries; Diversify our energy mix to reduce the share supplied by fossil fuels and that translates into increasing nuclear and renewable energy source; Trap and sequester CO 2 wherever and whenever economically possible. This article focuses on the nuclear issue. According to International Energy Agency (lEA) statistics, nuclear energy accounts today for 6.8% of the world energy supply. Is it realistic to expect this share to grow, when many forecasts (including lEA's own) predict a slow reduction? The future is not engraved in marble, it is ours to make; the future role of nuclear power will depend on the results of our present efforts to expand or overcome its limitations. It is quite possible that, within four decades, 40% of the electric power generated in all OECD countries, plus Russia, China, India and Brazil, comes from nuclear reactors. It is not far-fetched, when you consider that it took only two decades for France to increase its nuclear share of electricity from 8% to 80%. More ambitious, let's assume that in the same time frame and within the same countries 15% of the fuels for transportation come from nuclear produced hydrogen and that 10% of the space heating is supplied by

  3. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    Transforming the energy system is at the core of the dedicated sustainable development goal on energy within the new United Nations development agenda. This publication explores the possible contribution of nuclear energy to addressing the issues of sustainable development through a large selection of indicators. It reviews the characteristics of nuclear power in comparison with alternative sources of electricity supply, according to economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainability. The findings summarized in this publication will help the reader to consider, or reconsider, the contribution that can be made by the development and operation of nuclear power plants in contributing to more sustainable energy systems.

  4. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandklef, S.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power is a new, innovative technology for energy production, seen in the longer historic perspective. Nuclear technology has a large potential for further development and use in new applications. To achieve this potential the industry needs to develop the arguments to convince policy makers and the general public that nuclear power is a real alternative as part of a sustainable energy system. This paper examines the basic concept of sustainable development and gives a quality review of the most important factors and requirements, which have to be met to quality nuclear power as sustainable. This paper intends to demonstrate that it is not only in minimising greenhouse gas emissions that nuclear power is a sustainable technology, also with respect to land use, fuel availability waste disposal, recycling and use of limited economic resources arguments can be developed in favour of nuclear power as a long term sustainable technology. It is demonstrated that nuclear power is in all aspects a sustainable technology, which could serve in the long term with minimal environmental effects and at minimum costs to the society. And the challenge can be met. But to achieve need political leadership is needed, to support and develop the institutional and legal framework that is the basis for a stable and long-term energy policy. Industry leaders are needed as well to stand up for nuclear power, to create a new industry culture of openness and communication with the public that is necessary to get the public acceptance that we have failed to do so far. The basic facts are all in favour of nuclear power and they should be used

  5. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible

  6. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The substantial increase in global energy consumption in coming decades will be driven principally by the developing world. Although there is some awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favored option in a sustainable energy future. This paper, after discussion of rising energy consumption, concentrates on a comparison of the environmental impacts of the available energy options. (author)

  7. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S.

    2014-01-01

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  8. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  9. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom Government's strategy aimed at securing sustainable development has recently been published, and is analysed here by the Energy Issues Adviser, for the British Nuclear Industry Forum. The energy framework aims to ensure secure supplies of energy at competitive prices and to minimise possible adverse environmental impacts of energy use. It is argued here that both of these aims will be promoted by the continued and growing use of nuclear power in the United Kingdom. As the cost of nuclear electricity depends chiefly on the price of uranium, which is likely to stabilize due to increased supplies from nuclear weapons destruction, uranium recycling and mixed oxide fuel reprocessing, it is unlikely that world fuel price inflation will affect these costs. Secondly, nuclear power is not associated with acid rain or the threat of global warming, so its environment protection claims can be substantiated. Indeed, unlike other fuel sources, nuclear power already pays for its waste and decommissioning procedures. (UK)

  10. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Although there is an awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favoured option in a sustainable energy future. A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant or opposed to its increased use, some even to a continuation at present levels. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is a need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, the disposal of high level waste and nuclear proliferation. This brochure discusses these concerns, and also the distinct advantages of nuclear power. Extensive comparisons with other energy sources are made

  11. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Although there is an awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favoured option in a sustainable energy future. A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant or opposed to its increased use, some even to a continuation at present levels. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is a need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, the disposal of high level waste and nuclear proliferation. This brochure discusses these concerns, and also the distinct advantages of nuclear power. Extensive comparisons with other energy sources are made. Figs, tabs.

  12. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  13. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  14. Nuclear power for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpuz, Antonio T.

    1997-01-01

    The need for stable and reliable energy supply was clearly illustrated by the Philippine experience of the last five years where the bleak energy supply situation caused massive losses in productivity. Indigenous energy resources even if exploited to full capacity is not sufficient to support the progress needed to give our growing population the quality of life it deserves. Important too is the fact that world energy resources especially oil and natural gas is estimated to last up to the first half of the next century. Thus the entry of nuclear power as a vital contributor to a safe, reliable, competitive and cost effective source of energy supply become a necessity. (author)

  15. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible [fr

  16. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible [es

  17. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  18. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  19. Towards self-sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved by modul......We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved...... of minimizing the cost of the generation. The simulation results prove the feasibility of power talk as enabler of fully self-sustainable DC MicroGrids....

  20. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  1. Hiking strap force decreases during sustained upwind sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, R; Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis, that sailing upwind in wind speeds above 12 knots causes fatigue, which manifests as a reduction in exerted hiking strap force and/or maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) of the knee extensors, was evaluated. Additionally, it was investigated if a relationship exists...... between maximal exerted hiking force (hMVC) and sailing performance. In part 1 of the study, 12 national level athletes sailed upwind for 2 × 10 min while hiking strap forces were continuously acquired. Before, in between and after sailing periods, the MVC of the knee extensors was measured. In part 2...... of the study, hMVC was measured dry land in a hiking bench and correlated with the overall results at a national championship. Hiking strap force decreased from the first to the last minute in both 10 min sailing periods (430 ± 131 vs. 285 ± 130 N, P 

  2. Synopsis of sustainability and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ishfaq

    2001-01-01

    Full text: World population is steadily increasing and yet one-third of them - over two billion people - lack access to electricity. Development depends on energy, including electricity, and the alternative to development is poverty, disease, misery, and death. This is a recipe for chaos, instability and widespread violence. During the next fifty years energy demand is expected to triple while the demand for electricity will grow nearly five-fold; a substantial portion of the demand coming from developing countries. It will be an immense challenge to meet the increased demand in energy without sustaining long term damage to the environment including the surface and air pollution as well as global warming and associated ecological disasters. While most of world's energy is derived from fossil fuels and hydroelectric power, still with 434 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, nuclear power is meeting 16% of the world's annual electricity needs and providing it to more than a billion people. Nuclear power has the potential for meeting a substantial portion of the world's growing energy needs in an environment friendly and sustainable manner contributing to a prosperous and safe world for posterity. The problems that developing countries face in imbibing nuclear technology and promoting the use of nuclear power are daunting. However, as nuclear technology is a proven technology, then in a shrinking world a sharing of knowledge and technology should make it much easier. If the world has to move towards shared political values and a global economy it is imperative that there should be a global access to civilian nuclear technology. (author)

  3. A method of reactor power decrease by 2DOF control system during BWR power oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1998-09-01

    Occurrence of power oscillation events caused by void feedback effects in BWRs operated at low-flow and high-power condition has been reported. After thoroughly examining these events, BWRs have been equipped with the SRI (Selected Rod Insertion) system to avoid the power oscillation by decreasing the power under such reactor condition. This report presents a power control method for decreasing the reactor power stably by a two degree of freedom (2DOF) control. Performing a numerical simulation by utilizing a simple reactor dynamics model, it is found that the control system designed attains a satisfactory control performance of power decrease from a viewpoint of setting time and oscillation. (author)

  4. Nuclear power - Sustainable development - Professional skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Paraschiva, M.V.; Banutoiu, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development of society implies taking political decisions integrating harmoniously ingredients like these: - technological maturity; - socio-economic efficiency; - rational and equitable use of natural resources; - compliance with requirements concerning the environment and population; - professional ethics; - communications with the public and media; - professional skill; - public opinion acceptance. A rational analysis of these factors shows clearly that nuclear power appears to be an optimal ground for a sustainable power source besides the hydro and thermo-electric systems. Such a conclusion was confirmed by all types of analyses, methodologies or programs like for instance: MAED, WASP, FINPLAN, DECADES, ENPEP and more recently MESSAGE. The paper describes applications of these analytical methodologies for two scenarios of Cernavoda NPP future development. To find the optimal development strategy for the electric system, implying minimal costs the optimization analysis mode of the ELECSAM analysis module was used. The following conclusions were reached: - the majority of Romania's classical electrical stations are old; consequently, part of them should be decommissioned while others will be refurbished. Instead of installing new power groups these options will result in lowering the investment cost, as well as, in reduction of noxious gas emission; - the nuclear power system developed in Romania upon the CANDU technology appears to be one of the most performing and safe technology in the world. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 commissioned on December 2, 1996 covers about 10% to 12% of the energy demand of the country. The CANDU systems offers simultaneously secure energy supply, safe operation, low energy costs and practically a zero impact upon the environment. The case study for Romania by means of DECADES project showed that the development program with minimal cost for electrical stations implies construction of new 706.5 MW nuclear units and new 660 MW

  5. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Ghazi, S.

    2008-01-01

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  6. Sustainable energy landscapes: The power of imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2012-01-01

    Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Sustainable energy transition necessitates a transformation of large parts of the existing built environment and presents one of the great challenges of present-day

  7. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  8. Nuclear power - an inevitable component of a sustainable energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants already add consequential amounts of energy to the global energy supply and continue to offer advantages for large additions of capacity. If increased, the nuclear share in world's energy mix would reduce the environmental damages as well as the climate change threats caused by the use of fossil fuels, thus providing an essential element of sustainable development. Such a potential contribution of nuclear power on large scale in a sustainable energy mix is considered, with its actual burdens and challenges discussed. Sustainable energy development with or without nuclear power is presented, with public acceptance of nuclear energy and global warming issues discussed in more details. (author)

  9. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power

  10. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  11. Sustainability indicators for the assessment of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supplies an increasing share of the world's total energy demand and that contribution is set to increase. At the same time, there is increasing socio-political will to mitigate impacts of climate change as well as to improve energy security. This, in combination with the desire to ensure social and economic prosperity, creates a pressing need to consider the sustainability implications of future electricity generation. However, approaches to sustainability assessment differ greatly in their scope and methodology as currently there is no standardised approach. With this in mind, this paper reviews sustainability indicators that have previously been used to assess energy options and proposes a new sustainability assessment methodology based on a life cycle approach. In total, 43 indicators are proposed, addressing the techno-economic, environmental and social sustainability issues associated with energy systems. The framework has been developed primarily to address concerns associated with nuclear power in the UK, but is applicable to other energy technologies as well as to other countries. -- Highlights: → New framework for life cycle sustainability assessment of nuclear power developed. → The framework comprises 43 indicators addressing techno-economic, environmental and social sustainability. → Completely new indicators developed to address different sustainability issues, including nuclear proliferation, energy supply diversity and intergenerational equity. → The framework enables sustainability comparisons of nuclear and other electricity technologies. → Indicators can be used by various stakeholders, including industry, policy makers and NGOs to help identify more sustainable electricity options.

  12. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  13. Sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding work faced with certain risk in recent years, the domestic nuclear power enterprises in the bidding work never stop research and explore the effective ways to guard against legal risks, and has made considerable progress, the eighteenth big country advocates the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development policy, in the face of the subsequent nuclear power construction projects have started, nuclear power enterprise bidding risk management work shoulder heavy responsibilities article through nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management present situation, proposed the sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management countermeasures. (author)

  14. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  15. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  16. Best power mix under nuclear-decreasing society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Michihisa; Nakao, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    East Japan Great Earthquake and the subsequent failures of nuclear power plants compel Japanese to consider a new paradigm of national energy policy. In this study, we discuss the future power mix scenario considering a variety of power options; nuclear, coal fire, LNG fire, oil fire, LNG combined cycle, hydro, hydropump, battery, photovoltaic, wind, and geothermal. Future developments of installed capacity, properties such as efficiency, etc. are discussed for each type of power option. Seven sets of daily demand profile are used. Power generation mix model developed in preceding studies is used to estimate the installation and operation of each power option for representative years of 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050. Future power mix is discussed on the basis of results from power generation mix model. (author)

  17. Powering Kuwait into the 21. Century. Adopting a Sustainable Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-09-01

    of the new buildings. New refining activities will also be energy intensive. This in turn could increase the number of migrant workers and consequently the population would grow faster than on a business as usual trend. Consumption forecasts are well below neighbour countries estimates, and this report is also conservative compared to official forecasts data. Last but not least, other sectors such as transport or petrochemicals will need an increasing amount of oil. The domestic oil consumption will in any case in increase in the years to come. This report concludes that Kuwait's power sector fuel mix and consumption path is not sustainable. In the short term, rising power consumption could lead to shortages in power capacity. Due to this unexpected power demand, capacity utilisation has been almost complete. Successive black outs in the last years led to the installation of expensive to run emergency gas fired turbines. In the no change scenario, growing power consumption would lead to decrease in oil export revenues, representing 91.6% of the state 2010/2011 budget. This would have a very negative impact on the overall economy, which is not substantially diversified yet. Costs would on the other hand increase as more power capacity would need to be installed, a larger amount of increasingly expensive fuel will have to be purchased and the state power subsidies bill, already amounting to $9 billion, will explode. While rising oil prices could compensate to a certain extent, and wait and see strategy risks locking Kuwait into a non-viable path

  18. Sustaining the nuclear power option in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Khaer bin Ibrahim.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to establish the information base required prior to a decision on a nuclear power programme, and the strategy adopted and the rationale behind the development of the basic core expertise on nuclear reactor technology. The effect of a lack of decision on the question of nuclear power generation on efforts to build this core technical expertise is also described. (author)

  19. WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

    Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

  20. Impacts of Power Structure on Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Li; Yangyang Xu; Fumin Deng; Xuedong Liang

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examines the manufacturer’s operational decisions, e.g., wholesale price and product sustainability level, the retailer’s operational decision, e.g., retail margin, and supply chain efficiency under three supply chain power structures: manufacturer Stackelberg, Nash and retailer Stackelberg. As a benchmark, we first obtain the equlibrium price and product sustainability level in a vertically integrated supply chain. Our analysis provides some interesting findings in a decent...

  1. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  2. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  3. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10"4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  4. Impacts of Power Structure on Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the manufacturer’s operational decisions, e.g., wholesale price and product sustainability level, the retailer’s operational decision, e.g., retail margin, and supply chain efficiency under three supply chain power structures: manufacturer Stackelberg, Nash and retailer Stackelberg. As a benchmark, we first obtain the equlibrium price and product sustainability level in a vertically integrated supply chain. Our analysis provides some interesting findings in a decentralized supply chain: (i a dominant manufacturer (retailer always benefits from its power; (ii the entire supply chain earns the most profit from the Nash game, and the least from the retailer Stackelberg game, respectively; (iii as the power shifts from the manufacturer to the retailer, product sustainability and retail price increase; (iv dominant manufacturer does not necessarily imply low wholesale price that would benefit the retailer. Managerial insights are provided for the manufacturer and the retailer, respectively.

  5. Sustainable nuclear power - the human dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicorda, K.L.; Poston, John W. Sr.; Sayko, Tami Davis; Porter, Jay; Reece, W. Dan; Earl, Beth; Ostroskaya, Natela; Lagoudas, Magdalini; Crenshaw, John; Jump, Will; Fenner, Clarence; Lowery, Kirby; Sieben, Steve; Jones, Larry; Ridge, Douglas; Robertson, Dale; Hyde, Carliss; Kuruvilla, John; Kinnison, Wayne; Harris, Kendall; Aghara, Sukesh; Pezold, Frank; Bird, Bobby; Rice, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The availability of a well-prepared workforce is fundamental to the increased use of nuclear energy. Significant numbers of new employees will be needed not only for the new plants, but to replace retirees at the existing plants. In addition, a wide variety of disciplines and levels of educational backgrounds are needed. The Nuclear Power Institute is a partnership of industry, higher education, secondary and middle schools, state government and civic and community leadership that has come together to meet the challenge of attracting and preparing the nuclear workforce. (authors)

  6. Wind power costs expected to decrease due to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Eric; Hittinger, Eric; Carvalho, Rexon; Williams, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The potential for future cost reductions in wind power affects adoption and support policies. Prior analyses of cost reductions give inconsistent results. The learning rate, or fractional cost reduction per doubling of production, ranges from −3% to +33% depending on the study. This lack of consensus has, we believe, contributed to high variability in forecasts of future costs of wind power. We find that learning rate can be very sensitive to the starting and ending years of datasets and the geographical scope of the study. Based on a single factor experience curve that accounts for capacity factor gains, wind quality decline, and exogenous shifts in capital costs, we develop an improved model with reduced temporal variability. Using a global adoption model, the wind-learning rate is between 7.7% and 11%, with a preferred estimate of 9.8%. Using global scenarios for future wind deployment, this learning rate range implies that the cost of wind power will decline from 5.5 cents/kWh in 2015 to 4.1–4.5 cents/kWh in 2030, lower than a number of other forecasts. If attained, wind power may be the cheapest form of new electricity generation by 2030, suggesting that support and investment in wind should be maintained or expanded. - Highlights: • Expectations for cost reductions in wind power is important for policy. • Wind learning rates are sensitive to data time period and regional choice. • We develop improved wind cost model with much reduced variability. • New model gives global wind learning rates between 7.7%-11%.

  7. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Proposal for Sustainable Dynamic Lighting in Sport Facilities to Decrease Violence among Spectators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Amorim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence among spectators at sports events has become a serious problem, not only for its evident impact on safety, but also from the perspective of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability. Although it could be considered a purely social problem, some solutions could come from a smart and efficient design and management of the lighting installations. Thus, the management of sports installations requires deep considerations of lighting technology for three reasons: (1 accurate illumination allows the users to achieve their visual task with comfort and safety; (2 the energy consumption of sports facilities can be decreased with an efficient design of the lighting installation; and (3 the lighting impacts some psychological and physiological aspects such as arousal, stress or relaxation which are directly related to violence. In this work, the recent advances on the matter of light sources and non-visual effects of light are deployed within a new proposal of dynamic Light-emitting diode (LED lighting to decrease violence among spectators. Here, sustainable sports facilities are considered from a global perspective where accurate illumination in each zone (court, bleachers, training rooms and surrounding streets plays an important role in violence avoidance.

  9. Regulator's role in sustainability of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Parikshat; Sinha, Soumen; Bhattacharya, Ramdas

    2015-01-01

    A development which is environmentally benign, economically viable as well socially acceptable is regarded as sustainable development. Nuclear power scores extremely well with the first two parameters: i.e its cost of production is competitive with that of other power sources and is considered a clean source of power as the greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of other hazardous pollutants are insignificant. However, when it comes to acceptability by the society at large, there are issues. Early shutting down of power plants like Superphénix at France, abandonment of Yucca mountain project, agitation during commissioning of KKNPP etc. are few examples where the public perception was the main reason for such actions. These events tell us about the importance of public perception in sustainability of a project or nuclear power as a whole. In this backdrop, the role of regulator to present the safety aspects in correct perspective assumes enormous significance and goes in a long way in clearing unwarranted apprehensions, thereby playing a pivotal role in sustainability of nuclear power. The nuclear regulator needs to build long lasting trust and confidence with stakeholders. Therefore it needs to be continuously in touch with public, not only during crisis but also during peace time, disseminating information on safe use of ionizing radiation and atomic energy without undue risk to the health of the people and environment. (author)

  10. Sustainability assessment of renewable power and heat generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombi, Mihály; Kuti, István; Balogh, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Rationalisation of consumption, more efficient energy usage and a new energy structure are needed to be achieved in order to shift the structure of energy system towards sustainability. The required energy system is among others characterised by intensive utilisation of renewable energy sources (RES). RES technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, for the strategic planning there is a great demand for the comparison of RES technologies. Furthermore, there are additional functions of RES utilisation expected beyond climate change mitigation, e.g. increment of employment, economic growth and rural development. The aim of the study was to reveal the most beneficial RES technologies with special respect to sustainability. Ten technologies of power generation and seven technologies of heat supply were examined in a multi-criteria sustainability assessment frame of seven attributes which were evaluated based on a choice experiment (CE) survey. According to experts the most important characteristics of RES utilisation technologies are land demand and social impacts i.e. increase in employment and local income generation. Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are favourable technologies for power generation, while geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating can offer significant advantages in case of heat supply. - highlights: • We used choice experiment to estimate the weights of criteria for the sustainability assessment of RES technologies. • The most important attributes of RES technologies according to experts are land demand and social impacts. • Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are advantageous technologies for power generation. • Geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating are favourable in case of heat supply

  11. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Supervision functions - Secure operation of sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    2013-01-01

    of power systems operation control. The use of PMUs allows more penetration of DG mainly, with technologies based on renewable resources with intermittent and unpredictable operation such a wind power. This paper introduces the Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO) project. The SOSPO...... project tries to respond to the question "How to ensure a secure operation of the future power system where the operating point is heavily is fluctuating?" focusing in the Supervision module architecture and in the power system operation states. The main goal of Supervision module is to determine...... the power system operation state based on new stability and security parameters derived from PMUs measurement and coordinate the use of automatic and manual control actions. The coordination of the control action is based not only in the static indicators but also in the performance evaluation of control...

  13. Nuclear Power Plants and Sustainable Development on a Liberalized Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androcec, I.; Stanic, Z.; Tomsic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Finding a way to generate electricity so as to satisfy the terms of sustainable development of the entire society is the only way which will secure safe energy future. If we talk about energy in the context of sustainable development, one of the most important element is environmental protection. Since CO 2 emissions stemming from electricity generation have predominant impact on climate change, one of the options for reducing emissions is the use of fuels without carbon, such as e.g. nuclear fuel. The future of nuclear power plants was considered in view of: nuclear fuel supply; potential impact of fuel cycle on environment, power plant operation, decommissioning and secondary products from electricity generation; and the entire nuclear power plant economy. Nuclear power plants were also examined in the context of the Kyoto Protocol stipulating reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. Nuclear power plants can not reduce CO 2 emissions in a short-term because they already operate with maximum output, but in a long-run they can play a significant role. This paper is aiming to analyse the role of nuclear power plants in long term environmental sustainability in electricity sector reform (liberalisation, deregulation, privatisation) in small or medium sized power supply systems. Nuclear power plants are associated with certain environmental aspects which will be taken into account. A comparison will be made through externalities with other energy resources, especially fossil fuels, which are prevailing energy resources, considering possible use of nuclear power plants in the countries with small and medium-size grids. It will be given an example of the role of NPP Krsko on air emissions reduction in Croatia. (author)

  14. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  15. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands.

  16. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  17. Sustainability Challenge of Micro Hydro Power Development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didik, H.; Bambang, P. N.; Asep, S.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Rural electrification using renewable energy is the best choice for many locations that far away from national grid. Many renewable energy project have been built for rural electrification such as micro hydro power plant (MHPP) and solar photovoltaic (SPV). Sustainability still the main challenge of off-grid renewable energy development for off-grid rural electrification in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to review sustainability of micro hydro power development in Indonesia. The research method was done by field observation, interview with MHPP management, and reviewing some research about MHPP in Indonesia. Sustainability issues include various aspects that can be classified into 5 dimensions: technical, economic, socio-cultural, institutional, and environmental. In technical factors that lead to sustainability problem are: improper MHPP design and construction, improper operation and maintenance, availability of spare parts and expertise. In the economic dimension are generally related to: low electricity tariff and utilization of MHPP for productive use. In the social dimension are: the growth of consumer’s load exceeding the capacity, reduced number of consumers, lack of external institutional support. In the institutional side, it is generally related to the ability of human resources in managing, operating and maintaining of MHPP. Environmental factors that lead the sustainability problems of MHPP are: scarcity of water discharge, conflict of water resources, land conversion over the watershed, and natural disasters.

  18. A Conceptual Study on the Sustainability of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Choi, Hang Bok; Lim, Chae Young; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-06-15

    Due to the current population growth and industrialization, energy consumption is increasing continuously. The world population and energy consumption were 2.5 billion and 1.5 billion tons of equivalent oil in 1950, but they are expected to be 9.2 billion and 60 tons, respectively, in 2100. This amount of energy consumption will result in an exhaustion of fossil resources and cause a serious environmental problem such as global warming. Therefore it is necessary to develop sustainable energy resources that maintain current economic growth and social welfare level without burdening a next generation's life style. Nuclear energy has an excellent competitiveness from the viewpoint of a sustainability. Especially nuclear power can effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions and can be developed in a complementary way with a new and renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, and hydrogen energy. It is expected that nuclear power will maintain its sustainability in the following directions: Implementation of a fast reactor fuel cycle with a high uranium utilization efficiency, Implementation of a pyro-process with an excellent proliferation-resistance, Activity on the enhancement of a domestic social acceptance for nuclear power, International cooperation and joint research for the enhancement of an international nuclear transparency, Optimization of a nuclear grid structure through an accommodation of new and renewable energy resources, Application to a mass production of hydrogen energy.

  19. Pakistan - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Jalal, A.I.; Mumtaz, A.; Latif, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although Pakistan's contribution to global GHG emissions is very small (currently only 0.3% of world-wide emissions), it shares with the world community the concerns of climate change due to the build-up of GHGs. Pakistan is committed to co-operating with global efforts to avert the potential threat of global warming and is already working towards its own socio-economic development in a sustainable manner. However, due to the country's limited technical and financial capabilities, its efforts are diluted and limited to only high priority areas of national interest. There is a large potential for expanding these efforts, if the necessary technical and financial support can be made available, and such an expansion would contribute significantly to the collective global objective of sustainable development. One such step is the reduction of GHG emissions from Pakistan's power sector by introducing advanced cleaner technologies. Nuclear power is one such technology

  20. On nuclear power, population and sustainable global civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Humanity is facing a multitude of difficult problems that threaten not only human development but the very continuity of civilization. The fundamental cause is the size of the human population but at present the subject is not discussed in international fora. It is not clear if it is wishfully avoided or if it is not recognized as the fundamental problem. Without limiting fertility and population globally, there will be no future for civilization as we know it and there will be no need for nuclear power as a source of energy. Instead, nuclear power will be the principal agent of the end. The nuclear community is in a position to point out the problem and propose a solution. Principles of sustainability and a path to a sustainable global civilization are shown. (author)

  1. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Banquet speech: nuclear power, competition and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The essential ingredients of sustainable development are economics and efficiency in the use of energy and materials, and in the prevention, disposal and recycling of wastes. Nuclear power will continue to be an important means of electricity generation for the foreseeable future but the extent to which this will be the case depends on the nuclear industry resolving public concerns over environmental, health and safety risks, and competing successfully with other generating technologies. In the final analysis, the future of nuclear power will be determined primarily by economic considerations. (UK)

  3. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  5. Powering the future: Blueprint for a sustainable electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1997-01-01

    Long known for its vast scale and fierce resistance to change, the US power industry is poised for a sweeping transformation. Although driven by many of the same forces propelling the telecommunications revolution, the electricity industry has received only a fraction as much attention. Yet the electric industry is far larger, with a current investment per customer of $6,000--double that of the phone and cable industries combined. Moreover, unlike telecommunications, the future of the power industry will have an enormous impact on the global environment. The glimmerings of a more efficient, decentralized, and less-polluting power system are beginning to capture the interest--and even the investment dollars--of some. In this paper, the authors describe the route to a more environmentally sustainable electric industry to power the twenty-first century

  6. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  7. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Developing and promoting a farsighted energy policy is a key aspect in achieving sustainable development in the European Union. Factors to be coped with in this context are the Union's increasing dependence on energy imports, and the threats facing the climate. Moreover, it is imperative that the Lisbon strategy be pursued, according to which Europe is to be made the world's most dynamic knowledge-based economic region by 2010. As early as in 2000, the EU Commission published its Green Paper, ''Towards a European Strategy of Continuity in Power Supply.'' Continuity of supply, in this context, not only stands for maximized self-sufficiency or minimized dependencies. What is at stake is a reduction of the risks stemming from dependence on imports and from changes in the environment. This goal can be achieved through a balanced and diverse structure both of energy resources and of the geographic origins of fuels. The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig.)

  8. Transforming the Nigerian power sector for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatugel Usman, Zubairu; Abbasoglu, Serkan; Tekbiyik Ersoy, Neyre; Fahrioglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has been plagued with acute power shortages due to poor performance of its power sector. Several policies and reforms have been implemented by the government to address the poor performance of the power generation, transmission and distribution sectors of the electricity industry. Also various strategies were employed by the government which includes encouraging private sector participation, diversification of the energy generation sources and promoting energy efficiency for sustainable development. In addition the government has spent billions of dollars since 2001 in the construction of new power generation facilities, transmission lines and distribution centers to boost the power supply. It has deregulated the generation and distribution sectors to encourage private sector participation and empowers the Energy Commission of Nigeria to embark on programs and strategies that can boost energy generation from renewable sources. This paper examined the country's energy sources and the power sector reforms adopted by the government. The paper also outlined some recommendations based on reforms implemented by other countries with similar resources to Nigeria which yielded positive results. - Highlights: • Available resources for power generation in Nigeria. • Power sector challenges, policies and reforms. • Implications of the reforms implemented. • Recommendations for improving the sector's performance.

  9. Axial power difference control strategy and computer simulation for GNPS during stretch-out and power decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yehong; Xiao Min; Li Xianfeng; Zhu Minhong

    2004-01-01

    Successful control of the axial power difference for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various elements' effect on the axial power distribution, different axial power deviation control strategies have been proposed to comply with different power decrease scenarios. Application of the strategy to computer simulation shows that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution is comparable to the measurement value, and that our control strategy is effective

  10. Sustainable Development in India - A case for Nuclear Power - 189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, S.

    2010-01-01

    India needs a sustained high economic growth to realize its objectives of poverty alleviation and improving the standard of living of its population. Energy/ Electricity being the key driver for economic growth, there is a pressing need for large augmentation in generation capacity, infrastructure and enhancement of energy efficiency to ensure that there is equity amongst population as far as energy availability is concerned. India is not very energy rich and has limited resources of fossil fuels. India's nuclear power resources profile comprises of very modest uranium but abundant thorium resources. A unique three stage programme, based on optimum utilization of indigenous resources, offers a solution for the country's long term energy security and sustainability. India's nuclear power programme is based on a closed fuel cycle. The philosophy, apart from increasing the energy potential of the resource manifold, reduces the amount waste considerably. There is also the benefit of nuclear power being clean free. While the indigenous nuclear power programme is robust and on course, a much faster nuclear capacity addition in the near term, to meet the rising demand and mitigating existing energy shortages, is contemplated through additionalities based on international cooperation. (authors)

  11. Multi-pulse power injection and spheromak sustainment in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, B. W.; Hill, D. N.; Hooper, E. B.; Bulmer, R. H.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.; Sspx Team

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. Spheromak formation (gun injection phase) and sustainment experiments are now routine in SSPX using a multi-bank power system. Gun voltage, impedance, and power coupling show a clear current threshold dependence on gun flux (I_th~=λ_0φ_gun/μ_0), increasing with current above the threshold, and are compared with CTX results. The characteristic gun inductance, L_gun~=0.6 μH, derived from the gun voltage dependence on di/dt, is larger than expected from Corsica modeling of the spheromak equilibrium. It’s value is consistent with the n=1 ‘doughook’ mode structure reported in SPHEX and believed important for helicity injection and toroidal current drive. Results of helicity and power balance calculations of spheromak poloidal field buildup are compared with experiment and used to project sustainment with a future longer pulse power supply. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  12. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  13. Sustainable Power Supply Solutions for Off-Grid Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mohamad Aris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication sector plays a significant role in shaping the global economy and the way people share information and knowledge. At present, the telecommunication sector is liable for its energy consumption and the amount of emissions it emits in the environment. In the context of off-grid telecommunication applications, off-grid base stations (BSs are commonly used due to their ability to provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. However, in the past, the off-grid BSs usually relied on emission-intensive power supply solutions such as diesel generators. In this review paper, various types of solutions (including, in particular, the sustainable solutions for powering BSs are discussed. The key aspects in designing an ideal power supply solution are reviewed, and these mainly include the pre-feasibility study and the thermal management of BSs, which comprise heating and cooling of the BS shelter/cabinets and BS electronic equipment and power supply components. The sizing and optimization approaches used to design the BSs’ power supply systems as well as the operational and control strategies adopted to manage the power supply systems are also reviewed in this paper.

  14. Investigation of the sustainability of nuclear power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk-Mazouz, N.; Hubig, C.; Mazous, N.

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews the sustainability discussion, specifically for the energy sector. Definitions, rules and indicators are gone into. Publications speaking against nuclear power are analysed: Brundtland, UBA, SRU, UNCSD, HGF. The main section analyzed positive publications, i.e. Voss, Kessler, and the NEA study. 11 central argumentation strategies are identified and analyzed. They are shown to be faulty, based on selective argumentations which omit either important comparative arguments relevant to the whole energy sector, or alternative options, or additional risks caused by changes in boundary conditions. Further, aspects of human and social acceptability are left out of account as well as problems of institutionalisation. (orig.) [de

  15. Romanian nuclear power in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan; Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    Energy use is a vital force for the economic welfare. It drives many aspects of the economic activity and is essential to a high quality life. However, the unwanted side-effects of energy use, including local pollution and the global warming due mainly to release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), are detrimental to life quality and may induce climate changes at a large-scale. The nuclear power has a lot of economical, social and environmental benefits. The paper deals with aspects referring to the CANDU nuclear technology that is developed in Romania, within the sustainable development framework. (authors)

  16. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  17. Government installation guidelines for the sustainable development of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Government of Quebec has made a commitment to clean renewable energy, including wind power, as part of its sustainable development strategy. However, any proposed projects are subject to conditions imposed by regional municipalities. Municipalities are responsible for urban planning laws with jurisdiction over landscape, noise, public safety, and wildlife. Project proponents must meet both social and environmental criteria to ensure the preservation of the municipal territory and the quality of life. Regulations are in place to ensure economic development occurs in tandem with meeting the energy needs of local and regional communities. 16 refs

  18. Sustainable development: the nuclear power and non-nuclear power in the XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, Dan Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of sustainable development and the role of energy in the implementation of this concept. The Rio de Janeiro Agenda 21, the objectives and managerial rules for the long term implementation of sustainable development, as well as its general principles are issued addressed with a special emphasis on the sustainable energy supply. The problem of the radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear energy is especially assessed. The implementation of the sustainable developments principles implies a triangle formed of university, industry and society. While university is ensuring education and sciences the industry's role is to ensure efficiency and technical innovation. The society is appealed then to support science and technology. This talk given in front of Romanian Academy concludes with the following wording by Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker: All dangers we face are not technically or technologically unsurpassable but rather reflect our inability to use our own innovative and discovery power

  19. Sustainable power planning for the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giatrakos, Georgios P.; Tsoutsos, Theocharis D.; Zografakis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Crete, as one of the largest and most touristic islands of the Mediterranean, is facing abrupt population and economic growth tendencies that result in the incessant problem of inability to meet power demand increase. This paper evaluates the island's present electrical energy status, and examines the possibility of further penetration of sustainable energy. Various energy modelling software solutions are examined and evaluated, in order to form scenarios according to the governmental and EU directives for renewable energy sources (RES), as well as to the planned conventional power plant upgrades and LNG transition. RES are fully exploited in the plan's scenarios, always taking into account all technical and legislative limitations. Analysis shows that even the most modest and realistic RES implementation scenarios, combined with a partially successful demand restriction, could indeed contract the island's environmental footprint. RES penetration in Crete's electric seems to be able to surpass 30% by 2020, surpassing even the optimistic EU targets for 20% RES by 2020

  20. The price of electric power in EU region decreased in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolttola, L.

    2000-01-01

    The price of both household and industrial electric power decreased in EU region during 1998. The price of industrial power decreased by more than 3% and that of households by 0.5%. According to the Eurostat the price of industrial power decreased most in Germany and in Lisbon in Portugal. In the statistics Germany has been divided into several sub-areas. In most of these areas the price decrease was more than 10%. The price of the electric power increased e.g. in London and Birmingham in UK. The price of the electric power consumed by households decreased significantly in Athens (Greece), in Finland and Portugal, and they increased most in the Netherlands and in Leipzig in Germany. The price of industrial electric power is cheapest in Sweden being only about 0.21 FIM (0.035) per kWh, and in Finland the price in the beginning of 1999 was 0.26 FIM (0.0431) per kWh. The price of industrial electric power was highest in Germany and Italy. VAT is not included in the prices used in the survey of industrial electric power. The power consumption of the plants used in the comparison is 2.0 million kWh, the maximum power 500 kW and the maximum operation time 4000 h/a. The price of electric power for households in Greece, there it is cheapest, was under 0.4 FIM (0.07) per kWh. The data of Greece is collected from Athens. In Finland the price of domestic power was second lowest, being less than 0.5 FIM/kWh. The prices in Italy and Denmark were highest in the EU region. The households selected to the survey use 3500 kWh of power annually, 1300 kWh of which is consumed in the night. All the taxes, also VAT, have been included in the price. In 1998 half of the power (52%) was generated by traditional thermal power. The share of nuclear power was 34% and that of hydroelectric power and others 14%. The others group include also the wind power. In 1998 the consumption of thermal power increased by 5%, as well as the consumption of hydroelectric power and other, while the generation

  1. Evolutions of the power grid: vector of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croguennoc, Alain; Dalle, Bernard; Archambault, R.; Bony, P.E.; Bouneau, C.; Bourguignon, B.; Bouvier, D.; Beltran, A.; Chauvancy, A.; Chevassus-au-Louis, B.; Citi, S.; Claverie, B.; Colomb, B.; Dallet, M.; Deveaux, L.; Dubus, D.; Fresnedo, S.; Herreros, J.; Herz, O.; Isoard, J.; Jaussaud, E.; Laffaye, H.; Laroche, J.P.; Lasserre, D.; Lebas, N.; Lebranchu, D.; Leclerc, F.; Lemoine, D.; Leydier, C.; Malique, F.; Mazoyer, F.; Meudic, M.A.; Nguefeu, S.; Pajot, S.; Pilate, J.M.; Real, G.; Rosso, F.; Waeraas de Saint Martin, G.; Schwartzmann, S.; Serres, E.

    2011-01-01

    The abatement of energy consumption and the mass production of renewable energy are the main actions implemented to meet the climate challenge. In this context, the share of electric power in the final consumption is continuously growing up. Adapting the power transportation grid is necessary if we want to take up the challenge of the new paradigm 'new power generation sites, fatal and intermittent energy'. If this grid is the symbol of a modern and well-equipped France, it is also the revealer of our society antagonisms: change without disruption, progress without sacrifice of heritage and natural landscapes. Industries and grid operators will have to show some innovation and anticipation if they want this deep change to be a success. The French power grid has permitted the regional development in the past and will allow to take up the climate challenge in the future. Its inevitable position in the success of past transformations makes it an essential vector of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  2. Method for sustaining microorganism culture in syngas fermentation process in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Stephen S.; Scott, Syrona; Ko, Ching-Whan

    2015-05-19

    The present invention relates to methods for sustaining microorganism culture in a syngas fermentation reactor in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates comprising: adding carbon dioxide and optionally alcohol; maintaining free acetic acid concentrations; and performing the above mentioned steps within specified time.

  3. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  4. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Europe, and covers the following companies, all among the largest electricity companies in Europe: EdF, Enel, E.ON, GDF Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, RWE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  5. The role of nuclear power in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V.M.; Juhn, P.E.; Kagramanian, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Today's developing countries, with some three-quarters of the world population, consume only one-fourth of the global energy. In coming decades, the global energy consumption is anticipated to increase substantially, to a large extent driven by the developing world. Responsive long-term energy strategies that exploit energy sources with a minimum of greenhouse-gas emissions need be developed and implemented as rapidly as possible to limit environmental pollution. The energy mix that evolves will not depend only on environmental considerations, but also on economic, technological, supply and political factors. On the global level, fossil fuels will continue to be the major energy source, probably with natural gas as the major component. Nuclear power is currently a significant source of energy supply, but there is no consensus regarding its future role. Its use has stagnated in Europe and in North America, but it maintains its position as a strong option in Asian countries. Economy and security of supply, along with an awareness of environmental benefits, have been principal considerations in the choice of nuclear power and these three factors will also determine its long-term role in a sustainable energy future. Comparative assessments of the full energy chain of energy options consider a number of issues: fuel and land requirements; environmental pollutants; confinement vs. dispersion of waste; greenhouse gas emissions; natural resources; and external costs, e.g. interest and depreciation, waste management, and energy taxes. Such assessments will help clarify the merits of nuclear power. (author)

  6. Southern Africa power pool : benefits, achievements, challenges and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.O.; Opok, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) was presented. The SAPP was formed by 12 southern African developing countries as a means of minimizing electricity costs and maintaining reliability. The pool includes over 200 million people in a region of 9 million square meters. The SAPP relies on long-term bilateral contracts for electricity supply between customers and generators. The contracts are supplemented by short-term contracts in the short-term energy market. The pool uses a pricing mechanism with 13 detailed schedules dealing with firm power contracts of varying duration; non-firm power contracts of varying duration; mutual support contracts and emergency energy and control area services; scheduled outage energy; and energy banking. Benefits of the pool include reductions or postponements in generating capacity, reserves and fuel costs. New major initiatives planned by the SAPP include increasing interconnection points, the construction of new transmission lines, and the formulation of regional environmental studies. SAPP is now making plans to increase rural electrification in its membership countries with funding from an electricity levy. It was concluded that political and economic co-operation between member states has resulted in the sustained supply of energy in the region. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Uranium oxide recycling to give more sustainable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, R.; Garner, D.S.J.; Beaumont, D.M.; Hesketh, K.

    2001-01-01

    In broad terms there are two routes for irradiated nuclear fuel, the closed cycle involving recycling and the open cycle culminating in direct disposal. The benefits of following the closed cycle are presented. The environmental burdens associated with open and closed cycles are compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for non-active burdens and human irradiation. Consideration is given to the extension of the nuclear fuel cycle to include a proportion of MOX fuel elements within a reactor core, and the impact in terms of total activity, waste volumes and Integrated Toxic Potential (ITP) discussed. The potential of moving to a fast reactor cycle is also raised in support of the recycling of spent nuclear fuel giving sustainable power generation. (author)

  8. Feasibility study of self sustaining capability on water cooled thorium reactors for different power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, S.; Takaki, N.; Sekimoto, H.

    2007-01-01

    fertile and fissile nuclides with the contribution from intermediate nuclides such as 2 34U and 2 33Pa. The conversion ratio is evaluated by considering the conversion capability of the reactor to convert the fertile material into fissile material. The fissile accumulation capability for different conditions is investigated for estimating the fissile production capability during operation. The result shows the negative reactivity coefficient, and its feasibility of breeding for different MFR and burnup. The very tight lattice pin of MFR ≤ 0.3 is preferable for obtaining breeding condition for relatively higher burnup. The breeding capability of the reactor increases with increasing power output and decreasing power density. In relation to the self sustaining system, the large power output is easier to reach than the small power output

  9. Role of nuclear power in Romania's sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Anca; Lavrov, George; Costea, Diana; Vasile, Camelia

    2002-01-01

    The role of nuclear power in Romania can be assessed by taking into account the present situation of Romania electro-power systems, the socio-economic and technological evolution, of Romania as well as world wide evolution of the unique power market according the 'Green Card - Towards an European strategy for power securement' endorsed by the European Commission in November 2000. The Romanian electro-power systems is currently undergoing a restructuring process aiming at efficiency improvement, cost reduction, private investment encouraging, efficient use of available national resources. The energy demand in Romania decreased in the period 1989-2000 by an annual rate of 3.8% due to the new trends in the Romanian economy. A thorough analysis for the 2002-2020 showed the necessity for installing a capacity of about 9,000 MW what implies: - achievement of about 1935 MW in hydroelectric plants and 2,100 MW from the Cernavoda NPP; - construction of new condensation groups operating with domestic lignite and pitcoal from import; - new groups with combined cycle based on natural gas; - new nuclear units with 700 MW CANDU type reactors. Achievement of the nuclear program will reduce the Romania's dependences on fossil fuel import enhance will secure the fulfilment of the provisions of European Union's Green Card. It will require important investments what will entailed a rice in cost of the electric energy for end consumers. Although a moderate nuclear power realization is a viable solution for Romania ensuring both the levelling of prices and taxes for fuel and energy to those of European countries and the fulfilment of the Kyoto protocol requirements. Decision for the proper sizing of nuclear program will be made according to many factors implied in the Romanian electro-power system development, as well as by using the experience acquired from the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 operation

  10. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  11. Sustain ability and sustainable development indicators case study: Egypt electric power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses sustain ability criteria and the associated indicators allowing ope rationalization of the sustain ability concept in general and specially in the context of electricity supply. The criteria and indicators cover economic, environmental and social aspects. Egypt has rapidly growing population and per capita demand. As a signatory of the framework convention on climate change, Egypt is making all efforts to comply with the strategy of Egypt to meet the challenge of the increasing demand management, integrating it into national decision making and improving environmental performance continuously: for the electricity sector, this can be summarized in improvement of power system efficiency by all available means. On the other hand energy conservation and demand side management programs are ongoing, also the environmental consideration has become one of the major issues in calculating the feasibility of any new addition to the system. This paper deals with the review of the Macro Indicators based on total greenhouse emissions provide a measure of overall performance. Then propose the Primary Indicators. A set of performance indicators is developed against which implementation of the national strategy measures aimed at reducing green house gas emissions can be evaluated. Some selected results from environmental analysis are given. In the study about 20 indicators are used as a measure of the overall performance relative to targets and benchmarks for past and future projections up to year 2020. The potential performance indicators for energy sector include: fossil fuel consumption (primary energy), greenhouse gas emissions from energy sector, energy related greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy delivered, energy related greenhouse gas emission per unit GDP, and energy related greenhouse gas emission per capita. The selected indicators are used to measure progress towards sustainable development in the country

  12. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  13. Nuclear power in the frame of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development conception defines a development aiming at fulfilment of aspirations, requirements and exigencies of the present society under the stringent condition of not jeopardizing further development of the next generations. An analysis of the nuclear field implies taking into account comparatively the following indicators: 1. availability distribution of resources; 2. the power utilization rate and the raw materials intake; 3. the impact upon population health; 4. the critical limits to environmental release; 5. land utilization and impacts upon habitats; 6. risk potential of generating major and irreversible phenomena. By taking into account the economic, social and environmental factors the following indicators proper for nuclear energy analysis were established: 1. capital (USD/kWe), marginal cost (USD/kWe); 2. cumulated dose to the public (Sv/kWh), number of employees (pers/kWh), education (number of university courses); 3. volume of solid waste (m 3 /kWh), activity level of solid waste (Bq/kWh), fuel utilization rate (tU/kWh), gaseous and liquid effluent activity (Bq/kWh). A comparison of capital investments for NPPs (CANDU type reactors), natural gas and coal thermal power plants is given. One of the economic advantages of nuclear power is the stability of production cost due to the fact that the uranium cost amounts only some percents of the total cost of electricity. External costs of a severe nuclear accident with a probability of 5 x 10 -5 per year are given. The waste resulting from nuclear power electricity generation represents only one percent from the total volume of noxious waste in countries with nuclear industry. At the same time radioactive waste can be isolated from biosphere at reasonable costs and with well established technologies. Socially nuclear power appears to be attracting because it implies a knowledge core and intellectual level of high quality. The nuclear technology and science interact successfully with other

  14. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  15. Locally manufactured wind power technology for sustainable rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, J.; While, A.; Howell, R.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the use of wind power for rural electrification has been limited. However the fact that micro-wind turbines can be manufactured using only basic workshop tools, techniques and materials, and therefore can be produced locally is often overlooked. Local manufacture has the potential to boost the local economy, build local capacity, reduce costs and produce resilient and flexible energy systems. However, locally manufactured technology must be seen as socially embedded due to the variety of local knowledge, skills, equipment and materials needed to construct and maintain such systems, as well as the organisational structures needed to ensure their long term sustainability. Evidence from successful initiatives suggests that stable institutional support from intermediaries such as the local/national government or NGOs is necessary to foster the development of a wind power industry based on local manufacture. The roles of these intermediaries include identifying and targeting windy areas with favourable environmental conditions, conducting research and development, collecting feedback from end users, creating supply chains for new parts and materials and developing relevant knowledge and skills. In this paper, three case studies of specific initiatives are analysed to draw out the social, economic and technical factors that could facilitate wider adoption of the technology. - Highlights: ► Local manufacture of wind turbines often overlooked for rural electrification. ► Flexible to adapt to local context and benefits local economy, capacity and supply chain. ► Development of technology discussed and 3 case studies of dissemination analysed. ► Critical factors: institutional support, system level planning, continuity of supply. ► Dissemination successful in Inner Mongolia; work continues elsewhere.

  16. India - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, A.K.; Pathak, B.K.; Grover, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing use of the earth's resources to improve our quality of life has led to certain deleterious effects on the environment. The increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is one such important effect. GHG emissions have come primarily from industrialized countries. Currently industrialized countries emit 11.4 tonnes of carbon per year per capita. For India the corresponding figure is 1.0, and for China it is 2.7. We recognize the necessity of both meeting the development needs of all the countries in the South, and ensuring that such development is sustainable. The CDM may have an important role to play, although the positions of a number of countries, including India, with respect to the CDM appear to be still evolving. In any event, nuclear energy should be an important energy option under the CDM, if and when the CDM is ready to be implemented. The present study is an attempt to understand the implications of setting up a nuclear power plant (NPP) in India as a CDM project

  17. Sustainable Assessment of Aerosol Pollution Decrease Applying Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution with various materials, particularly with aerosols, increases with the advances in technological development. This is a complicated global problem. One of the priorities in achieving sustainable development is the reduction of harmful technological effects on the environment and human health. It is a responsibility of researchers to search for effective methods of reducing pollution. The reliable results can be obtained by combining the approaches used in various fields of science and technology. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM methods in investigating and solving the environmental pollution problems. The paper presents the study of the process of the evaporation of a toxic liquid based on using the MADM methods. A schematic view of the test setup is presented. The density, viscosity, and rate of the released vapor flow are measured and the dependence of the variation of the solution concentration on its temperature is determined in the experimental study. The concentration of hydrochloric acid solution (HAS varies in the range from 28% to 34%, while the liquid is heated from 50 to 80 °C. The variations in the parameters are analyzed using the well-known VIKOR and COPRAS MADM methods. For determining the criteria weights, a new CILOS (Criterion Impact LOSs method is used. The experimental results are arranged in the priority order, using the MADM methods. Based on the obtained data, the technological parameters of production, ensuring minimum environmental pollution, can be chosen.

  18. Distributed Optimization of Sustainable Power Dispatch and Flexible Consumer Loads for Resilient Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Pirathayini

    Today's electric grid is rapidly evolving to provision for heterogeneous system components (e.g. intermittent generation, electric vehicles, storage devices, etc.) while catering to diverse consumer power demand patterns. In order to accommodate this changing landscape, the widespread integration of cyber communication with physical components can be witnessed in all tenets of the modern power grid. This ubiquitous connectivity provides an elevated level of awareness and decision-making ability to system operators. Moreover, devices that were typically passive in the traditional grid are now `smarter' as these can respond to remote signals, learn about local conditions and even make their own actuation decisions if necessary. These advantages can be leveraged to reap unprecedented long-term benefits that include sustainable, efficient and economical power grid operations. Furthermore, challenges introduced by emerging trends in the grid such as high penetration of distributed energy sources, rising power demands, deregulations and cyber-security concerns due to vulnerabilities in standard communication protocols can be overcome by tapping onto the active nature of modern power grid components. In this thesis, distributed constructs in optimization and game theory are utilized to design the seamless real-time integration of a large number of heterogeneous power components such as distributed energy sources with highly fluctuating generation capacities and flexible power consumers with varying demand patterns to achieve optimal operations across multiple levels of hierarchy in the power grid. Specifically, advanced data acquisition, cloud analytics (such as prediction), control and storage systems are leveraged to promote sustainable and economical grid operations while ensuring that physical network, generation and consumer comfort requirements are met. Moreover, privacy and security considerations are incorporated into the core of the proposed designs and these

  19. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  20. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  1. The impact of desert solar power utilization on sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Ali Shah; Yang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the prospects of developing a solar based desert economy in the deserts of solar-rich countries. The potential deserts are analysed to study their positive impact on the sustainable development processes in these regions. The sustainability of the processes is established on the basis of self-contained nature of energy generation, environmental emission reduction and desert land reclamation. (authors)

  2. External Benefit Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power in China for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s renewable energy power has developed rapidly in recent years. Evaluating the external benefits of renewable energy power can provide a reference for the Chinese government to set diverse development goals and to implement differentiated supporting policies for different renewable energy power types, which can promote their sustainable development. In this paper, a hybrid MCDM method was applied to evaluate the external benefits of China’s renewable energy power. Firstly, the impacts of renewable energy power accessing the power grid for multiple stakeholders in the electric power system were analyzed. Secondly, the external benefit evaluation index system for renewable energy power was built from the economic, social and environmental factors, based on the concept of sustainability. Then, the basic theory of the hybrid MCDM method employed in this paper was introduced in two parts: the superiority linguistic ratings and entropy weighting method for index weight determination and the fuzzy grey relation analysis for ranking alternatives. Finally, the external benefits of wind power, solar PV power and biomass power were evaluated. Taking a regional electric power system as an example, the results show that PV power has the greatest external benefit, followed by wind power and biomass power. Therefore, more policies supporting PV power should be put in place to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of the whole renewable energy power industry.

  3. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Avelino (Flor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts

  4. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Flor

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts to grasp phenomena in practice. And visa versa, observing these practices allows us to gain new understanding of power in relation to transformative change. More specifically, this book is about pow...

  5. Integrated multiperiod power generation and transmission expansion planning with sustainability aspects in a stochastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddighi, Amir Hossein; Ahmadi-Javid, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multistage stochastic programming model to address sustainable power generation and transmission expansion planning. The model incorporates uncertainties about future electricity demand, fuel prices, greenhouse gas emissions, as well as possible disruptions to which the power system is subject. A number of sustainability regulations and policies are considered to establish a framework for the social responsibility of the power system. The proposed model is applied to a real-world case, and several sensitivity analyses are carried out to provide managerial insights into different aspects of the model. The results emphasize the important role played by sustainability policies on the configuration of the power grid. - Highlights: • This paper considers integrated power generation and transmission expansion planning. • Sustainability aspects are incorporated into a multiperiod stochastic setting. • A stochastic mathematical programming model is developed to address the problem. • The model is applied to a real-world case and numerical studies are carried out

  6. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  7. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  8. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  9. Building the Leviathan--Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-02-18

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans.

  10. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  11. Economic Performance and Emission Reduction of Supply Chains in Different Power Structures: Perspective of Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues have increasingly received attention in both industry and academia. Many firms have started to make sustainable investments, such as adopting the pollution-abatement technologies, to reduce carbon emissions. To investigate the impacts of the sustainable investment on firms’ profit and emission reduction, we consider supply chains with uncertain demand in different power structures. Specifically, we examine the sustainable investment problem in three supply chain power structures, i.e., manufacturer Stackelberg (MS power structure, vertical Nash (VN power structure and retailer Stackelberg (RS power structure. We first derive the optimal decisions for both the retailer and manufacturer in each power structure. Then, by comparing the results in the three power structures, we find that the manufacturer gets benefits from making the sustainable investment, especially in unequal power structures. When the average market size is large (small enough, both of the supply chain members obtain more profits in the MS (RS power structure. From an environmental perspective, we find that the emission reduction is more significant in sequential games (i.e., MS and RS power structures than that in a simultaneous game (i.e., VN power structure. In addition, we conduct some numerical studies and discuss more managerial insights in the paper.

  12. Nuclear power: status, outlook, guarantees of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The principal advantages of nuclear power - almost unlimited fuel resources, its high energy capacity, ecological compatibility with a possibility of high wastes concentration - determine the large-scale nuclear power development. The signs of large-scale power - a large rate (dozens of percent) in electricity production, diverse areas (electricity, heat supply, technologies, transport) and media of application (land, ocean, space), extension of number of user countries, diversified power systems (centralized, autonomous), obligatory reproduction and reuse of produced fuel - create various requirements to nuclear power installations of the future. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, safety (of reactors and fuel cycle with waste), proper characteristics of nuclear fuel reproduction, guarantees of nuclear arm's non-proliferation and, particularly, public acceptance are the conditions of such nuclear power development. The up-to-date situation is the following: the 441 nuclear power-generation units with total installed power of 377.36 GW el. (in 31 countries) supply by 1/6 part of the world electric-power consumptions. The 32 units are in stage of the construction. To the present mid-century the level of the nuclear power production, as supposed, must be increased 4-5 times at the following scenario of a regional distribution of nuclear electric powers, GW: USA, Europe and developed countries of Eastern Asia - 1000, FSU-countries - 100 and developing countries - 400

  13. Sustainability Assessment of Power Generation Systems by Applying Exergy Analysis and LCA Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Valero Delgado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The selection of power generation systems is important when striving for a more sustainable society. However, the results of environmental, economic and social sustainability assessments are subject to new insights into the calculation methods and to changing needs, economic conditions and societal

  14. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  15. Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority's integrated power system plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Gibson, Robert B.; Markvart, Tanya; Gaudreau, Kyrke; Taylor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the results and implications of an illustrative application of a sustainability assessment framework in the design and evaluation of a major integrated power system plan. The paper examines the integrated power system plan developed by the Ontario Power Authority in 2007. The basic framework rests on a generic set of evaluation criteria reflecting basic requirements for progress towards sustainability that was adopted, reinterpreted and applied by the Authority in support of its proposed plan. In response to evident deficiencies in the Authority's work, the authors and colleagues undertook a re-examination using a more fully elaborated sustainability assessment framework, specified for application to power system planning. The results point to a plan and plan components substantially different from those proposed by the Authority. More generally, the results highlight three advantages of applying such a sustainability assessment framework: comprehensive coverage of key requirements for progress towards sustainability while ensuring careful attention to the context and concerns of the sector; emphasis on identifying plan options that avoid major trade-offs among the sustainability criteria and recognition of interactions among the social, ecological, economic and technological realms favouring options that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits.

  16. Education as a Global "Soft Power" for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayamov, Yury Nikolayevich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse various aspects of education for sustainable development (ESD) drawing attention to the approaching end of the UN Decade on ESD (DESD) in 2014 and to the necessity of the continuation of ESD activities. Defining the internationalisation of education as an ever more significant part of globalisation,…

  17. MHR fuel cycle options for future sustainability of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Alan; Venneri, Francesco; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Fikani, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The future sustainability of the nuclear option is not significantly tied to the level of resources. For example, current high quality uranium reserves (∼3.34x10 6 tons) are enough for more than 55 years at present consumption rates (IAEA estimate). Doubling of the present uranium ore price (∼$26/kg) could create about a tenfold increase in resources, providing more than 550 years of supply at present rates (World Nuclear Association estimate). There are also thorium reserves which are estimated to be about three times those of uranium, and would allow for a significant increase in annual consumption levels. The key to a sustainable nuclear future is really tied to the political and technical problems of long term waste disposal, and the perceived risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. Thus fuel cycle options for a sustainable nuclear future must address and solve these issues. High temperature, Gas-Cooled, Graphite Moderated, reactors (MHRs) have nuclear and operational characteristics to provide multiple fuel cycle options to solve these issues. Three fuel cycles for the MHD are described in this paper, and their capabilities for meeting a sustainable nuclear future in terms of nuclear waste minimization and destruction, and reduction of proliferation risk, are discussed. (author)

  18. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe; Kernenergie im Kontext einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung fuer Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  19. Planning renewable energy in electric power system for sustainable development under uncertainty – A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Huang, Charley Z.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.P.; Chen, J.P.; Fan, Y.R.; Cheng, G.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interval type-2 fuzzy fractional programming is developed to optimize ratio problem. • It is advantageous in reflecting conflicting objectives and complex uncertainties. • Uncertainties existed as interval numbers and type-2 fuzzy intervals are quantified. • Results reveal that share of renewable power generation in gross supply increase. • Alternative to manage mixed energy system with sustainable development is suggested. - Abstract: An interval type-2 fuzzy fractional programming (IT2FFP) method is developed for planning the renewable energy in electric power system for supporting sustainable development under uncertainty. IT2FFP can tackle output/input ratio problems where complex uncertainties are expressed as type-2 fuzzy intervals (T2FI) with uncertain membership functions. The IT2FFP method is then applied to planning Beijing electric power system, where issues of renewable energy utilization, electricity supply security, and pollutant/greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation are incorporated within the modeling formulation. The obtained results suggest that the coal-fired power would continue to decrease and the share of renewable energy in gross electricity supply would maintain an increasing trend. Results also reveal that imported electricity plays a significant role in the city’s energy supply. A number of decision alternatives are also analyzed based on the interval solutions as well as the projected applicable conditions, which represent multiple options with sustainable and economic considerations. The optimal alternative that can give rise to the desirable sustainable option under the maximization of the share of renewable power generation has been suggested. The findings can help decision makers identify desired alternatives for managing such a mixed energy system in association with sustainable development. Compared with the conventional optimization methods that optimize single criterion, it is proved that IT2FFP is

  20. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Energy Policy: Promises and Perils

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Kessides

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the challenges and opportunities of nuclear power in meeting the projected large absolute increase in energy demand, especially electricity, throughout the industrialized and developing world, while helping to mitigate the threat of climate change. A significant global nuclear power deployment would engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses...

  1. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is ...

  2. Experience with high percent step load decrease from full power in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    The control system of NPP Kriko, is designed to automatically control the reactor in the power range between 15 and 100 percent of rated power for the following designed transients; - 10 percent step change in load; 5 percent per minute loading and unloading; step full load decrease with the aid of automatically initiated and controlled steam dump. Because station operation below 15 percent of rated power is designed for a period of time during startup or standby conditions, automatic control below 15 percent is not provided. The steam dump accomplishes the following functional tasks: it permits the nuclear plants to accept a sudden 95 percent loss of load without incurring reactor trip; it removes stored energy and residual heat following a reactor trip and brings the plant to equilibrium no-load conditions without actuation of the steam generator safety valves; it permits control of the steam generator pressure at no-load conditions and permits a manually controlled cooldown of the plant. The first two functional tasks are controlled by Tavg. The third is controlled by steam pressure. Interlocks minimise any possibility of an inadvertent actuation of steam dump system. This paper discusses relationships between designed (described) characteristics of plant and the data which are obtained during startup and/or first ten years of operation. (author)

  3. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  4. Assessment of the turkey’s electric power policies in terms of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atis Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, using statistical data published by the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, analyzes key parameters such as installed capacity and energy demand growth rates, investment plans and emission rates, taking into consideration the expected increase in use through the year 2023. The results of the analyses were compared to relevant data from around the world. The weight of domestic - and especially renewable - resources in investment plans for the next 10 years was discussed. Recommendations for an investment plan to support sustainable development in Turkey are listed. Consequently, the lack of investment in domestic and renewable energy projects decreases the competitive power of Turkey vis-à-vis Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in terms of many parameters. For a sustainable development, the country must make significant changes in its foreign-dependent energy production policies. Any future policies must encourage supplying local resources to meet the continuously increasing demand. Qualifications for incentive mechanisms applied to investments in renewable energy should be developed. The impact of the private sector on the installation of new plants must also be increased by quickly completing the privatization process.

  5. The influence of sand mining towards the sustainability of power support and capacity of Lambidaro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniah, Restu; Rahmi, Hisni

    2017-11-01

    Activities of sand mining on the surface stream (river) conducted by Panji Mahakarya company potentially cause various environmental issues. These problems include the destruction of the river ecosystem, decreased the quality of river water quality, increased water pollution load, and another effect on capacity and power support river. The Lambidaro River is one of the rivers found in Palembang, where the inhabitants who live around it take advantage of the existence of this river to meet their daily needs such as bathing, washing, and latrines. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of mining activities towards sustainability of the power support and capacity of the river. The method used in this research is to compare the availability of water and water needs of the population in determining the status of environmental power support based on regulation of the state minister of the environment number 17 in 2009 about the determination of the power guidance support environment in spatial regions, as well as using the index method of pollution based on the decision of the State Minister of the environment number 115 in 2003 about the determination of the status of water quality guidelines with parameters measured are TDS, TSS, pH, DO, COD, dan BOD5. The results of the calculation of the power support river are deficit where SA (34,200,655.64 m3/year) < DA (253,105,600 m3/year). The result of pollution index calculation at 5 water sampling locations shows that the condition of a river is in good condition (uncontaminated) and mild pollutant.

  6. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source, which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  7. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  8. The role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.; Bennett, L.L.; Bertel, E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of future demand outlooks for energy, electricity and nuclear power, as a background for discussion of the design and operation aspects of advanced nuclear power systems. The paper does not attempt to forecast the actual outcomes of nuclear power programmes, since this will depend upon many factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Rather, the paper outlines the size of the opportunity for nuclear power, in terms of the expected growth in energy and electricity demands, the need to diversify energy supply options and substitute depletable fossil fuels by other energy sources, and the need to mitigate health and environmental impacts including in particular those arising from the the atmospheric emissions from burning of fossil fuels. 7 refs

  9. Dynamic vulnerability assessment and intelligent control for sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short-term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability as essment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protect...

  10. Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckard, R.D.; Van Ness, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    A fixed-price procurement contract for $24.9 million was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, CA, for the design, manufacture, installation, and acceptance testing of the sustaining neutral beam power supply system (SNBPSS). This system is scheduled for completion in early 1981 and will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each of the 24 power supply sets will provide the accel potential of 80 kV at 88 A, the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module

  11. A quality improvement project sustainably decreased time to onset of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglas, Victor D; Parker, Ann M; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Zanni, Jennifer M; Turnbull, Alison E; Nelliot, Archana; Ciesla, Nancy; Needham, Dale M

    2014-10-01

    Rehabilitation started early during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with improved outcomes and is the basis for many quality improvement (QI) projects showing important changes in practice. However, little evidence exists regarding whether such changes are sustainable in real-world practice. To evaluate the sustained effect of a quality improvement project on the timing of initiation of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). This was a pre-post evaluation using prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients with ALI admitted pre-quality improvement (October 2004-April 2007, n = 120) versus post-quality improvement (July 2009-July 2012, n = 123) from a single medical ICU. The primary outcome was time to first active physical therapy intervention, defined as strengthening, mobility, or cycle ergometry exercises. Among ICU survivors, more patients in the post-quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group received physical therapy in the ICU (89% vs. 24%, P quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group, there was a shorter median (interquartile range) time to first physical therapy (4 [2, 6] vs. 11 d [6, 29], P quality improvement period was associated with shorter time to physical therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.38 [4.98, 14.11], P quality improvement period. The following variables were independently associated with a longer time to physical therapy: higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.93 [0.89, 0.97]), higher FiO2 (0.86 [0.75, 0.99] for each 10% increase), use of an opioid infusion (0.47 [0.25, 0.89]), and deep sedation (0.24 [0.12, 0.46]). In this single-site, pre-post analysis of patients with ALI, an early rehabilitation quality improvement project was independently associated with a substantial decrease in the time to initiation of active physical therapy intervention that was sustained over 5 years. Over the entire pre

  12. Introductory statement to the 2nd scientific forum on sustainable development: A role for nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his Introductory Statement to the 2nd Scientific Forum on 'Sustainable Development - A Role for Nuclear Power?' (Vienna, 28 September 1999), the Director General of the IAEA focussed on the the main aspects concerning the development of nuclear power: safety, competitiveness, and public support

  13. Economic and Environmental Performance of Fashion Supply Chain: The Joint Effect of Power Structure and Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion supply chain members now search for trade-offs between sustainable investment and the related incentives, such as savings on environmental taxes and gains in incremental demands. To evaluate the economic and environmental performance of sustainable investment from a power perspective, we develop an analytical model to study a two-echelon sustainable supply chain consisting of one retailer and one manufacturer with three different power structures. We derive the optimal solutions for various cases associated with different supply chain power structures and sustainable investors. Though it is beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer to make sustainable investment, they often utilize high power to gain economic benefit with less sustainable investment. Interestingly, the follower with less supply chain power has more incentive to make a sustainable effort to achieve a higher profit. The optimal amount of sustainable investment in the apparel manufacturer investment case is greater than that in the retailer investment case in most scenarios.

  14. Sustainable Development of Regional Power Systems and the Consumption of Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.

  15. Nuclear power for sustainable development. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained. (author)

  16. Nuclear power in the frame of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy is treated taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, environmental and social. Some nuclear energy relevant indicators are identified and used in the analysis. The economic efficiency is a relevant indicator insofar as market prices reflect the full costs for society of a given product or activity. For nuclear energy the economic criteria applicable to market competition and subsidies are used. The core indicators for the environmental dimension of sustainable development include criteria related to natural resource management, climate change, air and water quality, biodiversity and landscaping. The nuclear electricity generation chain does not release gases or particles that acidify rains, contribute to urban smog or deplete of the ozone layer. The human and social dimension comprises human capital in the form of knowledge, education and employment opportunities, human welfare, equity and participation, social capital in the form of effective institutions and voluntary associations, the rule of law, and social cohesion. From this point of view the nuclear energy is characterized by a net contribution to human and social capital and a challenge in terms of public acceptability and widely varying perceptions of the risks and benefits. (authors)

  17. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  18. China - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Deshun; Zhao Xiusheng; Zheng Jiantao

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are the major source of electricity in China, accounting in 1998 for 73% of total installed capacity. However coal-fired plants create serious air pollution problems, and their fuel transport requirements place a heavy burden on the transportation system. Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are therefore a potentially attractive option for China, particularly in the coastal regions, which are both more economically developed and far from the main coal mines in northern and western China. Currently, China has no capability to build large-scale nuclear power plants. Nor would nuclear power plants in China be financially competitive with coal-fired plants under fair market conditions. China does have three NPPs currently in operation, built partly with French and British expertise and assistance, and eight more under construction. These have all benefited from a number of favourable government policies - i.e. exemptions from taxes on imported equipment and from value-added taxes, and an electricity purchase agreement at an artificially high price

  19. Turby - sustainable urban wind power from the roof top

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.; Van Bussel, G.; Mols, B.

    2005-01-01

    If current trends are anything to go by, in future we will no longer produce all our electricity in large, central power stations. Small-scale local electricity generation will gain in importance. Sander Mertens, a post-doctoral student at TU Delft, developed the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine

  20. Transforming Island power supply to sustainability. The example of Bonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH (Germany); Burges, K. [Ecofys GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Until 2015, the contribution of renewable energies to the overall electricity supply of the island of Bonaire shall increase to at least 50%, produced by a wind-diesel power plant, which is currently in a planning stage. For the longer term, there are plans to increase the share of renewable energies up to 100% by replacing the diesel (HFO) by locally produced bio diesel. At the same time, a very high power quality and reliability of supply standard is required for accommodating the expectations of the tourism industry. In 2007 Ecofys and DIgSILENT carried out extensive studies for the new wind-diesel power plant on the island of Bonaire for working out the basic design and for validating it against the required quality of supply requirements. This paper provides a general background of the new wind-diesel power plant for the island of Bonaire describes the basic design of the new plant and provides an overview of the modeling approaches and studies that have been carried out for design and impact analysis. This includes loss of load analysis, stability studies, harmonic studies and flicker impact assessment. (orig.)

  1. Decreasing Fertilizer use by Optimizing Plant-microbe Interactions for Sustainable Supply of Nitrogen for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicklberger, M. F.; Huang, J.; Felix, P.; Pettenato, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA and proteins and consequently a key element of life. N often is limited in plants, affecting plant growth and productivity. To alleviate this problem, tremendous amounts of N-fertilizer is used, which comes at a high economic price and heavy energy demand. In addition, N-fertilizer also significantly contributes to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, the addition of fertilizer to overcome N limitation is highly undesirable. To explore reduction in fertilizer use our research focuses on optimizing the interaction between plants and diazotrophic bacteria, which could provide adequate amounts of N to the host-plant. Therefore we investigated the diversity of microbes associated with Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered as potential energy crop for bioenergy production. Several bacterial isolates with representatives from Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Bacilli were obtained from the roots, leaves, rhizoplane and rhizosphere of these plants. Majority of these isolates grew best with simple sugars and small organic acids. As shown by PCR amplification of nifH, several of these isolates are potential N2-fixing bacteria. We investigated diazotrophs for their response to elevated temperature and salinity (two common climate change induced stresses found on marginal lands), their N2-fixing ability, and their response to root exudates (which drive microbial colonization of the plant). Together this understanding is necessary for the development of eco-friendly, economically sustainable energy crops by decreasing their dependency on fertilizer.

  2. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  3. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will tend to have closed

  4. Reverse electrodialysis heat engine for sustainable power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, A.; Tedesco, M.; Cipollina, A.; Micale, G.; Ciofalo, M.; Papapetrou, M.; Van Baak, W.; Piacentino, A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: State of the art technologies for the conversion of heat into power. Grey circles refer to technologies at very early stage of development and non-available at industrial level. The Carnot efficiency (on the secondary horizontal axis) is evaluated assuming a cold sink temperature of 25 °C. SRC-hot gases: Steam Rankine Cycle integrated with gas turbine/other topping cycles; SRC-fuel: Steam Rankine Cycle directly fuelled by oil, coal or other fuels; KC: Kalina Cycle; ORC: Organic Rankine Cycle; TEG: Thermoelectric Generation; PEPG: Piezoelectric Power Generation with waste heat-powered expansion/compression cycle; OHE: Osmotic Heat Engine; REDHE, Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (this paper). Display Omitted -- Highlights: •For the first time, the potential of Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine is assessed. •An overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented. •Performance of the RED unit fed by different salty solutions was suitably optimized. •Three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. •Exergetic efficiency of about 85% could be achieved in the foreseen future. -- Abstract: Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (REDHE) is a promising technology to convert waste heat at temperatures lower than 100 °C into electric power. In the present work an overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented and the technological challenges for the development of the RED Heat Engine (REDHE) are identified. The potential of this power production cycle was investigated through a simplified mathematical model. In the first part of the work, several salts were singularly modelled as possible solutes in aqueous solutions feeding the RED unit and the corresponding optimal conditions were recognized via an optimization study. In the second part, three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. Results show that power densities much higher than those relevant to NaCl-water solutions can be obtained by using different

  5. The power supply of the future - sustainable or nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the available contribution the author directs the view of the complexity as a neglected peculiarity of the large technology. Many elements of the energy conflicts and dangers of the energy supply are explainable only by the uncritical attitudes in relation to the associated and not sufficiently solvable complexity problems. The criticism to it is directed not alone against the atomic energy, but more generally against the heedless technique philosophy of the power suppliers

  6. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  7. Electric power for a sustainable development. The italian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabaschi, S.

    1994-01-01

    After a global energy review in the world, this paper presents the italian national energy plan developed during 1990 and 1991. The most significant aspects were focused on decreasing dependence on imported energy and reducing environmental impacts. In conclusion, the author proposes some recommendations, such as a widest international cooperation in research and development in particular for the field of nuclear energy. (TEC). 7 refs., 6 figs

  8. Public Acceptance for Sustainable Power Development: Sharing Nepalese Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur; Singh, Anju; Shrestha, Sugam

    2007-07-01

    Nepal with 83000 MW of hydropower potential has harnessed only 1% of it. With a target of 8% GDP growth rate needs 15000 MW of hydropower to be exported, by 2012. Which will bring the majority(32%) of its population above the poverty line. For this Nepal ought to develop its hydropower potential maintaining social equity and environmental justice leading towards the sustainable development. One of the key attributes/ingredient to this is Public Participation/Acceptance. Hence, an in depth study was conducted for examining the level of peoples' participation/acceptance. Field visit of 6 projects and questionnaire survey conducted involving 13 groups of stakeholders revealed that public participation were sufficiently done and acceptance was also sought specially after the promulgation of Environmental Legislations. Nepal has no choice other than to develop its hydropower potential for its internal demand and to supply to the neighbouring countries, in the endeavour to reduce/eliminate the poverty, prevailing as a cancer. Henceforth, all the hydropower projects to be developed in the future should be socio-culturally acceptable, economically viable and environmentally benign. For this to happen one of the key ingredients/attributes is the public participation and gaining public acceptance in an effective and efficient manner. (auth)

  9. A review of wireless power transfer for electric vehicles: Prospects to enhance sustainable mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Zicheng; Kan, Tianze; Mi, Chunting Chris; Zhang, Yiming; Zhao, Zhengming; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed technology advances and sustainability performance of WPT for EVs. • Identified the technical bottlenecks for improving system performance. • Highlighted system performance of case studies and real-world demonstrations. • Evaluated energy, environmental, economic, and societal impacts of WPT deployment. • Defined WPT challenges and opportunities for enhancing future sustainable mobility. - Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT), which transmits power by an electromagnetic field across an intervening space, provides the prospect of new opportunities for electric vehicles (EVs) to enhance sustainable mobility. This review article evaluates WPT technology for EV applications from both technical and sustainability perspectives. The objectives of this review include: (1) to present the state-of-the-art technical progress and research bottlenecks in WPT development and applications in the transportation sector; (2) to characterize the demonstrations of the real-world deployment of WPT EV systems; and (3) to evaluate the sustainable performance and identify challenges and opportunities for improvement. From the technical perspective, progress on coil design, compensation topologies, and power electronics converters and control methods are reviewed with a focus on system performance. From the sustainability perspective, performance is defined in terms of energy, environmental, and economic metrics, and policy drivers and issues of health and safety are also examined.

  10. Effect of impurities and ripple upon power regulation in self-sustained tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak power reactors will likely operate in a self sustained heating mode where additional power losses are introduced to permit higher levels of alpha particle heating (and thus higher levels of total fusion power) at thermal equilibrium. Illustrative 0-dimensional calculations are made to assess requirements for power regulation of self sustained tokamak plasmas by the use of impurity radiation. Effects of impurities upon allowable fuel density and thermal stability are determined. Requirements are calculated for passive thermal stability control by temperature driven radial motion in the presence of ripple transport losses; it appears that stability might be attained over a relatively wide temperature range with a small amount of ripple transport loss. Requirements for power regulation by the use of ripple transport are also determined

  11. Optimizing cutting conditions on sustainable machining of aluminum alloy to minimize power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Rusdi; Suyuti, Muhammad Arsyad; Susanto, Tri Agus

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum is widely utilized in the industrial sector. There are several advantages of aluminum, i.e. good flexibility and formability, high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, and high heat. Despite of these characteristics, however, pure aluminum is rarely used because of its lacks of strength. Thus, most of the aluminum used in the industrial sectors was in the form of alloy form. Sustainable machining can be considered to link with the transformation of input materials and energy/power demand into finished goods. Machining processes are responsible for environmental effects accepting to their power consumption. The cutting conditions have been optimized to minimize the cutting power, which is the power consumed for cutting. This paper presents an experimental study of sustainable machining of Al-11%Si base alloy that was operated without any cooling system to assess the capacity in reducing power consumption. The cutting force was measured and the cutting power was calculated. Both of cutting force and cutting power were analyzed and modeled by using the central composite design (CCD). The result of this study indicated that the cutting speed has an effect on machining performance and that optimum cutting conditions have to be determined, while sustainable machining can be followed in terms of minimizing power consumption and cutting force. The model developed from this study can be used for evaluation process and optimization to determine optimal cutting conditions for the performance of the whole process.

  12. The advanced smart grid edge power driving sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Carvallo, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Placing emphasis on practical ""how-to"" guidance, this cutting-edge resource provides you with a first-hand, insider's perspective on the advent and evolution of smart grids in the 21st century (smart grid 1.0). You gain a thorough understanding of the building blocks that comprise basic smart grids, including power plant, transmission substation, distribution, and meter automation. Moreover, this forward-looking volume explores the next step of this technology's evolution. It provides a detailed explanation of how an advanced smart grid incorporates demand response with smart appliances and

  13. Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckard, R.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Van Ness, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    In late August 1978, a fixed price procurement contract for $25,000,000 was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, California, for the design, manufacture, installation and acceptance testing of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS). This system of 24 power supply sets will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each set will provide the accel potential the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module. The design and development of the SNBPSS has progressed through the final design phase and is now in production. Testing of the major sub-assembly power supply is proceeding at Aydin and the final acceptance testing of the first two power supplies at LLNL is expected to be completed this year

  14. Wind Power: Growing with the Demand of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxu; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ History review Looking back upon the human history, China is among the earliest countries which make use of wind energy. It started to use the wind energy to pump water for irrigation very long time ago. Since the establishment of the new China, pilot projects of wind energy generation have been carried out in many areas. In 1975, Tsinghua University and the Inner Mongolia Prairie Research Institute cooperated to develop wind turbines. They developed prototypes of 50/100-W off-grid micro wind turbines. Meanwhile, small wind turbines were also developed in other areas. The wind turbines produced at that time were all in small capacity and did not play important role in power industry.

  15. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Approaches for the power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is a joint project of the Latin American Organization of Energia (OLADE), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Cepal) of the United Nations and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammennarbeit (GTZ). The intention of this project is the one to fortify the processes of formulation of power policies to harmonize economic growth, social fairness and protection of the environment in order to contribute to that the reforms that come undertaking the countries from the region prohang to the sustainable development. The made work it is come off that the sustainability of the power development raises a series of challenges to future. Concordant with the reactivation of the economic growth in the Nineties a low power productivity is still pronounced. To this they add one reduced to cover of satisfaction of the power necessities and the forest deterioration, jointly with the low quality of the power consumption and the impacts in the level of transmissions that will have the incorporation of polluting sources in the expansion of the regional power systems. On the other hand, the work shows a preoccupation with respect to the sustainability of the expansion of the power systems. At the present time the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have a significant responsibility in the global environmental problems, since single they generate 5% of the world-wide CO2 transmissions whereas the developed countries contribute around 70%. Nevertheless, the new power developments based on the greater hydrocarbon consumption will be able to increase the contribution from the region to the deterioration of the atmosphere. At the same time, the expansion based on the hydroelectric generation also has some limitations although it contributes positively to the mitigation of the transmissions, which raises new challenges to the reform of the power sector

  16. Ensuring the sustainability of EDF power plant operating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, J.

    2009-01-01

    The life extension of the power plants is considered whereas EDF must face an acceleration of the retirement rates due to the fact that the first generations of the baby-boom are ageing 60 years, now. Between 2000 and 2006, EDF gradually set up a system of management of competencies. On the one hand, EDF moved from logic of relatively standardized training to a more individualized logic of acquisition of competencies. In addition, the objective of maintenance of internat competencies defined in 2000 was supplemented in 2003 by a prospective dimension intended to anticipate the departures in inactivity. Then in 2006 competencies of sub-contractors were taken into account. During this period I.R.S.N. has assessed 3 times this system of management. This article briefly presents the principal lessons driven from these evaluations. It accounts for the undeniable effort made by EDF to ensure the maintenance of its competencies. However, it stresses that a high level of vigilance is still needed because it is not stabilized already. (author)

  17. Sustained qualification process for full scope nuclear power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirson, J.; Stubbe, E.; Vanhoenacker, L.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, simulator training for all nuclear power plant operators has evolved into a vital requirement. To assure a correct training, the simulator qualification process is an important issue not only for the initial validation but also following major simulator updates, which are necessary during the lifetime of the simulator. In order to avoid degradation of the simulator validated software, the modifications have to be introduced according to a rigorous methodology and a practical requalification process has to be applied. Such methodology has to be enforced at every phase of the simulator construction or updating process from plant data package constitution, over simulator software development to simulator response qualification. The initial qualification and requalification process is based on the 3 levels identified by the ANSI/ANS 3-5 standard for steady-state, operational transients and accident conditions. For the initial certification of the full scope simulators in Belgium, a practical qualification methodology has been applied, which has been adapted into a set of non regression tests for the requalification after major simulator updates. (orig.) (4 refs., 3 figs.)

  18. Utilization of nuclear power - a sustainable error of history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugerli, D.

    2004-01-01

    The history of atomic energy has been producing major surprises for at least half a century. A wave of atomic enthusiasm - which grew to a veritable atomic euphoria - was triggered by the famous atoms-for-peace speech by US president Eisenhower in 1953. Despite their inherent technocratic pacifism, Eisenhower's atoms led to critical conflicts within those societies that subscribed to the nuclear development scheme. A critical revision of these conflicts reveals a dramatic falling apart of the historic horizon of expectations and the historic development path. Notwithstanding, both the apologists of nuclear energy use and their antagonists have erred in many ways without truly losing their capacity to act. They misjudged the planning security, the safety of the installations, and the stability of the price relations on the energy and capital equipment markets. Moreover, both sides erred in their predictions concerning the political conditions and the social consequences of nuclear power plants. This observation is not historically insightful in the sense of learning from one's mistakes. It is insightful rather for the relationship between experience, expectation and decision on the one hand and socio-technical change on the other hand. (orig.)

  19. Developing nuclear power to realize low-carbon and economic sustainable development of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingfa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal power is the primary power energy of China, whose basic primary energy consumption is mostly burning coal. And thereby carbon dioxide emission reduction becomes much difficult in China. Seeking low-carbon discharge power energy is the necessary trend in China electric power development. Among the new energy, wind power, hydropower and solar energy have some distinctive shortcoming, which can not make up the energy growth demand with the rapid growth of the economy. Comparing to other kinds of electric energy, the nuclear power possesses the evident advantages, it will become the basis energy to carry out the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction in China and developing nuclear power can realize the sustainable development of China economy under low-carbon condition. (author)

  20. Concentrating solar power: a sustainable and renewable way to get energy from solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Solar light irradiating the Earth is a great sustainable and renewable power source. In concentrating solar power plants, mirrors are used to redirect the solar light toward a small area where a receiver captures and converts it into thermal-energy which can be stored. ENEA has been developing the parabolic-trough Italian technology, as well as several facilities for the component characterization. The paper reports on some of those which are purely optical instruments [it

  1. The greenhouse index of sustainable development for metallurgical processes of production in aspect of green power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisienko Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of greenhouse gases (GHG according to plans of the Russian Federation becomes obligatory since 2016 for the enterprises with issue of GHG not less than 150 thousand tons of CO2, since 2017 – from 50 thousand tons of CO2. Introduction of a carbon tax (15 dollars/t of CO2 is planned. Voluntary inventory of GHG of the enterprises and territories which in the long term apply is carried out to be called clever. According to University of Cambridge (USA about 45% depreciation of joint-stock portfolios in the world markets, the expected climate change connected with are expected. Parameter for an assessment of the clever city with the developed metallurgy and need of decrease in greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere – the indicator of a sustainable development considering emission of carbon dioxide, prime cost of steel and its power consumption is offered. Its values for tandems blast furnace (BF + oxygen converter (OC, BF, Corex, Romelt, Midrex, Hyl-3 everyone with arc furnace (AF are defined.

  2. Sustainable Modular Adaptive Redundancy Technique Emphasizing Partial Reconfiguration for Reduced Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.

  3. Is nuclear power environmentally sustainable? Paper no. IGEC-1-121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The sustainability of nuclear energy is discussed in terms of its environmental impacts and its utilization of resources. The reactors in the present generation of fission reactors extract only a small percentage of the energy available from uranium. A solution to the long-term management of highly radioactive used reactor fuel is also a key factor in fission's sustainability. Recycling used fuel for enhanced energy production in advanced reactors and the mitigation of the long-term management of the remaining wastes, ideally with their ultimate destruction by nuclear transmutation are technologies that need to be developed in order to ensure the long term sustainability of nuclear fission. In contrast nuclear fusion, while not yet available for power production, promises to be inherently sustainable. (author)

  4. Nuclear power and sustainable development: a vision from a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, Monica; Harriague, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    From the understanding of sustainable development as 'growing assets and opening options - not foreclosing them' (IAEA, 2006a), an analysis is made on sustainability conditions for nuclear power in a developing country, based on Argentinean experience. The necessity of developing an autonomous decision-making capability and a technological-industrial infrastructure is stressed. As an example, a brief history of nuclear power in Argentina is summarized, focusing in key elements that contributed to sustainability and also pointing out some draw-backs that may have affected it. Finally, some lessons learned are presented, with the aim of sharing the experience and offering a contribution to the present debate on nuclear energy deployment in the periphery. (authors)

  5. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y [de

  6. Solar Power Generation for ICT and Sustainable Development in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Damasen I.; Uhomoibhi, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine and draw attention to the potential benefits of solar power generation for access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) aimed at sustainable development in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach: Electricity plays a crucial role in the development and…

  7. Sustainability assessment of nuclear power: Discourse analysis of IAEA and IPCC frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Laes, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability assessments (SAs) are methodologically precarious. • Discourse analysis reveals how the meaning of sustainability is constructed in SAs. • Discourse analysis is applied on the SAs of nuclear power of IAEA and IPCC. • For IAEA ‘sustainable’ equals ‘complying with best international practices’. • The IAEA framework largely inspires IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. - Abstract: Sustainability assessments (SAs) are methodologically precarious. Value-based judgments inevitably play a role in setting the scope of the SA, selecting assessment criteria and indicators, collecting adequate data, and developing and using models of considered systems. Discourse analysis can reveal how the meaning and operationalization of sustainability is constructed in and through SAs. Our discourse-analytical approach investigates how sustainability is channeled from ‘manifest image’ (broad but shallow), to ‘vision’, to ‘policy targets’ (specific and practical). This approach is applied on the SA frameworks used by IAEA and IPCC to assess the sustainability of the nuclear power option. The essentially problematic conclusion is that both SA frameworks are constructed in order to obtain answers that do not conflict with prior commitments adopted by the two institutes. For IAEA ‘sustainable’ equals ‘complying with best international practices and standards’. IPCC wrestles with its mission as a provider of “policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policy-prescriptive” knowledge to decision-makers. IPCC avoids the assessment of different visions on the role of nuclear power in a low-carbon energy future, and skips most literature critical of nuclear power. The IAEA framework largely inspires IPCC AR5

  8. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, T., E-mail: Naito.Teruki@bc.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Yamaura, S. [Information Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); Fukuma, Y. [Communication System Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Sakai, O. [Department of Electronic System Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  9. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuma, Y.; Sakai, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  10. Sustainable development of the wind power industry in a complex environment: a flexibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Jiang; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    As a new and developing green energy business in emerging economies such as China, the wind power industry chain faces some complex issues that are further compounded by turbulent internal and external environments. To deal with the complex environment, the wind power industry needs to improve its level of flexibility so that it can become more adaptable to the changing environment. Hence it is important to explore the dynamics of the wind power industry chain flexibility with respect to the ever changing environment. This study uses questionnaire surveys and expert interviews to identify the influential flexibility components of the wind power industry chain. Subsequently a fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) methodology was used to establish a flexibility operating mechanism model. The research found that special attention should be paid to competition flexibility, technology flexibility, and intellectual property and talent flexibility. Policies play a pivotal role in regulating the driving effects of these components of flexibility with the aim being long term sustainability of a healthy level of overall flexibility of the wind power industry chain. This should in turn facilitate the sustainable development of the industry. - Highlights: • Wind power industry shall improve flexibility to deal with complex environment. • Critical components of flexibility of wind power industry chain were identified. • An operating mechanism model for flexibility of wind power industry is proposed. • Fuzzy cognitive mapping method is employed to model the dynamics of flexibility. • Policies play a pivotal role in fostering an industry environment toward flexibility

  11. Harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator as a sustainable power source and a self-powered active vibration sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Ya; Hou, Te-Chien; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-13

    A harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is presented as a sustainable power source and an active vibration sensor. It can effectively respond to vibration frequencies ranging from 2 to 200 Hz with a considerably wide working bandwidth of 13.4 Hz. This work not only presents a new principle in the field of vibration energy harvesting but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging biomechanical energy for sustainably powering wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for highly efficient scavenging of biomechanical energy to sustainably power wearable electronics by human walking. Based on the effective conjunction of triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, the hybridized nanogenerator, with dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm and a light weight of 60 g, integrates a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can deliver a peak output power of 4.9 mW under a loading resistance of 6 MΩ and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) that can deliver a peak output power of 3.5 mW under a loading resistance of 2 kΩ. The hybridized nanogenerator exhibits a good stability for the output performance and a much better charging performance than that of an individual energy-harvesting unit (TENG or EMG). Furthermore, the hybridized nanogenerator integrated in a commercial shoe has been utilized to harvest biomechanical energy induced by human walking to directly light up tens of light-emitting diodes in the shoe and sustainably power a smart pedometer for reading the data of a walking step, distance, and energy consumption. A wireless pedometer driven by the hybrid nanogenerator can work well to send the walking data to an iPhone under the distance of 25 m. This work pushes forward a significant step toward energy harvesting from human walking and its potential applications in sustainably powering wearable electronics.

  13. Pascal software structures achieve definite control of the 24 MFTF sustaining neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Precise control of large, complex systems is not assured unless there is known to be no unintended interactions in the control system. The software controlling the sustaining neutral-beam power supplies of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility accomplishes this feat. The software structures comprise some 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code, distributed amoung 10 different tasks. Each task may control any of the 24 power supplies. All the tasks are strictly event-driven, and are not subject to any system mode. Since there is no global information in the software, we know that all the power supplies are controlled independently

  14. Energy forum 2005: Nuclear power - in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The forum of energy for future organized on 29st September 2005 the annual Energy Forum at Berlin. The Energy Forum 2005 dealt with nuclear power in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe and didn't only give their members the possibility of a discussion on this actual theme. Furtheron demanding aims on CO2-reduction, increased raw material- and energy prices as the construction of a new Finnish nuclear power plant have countries moved to evaluate again the future-oriented role of nuclear power. (orig./GL)

  15. Power grid operation risk management: V2G deployment for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadian, Ghazale J.

    The production, transmission, and delivery of cost--efficient energy to supply ever-increasing peak loads along with a quest for developing a low-carbon economy require significant evolutions in the power grid operations. Lower prices of vast natural gas resources in the United States, Fukushima nuclear disaster, higher and more intense energy consumptions in China and India, issues related to energy security, and recent Middle East conflicts, have urged decisions makers throughout the world to look into other means of generating electricity locally. As the world look to combat climate changes, a shift from carbon-based fuels to non-carbon based fuels is inevitable. However, the variability of distributed generation assets in the electricity grid has introduced major reliability challenges for power grid operators. While spearheading sustainable and reliable power grid operations, this dissertation develops a multi-stakeholder approach to power grid operation design; aiming to address economic, security, and environmental challenges of the constrained electricity generation. It investigates the role of Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets integration, as distributed and mobile storage assets to support high penetrations of renewable energy sources, in the power grid. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept is considered to demonstrate the bidirectional role of EV fleets both as a provider and consumer of energy in securing a sustainable power grid operation. The proposed optimization modeling is the application of Mixed-Integer Linear Programing (MILP) to large-scale systems to solve the hourly security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) -- an optimal scheduling concept in the economic operation of electric power systems. The Monte Carlo scenario-based approach is utilized to evaluate different scenarios concerning the uncertainties in the operation of power grid system. Further, in order to expedite the real-time solution of the proposed approach for large-scale power systems

  16. Evaluating the level and nature of sustainable development for a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides for an evaluation of the potential level and nature of sustainable development of the Sabalan geothermal power plant in NW Iran, to be operational in 2011. The paper achieves this by applying a mathematical model of sustainable development developed by the author (re: Phillips), in respect to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted by Yousefi et al. using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) methodology (re: Pastakia; Pastakia and Jensen). Using a model application methodology developed for the RIAM, the results indicated that the nature of sustainable development for Sabalan was considered to be very weak (S = 0.063). This was due to the imbalance between negative environmental impacts and positive socio-economic impacts deriving from the project. Further, when placed into context with a similar set of results obtained from the EIA of the Tuzla geothermal power plant by Baba also using the RIAM methodology, then the similarities between the results obtained raises some legimate questions as to the sustainable development credentials of geothermal power production. (author)

  17. Framework of systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) for hydroelectric power industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Kartina; Turan, Faiz Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Hydroelectric power is an alternative power resource in Malaysia and always associated with negative impact on environmental, social and economy of the surrounding site. The dispute over environmental, societal and economic issues can be minimised if compliance to sustainability development requirement is included in the project as part of the project premises during planning phase. This paper suggests a framework targeted for decision-makers in charge of implementing the projects to produce hydropower the sustainable way in Malaysian context which can mitigate the risks in social, environment and economy. The framework is strategic in nature and based on project management methodology with objective to provide a ‘common language’ by having a project value as measureable for stakeholders to state their mutual agreement of what a sustainable hydropower project in the context of Malaysia and in line with the United Nations (UN) 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper discusses how the proposed systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) framework support the call for Malaysia to promote meaningful public participation in ensuring land and natural resource decisions and to address citizens’ interests which is the core idea of Environmental Democracy Index established in 2014. The paper argues that, even though it is at present impossible to define precision status of sustainability development with respect to the nature of the multi stakeholders and the lack of systematic assessment the proposed FSSAS framework can be a valuable tool because it tracks the project value as a quantitative deliverable to determine the status of the journey in sustainable development towards accomplishing the SDG under a consensus in hydropower industry of any scale over time.

  18. Multi-criteria sustainability analysis of thermal power plant Kolubara-A Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škobalj, P.; Kijevčanin, M.; Afgan, N.; Jovanović, M.; Turanjanin, V.; Vučićević, B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a possible approach for creating business decisions based on multi-criteria analysis. Seven options for a possible revitalization of the thermal power plant “Kolubara”-A Unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development (EISD) are presented in this paper. The chosen EISD numerically express the essential features of the analyzed options, while the sustainability criteria indicate the option quality within the limits of these indicators. In this paper, the criteria for assessing the sustainability options are defined based on several aspects: economic, social, environmental and technological. In the process of assessing the sustainability of the considered options the Analysis and Synthesis of Parameters under Information Deficiency (ASPID) method was used. In this paper, the EISD show that production and energy consumption are closely linked to economic, environmental and other indicators, such as economic and technological development of local communities with employment being one of the most important social parameter. Multi-criteria analysis for the case study of the TPP “Kolubara”-A clearly indicated recommendations to decision makers on the choice of the best available options in dependence on the energy policy. - Highlights: • Options for sustainable generation of electricity have been proposed. • Energy Indicators of Sustainable Development have been formed. • ASPID methodology has been implemented.

  19. Solar power for energy sustainability and environmental friendliness of Curtin University Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, C.; Goh, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    The demand on electrical energy is rapidly increasing. Everything around us requires electrical energy either during its production or usage stage. Sustainability has become the main concern nowadays as the availability of fossil fuels is limited. As renewable energy is the path-way to energy sustainability and environmental friendly environment, this paper proposes a solar power system for Curtin University Sarawak to reduce its electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed 208 kW solar system saves an energy consumption of more than 380,000 kWh per year, and a CO2 offset by 285 Tons per year

  20. Solar power for energy sustainability and environmental friendliness of Curtin University Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Goh, Alvin

    2016-01-01

    The demand on electrical energy is rapidly increasing. Everything around us requires electrical energy either during its production or usage stage. Sustainability has become the main concern nowadays as the availability of fossil fuels is limited. As renewable energy is the path-way to energy sustainability and environmental friendly environment, this paper proposes a solar power system for Curtin University Sarawak to reduce its electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed 208 kW solar system saves an energy consumption of more than 380,000 kWh per year, and a CO 2 offset by 285 Tons per year (paper)

  1. Doing many things at a time: Lack of power decreases the ability to multitask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ran Alice; Guinote, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of power on the ability to pursue multiple, concomitant goals, also known as multitasking. It was predicted that powerless participants will show lower multitasking ability than control and powerful participants. Study 1 focused on self-reported ability to multitask in a sample of executives and subordinate employees. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the ability to dual-task and to switch between tasks, respectively, using dual-task and task-switching paradigms. Across the studies, powerless individuals were less able to effectively multitask compared with control and powerful participants, suggesting that the detrimental effects of lack of power extend beyond single-task environments, shown in past research, into multitasking environments. Underlying mechanisms are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  3. A sustainable scenario for Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050 and its costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The present research study used the quantitative approach to analyze the present and future situation of the Venezuelan power generation sector; to achieve that, the total energy generation costs and GHG emissions of four scenarios in 2050 were estimated and compared, considering two demand groups, high and low demand. For each demand scenario, two supply matrix were considered, a generation matrix based on the existing national power generation plans and trends (these scenarios were referred as BAU) and a configuration based on the renewable energy resources available in Venezuela and without the use of either nuclear or CCS technologies, and these scenarios are referred as Sustainable Scenarios (SUS). In the first section, the present situation is presented, followed by an explanation of the applied methodology and the implemented tools. In the third and fourth sections the available recourses and the applied basic assumptions for the four of scenarios are presented and discussed, respectively, followed by the results. In this study it is shown that Venezuela has all the resources it needs to achieve sustainable development in the power generation sector. It is also proved that an energy efficiency improvement is the easiest path to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Venezuela has enough energy resources to supply the energy require for its development. ► A sustainable scenario is posible in Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050. ► The sustainable scenario is technically possible without nuclear power or carbon capture storage technologies. ► The impact over the depleatable resources is higher under the BAU assumptions.

  4. Investigation of decreasing reactor coolant inventory as a mechanism to reduce power during a BWR ATWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Chexal, V.K.; Layman, W.; Hentzen, R.D.; Gose, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis was performed to evaluate the technique of intentionally reducing reactor coolant inventory in order to reduce power during a BWR ATWS event. The ATWS was initiated by closure of the main steam isolation valves. The analysis was performed with the RETRAN-02 computer code utilizing the one-dimensional kinetics option. The one-dimensional cross sections were developed using the SIMULATE-E and SIMTRAN-E computer codes. The MSIV closure transient provides some of the more severe conditions following a postulated failure to scram. In this transient, the only mechanism for removing energy from the vessel is through the safety relief valve system which results in a heating up of the suppression pool fluid. Consequently, the reactor power must be reduced so that the suppression pool temperature limits are not exceeded. Under the proposed emergency procedure guidelines for the ATWS event, the reactor vessel water level will be lowered to reduce system power. This analysis evaluated the dynamic response of the system as the water level was lowered to the top of active fuel evaluation. Correlating the system power and flow patterns to water level was of particular interest in the analysis. Under natural circulating conditions, the system flows, core power, and pressure responses are extremely tightly coupled and the analysis results proved to be very sensitive to the modeling of downcomer, upper plenum, and core regions

  5. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  6. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  7. Constructing a sustainable power sector in China: current and future emissions of coal-fired power plants from 2010 to 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest energy infrastructure in China, power sector consumed more coal than any other sector and threatened air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement target. In this work, we assessed the evolution of coal-fired power plants in China during 2010-2030 and the evolution of associated emissions for the same period by using a unit-based emission projection model which integrated the historical power plants information, turnover of the future power plant fleet, and the evolution of end-of-pipe control technologies. We found that, driven by the stringent environmental legislation, SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 emissions from China's coal-fired power plants decreased by 49%, 45%, and 24% respectively during 2010-2015, comparing to 14% increase of coal consumption and 15% increase in CO2 emissions. We estimated that under current national energy development planning, coal consumption and CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants will continue to increase until 2030, in which against the China's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) targets. Early retirement of old and low-efficient power plants will cumulatively reduce 2.2 Pg CO2 emissions from the baseline scenario during 2016-2030, but still could not curb CO2 emissions from the peak before 2030. Owing to the implementation of "near zero" emission control policy, we projected that emissions of air pollutants will significantly decrease during the same period under all scenarios, indicating the decoupling trends of air pollutants and CO2 emissions. Although with limited direct emission reduction benefits, increasing operating hours of power plants could avoid 236 GW of new power plants construction, which could indirectly reduce emissions embodied in the construction activity. Our results identified a more sustainable pathway for China's coal-fired power plants, which could reduce air pollutant emissions, improve the energy efficiency, and slow down the construction of new units. However, continuous

  8. Nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A central goal of sustainable development is to maintain or increase the overall assets available to future generations, while minimizing consumption of finite resources and not exceeding the carrying capacities of ecosystems. The development of nuclear power broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, increases human and man-made capital, and, when safely handled, has little impact on ecosystems. Energy is essential for sustainable development. With continuing population and economic growth, and increasing needs in the developing world, substantially greater energy demand is a given, even taking into account continuing and accelerated energy efficiency and intensity improvements. Today, nuclear power is mostly utilized in industrialized countries that have the necessary technological, institutional and financial resources. Many of the industrialized countries that are able and willing to use nuclear power are also large energy consumers. Nuclear power currently generates 16% of the world's electricity. It produces virtually no sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds or greenhouse gases. Globally, nuclear power currently avoids approximately 600 million tonnes of carbon emissions annually, about the same as hydropower. The 600 MtC avoided by nuclear power equals 8% of current global greenhouse gases emissions. In the OECD countries, nuclear power has for 35 years accounted for most of the reduction in the carbon intensity per unit of delivered energy. Existing operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) for which initial capital investments are largely depreciated are also often the most cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation. In fact in the United States in 2000, NPPs were the most cost-effective way to generate electricity, irrespective of avoided carbon emissions. In other countries the advantages of existing nuclear generating stations are also increasingly recognized. Interest

  9. On the Possibilities of Decreasing Power Loss in Large Tilting Pad Thrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilczuk, Michal; Rotta, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Different systems of direct oil supply have been developed in order to facilitate efficient introduction of fresh lubricant to the oil gap and reduction of churning power loss in tilting pad thrust bearings. Up to now there is no documented application of the supply groove in large thrust bearings used in water power plants. The results of modeling lubricant flow in the lubricating groove of a thrust bearing pad will be presented in the paper. CFD software was used to carry out fluid film cal...

  10. Power Distribution at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Illumination through Affordable and Sustainable Solution of Gram Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nisha; Sarswat, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the socio -economic development, mainly due to the dependency of indispensable amenities on electricity. However, a matter of concern is developing country domestic power needs and inadequate supply. One of the cases is Indian subcontinent, where more than 50,000 villages still not have access to uninterrupted electric power. `Power theft' is a major challenge due to the lack of adequate energy supply and the financial constraints. Long distances, inaccurate and inflated electricity bills are the other issues lead to default on payments. Gram Power, a social enterprise, is providing a smart metering and affordable solution in areas where the extension of existing grid supply is economically not viable. India's first solar powered micro-grid (centralized array of solar panels) in Rajasthan was established by this initiative. The core innovation is a smart distribution technology that consists of smart meters with recharging facility and grid monitoring, to provide on-demand, theft-proof power through centralized servers with a pay-as-you-use schedule. The details of the changes, socio-economic transformation, and operational sustainability of such a community engagement model will be discussed in this study.

  11. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  12. Uniform decrease of alpha-global field power induced by intermittent photic stimulation of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rau R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from the scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16 males and 14 females, mean age: 34 years, SD: 11.7 years at rest and under trains of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Digitalized data were submitted to spectral analysis with fast fourier transformation providing the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP. For quantification, GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data obtained under IPS. All subjects showed a photic driving effect at each rate of stimulation. GFP data were normally distributed, whereas ratios from photic driving effect data showed no uniform behavior due to high interindividual variability. Suppression of alpha-power after IPS with 10 Hz was observed in about 70% of the volunteers. In contrast, ratios of alpha-power were unequivocal in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP with 20-Hz IPS by alpha-GFP at rest (R = alpha-GFP IPS/alpha-GFPrest thus resulted in ratios lower than 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data with 20-Hz IPS may provide a suitable paradigm for further investigations.

  13. Deregulation and sustainable energy supply: perspectives of nuclear power and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the concept expressed by the Brundtland Commission and in the Rio Declaration, sustainability incorporates the need - contradictory at first sight - to make sparing use of the environment and promote economic and social development at the same time. Future generations must not be stripped of their possibilities to live and develop. In this comprehensive interpretation, some quantitative orientation for various energy options can be obtained by means of lifetime analyses. The parameters available for evaluation are resource, environmental and economic aspects. Introducing competition and deregulation in the power industry is legitimate not only for reasons of economic theory. Experience has shown that efficient growth and careful management of scarce resources are achieved not by government planning and regulation, but by the allocation efficiency of the markets. This makes competition a key factor of sustainable development. Against this background, perspectives of nuclear power and of renewable energy sources are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  14. Study about ion exchange for decreasing the conductivity of water in power plant and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosravi, M.; Samani; Hajihosseini, N.

    2002-01-01

    Water has been used directly or indirectly for industries, its use would be in factories: such as steam or as a cooler or the product of the industrial material. water is used more than other material in many industries and what ever is obtained as the effect of industrial activities, it is destabilising like waste. By the control of P H and reducing (total dissolved solid) of water or decreasing conductivity of water, we can protect boiler from corrosion. We want to study this article for different method of decreasing (TDS) in order to produce <1μs/cm conductivity. The suitable method which is ion exchange system will be selected

  15. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Debajit; Malhotra, Ramit; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability from both project implementing agency (PIA) and the end-users need to be ensured. The minimum required prices of electricity from both PIA and end-user perspective have been estimated. While for PIA the cost recovery is the key for viability, the affordability to pay the electricity cost is crucial for the end users. Analysis carried out in this paper on the basis of data obtained from operational projects implemented in India reveal that it is essential to operate the system at a higher capacity utilization factor. While this can be achieved though creating convergence with locally relevant economic activity, it is also observed that micro-enterprises cannot pay beyond a certain price of electricity to keep it sustainable. This paper sets forth a case for developing a regulatory mechanism to extend the tariff fixation for the projects and providing cross-subsidies to ensure long term sustainability of off-grid project. - Highlights: → We design sustainable financial model for viability of biomass gasifier projects. → Analysis based on field data obtained from operational projects in India. Estimated electricity pricing from both implementing agency and end-users perspective. → A regulatory mechanism for tariff fixation and cross subsidization is recommended.

  16. Energy for the future - with Risoe from nuclear power to sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrup, M. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    The title of the book is inspired by Risoe's mission which, at the time of its 50th anniversary, remains uncannily close to that given to Risoe when it was inaugurated in 1958. First and foremost, then as now, Risoe is engaged in the development of tomorrow's energy technologies. In 1958, it was nuclear power. On the occasion of its 50th anniversary, Risoe is working with a palette of sustainable energy sources. (author)

  17. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  18. ESTIMATION OF DECREASING LOSSES OF ACTIVE POWER IN TRANSFORMERS IN SETTING BATTERY OF LOW-VOLTAGE CAPACITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an estimation method of decreasing losses of active power in power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV after installation of devices of reactive power compensation on output side depending on voltage level, connected to capacity devices, taking into account dielectric loss in capacitors. Analysis of functional dependences was carried out. Investigation of function with a help of derivations was carried out. Points of function extremum and also its intervals of rise and fall rates were founded. This paper describes graphic investigation of obtained functional dependence, which is introduced by quartic polynominal. It is established that decreasing of losses of active power depends on technical parameters and load factor of transformer, coefficient of loading power of electricity consumers, voltage value connected to capacitor unit.Using obtained functional dependences, calculations for the main size-types of power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV serie ТМГ 11 and ТМГ12 were done. It is established that depending on technical characteristics of certain transformer, coefficient of its loading and power, there is a definite value of deviation of real voltage value from working voltage of capacitor installation when it will be observed positive technical and economical effect from installed capacitor battery unit. For taken value of loading coefficient and transformer’s power the maximum decrease of losses of active power takes place under voltage directed to capacitor unit, which is lower then nominal value. For all taken size-types of power transformers the argument of investigating function for its maximal value is out of standard permissible of voltage deviations from nominal value.These functional dependents can be used for preliminary calculations, which are needed for making decision on compensation of reactive power in electric power supply systems of industrial objects. Their consideration allows more

  19. The Role of Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development: Assessment of Nuclear Power's Contribution to National Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Ahn, S. K.

    2008-04-01

    The study begins with a short review of nuclear power development in Korea within the overall reference energy system. It then explores changing circumstances, present energy balances and ultimately the needs underpinning future electricity requirements. The major part of the study uses a model-based approach to analyze and quantify economic linkages between nuclear technologies and other economic sectors, and to assess various techno-economic futures that include nuclear generation for the Korean power sector, exploring for each future scenario the optimal electricity supply mix. The results of the analysis represents that the nuclear industry in the Republic of Korea has already made strong contributions to the growth of the country. It has been an integral part of the country's economic development, evolving from an import- to an export-oriented industry, providing spin-offs to Korean technological innovation as well as to socio-economic development such as infrastructure and education. Furthermore, the study provides some meaningful suggestions and recommendations in order to make sound decisions for sustainable energy policy and strategies, in particular for achieving a balance in nuclear power development and socio-economic development consistent with sustainable energy development goals. In general, these reflect the increasing national (public and private) participation in the nuclear industry. Specifically, the study identifies the nuclear relevant strategies in four dimensions: innovative nuclear technology development, nuclear human resource development and management (HRD and M), investment and financing of the nuclear technology and enhancement of institutional framework

  20. Does the extension of nuclear power mean a decrease in security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1990-01-01

    If nuclear power is to be considerably extended in the next 30 to 50 year, then safety standards in nuclear plants must be considerably improved. As far as serious accidents are concerned, a formula that has been suggested is to lower the frequency boundaries by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the current level; keeping to the IAEA/INSAG restrictions only would, on the other hand, probably double the global risk for serious accidents. For this reason, the manufacturers for their part are now offering reactor concepts of the next and the next-but-one generation which exceed this objective. If reactors of this type only should be used for the postulated extension of nuclear power, then the risk of serious accidents would depend on the performance of reactors of the type currently used. This makes clear the need for reequipping and for accident control measures at plants already in operation. The global risk, taking in all aspects of nuclear power, can only be evaluated in comparison with the risks involved in other energy supply solutions of equivalent value; the most pessimistic assumptions would foresee a differential of at least one order of magnitude. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V K

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  2. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  3. Ways of TPP and NPP powerful steam turbine blade erosion decreasing in low flow rate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrabrov, P.V.; Khaimov, V.A.; Matveenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A systematized approach to the problem of efficient cooling of flow passage and exhaust parts of TPP and NPP steam turbines and prevention of erosion wear of inlet and outlet edges of operating blades is presented. Methods for LP casing cooling and sources of erosion-hazard moisture as well as the main technological and design measures to decrease the erosion of blades are determined

  4. Sustaining the future: the role of nuclear power in meeting future world energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.; Sun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A description is given of recently informed analyses showing the potential that nuclear power has in meeting global energy demands. For both the electricity and transportation sectors, we can quantify the beneficial effects on the environment, and we show how nuclear power deserves credit for its role in assisting future world energy, environmental and economic sustainability. The continuing expansion of the world's and Asia's energy needs, coupled with the need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions, will require new approaches for large scale energy production and use. This is particularly important for China and Asia with respect to meeting both the energy demand and sustainability challenges. We show and explore the role of nuclear power for large-scale energy applications, including electricity production and hydrogen for transportation. Advanced nuclear technologies, such as those like CANDU's next generation ACR, can meet future global energy market needs, avoid emissions, and mitigate the potential for global climate change. We use the latest IPCC Scenarios out to the year 2100 as a base case, but correct them to examine the sensitivity to large scale nuclear and hydrogen fuel penetration. We show a significant impact of nuclear energy on energy market penetration, and in reducing GHGs and other emissions in the coming century, particularly in the industrial developing world and in Asia. This is achieved without needing emissions credits, as are used or needed as economic support for other sources, or for subsidies via emissions trading schemes. Nuclear power offers the relatively emissions-free means, both to provide electricity for traditional applications and, by electrolytic production of hydrogen, to extend its use deep into the transportation sector. For the published IPCC Marker Scenarios for Asia we show the reduction in GHG emissions when electrolysis using electricity from nuclear power assists the introduction of hydrogen as a fuel

  5. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  6. Promoting nuclear power, achieving sustainable development of nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The past 5 decades witnessed the rapid growth of China's nuclear industry. The sustained and rapid economic growth and continuous improvement of people's living standards have placed higher requirements for energy and power supplies. As a safe and clean energy source, nuclear energy has been gradually and widely accepted by the Chinese government and the public. The Chinese government has adopted the policy a ctively pushing forward the nuclear power development , set up the target to reach 40GWe of nuclear power installed capacity by 2020, accounting for about 4% of the total installed capacity in China. In this regard, this paper presents the China's nuclear program to illustrate how China is going to achieve the target. The paper is composed of 3 parts. The first part gives a review of the achievements in nuclear power in the last 20 years. The second part presents China's ''three approach'' strategy for furthering the nuclear power development: carrying out duplication projects at the existing plant sites; introducing GUI technology via international bidding; developing the brand C NP1000 , i.e. Chinese Nuclear Power lOOOMwe class, with China's own intellectual property. This part also explores the ways of securing the fuel supply for nuclear power development. The third part concludes with CNNC's ''3221'' strategy which aims at building a world class conglomerate, and expresses its sincere wish to work with the nuclear community to push the nuclear industry worldwide by strengthening international cooperation

  7. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  8. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  9. Supplier selection criteria for sustainable supply chain management in thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Faisal; Narayan Biswal, Jitendra; Satapathy, Suchismita

    2018-02-01

    Supplies are always in great demand when it comes to industrial operations. The quality of raw material their price accompanied by sustainability and environmental effects are a major concern for industrial operators these days. Supply Chain Management is the subject which is focused on how the supply of different products is carried out. The motive is that each operation performed can be optimized and inherently the efficiency of the whole chain is integrated. In this paper we will be dealing with all the criteria that are required to be evaluated before selecting a supplier, in particular, focusing on Thermal Power Plant. The most suppliers of the thermal power plant are the coal suppliers. The quality of coal directly determines the efficiency of the whole plant. And when there are matters concerning coal environmental pollution plays a very crucial role. ANP method has been used here to select suppliers of thermal power sectors in Indian context. After applying ANP to prioritize the sustainable supplier selection criteria, it is found that for thermal power industries best suppliers are Nationalized/State owned suppliers then 2nd ranked suppliers are imported supplier. Private owned suppliers are ranked least. So private owned suppliers must be more concerned about their performance. Among these suppliers it is found that to compete in the global market privatized suppliers have to give more emphasize on most important criteria like sustainability, then fuel cost and quality. Still some sub-criteria like a clean program, environmental issues, quality, reliability, service rate, investment in high technology, green transportation channel, waste management etc needs for continuous improvement as per their priority.

  10. The power of the Brown v. Board of Education decision: theorizing threats to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2004-09-01

    Interviews with African American and White American elders capture the immediate power of the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision and the biography of its impact over time. This article reviews the lived experience of the decision and theorizes 3 threats to sustainability that ruthlessly undermined the decision over time: (a) the unacknowledged and enormous sacrifice endured by the African American community in the name of desegregation; b) the violent and relentless resistance to the decision by government officials, educators, and many White community members; and (c) the dramatic shrinkage of the vision of Brown from the dismantling of White supremacy to a technical matter of busing. Implications are drawn for the study of desegregation and for the study of sustainability of social justice more broadly. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  11. The Facilitation of a Sustainable Power System: A Practice from Data-Driven Enhanced Boiler Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing penetration of renewable energy may bring significant challenges to a power system due to its inherent intermittency. To achieve a sustainable future for renewable energy, a conventional power plant is required to be able to change its power output rapidly for a grid balance purpose. However, the rapid power change may result in the boiler operating in a dangerous manner. To this end, this paper aims to improve boiler control performance via a data-driven control strategy, namely Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC. For practical implementation, a tuning method is developed for ADRC controller parameters to maximize its potential in controlling a boiler operating in different conditions. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation, a Probabilistic Robustness (PR index is subsequently formulated to represent the controller’s sensitivity to the varying conditions. The stability region of the ADRC controller is depicted to provide the search space in which the optimal group of parameters is searched for based on the PR index. Illustrative simulations are performed to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. Finally, the proposed method is experimentally applied to a boiler’s secondary air control system successfully. The results of the field application show that the proposed ADRC based on PR can ensure the expected control performance even though it works in a wider range of operating conditions. The field application depicts a promising future for the ADRC controller as an alternative solution in the power industry to integrate more renewable energy into the power grid.

  12. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  13. Endurance training decreases the non-linearity in the oxygen uptake-power output relationship in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Nieckarz, Zenon; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that 5 weeks of cycling endurance training can decrease the magnitude of the non-proportional increase in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to power output relationship (V(O(2)) 'excess') at exercise intensities exceeding the lactate threshold (LT). Ten untrained, physically active men performed a bout of incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after training. The mitochondrial DNA copy number, myosin heavy chain composition and content of uncoupling protein 3 and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) were analysed in muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis before and after training. The training resulted in an enhancement of the power-generating capabilities at maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)) by ∼7% (P = 0.002) despite there being no changes in V(O(2)max) (P = 0.49). This effect was due to a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the V(O(2)) 'excess' (P 0.05) were found after training. We conclude that the training-induced increase in power-generating capabilities at V(O(2)max) was due to attenuation of the V(O(2)) 'excess' above the LT. This adaptive response seems to be related to the improvement of muscle metabolic stability, as judged by a lowering of plasma ammonia concentration. The enhancement of muscle metabolic stability after training could be caused by a decrease in ATP usage at a given power output owing to downregulation of SERCA2 pumps.

  14. Climate protection and reliability of supply. Development of a sustainable power supply concept; Klimaschutz und Versorgungssicherheit. Entwicklung einer nachhaltigen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Loreck, Charlotte; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-09-15

    Germany, like other states, committed itself to sustainable development in the Rio declaration of 1992. The boundary conditions for this are set by nature itself, whose laws must be respected if goals like reliability of supply and economic efficiency are to be achieved. This study of the Federal Environmental Office shows how sustainable power supply can be achieved. It is possible to combine climate protection, reliability of supply and economic efficiency, even without nuclear power and without constructing new conventional power plants that do not have the function of combined heat and power generation. (orig.)

  15. Key methods for sustaining quality engineering data in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, A [Canatom Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses key methods for sustaining quality engineering data, the fundamental principles that these methods are based on, and the methods for supporting the performance of nuclear power plants by the provision of quality engineering data at all times. The concept of an `engineering data foundation`, and a Configuration Management data model are developed. The concepts and methods for managing the integrity of engineering data across many different databases and document systems are developed, including the key concepts of data-positions and data-values, Master Data and Copy Data, and the concept of a `partnership between people and technology`. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Key methods for sustaining quality engineering data in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses key methods for sustaining quality engineering data, the fundamental principles that these methods are based on, and the methods for supporting the performance of nuclear power plants by the provision of quality engineering data at all times. The concept of an 'engineering data foundation', and a Configuration Management data model are developed. The concepts and methods for managing the integrity of engineering data across many different databases and document systems are developed, including the key concepts of data-positions and data-values, Master Data and Copy Data, and the concept of a 'partnership between people and technology'. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  17. Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Flash Geothermal Power Plants—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bruscoli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of geothermal energy production is analyzed with reference to a production plant located in a specific area (Monte Amiata, Italy. Four solutions combining a flash power plant with an Organic Rankine Cycle in a hybrid configuration are analyzed in terms of production of electricity, exergy balance and emissions level (CO2, H2S, Hg. The different solutions correspond to increasing environmental performance, and for the most advanced case achieve near-zero emissions (complete reinjection of the natural resource, including incondensable gases. The results show that this can be achieved at the price of a progressive reduction of electrical productivity.

  18. Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems – a perfect match for a sustainable society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frede Blaabjerg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption is steadily increasing very rapid due to more people on the earth, betterliving conditions as well as we are trying to live in areas where the energy demand is high. Theeconomy growth in the last century has not been possible without low prize of energy which has beenachieved by fossil fuels. Looking into the future – the fossil fuel resources have a time limit – whichcan appear faster than expected – both because of the limited resources but also because the marketcan suddenly increase the prize. Therefore there is a demand to come up with sustainable energysolutions for energy production like wind turbines, hydro power as well as photovoltaics. At the sametime it is evident that by the use of new technology it is possible to make energy saving. In bothsituations power electronics are making this possible – we are using power electronics to interfacerenewable sources to maximize the energy yield from wind turbines and photovoltaics as well assmoothly integrate it to the grid. Also in many applications we use power electronics to interface a loadwith the grid and control the behavior of the electrical equipment according to the demand. In manycases power electronics is able to ensure a large amount of energy saving like in pumps, compressorsas well as in ventilation systems. Also the transportation gain a lot of using electricity instead of fossilfuel – clearly made possible due to the power electronics. Denmark is one of the societies which have been the frontier of implementing the renewabletechnology and has today covered more than 50 % of the electrical energy consumption by means ofrenewable and has as ambition to be fully independent on fossil fuels in 2050. Already in 2035 100 %of the electricity will be covered by renewables. At the same time the energy consumption has notreally increased for 20 years despite the GDP has grown by more than 60 % - much is enabled byenergy efficient technologies based on

  19. Water Power: The “Hydropower Discourse” of China in an Age of Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-ching Bellette Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As the world searches for renewable energy in the face of climate change and China attempts to expand its power supply to further its economic development, hydroelectricity has moved to the top of the country’s energy agenda. This has given rise to a new form of  “hydropower discourse” in China. The discourse is underpinned by the ideas of environmental protection and sustainable development, which are widely perceived as unobjectionable in view of the current availability of resources. This article argues that the apparent ethical pursuit of renewable energy by building dams to generate electricity masks relations of dominance and helps to enable large energy companies, political leaders, and regional decision makers to pursue their interests against those who have limited or no access to the knowledge and capital employed in the development process. It will examine the ideological assumptions and institutional rootedness of hydropower discourse, and the power relations embedded in it.

  20. International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes: Building and Sustaining Capacity. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the conference are to: • Review developments in the global status of HRD since the 2010 international conference; • Emphasize the role of human resources and capacity building programmes at the national and organizational level for achieving safe, secure and sustainable nuclear power programmes; • Discuss the importance of building competence in nuclear safety and security; • Provide a forum for information exchange on national, as well as international, policies and practices; • Share key elements and best practices related to the experience of Member States that are introducing, operating or expanding nuclear power programmes; • Highlight the practices and issues regarding HRD at the organizational and national level; • Highlight education and training programmes and practices; • Emphasize the role of nuclear knowledge management for knowledge transfer and HRD; and • Elaborate on the role and scope of various knowledge networks

  1. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  2. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development (Spanish Edition); Energia Nucleoelectrica y Desarrollo Sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible [Spanish] En cualquier analisis de las tendencias energeticas del siglo XXI hay que tomar en cuenta el desequilibrio energetico mundial. Aproximadamente 1 600 millones de persona aun no tienen acceso a servicios energeticos modernos, y pocos aspectos del desarrollo - ya se trate de los niveles de vida, la atencion sanitaria o la productividad industrial - pueden conseguirse sin el necesario suministro de energia. Si consideramos el siglo que tenemos por delante, vemos que el crecimiento de la demanda energetica sera sustancial y que una clave del progreso consistira en 'conectar a los que carecen de conexion'. Otro desafio sera la sostenibilidad. Como podemos satisfacer estas necesidades

  3. Powering Africa's sustainable development: The potential role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity deficit is one of the most serious contemporary issues facing sub-Saharan Africa. Many countries in the region have insufficient generation capacity to meet rapidly rising demand. Electricity shortages have become a binding and powerful constraint on the continent's sustainable development. Their resolution will require coordinated effort to improve the effectiveness and governance of the region's utilities and to significantly scale-up generation capacity. A broad portfolio of low carbon (low-C) technologies needs to be deployed in order to address the electricity deficit in a cost-effective way and not be disruptive to economic growth. Since nuclear power can deliver low-C electricity in bulk, reliably and without intermittency, it could make a significant contribution towards resolving Africa's power crisis. However, the post-Fukushima safety concerns related to large nuclear plants with substantial radioactive inventories will be especially pronounced in Africa. Moreover, large scale reactors with huge upfront investment requirements are likely to be unsuitable for capital-constrained African countries with small electricity grids. One promising direction for nuclear development in Africa might be to downsize reactors from the gigawatt scale to less-complex smaller units (with substantially smaller radioactive inventory) that are more affordable. - Highlights: • We examine the potential role of nuclear power in Africa. • There is growing African interest in nuclear power. • Nuclear power in Africa will require grid strengthening. • Small modular reactors could enhance Africa's energy security. • There are concerns about Africa's safety culture for nuclear power

  4. Integrating environmental equity, energy and sustainability: A spatial-temporal study of electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche, George Earl

    The theoretical scope of this dissertation encompasses the ecological factors of equity and energy. Literature important to environmental justice and sustainability are reviewed, and a general integration of global concepts is delineated. The conceptual framework includes ecological integrity, quality human development, intra- and inter-generational equity and risk originating from human economic activity and modern energy production. The empirical focus of this study concentrates on environmental equity and electric power generation within the United States. Several designs are employed while using paired t-tests, independent t-tests, zero-order correlation coefficients and regression coefficients to test seven sets of hypotheses. Examinations are conducted at the census tract level within Texas and at the state level across the United States. At the community level within Texas, communities that host coal or natural gas utility power plants and corresponding comparison communities that do not host such power plants are tested for compositional differences. Comparisons are made both before and after the power plants began operating for purposes of assessing outcomes of the siting process and impacts of the power plants. Relationships between the compositions of the hosting communities and the risks and benefits originating from the observed power plants are also examined. At the statewide level across the United States, relationships between statewide composition variables and risks and benefits originating from statewide electric power generation are examined. Findings indicate the existence of some limited environmental inequities, but they do not indicate disparities that confirm the general thesis of environmental racism put forth by environmental justice advocates. Although environmental justice strategies that would utilize Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the disparate impact standard do not appear to be applicable, some findings suggest potential

  5. Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Carducci, Michael A; Umbricht, Annie; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Margaret A

    2016-12-01

    Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study. High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00465595. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Optimizing long-term investments for a sustainable development of the ASEAN power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Matthias; Roger, Albert; Hamacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The electricity consumption in the ASEAN (Association of East Asian Nations) region is one of the fastest growing in the world and will lead to a dramatic increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the next decades. A decarbonization of the region's electricity supply is thus a very important measure when taking action on global climate change. This paper defines cost-optimal pathways towards a sustainable power system in the region by employing linear optimization. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes the required capacities and the hourly operation of generation, transmission, and storage. The obtained results show that all different kinds of renewable sources will have to be utilized, while none of them should have a share of more than one third. The findings give reason for setting up an ASEAN power grid, as it enables the transportation of electricity from the best sites to load centers and leads to a balancing of the fluctuations from wind and solar generation. We suggest fostering a diversified extension of renewables and to elaborate on political and technical solutions that enable the build up an transnational supergrid. - Highlights: • Article presents an optimization model of the ASEAN power system with high temporal and spatial resolution. • Cost-optimal investment options for achieving a sustainable electricity system are explored. • All types of renewable energies have to be employed while none of them should provide more than one third of overall supply. • Large transcontinental transmission grids will be crucial for a cost-minimal decarbonization of the ASEAN electricity sector

  7. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  8. Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon Christopher

    Widespread access to renewable electricity is seen as a viable method to mitigate carbon emissions, although problematic are the issues associated with the integration of the generation systems within current power system configurations. Wind power plants are the primary large-scale renewable generation technology applied globally, but display considerable short-term supply variability that is difficult to predict. Power systems are currently not designed to operate under these conditions, and results in the need to increase operating reserve in order to guarantee stability. Often, operating conventional generation as reserve is both technically and economically inefficient, which can overshadow positive benefits associated with renewable energy exploitation. The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and assess an alternative method of enhancing power system operations through the control of electric loads. In particular, this thesis focuses on managing highly-distributed sustainable demand-side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles, and electrolyzers, as dispatchable short-term energy balancing resources. The main contribution of the thesis is an optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing grid- and demand-side objectives. The viability of the load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently and avoid the need for possible capacity expansions.

  9. Micro-hydrokinetic turbine potential for sustainable power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. B.; Kamaruddin, N. M.; Mohamed-Kassim, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Micro-hydrokinetic turbine (μ-HKT) technology is considered a viable option for sustainable, green and low cost power production. In recent years, there is growing number of research and development on this technology to replace conventional power production systems such as fossil fuel as well as to provide off-grid electrification to communities in remote areas. This paper provides an overview of μ-HKT system, the implementation of the technology and the potential of using μ-HKT in Malaysia. A review on the climate in Malaysia shows that its average annual rainfall is higher than the world’s average annual rainfall. It contributes to the total hydropower resource of about 29,000 MW which is available all year-round. Currently, hydropower resource contributes only 7.4% of the total electrical power production in Malaysia but is expected to increase with the main contribution coming from μ-HKT. However, the μ-HKT technology has not been adopted in Malaysia due to some challenges that hinder the development of the system. This paper reviews the μ-HKT technology and its potential for application in Malaysia, particularly in remote areas.

  10. Focal vibration of quadriceps muscle enhances leg power and decreases knee joint laxity in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Roscini, M; Brunetti, A; Panichi, R; Filippi, G M; Biscarini, A; Pettorossi, V E

    2012-12-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled study aims at determining the effect of repeated muscle vibration (rMV) on explosive and reactive leg power and on knee laxity of female volleyball players. Eighteen voluntary volleyball athletes, belonging to the same senior regional level team (age=22.7 ± 3 years, height=180.3 ± 5 cm, mass= 64 ± 4 kg) were assigned to three groups (N.=6) for vibration on contracted quadriceps (VC), vibration on relaxed muscle (VR), and sham vibration (NV), respectively. Intervention consisted in 3 rMV sessions performed in 3 consecutive days. In each session, 100 Hz, 300-500 μm amplitude vibratory stimuli were bilaterally delivered to the quadriceps in three consecutive 10-minutes applications. Explosive and reactive leg power and knee joint laxity were evaluated 1 day before, and 1, 30, and 240 days after intervention. In VC group, explosive and reactive leg power increased respectively by ~16% and ~9% at 1 day, by ~19% and ~11% at 30 days and by ~26% and ~13% at 240 days, concomitantly knee laxity decreased by ~6%, ~15% and ~18% at the same times. These changes were significantly larger than in the other groups, in which leg power increment and knee joint laxity reduction remained close to ~3%, ~5% and ~10% at 1, 30 and 240 days, respectively. Combined bilateral voluntary contraction and rMV of the quadriceps muscles is a short-lasting, non-invasive technique that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and knee laxity in volleyball women players.

  11. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  12. Local Power -- Global Connections: linking the world to a sustainable future through decentralized energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Richard; Sweet, David

    2007-07-01

    Various international dynamics are converging to increase the attractiveness of decentralized energy as a complement to existing centralized energy infrastructures. Decentralized energy (DE) technologies, including onsite renewables, high efficiency cogeneration and industrial energy recycling, offer considerable benefits to those seeking working alternatives to emerging challenges in the energy sector. DE is ideally suited to provide clean affordable energy to areas where modern energy services are currently lacking. Having smaller generators close to where energy is required ensures a safe, reliable and secure energy supply when the energy is required. Furthermore, because DE is a much cleaner alternative than conventional central power plants and the energy provided comes at a much smaller price tag DE is an increasingly acceptable alternative both in the developed and developing world. DE is sure to play a key role in any plan to build a sustainable energy future. (auth)

  13. Possibilities and consequences of the Total Cumulative Exergy Loss method in improving the sustainability of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stougie, Lydia; Kooi, Hedzer J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The TCExL method can be applied to all kinds of technological systems. • All exergy losses during the lifetime of a technological system are considered. • The results of the TCExL method are independent of time and weighting factors. • Applying the TCExL method can improve the sustainability of power generation. • The system with the lowest TCExL score is not always economically favourable. - Abstract: It is difficult to decide which power generation system is the most sustainable when environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects are taken into account. Problems with conventional environmental sustainability assessment methods are that no consensus exists about the applied models and weighting factors and that exergy losses are not considered. Economic sustainability assessment methods do not lead to results that are independent of time because they are influenced by market developments, while social sustainability assessment methods suffer from the availability and qualitative or semi-quantitative nature of data. Existing exergy analysis methods do not take into account all exergy losses and/or are extended with factors or equations that are not commonly accepted. The new Total Cumulative Exergy Loss (TCExL) method is based on fundamental thermodynamic equations and takes into account all exergy losses caused by a technological system during its life cycle, i.e. internal exergy losses, exergy losses caused by emission abatement and exergy losses related to land use. The development of the TCExL method is presented as well as the application of this method and environmental, economic and social sustainability assessment methods to two case studies: power generation in combination with LNG evaporation and Fossil versus renewable energy sources for power generation. According to the results of the assessments, large differences exist between the environmental sustainability assessment and TCExL methods in the sense that different

  14. A Systematical Framework of Schedule Risk Management for Power Grid Engineering Projects’ Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Schedule risks are the main threat for high efficiency of schedule management in power grid engineering projects (PGEP. This paper aims to build a systematical framework for schedule risk management, which consists of three dimensions, including the personnel dimension, method dimension and time dimension, namely supervisory personnel, management methods and the construction process, respectively. Responsibilities of staff with varied functions are discussed in the supervisory personnel part, and six stages and their corresponding 40 key works are ensured as the time dimension. Risk identification, analysis, evaluation and prevention together formed the method dimension. Based on this framework, 222 schedule risks occur in the whole process of PGEPs are identified via questionnaires and expert interviews. Then, the relationship among each risk is figured out based on the Interpretative Structure Model (ISM method and the impact of each risk is quantitatively assessed by establishing evaluation system. The actual practice of the proposed framework is verified through the analysis of the first stage of a PGEP. Finally, the results show that this framework of schedule risk management is meaningful for improving the efficiency of project management. It provides managers with a clearer procedure with which to conduct risk management, helps them to timely detect risks and prevent risks from occurring. It is also easy for managers to judge the influence level of each risk, so they can take actions based on the level of each risk’s severity. Overall, it is beneficial for power grid enterprises to achieve a sustainable management.

  15. Self-sustained photocatalytic power generation using eco-electrogenic engineered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Chiranjeevi, P; Butti, Sai Kishore; Mohan, S Venkata

    2018-07-01

    An eco-electrogenic engineered system (EES) was designed to mimic the functional role of natural aquatic ecosystems and evaluated their response to bio-electrogenic activity by cascadically interlinking three tanks with functionally diverse biota viz., floating macrophytes (Tank 1), submerged plants (Tank 2) and filter feeders (fish and snails) (Tank 3). Tank 1 showed efficient power generation (voltage (series): 0.86 V; current density (parallel): 37 mA/m 2 ) than Tank 2 (voltage (series): 0.76 V; current density (parallel): 34 mA/m 2 ) and Tank 3 (voltage (series): 0.65 V; current density (parallel): 22 mA/m 2 ). Integrating all three tanks enabled maximum power generation in parallel-series (P-S) connection (9.5 mW/m 2 ) than individual series and parallel connections (6.5/5 mW/m 2 ). Interaction of microbes and plants studied at the interface of electrochemical and engineering aspects illustrated the feasibility of EES as a self-sustainable system with innate diverse functional aquatic biota and rhizo-microbiome to produce bioelectricity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Disclosure of Electric Power Companies Listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clésia Ana Gubiani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the level of disclosure of environmental information in the administration reports of the energy companies listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI. A descriptive and quantitative research was done, using the content analysis technique on the administration reports from 2006 to 2008. The sample consisted of 11 electric power companies listed in the CSI. For quantitative analysis of the disclosure index, the data collection instrument was based on the study of Rover, Murcia and Borba (2008, which proposes eight environmental categories and 36 subcategories. For the whole analysis of the data were elaborated networks of the items disclosed in each company, using the software UNICET ®. The survey results showed that there is satisfactory disclosure in the categories of environmental policies and education, training and research environment. However, it was found that there is need for greater disclosure of categories of products impacts and processes in the environment, power polices and financial environmental information. It was concluded that the information disclosed in the administration reports of the companies surveyed about the environmental information do not respect the principle of full disclosure.

  17. Nuclear power in Canada : an examination of risks, impacts and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, M.; Jamison, A.; Wong, R.; Czajkowski, P.

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the environmental impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Canada through each of the four major stages of nuclear energy production: uranium mining and milling; uranium refining, conversion and fuel fabrication; nuclear power plant operation; and waste fuel management. It is intended to inform public debate over the future role of nuclear energy in Canada, and to facilitate comparisons of nuclear energy with other potential energy sources. The study examines waste generation, atmospheric releases, impacts on water quality and water use, and landscape and ecosystem impacts of nuclear energy production. It also examines the occupational and community health impacts of nuclear power and key long-term challenges to its sustainability, including security and weapons proliferation risks. Specific environmental impacts are examined in the context of CANDU nuclear technology, the only reactor type currently in use in Canada. The study findings likely underestimate the overall impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity production in Canada. This is a result of significant gaps in the publicly available information on releases of pollutants and contaminants, as well as on the fate of certain waste streams related to the nuclear industry. In addition, the study relies on what are likely conservative estimates in a number of key areas, particularly with respect to the generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  18. Nuclear power in Canada : an examination of risks, impacts and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, M.; Jamison, A.; Wong, R.; Czajkowski, P.

    2006-12-15

    This study examines the environmental impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Canada through each of the four major stages of nuclear energy production: uranium mining and milling; uranium refining, conversion and fuel fabrication; nuclear power plant operation; and waste fuel management. It is intended to inform public debate over the future role of nuclear energy in Canada, and to facilitate comparisons of nuclear energy with other potential energy sources. The study examines waste generation, atmospheric releases, impacts on water quality and water use, and landscape and ecosystem impacts of nuclear energy production. It also examines the occupational and community health impacts of nuclear power and key long-term challenges to its sustainability, including security and weapons proliferation risks. Specific environmental impacts are examined in the context of CANDU nuclear technology, the only reactor type currently in use in Canada. The study findings likely underestimate the overall impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity production in Canada. This is a result of significant gaps in the publicly available information on releases of pollutants and contaminants, as well as on the fate of certain waste streams related to the nuclear industry. In addition, the study relies on what are likely conservative estimates in a number of key areas, particularly with respect to the generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  19. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable development - a role for nuclear power? 2nd scientific forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The 2nd Scientific Forum of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was held during the 43rd General Conference. This paper summarizes the deliberations of the two-day Forum. The definition of 'sustainable development' of the 1987 Bruntland Commission - 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' - provided the background for the Forum's debate whether and how nuclear power could contribute to sustainable energy development. The framework for this debate comprises different perspectives on economic, energy, environmental, and political considerations. Nuclear power, along with all energy generating systems, should be judged on these considerations using a common set of criteria (e.g., emission levels, economics, public safety, wastes, and risks). First and foremost, there is a growing political concern over the possible adverse impact of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. However, there is debate as to whether this would have any material impact on the predominantly economic criteria currently used to make investment decisions on energy production. According to the views expressed, the level of safety of existing nuclear power plants is no longer a major concern - a view not yet fully shared by the general public. The need to maintain the highest standards of safety in operation remains, especially under the mounting pressure of competitiveness in deregulated and liberalized energy markets. The industry must continuously reinforce a strong safety culture among reactor designers, builders, and operators. Furthermore, a convincing case for safety will have to be made for any new reactor designs. Of greater concern to the public and politicians are the issues of radioactive waste and proliferation of nuclear weapons. There is a consensus among technical experts that radioactive wastes from nuclear power can be disposed of safely and

  1. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and sustainability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO 2 /MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind power production

  2. Sustainability for power generation exemplarily shown by regenerative energy systems. Final report; Nachhaltigkeit am Beispiel regenerativer Energiesysteme zur Stromerzeugung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, T.J.; Wagner, H.J.

    2005-07-01

    Since the energy sector plays a key role in the concept of sustainable development, aspects of sustainability should be addressed within the scope of technology assessments. This applies particularly to new energy systems and new technological solutions. To evaluate sustainability, indicators are needed. A system of indicators was designed within a research project carried out by the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics of the Ruhr-University Bochum. At first, the Brundtland-Definition for sustainable development was put in terms for energy conversion systems. Secondly, indicators were selected. For this purpose, a standardized procedure was developed that allows quantified multi criteria analysis. Overall objective was to cover all significant issues of sustainability by a minimum number of indicators. Seven appropriate indicators were identified: cumulated energy demand, power production costs, demand of air, water and area, as well as two new developed indicators to describe risks related to the security of energy supply, and employment effects. To prove the applicability of the indicator system, sample calculations were made for several solar and wind energy systems as well as for a natural gas fired power plant. Beside these examples, the indicator set in principle is applicable to any other technological pathway. It enables comparisons between conventional power generation technologies and innovative (renewable) energy systems. (orig.)

  3. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  4. 'Powering up' a green Saskatchewan: exploring possible sustainable solutions for Saskatchewan's electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; Faubert, I.; Steele, K.; Wohrizek, J.; Donev, J.

    2013-01-01

    The electrical market in Saskatchewan is embarking on an exciting journey to both increase its generating capacity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to promote a more sustainable future. SaskPower is the centralized generation and transmission crown corporation for the province and has the ability to implement the necessary actions to create a sustainable electrical system. There are many paths that Saskatchewan can take for a more sustainable future. Currently, the future of Saskatchewan's electrical market depends on results from the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration Plant. This project proposes electrical capacity models for SaskPower in the event their current CCS project is not a feasible option. (author)

  5. Aeroacoustic power generated by a compact axisymmetric cavity: Prediction of self-sustained osciallation and influence of depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Manders, H.B.M.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Aeroacoustic power generation due to a self-sustained oscillation by an axisymmetric compact cavity exposed to a low-Mach-number grazing flow is studied both experimentally and numerically. The feedback effect is produced by the velocity fluctuations resulting from a coupling with acoustic standing

  6. Sustainability from the Occurrence of Critical Dynamic Power System Blackout Determined by Using the Stochastic Event Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Murtadha Othman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of advanced technology in smart grid, the implementation of renewable energy in a stressed and complicated power system operation, aggravated by a competitive electricity market and critical system contingencies, this will inflict higher probabilities of the occurrence of a severe dynamic power system blackout. This paper presents the proposed stochastic event tree technique used to assess the sustainability against the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout emanating from implication of critical system contingencies such as the rapid increase in total loading condition and sensitive initial transmission line tripping. An extensive analysis of dynamic power system blackout has been carried out in a case study of the following power systems: IEEE RTS-79 and IEEE RTS-96. The findings have shown that the total loading conditions and sensitive transmission lines need to be given full attention by the utility to prevent the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout.

  7. Developing Sustainable Organizations for New Nuclear Power Countries through Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, R.; Kovacic, D.; Einwechter, M.; Reed, J.; Therios, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Countries with emerging nuclear power programmes face unique challenges with respect to building competent and sustainable organizations. By nature, such organizations are dynamic and evolving, energetic, and feel a sense of mission. They are also typically preoccupied with near and mid-term objectives, may be resource–constrained, can incur high staff turnover rate, and encounter difficulties in obtaining experienced, qualified personnel. Such conditions can make it difficult to think about, much less implement, a knowledge management (KM)-based culture. The result can be missed opportunities if a KM system is not in place to collect institutional knowledge leveraged to advance the organization’s mission. Nevertheless, knowledge is perishable, and the best time to capture it is as it is being created, not at the end of a career. This paper explores some of the resource–efficient methods for knowledge capture applicable to programs/organizations early in their formation and which might be constrained in some way from instituting larger KM initiatives. The emphasis is on tools, techniques, and methods that integrate well with the day-to-day processes of the organization, reduce single points of failure, and transfer/preserve knowledge early in the lifecycle. (author

  8. The hydrogen economy for a sustainable future and the potential contribution of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogen Economy encompasses the production of hydrogen using a wide range of energy sources, its storage and distribution as an economic and universal energy carrier, and its end use by industry and individuals with negligible emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier not a primary energy source, just like electricity is an energy carrier. The advantages of hydrogen as a means of storage and distribution of energy, and the methods of production of hydrogen, are reviewed. Energy sources for hydrogen production include fossil fuels, renewables, hydropower and nuclear power. Hydrogen has many applications in industry, for residential use and for transport by air, land and sea. Fuel cells are showing great promise for conversion of hydrogen into electricity and their development and current status are discussed. Non-energy uses of hydrogen and the safety aspects of hydrogen are also considered. It is concluded that the Hydrogen Economy, especially if coupled to renewable and nuclear energy sources, is a technically viable and economic way of achieving greater energy diversity and security and a sustainable future in this century

  9. Viet Nam - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doan Phac; Nguyen Tien Nguyen; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Nguyen Anh Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The Government of Viet Nam has recently formulated a national energy programme entitled Strategy and Policy of Sustainable Energy Development. Its aim is to define a development policy for the country for the period from 2000 to 2020. The main objectives of the national energy programme are: 1. Increasing energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) 2. Expanding rural electrification 3. Defining an energy price policy (e.g. pricing such that revenues cover costs) 4. Minimizing environmental impacts 5. Encouraging private investment in the energy and electricity sectors 6. Energy supply security 7. Diversifying energy sources, and 8. Exploring the potential role of nuclear power in Viet Nam. In formulating this programme, one of the objectives has been to minimize environmental impacts, including those caused by the electricity sector. Nevertheless, the shortage of investment capital in Viet Nam and the difficulty of securing favourable financial arrangements are crucial obstacles to the introduction of new technology options to mitigate GHG emissions. Viet Nam views CDM as an opportunity to find ways to overcome such problems and expects that all GHG mitigating technologies will be considered equally under the CDM

  10. State Democratic Rights as Current Political Power Limit and a New Culture for Social Promotion of Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rejane Liczbinski Sarreta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study relates to the democracy and political power considering the implementation of sustainability. Presented as theoretical basis the democratic principle itself, as well as the realization of human and fundamental rights. Exploring the possibility of re (construction of the state and own power and political and social culture of democracy through the promotion of development and sustainability. In a democratic state the appropriate political power embodies the rights of the citizen. A key element that should be considered is education for training social actors capable of promoting the transformation of dominant practices and that take important roles in politics and influence the state and society. The method used is deductive.

  11. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  12. Enhancing the Sustainability of Nuclear Power: the Pebble Bed HTR in Deep Burn Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cruz, D.F.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Van Heek, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The scenario of a utility in an industrialized country starting new nuclear construction with a single PBMR reactor has been considered. To make the new construction project acceptable by government and society, a maximum effort to obtain sustainability (i.e. minimization of resource use and waste production) will have to be shown. Therefore the usual open cycle for HTR has been abandoned, and the spent fuel will be reprocessed once. The long-lived transuranic (TRU) elements Pu, Np, Am and Cm are all re-fabricated into so-called transmutation fuel elements, and loaded back into the same reactor, in our case a 110 MWe PBMR with low-enriched uranium cycle. In this study, the reactor physical prospects have been investigated: to what extent the amount of TRU could be reduced. In this way, 75% of the initial amount of TRU waste is being destructed, while the time span in which the waste is more radio-toxic than uranium ore is being reduced to one-third. Also, the amount of fresh driver fuel needed is decreases by 25%. A preliminary cost analysis has been performed as well. It shows that there is also a cost advantage of operating the reactor in Deep Burn mode in industrialized countries, where the waste storage fees charged per volume are relatively high. (authors)

  13. Lack of Responsiveness during the Onset and Offset of Sevoflurane Anesthesia Is Associated with Decreased Awake-Alpha Oscillation Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara J. Pavone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA. Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation. During these periods, prominent anesthesia-induced neural oscillations such as slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations are notably absent. Neural correlates of intermittent responsiveness during light sedation have been insufficiently investigated. A principled understanding of the neural correlates of intermittent responsiveness may fundamentally advance our understanding of neural dynamics that are essential for maintaining arousal states, and how they are disrupted by anesthetics. Therefore, we performed a high-density (128 channels electroencephalogram (EEG study (n = 8 of sevoflurane-induced altered arousal in healthy volunteers. We administered temporally precise behavioral stimuli every 5 s to assess responsiveness. Here, we show that decreased eyes-closed, awake-alpha (8–12 Hz oscillation power is associated with lack of responsiveness during sevoflurane effect-onset and -offset. We also show that anteriorization—the transition from occipitally dominant awake-alpha oscillations to frontally dominant anesthesia induced-alpha oscillations—is not a binary phenomenon. Rather, we suggest that periods, which were defined by lack of responsiveness, represent an intermediate brain state. We conclude that awake-alpha oscillation, previously thought to be

  14. Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.

  15. Powering Cuba: A Possible Action Plan For Creating Cuba's Sustainable Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Brandon; Hess, Matt; Sloane, Taylor; Harris, Zach

    2017-01-01

    While Cuba enjoys a high rate of electrification, 82% of its electricity today is generated from oil with an overall estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.27 per kWh. Moreover, Cuba is experiencing increased electricity demand driven by a burgeoning tourism industry and an emerging small-medium size business sector. If the current power mix persists until 2040, power generation costs and carbon emissions would nearly double to US$9.8B and 24M MT CO2 per year respectively. This paper presents an overall strategy for Cuba to ensure its energy security and provide the Cuban people with clean, affordable and reliable access to electricity. With a total estimated cost of $14.1B, our proposal aims to reduce the overall cost of electricity generation to $0.14 per kWh by 2040. We recommend: Implementing a comprehensive renewable energy strategy that includes an energy mix of: (1) community-solar for small cooperative business (8.5%); (2) long-term investments for utility-scale solar IPPs (8.5%); (3) development of wind farms by IPPs (17.5%); and (4) maintaining supplementary biomass generation (6%); Installing complementary reliable sources of grid power from natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCC) via domestic production and LNG imports from a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU), accounting for 35% of Cuba’s energy; Attracting $700 million in infrastructure investment necessary to decrease transmission and distribution (T&D) losses; and Enacting reforms that increase regulatory certainty, investor protection, and the ease of doing business in Cuba for foreign investors. (author)

  16. A self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment system using solar-bio-hybrid power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Liao, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on system analysis of a self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment concept combining solar technologies, anaerobic digestion, and aerobic treatment to reclaim water. A solar bio-hybrid power generation unit was adopted to power the wastewater treatment. Concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) were combined with biogas energy from anaerobic digestion. Biogas is also used to store the extra energy generated by the hybrid power unit and ensure stable and continuous wastewater treatment. It was determined from the energy balance analysis that the PV-bio hybrid power unit is the preferred energy unit to realize the self-sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment. With short-term solar energy storage, the PV-bio-hybrid power unit in Phoenix, AZ requires solar collection area (4032m 2 ) and biogas storage (35m 3 ), while the same unit in Lansing, MI needs bigger solar collection area and biogas storage (5821m 2 and 105m 3 , respectively) due to the cold climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  18. The Power of Urban Planning on Environmental Sustainability: A Focus Group Study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva-Sofia Säynäjoki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable communities are promoted as a desirable policy goal and, in particular, local authorities are encouraged to contribute to climate change mitigation through urban planning. Furthermore, recent research takes a broad perspective on the environmental sustainability of urban areas and considers the environmental impact of all consumption. A focus group study was conducted in Finland for the purpose of examining how increased environmental awareness influences urban land use. The 32 participants of three focus groups were professionals of urban planning and environmental sustainability, at both a municipal and a state level. The main finding was that urban planning is viewed as being unable to support environmental sustainability in the broader sense. In general, the participants did not see a connection between urban structure and sustainable lifestyles and only the influence of planning on housing and daily journeys was recognised. Three main reasons for this were identified. Firstly, environmental sustainability in its broader definition is seen as too complex for urban planners to influence alone. Secondly, the dominance of short-term economic issues in decision-making and the lack of co-operation from other stakeholders to achieve environmental aims demotivate land use planners. Thirdly, the prioritisation of urban density may overrule alternative means of promoting environmental sustainability, such as the encouragement of sustainable suburban or non-urban lifestyles.

  19. The IAEA, nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of one of the fundamental objectives of the IAEA mandate to enhance the contribution of nuclear technologies towards meeting the needs of Member States, the present status, all the aspects, and the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The development of nuclear power broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, increases human and man-made capital, and when safely handled has little impact on ecosystems. This means that it could meet the central goal of sustainable development, considering that it covers maintaining or increasing the overall assets available to future generations, while minimizing consumption of finite resources and not exceeding the carrying capacities of ecosystems

  20. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.; Madlener, R.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  1. Optimal allocation of energy sources for sustainable development in South Korea: Focus on the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joongha; Woo, JongRoul; Lee, Jongsu

    2015-01-01

    National energy planning has become increasingly complex owing to a pressing need to incorporate sustainability considerations. In this context, we applied least-cost and cost-risk optimization models to allocate energy sources for sustainable development in the Korean electric power generation industry. The least-cost model determined an electricity generation mix from 2012 to 2030 that incurs minimum generation cost to meet electricity demand. The cost-risk model determined electricity generation mixes in 2030 considering the risks associated with each energy source in order to lessen external risks. In deriving these optimal electricity generation mixes, we considered both conventional and renewable energy sources in conjunction with physical and policy constraints that realistically reflect Korean circumstances. Moreover, we accounted for CO 2 and external costs within the electricity generation costs for each energy source. For sustainable development in Korea, we conclude that a portion of the coal and gas in the electricity generation mix must be substituted with nuclear and renewable energy. Furthermore, we found that least-cost allocation is sub-optimal from cost-risk perspective and that it limits the adoption of renewables. Finally, we also discuss the implications of decisions taken by the Korean government regarding the electricity generation mix for next-generation energy planning to achieve sustainability. - Highlights: • Optimal least-cost/cost-risk energy mix for sustainable development in Korea. • We account for CO 2 and external costs of generation from each energy source. • Externalities and physical/policy constraints in Korea produce realistic energy mix. • Nuclear and renewables should replace coal and gas for sustainability in Korea. • Least-cost approach limits uptake of renewables and produces high-risk energy mix

  2. Generating power at high efficiency combined cycle technology for sustainable energy production

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, E

    2008-01-01

    Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features - including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification com

  3. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in the Energy Sector: A Perspective from a Brazilian Power Utility Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The key question in this article consists of identifying the conditions under which the social projects developed by the firm Alpha are really promoting the sustainable development in the state of Ceará, located in Northeast Brazil. The general goal is to discuss if the firm’s social projects are related to the sustainable corporate entrepreneurship (SCE. This paper intends to stimulate the scientific community to advance knowledge on entrepreneurial, innovation and sustainability. This case study focuses on four Alpha’s projects: Ecological Initiative, Efficient Exchange, Social Energy, and School of Efficient Paths. The thematic content’s analysis methodology was used in this article. The documental research served as primary data source and helped to better elucidate the studied object. The researcher obtained 12 questionnaires answered. It was found an agreement of respondents to the categories: values, transparency and governance, workforce, environment, suppliers, consumers and customers and community. For the theme government and society, the results showed a disagreement with the category and for the last theme, innovation, the respondents are indifferent. After lexical analysis of data the results confirm in accordance with state of art of literature the existence of triple bottom line in the social projects of Alpha, by the categories resulted (profit, planet, people from content’s analysis of open questions. Alpha is a strong example of social commitment with poverty and environment. In conclusion, the research confirms that the firm promotes sustainable entrepreneurship and innovativeness leading to sustainable development.

  4. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  5. Risk Evaluation of a UHV Power Transmission Construction Project Based on a Cloud Model and FCE Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the sustainable development of energy, Ultra High Voltage (UHV power transmission construction projects are being established in China currently. Their high-tech nature, the massive amount of money involved, and the need for multi-agent collaboration as well as complex construction environments bring many challenges and risks. Risk management, therefore, is critical to reduce the risks and realize sustainable development of projects. Unfortunately, many traditional risk assessment methods may not perform well due to the great uncertainty and randomness inherent in UHV power construction projects. This paper, therefore, proposes a risk evaluation index system and a hybrid risk evaluation model to evaluate the risk of UHV projects and find out the key risk factors. This model based on a cloud model and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE method combines the superiority of the cloud model for reflecting randomness and discreteness with the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in handling uncertain and vague issues. For the sake of proving our framework, an empirical study of “Zhejiang-Fuzhou” UHV power transmission construction project is presented. As key contributions, we find the risk of this project lies at a “middle” to “high” level and closer to a “middle” level; the “management risk” and “social risk” are identified as the most important risk factors requiring more attention; and some risk control recommendations are proposed. This article demonstrates the value of our approach in risk identification, which seeks to improve the risk control level and the sustainable development of UHV power transmission construction projects.

  6. SOSPO-SP: Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems Simulation Platform for Real-Time System State Evaluation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Vancraeyveld, Pieter; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    Measurement Units (PMUs) provides more information and enables wide-area monitoring with accurate timing. One of the challenges in the near future is converting the high quantity and quality of information provided by PMUs into useful knowledge about operational state of a global system. The use of real-time...... simulation in closed-loop is essential to develop and validate new real-time applications of wide-area PMU data. This paper presents a simulation platform developed within the research project Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO). The SOSPO simulation platform (SOSPO-SP) functions...... in a closed-loop, integrating new real-time assessment methods to provide useful information to operators in power system control centers and to develop new control methodologies that handle emergency situations and avoid power system blackouts....

  7. Exploitation of Renewable Energy--A Strategic Choice for Sustainable Development of Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing

    2005-01-01

    Since China is being faced with the pressure of energy shortage and environmental conservation, the power industry in China has to actively develop the renewable energy for electricity generation while raising the utilization efficiency of conventional energy. In view of such facts, China Guodian Corporation decided on a development strategy of giving priority to green power, such as wind power. Based on the national planning of wind power development, the corporation set out its own target of installing wind power capacity of 1500 MW by the end of 2010, and is adopting appropriate measures including promoting the localization of wind turbines and developing hydropower, thermal power and wind power simultaneously. Moreover, it put some relevant suggestions.

  8. Modeling and control of sustainable power systems. Towards smarter and greener electric grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingfeng Wang (ed.) [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods. (orig.)

  9. Sustainability in Oceans Governance : Small Islands, Emerging Powers, and Connecting Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.; Singh, A.

    2017-01-01

    As evidenced by Goal No. 14 of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, the importance of oceans governance as a matter of global policy can hardly be overstated. The unsustainable uses of their resources could lead to serious consequences, not only for coastal communities, but remote landlocked

  10. Environmental, economic and exergetic sustainability assessment of power generation from fossil and renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Giustozzi, N.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Stoppato, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Energy conversion systems have assumed a crucial role in current society. The threat of climate change, fossil fuel depletion and the growing world energy demand ask for a more sustainable way of electricity production, eg, by using renewable energy sources, by improving the conversion efficiency

  11. Governing "Eco-Certified Children" through Pastoral Power: Critical Perspectives on Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how "eco-certified children" are constructed as desirable subjects in teaching materials addressing education for sustainable development. We are interested in how discourses structure this cherished practice and how this practice has become "natural" and obvious for us. A discourse analysis is carried out…

  12. The Power of One: The Impact of Family and Consumer Sciences Education on Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    The issues related to environmental sustainability can be overwhelming. It is difficult to imagine that actions of one person could make a difference. This article addresses that perception and illustrates the impact of one person, a family and consumer sciences educator, on the lives of others and on environmental resources. Making a difference…

  13. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abul Hossain, K; Khan, F; Hawboldt, K [Mem University of Newfoundland, St John, NF (Canada). Faculty of Engineering & Applied Science

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents kWh. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  14. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Khandoker Abul [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Khan, Faisal [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Hawboldt, Kelly [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents /kW h. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  15. SusDesign - An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Khandoker Abul; Khan, Faisal; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on an integrated environmental and cost potential (IECP) index, which has been estimated with the IECP tool. The present paper also describes a flowsheet optimization technique developed using different thermodynamic tools such as exergy/energy analysis, heat and mass integration, and cogeneration/trigeneration in a systematic manner. The proposed SusDesign approach has been successfully implemented in designing a 30 MW thermal power plant. In the case study, the IECP tool has been set up in Aspen HYSYS process simulator to carry out the analysis, evaluation and screening of design alternatives. The application of this approach has developed an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly thermal system design with an overall thermal efficiency of 70% and CO 2 and NO emissions of 0.28 kg/kW h and 0.2 g/kW h respectively. The cost of power generation is estimated as 4 cents /kW h. These achievements are significant compared to the conventional thermal power plant, which demonstrates the potential of the SusDesign approach for the sustainable development of process systems.

  16. A roadmap for production of sustainable, consistent and reliable electric power from agricultural biomass- An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of agricultural biomass for production of electric power can help to reduce the environmental emissions while achieving energy security and sustainable development. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the power production potential of agricultural biomass in a country. Further, the methodology has been applied to develop a roadmap for producing reliable power in India. The present study reveals that about 650 Mt/year of agricultural biomass is generated in India, while about one-third of this has been found to be surplus for energy applications. The cereal crops have major contribution (64.60%) in production of surplus biomass followed by sugarcane (24.60%) and cotton (10.68%). The energy potential of these resources is of the order of 3.72 EJ, which represents a significant proportion of the primary energy consumption in the country. These biomass resources can produce electric power of 23–35 GW depending upon the efficiency of thermal conversion. The delivery of biomass to the plants and selection of appropriate technology have been found as the major issues that need to be resolved carefully. In the end, the study summarizes various technological options for biomass collection and utilization that can be used for producing clean and consistent power supply. - Highlights: •The production of bioelectricity in India is imperative and inevitable. •About one-third of the agricultural biomass is available for power generation. •The power potential of these resources is of the order of 23–31 GW. •The delivery of biomass to plants and technology selection are the key issues. •India should exploit these resources for producing clean and reliable power.

  17. Listening to Mozart K.448 decreases electroencephalography oscillatory power associated with an increase in sympathetic tone in adults: a post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wu, Rong-Ching; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Listening to Mozart K.448 has been demonstrated to improve spatial task scores, leading to what is known as the Mozart Effect. However, most of these reports only describe the phenomena but lack the scientific evidence needed to properly investigate the mechanism of Mozart Effect. In this study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the effects of Mozart K.448 on healthy volunteers to explore Mozart Effect. An EEG-based post-intervention analysis. Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Twenty-nine college students were enrolled. They received EEG and electrocardiogram examinations simultaneously before, during and after listening to the first movement of Mozart K.448. EEG alpha, theta and beta power and HRV were compared in each stage. The results showed a significant decrease in alpha, theta and beta power when they listened to Mozart K.448. In addition, the average root mean square successive difference, the proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals, standard deviations of NN intervals and standard deviations of differences between adjacent NN intervals showed a significant decrease, while the high frequency revealed a significant decrease with a significantly elevated low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Listening to Mozart K.448 significantly decreased EEG alpha, theta and beta power and HRV. This study indicates that there is brain cortical function and sympathetic tone activation in healthy adults when listening to Mozart K.448, which may play an important role in the mechanism of Mozart Effect.

  18. Probabilistic stability analysis: the way forward for stability analysis of sustainable power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Jovica V

    2017-08-13

    Future power systems will be significantly different compared with their present states. They will be characterized by an unprecedented mix of a wide range of electricity generation and transmission technologies, as well as responsive and highly flexible demand and storage devices with significant temporal and spatial uncertainty. The importance of probabilistic approaches towards power system stability analysis, as a subsection of power system studies routinely carried out by power system operators, has been highlighted in previous research. However, it may not be feasible (or even possible) to accurately model all of the uncertainties that exist within a power system. This paper describes for the first time an integral approach to probabilistic stability analysis of power systems, including small and large angular stability and frequency stability. It provides guidance for handling uncertainties in power system stability studies and some illustrative examples of the most recent results of probabilistic stability analysis of uncertain power systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Options for sustaining solar-powered mosquito trapping systems on Rusinga Island, Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.; Wijnands, Michiel; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees

    2018-01-01

    Background: In 2012, a donor-supported proof of principle study was launched to eliminate malaria from Rusinga Island, western Kenya, using solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS). SMoTS, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile telephones, were installed in houses. In

  20. Sustainable energy management in industry of Republic of Serbia: Biogas power plants advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golušin Mirjan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the specifics of energy policy in Serbia on the example of designing a biogas power plant. The biogas power plant is designed in accordance with the existing energy policy that recognizes producers of energy from renewable sources as This paper reviews the previously performed analysis in the sphere of energy consumption, which served as the basis for creating a new corporate energy policy. The paper presents an analysis of biogas power plant output (electrical and thermal energy, potential prices on the market, that are consistent with the incentives of energy policy of Serbia. In addition, special emphasis is given to the revenues that a biogas power plant realizes by using mechanism of energy policy, which promotes gaining revenues by reducing pollution of the atmosphere. The authors also show the procedure, costs and expected effects for the qualification of this power plant project (CDM project categories.

  1. Design and test of-80 kV snubber core assemblies for MFTF sustaining-neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, S.R.; Mayhall, D.J.; Wilson, J.H.; De Vore, K.R.; Ross, R.I.; Sears, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Core snubbers, located near the neutral beam source ends of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS) source cables, protect the neutral beam source extractor grid wires from overheating and sputtering during internal sparkdowns. The snubbers work by producing an induced counter-emf which limits the fault current and by absorbing the capacitive energy stored on the 80 kV source cables and power supplies. A computer program STACAL was used in snubber magnetic design to choose appropriate tape wound cores to provide 400 Ω resistance and 25 J energy absorption. The cores are mounted horizontally in a dielectric structure. The central source cable bundle passes through the snubber and terminates on three copper buses. Multilam receptacles on the buses connect to the source module jumper cables. Corona rings and shields limit electric field stresses to allow close clearances between snubbers

  2. Measuring sustainability by Energy Efficiency Analysis for Korean Power Companies: A Sequential Slacks-Based Efficiency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency has been widely regarded as one of the most cost-effective ways to improve sustainability and mitigate climate change. This paper presents a sequential slack-based efficiency measure (SSBM application to model total-factor energy efficiency with undesirable outputs. This approach simultaneously takes into account the sequential environmental technology, total input slacks, and undesirable outputs for energy efficiency analysis. We conduct an empirical analysis of energy efficiency incorporating greenhouse gas emissions of Korean power companies during 2007–2011. The results indicate that most of the power companies are not performing at high energy efficiency. Sequential technology has a significant effect on the energy efficiency measurements. Some policy suggestions based on the empirical results are also presented.

  3. Professionals Cultivations: critical to the safe operation & sustainable development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingguang

    2017-01-01

    Challenges to nuclear power development: Challenges to nuclear power: •Public acceptance & confidences shaking after SAs •Ecology concerning seriously on rad-waste & spent fuel •Both AP1000 & EPR delayed with investment greatly increased •Economic competition from Renewable & marginal effects from severe regulatory guides; Challenges from HR: •No peoples willing to enter industry for countries with NP phased out •No motivations to develop or innovate the new technology for countries with NP operation but no further planning •Professionals need badly for developing countries looking for more nuclear power •HR setup the balance between money & missions, prides & success

  4. Sustainable Low-Carbon Expansion for the Power Sector of an Emerging Economy: The Case of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Juan-Pablo; Shaw, Brittany J; Avila, Nkiruka I; Kammen, Daniel M

    2017-09-05

    Fast growing and emerging economies face the dual challenge of sustainably expanding and improving their energy supply and reliability while at the same time reducing poverty. Critical to such transformation is to provide affordable and sustainable access to electricity. We use the capacity expansion model SWITCH to explore low carbon development pathways for the Kenyan power sector under a set of plausible scenarios for fast growing economies that include uncertainty in load projections, capital costs, operational performance, and technology and environmental policies. In addition to an aggressive and needed expansion of overall supply, the Kenyan power system presents a unique transition from one basal renewable resource-hydropower-to another based on geothermal and wind power for ∼90% of total capacity. We find geothermal resource adoption is more sensitive to operational degradation than high capital costs, which suggests an emphasis on ongoing maintenance subsidies rather than upfront capital cost subsidies. We also find that a cost-effective and viable suite of solutions includes availability of storage, diesel engines, and transmission expansion to provide flexibility to enable up to 50% of wind power penetration. In an already low-carbon system, typical externality pricing for CO 2 has little to no effect on technology choice. Consequently, a "zero carbon emissions" by 2030 scenario is possible with only moderate levelized cost increases of between $3 and $7/MWh with a number of social and reliability benefits. Our results suggest that fast growing and emerging economies could benefit by incentivizing anticipated strategic transmission expansion. Existing and new diesel and natural gas capacity can play an important role to provide flexibility and meet peak demand in specific hours without a significant increase in carbon emissions, although more research is required for other pollutant's impacts.

  5. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... priority. This heavy reliance on diesel generation has negative effects on the surrounding environment including soil, groundwater, and air pollution. Although good solar and wind resource prospects exist for the use of cleaner hybrid power systems in certain desert locations, little research has been done...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  6. Prospects of nuclear power plants for sustainable energy development in Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorashi, Amir Hossien

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the feasible contributive share of electricity generation from each energy resources. This includes the economical feasibilities and all demographic projections involved in forecasting methodology, which explicitly reflect on overall national power demand projection in the Energy prospects of Islamic Republic of Iran till 2033. The Energy demand and reliability are presented with a view to elaborate on significant role and required capacity of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) towards fulfillment of an energy mix policy in the country

  7. Energy-Sustainable Framework and Performance Analysis of Power Scheme for Operating Systems: A Tool

    OpenAIRE

    G. Singh; P. K. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) devices has become more user-friendly, which raised the problem of power dissipation across the globe and computer systems are one among them. This emerging issue of power dissipation has imposed a very significant issue on the system and software design. The concept of ‘green computing’ gaining popularity and is being considered as one of the most promising technology by the designers of Information Technology (IT) industry, which ...

  8. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP) systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated) electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat), different techno...

  9. Power supply - HVDC and facts make it sustainable and secure; Stromversorgung - nachhaltig und sicher mit HGUeund Facts. Grid Access fuer ''gruene Energie''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uecker, Karl; Retzmann, Dietmar [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). HVDC/Facts Sales and Marketing; Schultze, Alberto [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Abt. Grid Access and Industry

    2010-09-06

    Due to the global climate change, the power industry has a lot of changes in store. For reasons of environmental protection, the reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in power generation and loss minimization in power transmission are of particular importance. This means that the share of wind power in a lot of countries, Germany among them, must be as high as possible, for the other ''green'' energy resources, such as hydro or solar power, play only a subordinate part for reasons of their geographical location. Along with sustainability and efficiency of power supply, grid security must be taken into account as well. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear Power Introduction in Indonesia : Securing the National Energy Supply for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana; Sudi Ariyanto; Arnold Y Soetrisnanto

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power construction planning study has already done by BATAN. The studies that cover various aspects have also done related to this preparation. The research centers in BATAN that have activities in energy application are directed to this preparation. This paper will generally describe the activities and result of the preparation study, especially related to technology aspect, site aspect, and social-economic impact. The preparation study has taken into account of some aspects, but still need updated and some more complementary study. The choice of technology will determine the ability for technology transfer. Industrial infrastructure and the design and engineering capability are the key role for self reliance in nuclear power technology. But the technology transfer will not succeed without government support. Muria Peninsula, precisely in Ujung Lemahabang has become the first candidate site, while Ujung Grenggengan and Ujung Watu as a second and third candidate sites. Though site could accommodate 7.000 MWe installed capacity, but are need to consider stability and capacity of transmission line to channeling the nuclear power out put in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid interconnection. From the economic impact aspect, nuclear power is competitive among other power plant system in order the role of nuclear power to give a solution in energy optimum mix policy and will reduce oil fuel consumption. (author)

  11. Combined Heat and Power Systems for the Provision of Sustainable Energy from Biomass in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortwein Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of greenhouse gases causing climate change, combined heat and power (CHP systems fueled by biomass can efficiently supply energy with high flexibility. Such CHP systems will usually consist of one or more thermo-chemical conversion steps and at least one (the more or less separated electric power generation unit. Depending on the main products of the previous conversion steps (e.g. combustible gases or liquids, but also flue gases with sensible heat, different technologies are available for the final power conversion step. This includes steam cycles with steam turbines or engines and different working fluids (water, organic fluids, but also combustion based systems like gas turbines or gas engines. Further promising technologies include fuel cells with high electric efficiency. When integrating such CHP systems in buildings, there are different strategies, especially concerning electric power generation. While some concepts are focusing on base load production, others are regulated either by thermal or by electric power demand. The paper will give a systematic overview on the combination of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and combined heat and power production technologies. The mentioned building integration strategies will be discussed, leading to conclusions for further research and development in that field.

  12. Exergy-based sustainability analysis of a low power, high frequency piezo-based ultrasound reactor for rapid biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseinpour, Soleiman; Khounani, Zahra; Hosseini, Seyed Sina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Piezoultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production was exergetically analyzed. • Alcohol content, sonication time, and temperature affected exergetic parameters. • 6:1 methanol/oil, 10 min sonication, and 60 °C temperature were the best conditions. • The exergetic sustainability index at the favorable conditions was found to be 11. - Abstract: In this work a thermodynamic model was developed to attain enhanced process comprehension of waste cooking oil (WCO) transesterification process in a low power, high frequency piezo-based ultrasound reactor. The reactor performance was assessed using the exergy concept to distinguish the effects of various operational variables, i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio (4:1–8:1), ultrasonic irradiation time (6–10 min), and temperature (40–60 °C) on the efficiency and sustainability factors. The exergetic efficiency of the developed reactor was found to be ranging from 98% to 99% and from 9% to 91% using the universal and functional definitions, respectively. The maximum functional exergetic efficiency as a decision making parameter, was found at 91% for methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1, ultrasonic irradiation time of 10 min, and temperature of 60 °C. The exergetic sustainability index of the transesterification process at the selected conditions was determined at about 11. Under these conditions, the reactor efficiently converted triglycerides to methyl esters with an acceptable conversion efficiency of 97%, satisfying the ASTM standard. Overall, the outcomes of the current survey manifested that exergy analysis can be a preferred basis for decision making on the efficiency and sustainability of various biodiesel synthesizing systems.

  13. A Survey on the effective role of nuclear power plants in decreasing air pollution and its relevant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays air pollution, consequent reduction of Ozone layer's thickness and increase of UV radiations are included as the hazardous phenomenon, which confronts mankind with fundamental challenges. Increase of population, use of high living standards together with the consumption of fossil fuels for generations of electrical energy have increases air pollution at the global. scale. According to the carried out studies carried out in the three latest decades, alteration of atmospheric gases such as Ozone, dioxide azoth, dioxide sulphur, dioxide carbon, Methane, monoxide carbon and hydrocarbons have caused the appearance of water and air new forms of pollutions all over the world the harmful side effects resulted from air pollution on the respiratory systems and other cordial and blood vessels are well documented. Due to the air and water uncommon pollutions resulted from fossil fuels consumptions, use of nuclear power plants as a safe option can prevent several pollutants such as gases, poisoning metals and suspended elements or downpour of acidic rains in environment. In this article, it is tried difficulties and hazardous results of air pollution and resulted from consumption of fossil fuels, and discusses the effective role of nuclear energy studies in reduction of such pollutions

  14. Electric power and sustainable rural development: a way for the citizenship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the rural electrification usage. Rural production requires efficient energy sources, and the State must encourage landowners to make use of market forces to modernize their activities. Important authors have claimed that rural electrification should be viewed as an investment in the energy structure of a region, an investment to achieve economic returns. In this paper, this opinion is criticized in light for the need of sustainable rural development. More than just a macroeconomic policy, electrification should be viewed through a social lens, as indispensable component of citizenship. (author)

  15. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  16. Life under the source : Sustainable housing using low-voltage DC power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedeman, M.; Van Timmeren, A.; Boelman, E.; Schoonman, J.; Van der Graaf, A.

    2003-01-01

    Emergency phone systems, yachts, and caravans increasingly use solar panels to generate the energy they require to operate. The Dutch government offers generous grant schemes for solar panels on houses and offices. Solar energy is the power of the future. There is however a slight drawback because

  17. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  18. Facilitating sustainability through smart network design in combination with virtual power plant operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    While smart grids are considered as an outcome to integrate a high penetration level of dispersed generation (DG) in the power system, most distribution networks are still passive controlled. To accelerate the transition towards smart grids network operators can take two important steps: 1.

  19. Space Power: A Theory for Sustaining US Security Through the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    between our national security, our national competitiveness, resilience, and moral example. And it reaffirms America’s commitment to pursue our... relativism respectively on the rise and fall of great powers. Their research provides guiding principles which allow nations operating within Vesna

  20. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  1. Long-acting octreotide treatment causes a sustained decrease in ghrelin concentrations but does not affect weight, behaviour and appetite in subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Kathleen; Ishkanian, Stacey L; Bogarin, Roberto; Miranda, Charmaine A; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Pacaud, Danièle; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Ghrelin is secreted primarily by the stomach and circulates as both acylated and desacyl ghrelin. Acylated (but not desacyl) ghrelin stimulates appetite. Both concentrations are elevated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), suggesting that ghrelin may contribute to hyperphagia and overweight in these subjects. We evaluated whether long-acting octreotide (Oct) decreases acylated and desacyl ghrelin concentrations, body mass, appetite and compulsive behaviour towards food in adolescents with PWS. A 56-week prospective, randomized, cross-over trial. Nine subjects with PWS (age 14.6 (10.8-18.9) years, body mass index (BMI) Z-score +1.9 (0.6-3.0)) received either Oct (30 mg) or saline i.m. every 4 weeks for 16 weeks and were switched over to the other treatment after a 24-week washout period. Eight subjects completed the study. Oct caused a decrease in both acylated (-53%) and desacyl (-54%) fasting ghrelin concentrations (P<0.05) but did not significantly affect BMI. Oct had no significant effect on peptide YY concentrations, appetite or compulsive behaviour towards food. Oct caused a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations, an increase in HbA1c and transient elevation of blood glucose in two subjects. Three subjects developed gallstones. Oct treatment caused a prolonged decrease in ghrelin concentrations in adolescents with PWS but did not improve body mass or appetite. Future intervention studies aiming at clarifying the role of ghrelin in PWS should focus on the administration of specific inhibitors of ghrelin secretion or ghrelin receptor activity that do not interfere with other appetite-regulating peptides.

  2. Addressing the security of a future sustainable power system: The Danish SOSPO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    evaluated to secure the operation from both transmission and distribution levels. The Danish SOSPO project is launched from 2012 targeting at the system security assessment in the control room for the future scenarios. Methods will be developed in this project to counteract with the future challenges......Current power systems have been undergoing in depth changes by the increasing use of renewable generations. At one hand, the grid is progressively more interconnected in order to collect the renewable generation from geographically dispersed places meanwhile reduce the risks of intermittency......; on the other, the power is increasingly generated at relative low voltage networks which in turn gives rise to new challenges in the conventional system design. The high governmental objective of greenhouse gas reduction provokes accelerating adoptation of the renewables. The effect of this has to be carefully...

  3. Power system operational security analysis to obtain sustainable, strategic and economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.A.J.; Alemadi, N.; Mulla, Y.A.; Choudhry, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the most critical question that is static/online security system n power system operation and managements. Therefore, we do originated couple of models with their operational scenarios. How to identify the main security constraints and their most suitable reinforcements needed to maintain the system security as per determine boundary. It would also render instrumental approach to enhance the security operational constraints. Therefore, it will also provide the system operator to take preventive action or formulate the action plan prior to contingencies occurred In past the both demand side management system and load shedding have been used for to provide reliable power system under normal or emergency operation and control [4,5 J.) (author)

  4. Challenges of nuclear power for the sustainable role in Korean energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the current role of nuclear power of Korea as the economic and low carbon emitter in the long term expansion planning and to improve the public acceptance of nuclear as the environmentally friendliness energy source. Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide more than 60% of total electricity generation in Korea for quite some time. National energy policy addressing environmental friendliness, stable supply and least cost has made it difficult to decide which energy resource is the best for the long term energy planning. Climate change regime will diminish the coal power plants in generation amount, the public still keeps nuclear at a distance and insists to replace nuclear by renewable and renewable doesn't any guarantee of stable supply although its economics is fast being improved. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the long-term power expansion planning in various points of view such as environmental friendliness, benefit of carbon reduction and system reliability as well as least cost operation. The objective and approach of this study are to analyze the proper role of nuclear power by comparing the different types of scenarios in terms of the system cost changes, CO 2 emission reduction and system reliability. The results from this analysis are useful for the Korean government in charge of long-term energy policy to go over what kinds of role can each electric resources play and what are the best way to solve the triangular dilemma as economics, environmental friendliness, stable supply of the electricity

  5. Energy Storage System Control Algorithm by Operating Target Power to Improve Energy Sustainability of Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongkwan Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy issues are emerging around the world, a variety of smart home technologies aimed at realizing zero energy houses are being introduced. Energy storage system (ESS for smart home energy independence is increasingly gaining interest. However, limitations exist in that most of them are controlled according to time schedules or used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV generation systems. In consideration of load usage patterns and PV generation of smart home, this study proposes an ESS control algorithm that uses constant energy of energy network while making maximum use of ESS. Constant energy means that the load consumes a certain amount of power under all conditions, which translates to low variability. The proposed algorithm makes a smart home a load of energy network with low uncertainty and complexity. The simulation results show that the optimal ESS operating target power not only makes the smart home use power constantly from the energy network, but also maximizes utilization of the ESS. In addition, since the smart home is a load that uses constant energy, it has the advantage of being able to operate an efficient energy network from the viewpoint of energy providers.

  6. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  7. Recycled tire crumb rubber anodes for sustainable power production in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Davidson, Matthew; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong

    One of the greatest challenges facing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in large scale applications is the high cost of electrode material. We demonstrate here that recycled tire crumb rubber coated with graphite paint can be used instead of fine carbon materials as the MFC anode. The tire particles showed satisfactory conductivity after 2-4 layers of coating. The specific surface area of the coated rubber was over an order of magnitude greater than similar sized graphite granules. Power production in single chamber tire-anode air-cathode MFCs reached a maximum power density of 421 mW m -2, with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 25.1%. The control graphite granule MFC achieved higher power density (528 mW m -2) but lower CE (15.6%). The light weight of tire particle could reduce clogging and maintenance cost but posts challenges in conductive connection. The use of recycled material as the MFC anodes brings a new perspective to MFC design and application and carries significant economic and environmental benefit potentials.

  8. Contesting legitimacy of voluntary sustainability certification schemes: valuation languages and power asymmetries in the roundtable on sustainable palm oil in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Burgos, V.; Clancy, Joy S.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary certification schemes aimed at assuring producer compliance with a set of sustainability criteria have emerged as market-based instruments (MBIs) of sustainability governance. However, the impacts they tackle can be part of a complex arena of socio-environmental conflict, where values and

  9. Ripple Effects and Quiet Revolution by the Power of Tourism Innovation : What tourism can do to realize the more sustainable world?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia Lun; Kim, Joo Young; Deguchi, Sayaka

    2012-01-01

    Tourism has a power to realize the more sustainable world. New types of tourism, rather than conventional types of tourism (e.g. mass tourism), can contribute to making the world more sustainable. For example, new types of tourism, such as pro-poor tourism, community-based tourism, volunteer tourism, cross-cultural tourism and eco-tourism, can be tools to reduce poverty and tensions among different nations and cultures and also to protect natural environment and traditions. However, there has...

  10. Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunt, J.

    2011-06-01

    This thesis elaborates on the rules for power balancing, provides a method for quantifying balancing requirements and examines the effect of future changes on balancing. Chapter 2 elaborates on system balancing and the different actors and entities in the electricity delivery system. The necessity and implementation of power balancing are explained. Also different subsequent markets (i.e., day-ahead markets, intraday markets and imbalance settlement systems) and options to trade electricity are discussed. As the research focusses mainly on the Netherlands, properties of the Dutch imbalance settlement system are analyzed. Based on this framework an in-depth analysis of imbalances and calls for balancing capacity with the corresponding prices is given. This shows the incentives to minimize the amount of imbalance in the system and to participate in the imbalance settlement system. Chapter 3 elaborates on the level of aggregation that the entities, involved in the imbalance settlement system, in electricity markets can have. Based on current market rules, incentives to either grow or shrink and by aggregating more or less entities are discussed. The level of aggregation will directly influence the functioning of the imbalance settlement system. It is shown that larger aggregations benefit more from the canceling out of imbalances. The imbalances of the Netherlands and Belgium have been aggregated to illustrate the possible benefits of aggregating multiple national imbalance settlement systems. The increased penetration of renewable generation strongly influences the planning and operation of the power system. As many renewable energy generators have a fluctuating power output, several methods are discussed in chapter 4 that can be used to classify and quantify the balancing requirements to counteract these fluctuations. Chapter 4 discusses the multiple existing classes of balancing capacity and the corresponding methods to quantify their needs. Due to the

  11. Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frunt, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the rules for power balancing, provides a method for quantifying balancing requirements and examines the effect of future changes on balancing. Chapter 2 elaborates on system balancing and the different actors and entities in the electricity delivery system. The necessity and implementation of power balancing are explained. Also different subsequent markets (i.e., day-ahead markets, intraday markets and imbalance settlement systems) and options to trade electricity are discussed. As the research focusses mainly on the Netherlands, properties of the Dutch imbalance settlement system are analyzed. Based on this framework an in-depth analysis of imbalances and calls for balancing capacity with the corresponding prices is given. This shows the incentives to minimize the amount of imbalance in the system and to participate in the imbalance settlement system. Chapter 3 elaborates on the level of aggregation that the entities, involved in the imbalance settlement system, in electricity markets can have. Based on current market rules, incentives to either grow or shrink and by aggregating more or less entities are discussed. The level of aggregation will directly influence the functioning of the imbalance settlement system. It is shown that larger aggregations benefit more from the canceling out of imbalances. The imbalances of the Netherlands and Belgium have been aggregated to illustrate the possible benefits of aggregating multiple national imbalance settlement systems. The increased penetration of renewable generation strongly influences the planning and operation of the power system. As many renewable energy generators have a fluctuating power output, several methods are discussed in chapter 4 that can be used to classify and quantify the balancing requirements to counteract these fluctuations. Chapter 4 discusses the multiple existing classes of balancing capacity and the corresponding methods to quantify their needs. Due to the

  12. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussanov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  13. Efficacy of mulligan's self-sustained natural apophyseal glides in decreasing pain, disability, and improving neck mobility among the nursing professional suffering from work-related neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prevalence of neck pain in nursing professionals (NPs is much higher than in the general population. However, concrete evidence is not available regarding the efficacy of the therapeutic intervention for treating neck pain among them. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mulligan's self-sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs and conventional physiotherapy in the management of work-related neck pain (WRNP among the NPs. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 NPs with WRNP were recruited using the simple random sampling (lottery method to participate in this two group such as pretest–posttest and single-blinded randomized controlled study from recognized tertiary care teaching hospital. Recruited NPs were randomly allocated into two groups such as Group A and Group B. NP in Group A taught self-SNAGs with a towel and instructed to perform 10 repetitions ×1 set/two hour ×4 times/day for 5 days/week ×2 weeks. Whereas in Group B, NPs received conventional physiotherapy treatment, consist of neck isometrics, and performed for 10 s ×10 repetitions ×1 set/day ×5 days/week ×2 weeks. Both groups were asked to use the hot pack for 15 min, before their intervention. Visual Analog Scale (VAS score, neck disability index (NDI, and cervical range of motion (ROM were documented at baseline, 2nd-week postintervention, and 4th-week follow-up period and analyzed. Results: Group A revealed statistical significance difference (P < 0.05 in VAS, NDI, and neck ROM when compared to Group B. Conclusion: Mulligan's self-SNAGs have proved to be more beneficial over the conventional physiotherapy in the management of WRNP among the NPs.

  14. Power to the poor: sustainable energy at the base of the pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarsky, Lyuba [Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, CA (United States); Wilson, Emma

    2009-11-15

    Four billion people – over half of humanity – live on less than US$2 a day, effectively forming the bottom of the world economic pyramid. This majority may have minimal access to cash but they need, and will pay for, essential goods and services – including energy. 'The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid,' a 2002 article, argues that if global corporations target this 4 billion, they can reduce poverty and make profit. That the private sector is already playing a key role in meeting development challenges, such as energy poverty, is increasingly recognised. 'Inclusive' and 'shared value' business approaches have begun to multiply. International energy companies, including hydrocarbon and renewable energy producers, can (and do) facilitate local access to energy in poorer regions of the world. To reach the poorest and to effectively contribute to sustainable local development in the long term, however, standard business models need to be modified, and alliances forged with government, local enterprises, donors and NGOs. Smaller local firms are often the ones that reach the poor more effectively. They just need the right support.

  15. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne Catherine DiMenichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a competitor. We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times—a previous indicator of increased attention— in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster reaction times and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  16. Evaluation of nuclear power development scenarios in romania envisaging the long-term national energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.; Apostol, M.; Visan, I.; Prodea, I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of RATEN ICN Pitesti experts' activities in the IAEA's Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. Romanian study proposes to evaluate and analyze development of the nuclear capacity and increasing of its share in national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The study focused on the modelling of national NES (Nuclear Energy System) development on short and medium-term (time horizon 2050), considering the existing NFC (Nuclear Fuel Cycle) infrastructure and legislation, provisions of strategic documents in force and including also the possibility of regional collaboration regarding U/fresh fuel supply and SF (Spent Fuel) storage, as services provided at international market prices. The energy system modelling was realized by using the IAEA's MESSAGE program. The study results offer a clear image and also the possible answer to several key questions regarding: potential of nuclear energy to participate with an important share in national energy mix, in conditions of cost competitiveness, safety and security of supply; impact on national energy mix portfolio of capacities and electricity production; impact on Uranium domestic resources; economic projection/investments needed for new nuclear capacities addition; fresh fuel requirements for nuclear capacities; SF annually discharged and transferred to interim wet storage for cooling; SF volume in interim dry storage, etc. (authors)

  17. Nuclear recycle: One of the key factors ensuring the sustainable development of China's nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunqing

    2002-01-01

    Since early 1970's China has established a complete nuclear fuel cycle system for defense purpose. CNNC and its formers deal mainly with business in nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle fields. Now COSTIND (CAEA) implements the governmental functions. Based on the features of energy sources, China is steady developing nuclear power as the appropriate supplement to meet demand of electricity in the southeast coastal regions. In the middle of 1980's, considering a number of elements, covering spent fuel arising from PWR dominantly, uranium source availability, development of FBR, radioactive waste management safely and existing good nuclear industry foundation etc., the closed fuel cycle strategy was formulated and announced internationally. In view of complexity of reprocessing technology and the limited spent fuel arising in the early period of nuclear power growing up, a multi-purpose pilot plant will be first set up. The plant involved in spent fuel AFR storage, and HEU/LEU fuel reprocessing separately has been constructed since 1991. At present more than a half of the project job has been completed while the preparation for long-distance transport of spent fuel is actively pushed on. It is expected that a centralized wet storage facility will be finished at the end of next year but the whole plant will be put into active commissioning in 2003. With the extension of the cumulative arising of spent fuel, a large scale reprocessing plant would be established around 2020. Reprocessed uranium will be surely re-enriched in the past manner while reactor-grade plutonium would be fabricated into MOX fuel to supply to FBR program. (author)

  18. Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-05-15

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. This work presents the fabrication of thin-film composite membranes customized for high performance in pressure retarded osmosis. We also present the development of a theoretical model to predict the water flux in pressure retarded osmosis, from which we can predict the power density that can be achieved by a membrane. The model is the first to incorporate external concentration polarization, a performance limiting phenomenon that becomes significant for high-performance membranes. The fabricated membranes consist of a selective polyamide layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer made by phase separation. The highly porous support layer (structural parameter S = 349 μm), which minimizes internal concentration polarization, allows the transport properties of the active layer to be customized to enhance PRO performance. It is shown that a hand-cast membrane that balances permeability and selectivity (A = 5.81 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 0.88 L m-2 h-1) is projected to achieve the highest potential peak power density of 10.0 W/m2 for a river water feed solution and seawater draw solution. The outstanding performance of this membrane is attributed to the high water permeability of the active layer, coupled with a moderate salt permeability and the ability of the support layer to suppress the undesirable accumulation of leaked salt in the porous support. Membranes with greater selectivity (i.e., lower salt permeability, B = 0.16 L m-2 h-1) suffered from a lower water permeability (A = 1.74 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and would yield a lower peak power density of 6.1 W/m2, while membranes with a higher permeability and lower selectivity (A = 7.55 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 5.45 L m-2 h-1) performed poorly due to severe reverse salt permeation, resulting in a similar projected peak power density of 6.1 W/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Initiating a sustained diffusion of wind power: The role of public-private partnerships in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    The literature on policy approaches for the market support of renewable electricity is dominated by narrow conceptualizations of policy, referring mostly to direct instruments for economic feasibility. Such approaches often led to unsatisfactory explanations of diffusion results. This is the case of wind power diffusion in Spain, the success of which is typically credited to the 'feed-in-tariff' instrument. This paper offers an alternative explanatory account for wind power diffusion in Spain. It is argued that diffusion can be explained by a less obvious policy of stimulating investments by means of public-private partnerships (PPPs). The three legal frameworks for economic feasibility applicable up to 2004 harbored high economic risks. Although projects could have high profitability because of generous investment subsidies, up to mid 1990s most investments were based on PPPs, to address the risk perceptions of early investors. Fully-private partnerships now dominate investments, though PPPs have not disappeared. Next to winning investors' confidence, the PPP policy led to an investment culture whereby partnership investments dominate. By 2000, 95.7% of the installed wind capacity was owned by partnerships, and only 4.3% by individual companies. Partnerships invest in larger projects, have ambitious investment plans, and these lead to a high diffusion tempo

  20. Safety procedures for the MFTF sustaining-neutral-beam power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The MFTF SNBPSS comprises a number of sources of potentially hazardous electrical energy in a small physical area. Power is handled at 80 kV dc, 80 A; 70 V dc, 4000 A; 25 V dc, 5500 A; 3 kV dc, 10 A; and 2 kV dc, 10 A. Power for these systems is furnished from two separate 480 V distribution systems and a 13.8 kV distribution system. A defense in depth approach is used; interlocks are provided in the hardware to make it difficult to gain access to an energized circuit, and the operating procedure includes precautions which would protect personnel even if no interlocks were working. The complexity of the system implies a complex operating procedure, and this potential complexity is controlled by presenting the procedure in a modular form using 37 separate checklists for specific operations. The checklists are presented in flowchart form, so contingencies can be handled at the lowest possible level without compromising safety

  1. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  2. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives.

  3. Sustained Domestic Vector Exposure Is Associated With Increased Chagas Cardiomyopathy Risk but Decreased Parasitemia and Congenital Transmission Risk Among Young Women in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Michelle; Jois, Malasa; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Rendell, Victoria R; Shah, Vishal; Do, Rose Q; Marcus, Rachel; Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; LaFuente, Carlos; Bozo, Ricardo; Valencia, Edward; Verastegui, Manuela; Colanzi, Rony; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2015-09-15

    We studied women and their infants to evaluate risk factors for congenital transmission and cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected women. Women provided data and blood for serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infants of infected women had blood tested at 0 and 1 month by microscopy, PCR and immunoblot, and serology at 6 and 9 months. Women underwent electrocardiography (ECG). Of 1696 women, 456 (26.9%) were infected; 31 (6.8%) transmitted T. cruzi to their infants. Women who transmitted had higher parasite loads than those who did not (median, 62.0 [interquartile range {IQR}, 25.8-204.8] vs 0.05 [IQR, 0-29.6]; P < .0001). Transmission was higher in twin than in singleton births (27.3% vs 6.4%; P = .04). Women who had not lived in infested houses transmitted more frequently (9.7% vs 4.6%; P = .04), were more likely to have positive results by PCR (65.5% vs 33.9%; P < .001), and had higher parasite loads than those who had lived in infested houses (median, 25.8 [IQR, 0-64.1] vs 0 [IQR, 0-12.3]; P < .001). Of 302 infected women, 28 (9.3%) had ECG abnormalities consistent with Chagas cardiomyopathy; risk was higher for older women (odds ratio [OR], 1.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.12] per year) and those with vector exposure (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 1.4-10.2]). We observed a strong dose-response relationship between ECG abnormalities and reported years of living in an infested house. We hypothesize that repeated vector-borne infection sustains antigen exposure and the consequent inflammatory response at a higher chronic level, increasing cardiac morbidity, but possibly enabling exposed women to control parasitemia in the face of pregnancy-induced Th2 polarization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Gulagi; Dmitrii Bogdanov; Christian Breyer

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63...

  5. Role of nuclear option in sustainable power system planning in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Kovacevic, T.; Feretic, D.

    1998-01-01

    To support the projected economic growth, electricity consumption in Croatia should rise by an average annual rate of at least 2.3% till the year 2030. After examining the potentials of new renewable energy sources (wind and solar energy and biomass) for large-scale electricity generation, projections of the required new generating capacities are made and possible developing scenarios of Croatian power system created. Nuclear and non-nuclear expansion options are analyzed, and optimal capacity and generation mixes are found on the basis of annual production costs and the assumption that the natural gas availability is limited. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , particulates and CO 2 to the atmosphere in both options are calculated. Apart from that, it is analyzed how the hypothetical introduction of a CO 2 emission charge would affect the optimal capacity mix. (author)

  6. Hydrogen generation by nuclear power for sustainable development in the 21-st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif Constantin; Pall, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main non-polluting fuel. It is produced by natural gas steam reforming, water electrolysis and thermonuclear processes. Currently, 4% of the hydrogen world production is obtained by water electrolysis. The use of nuclear power for hydrogen production avoids the generation of greenhouse gases and the dependence of primary external energy sources. The US is currently developing a modular reactor for hydrogen production and water desalination, STAR - H 2 (Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor for Hydrogen production) with fast neutrons, lead cooling and passive safety systems operating at a temperature of 780 deg C. Also, a Russian reactor of the same type is operated at 540 deg C. China and India joint industrial countries like France, Japan, Russia and US in recognizing that any strategies aiming at a future with clean energy implies the nuclear energy

  7. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  8. Photovoltaic powered ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes for sustainable point-of-use disinfection of drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Gough Yumu; Roser, David; Corkish, Richard; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Jagals, Paul; Stuetz, Richard

    2014-09-15

    For many decades, populations in rural and remote developing regions will be unable to access centralised piped potable water supplies, and indeed, decentralised options may be more sustainable. Accordingly, improved household point-of-use (POU) disinfection technologies are urgently needed. Compared to alternatives, ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection is very attractive because of its efficacy against all pathogen groups and minimal operational consumables. Though mercury arc lamp technology is very efficient, it requires frequent lamp replacement, involves a toxic heavy metal, and their quartz envelopes and sleeves are expensive, fragile and require regular cleaning. An emerging alternative is semiconductor-based units where UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are powered by photovoltaics (PV). Our review charts the development of these two technologies, their current status, and challenges to their integration and POU application. It explores the themes of UV-C-LEDs, non-UV-C LED technology (e.g. UV-A, visible light, Advanced Oxidation), PV power supplies, PV/LED integration and POU suitability. While UV-C LED technology should mature in the next 10 years, research is also needed to address other unresolved barriers to in situ application as well as emerging research opportunities especially UV-A, photocatalyst/photosensitiser use and pulsed emission options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Power for the future : towards a sustainable electricity system for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, M.S.; Horne, M.; McClenaghan, T.; Peters, R.

    2004-05-01

    Ontario's electricity system has undergone major changes since 1998, when the Hydro-Electric Power Commission was divided into four separate entities, Ontario Power Generation, Hydro One, the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation, and the Electrical Safety Authority. In addition, retail and wholesale electricity markets were introduced in 2002 under the supervision of the Ontario Energy Board. The removal from service of several nuclear generating facilities in the province led to greater reliance on coal-fired generation to meet energy demands. In 2003, the newly elected provincial government made a commitment to phase out coal-fired plants by 2007 for environmental reasons. It is estimated that all the the existing nuclear facilities will reach their projected operational lifetimes by 2018. Given the province's growing electricity demand, several options have been proposed as to how future energy needs could be met. The options range from investment into low-impact renewable energy sources such as small-scale hydro, solar, biomass and wind, to the construction of new nuclear generating facilities. The Pembina Institute and the Canadian Environmental Law Association examined the following four key issues regarding Ontario's future direction in electricity generation, transmission and distribution: (1) by how much can electricity demand be reduced through the adoption of energy efficient technologies, fuel switching, cogeneration and demand response measures, (2) how much electricity supply can be obtained from low-impact renewable energy sources, (3) how should the grid demand be met once the electricity system has maximized the technically and economically feasible contributions from energy efficiency, fuel switching, cogeneration, response management measures (RMM) and renewable energy sources, and (4) what public policies should the province adopt to maximize energy efficiency, fuel switching, cogeneration, RMM and renewable energy sources. The Canadian

  10. Limited change in dune mobility in response to a large decrease in wind power in semi-arid northern China since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Lu, H.; Miao, X.; Cha, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climatic controls on dune mobility, especially the relative importance of wind strength, remain incompletely understood. This is a key research problem in semi-arid northern China, both for interpreting past dune activity as evidence of paleoclimate and for predicting future environmental change. Potential eolian sand transport, which is approximately proportional to wind power above the threshold for sand entrainment, has decreased across much of northern China since the 1970s. Over the same period, effective moisture (ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) has not changed significantly. This "natural experiment" provides insight on the relative importance of wind power as a control on dune mobility in three dunefields of northern China (Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin), although poorly understood and potentially large effects of human land use complicate interpretation. Dune forms in these three regions are consistent with sand transport vectors inferred from weather station data, suggesting that wind directions have remained stable and the stations adequately represent winds that shaped the dunes. The predicted effect of weaker winds since the 1970s would be dune stabilization, with lower sand transport rates allowing vegetation cover to expand. Large portions of all three dunefields remained stabilized by vegetation in the 1970s despite high wind power. Since the 1970s, trends in remotely sensed vegetation greenness and change in mobile dune area inferred from sequential Landsat images do indicate widespread dune stabilization in the eastern Mu Us region. On the other hand, expansion of active dunes took place farther west in the Mu Us dunefield and especially in the central Otindag dunefield, with little overall change in two parts of the Horqin dunes. Better ground truth is needed to validate the remote sensing analyses, but results presented here place limits on the relative importance of wind strength as a control on dune mobility in the

  11. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  12. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-09-30

    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic analysis of a totally solarpowered desert home. The home is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. It features closely spaced, roof mounted photovoltaic modules, which collect the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose the roof to the sky, thus enhancing night-time cooling. Two methods of energy storage are proposed and compared, one using solely battery storage of electrical output, and the other employing a combination of cold water storage and battery storage. The analysis is based on detailed dynamic heat transfer calculations for the entire building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model, and followed by energy balances. The results reveal that indeed it is feasible to employ solar energy as the only source of energy to power the home, and that each storage system has its own merits and shortcomings. © 2010 WIT Press.

  13. Concentrating solar power. Its potential contribution to a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report summarises the findings and recommendations of a study of concentrating solar power (CSP). The study has examined the potential contribution of CSP in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region) over the period to 2050, and the scientific and technical developments that will be required to realise that potential. This study critically reviews existing work and describes the scientific consensus on the status and prospects of this technology. It also identifies key outstanding issues and where knowledge gaps need to be filled for CSP to fulfil its potential contribution in Europe and the MENA region. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations on how to improve national and European support programmes for CSP development and deployment. Specific aims of the study have been the following: (1) to review the current status of CSP technologies and identify the technological developments and research and development (R and D) needed to achieve reliable operation and cost competitiveness with fossil fuelled electricity generation; (2) to consider how issues associated with the intermittent nature of CSP for electricity generation due to the daily pattern of insolation and the potential for cloudy days can best be addressed; (3) to identify the environmental impacts and infrastructure requirements of CSP, and comment on the significance of these in relation to other options for electricity supply; and, consequently, (4) to develop a view of the potential contribution that CSP located in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa could make to the energy mix in those regions by 2020 and 2050. This report focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from CSP, but it is recognised that there are other potentially significant 'products' from CSP such as process steam for industry, water desalination, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen and syngas, and decontamination of water supplies. Although not discussed in

  14. The Internalization of Externalities from Electrical Power Plants as a Tool for Progressing Towards Sustainability in Small Island Developing States: The Case of Bahrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Al-Hesabi (Ali)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPower is the engine of growth of any economy. Consumption of electrical energy is a universally accepted indicator of progress in the productive sectors, and of the well being of the people of any country. No major economic activity can be sustained without an adequate and reliable

  15. Teens, Power Tools, and Green Schools: Education for Sustainability through a University Environmental Design Program and Middle School Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of green schools in promoting education for sustainability by reflecting on a university-middle school partnership focused on sustainable design. Undergraduates and middle school students met weekly for a semester to learn about sustainability through simple design projects and activities that focused on…

  16. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  17. Potentialities of the molten salt reactor concept for a sustainable nuclear power production based on thorium cycle in epithermal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttin, Alexis

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a significant nuclear contribution to world energy needs, the problem of present nuclear waste management pose the sustainability of the PWR fuel cycle back into question. Studies on storage and incineration of these wastes should therefore go hand in hand with studies on innovative systems dedicated to a durable nuclear energy production, as reliable, clean and safe as possible. We are here interested in the concept of molten salt reactor, whose fuel is liquid. This particularity allows an online pyrochemical reprocessing which gives the possibility to overcome some neutronic limits. In the late sixties, the MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor) project of a graphite-moderated fluoride molten salt reactor proved thus that breeding is attainable with thorium in a thermal spectrum, provided that the online reprocessing is appropriate. By means of simulation tools developed around the Monte Carlo code MCNP, we first re-evaluate the performance of a reference system, which is inspired by the MSBR project. The complete study of the pre-equilibrium transient of this 2,500 MWth reactor, started with 232 Th/ 233 U fuel, allows us to validate our reference choices. The obtained equilibrium shows an important reduction of inventories and induced radio-toxicities in comparison with the other possible fuel cycles. The online reprocessing is efficient enough to make the system breed, with a doubling time of about thirty years at equilibrium. From the reference system, we then test different options in terms of neutron economy, transmutation and control of reactivity. We find that the online reprocessing brings most of its flexibility to this system, which is particularly well adapted to power generation with thorium. The study of transition scenarios to this fuel cycle quantifies the limits of a possible deployment from the present French power stock, and finally shows that a rational management of the available plutonium would be necessary in any case. (author)

  18. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  19. On Stability of Sustainable Power Systems : Network Fault Response of Transmission Systems with Very High Penetration of Distributed Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Power systems are undergoing a historic structural and technological transformation. The increase of distributed generation (DG), recently mostly wind power park modules (WPPMs) and photovoltaic power park modules (PVPPMs), is already changing the way power systems are structured and operated.

  20. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  1. Making nuclear power sustainable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, B. [European Nuclear Society, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2004-05-01

    Even though it is almost 35 years old, there is a picture which still cannot be seen without emotion: the first photograph of the Earth shown as a modest white and blue dot in the black sky, beyond the barren desolation of the Moon in the foreground. This tiny planet, surrounded by the fragile bubble of its atmosphere, is our only home, and it will be eons, if ever, before humans can find another place to live. And our home is endangered. Let's state the facts: Today over 6 billion human beings inhabit the earth, many of whom do not have enough available energy to enjoy a decent life. Tomorrow, there shall be 9 billion of us. Within a mere century, we have pumped so much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere that their concentration exceeds by far any level ever experienced by humans since their mastery of fire, half a million years ago. All the available models predict that if we do not curb drastically our GHG emissions, we are bound for a catastrophe with dire consequences, a catastrophe which may be irreversible by human standards. In summary, we must double our energy production while dividing by a factor of two our GHG emissions, knowing that today, 80% of our energy comes from the combustion of coal, gas and oil, all of which produce CO{sub 2} released in the atm sphere. This is the toughest challenge facing us in the next few decades, and I include the water challenge, since producing drinking water will also increase our energy needs. (author)

  2. Making nuclear power sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.

    2004-01-01

    Even though it is almost 35 years old, there is a picture which still cannot be seen without emotion: the first photograph of the Earth shown as a modest white and blue dot in the black sky, beyond the barren desolation of the Moon in the foreground. This tiny planet, surrounded by the fragile bubble of its atmosphere, is our only home, and it will be eons, if ever, before humans can find another place to live. And our home is endangered. Let's state the facts: Today over 6 billion human beings inhabit the earth, many of whom do not have enough available energy to enjoy a decent life. Tomorrow, there shall be 9 billion of us. Within a mere century, we have pumped so much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere that their concentration exceeds by far any level ever experienced by humans since their mastery of fire, half a million years ago. All the available models predict that if we do not curb drastically our GHG emissions, we are bound for a catastrophe with dire consequences, a catastrophe which may be irreversible by human standards. In summary, we must double our energy production while dividing by a factor of two our GHG emissions, knowing that today, 80% of our energy comes from the combustion of coal, gas and oil, all of which produce CO 2 released in the atm sphere. This is the toughest challenge facing us in the next few decades, and I include the water challenge, since producing drinking water will also increase our energy needs. (author)

  3. Sustainability Evaluation of Power Grid Construction Projects Using Improved TOPSIS and Least Square Support Vector Machine with Modified Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric power industry is of great significance in promoting social and economic development and improving people’s living standards. Power grid construction is a necessary part of infrastructure construction, whose sustainability plays an important role in economic development, environmental protection and social progress. In order to effectively evaluate the sustainability of power grid construction projects, in this paper, we first identified 17 criteria from four dimensions including economy, technology, society and environment to establish the evaluation criteria system. After that, the grey incidence analysis was used to modify the traditional Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS, which made it possible to evaluate the sustainability of electric power construction projects based on visual angle of similarity and nearness. Then, in order to simplify the procedure of experts scoring and computation, on the basis of evaluation results of the improved TOPSIS, the model using Modified Fly Optimization Algorithm (MFOA to optimize the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM was established. Finally, a numerical example was given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  4. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power

  5. Combined heat and power's potential to meet New York City's sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Bianca; Saba, Alexis; Gerrard, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been proven as a mature technology that can benefit both building owners and utility operators. As the economic and environmental benefits of CHP in urban centers gain recognition, regulations and policies have evolved to encourage their deployment. However, the question remains whether these policies are sufficient in helping to achieve the larger sustainability goals, such as the New York City-specific goal of incorporating 800 MW of distributed generation. In this paper, the current regulatory and policy environment for CHP is discussed. Then, an engineering analysis estimating the potential for CHP in NYC at the individual building and microgrid scale, considered a city block, is performed. This analysis indicates that over 800 MW of individual building CHP systems would qualify for the current incentives but many systems would need to undergo more cumbersome air permitting processes reducing the viable capacity to 360 MW. In addition microgrid CHP systems with multiple owners could contribute to meeting the goal even after considering air permits; however, these systems may incorporate many residential customers. The regulatory framework for microgrids with multiple owners and especially residential customers is particularly uncertain therefore additional policies would be needed to facilitate their development. - Highlights: • Estimates 1580 MW and 3042 MW CHP capacity at the building and microgrid scales. • Citywide emissions could reduce 4% at the building and 9% at the microgrid scale. • CHP microgrid systems operate at similar efficiencies while providing energy to buildings not viable for CHP. • Current regulatory and policy mechanisms would affect at least 800 MW of CHP systems. • Microgrid CHP systems may be necessary to the City's meet distributed generation goals

  6. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umedaly, M.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs.

  7. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedaly, M.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--MINNESOTA POWER'S RAPIDS ENERGY CENTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  9. Examining the market potential for natural-gas-powered trucks : barriers and opportunities for promoting environmental sustainability and economic prosperity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Over the past decade, public concerns have grown over America's energy use and production. Pushes : towards more environmentally friendly and sustainable sources of energy have moved out of fringe politics : and into mainstream political discourse. A...

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user's workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  11. On China's Sustainable Development of Energy—Opportunity for the China's Nuclear Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZengShaolun

    2005-01-01

    According to the poficy of reforming the power industry and accelerating the power construction of our country, by 2020, the national power consumption will be up to 3.6-3.7 trillion kilowatt-hours, the installed power-generating capacity is more than 800 million kilowatts. Therefore, the development of the China's nuclear power industry faces good international and domestic environments and good historical opportunities. From the point of national energy security, economic development, and resource distribution, it is analyzed that China must develop the nuclear power in a more cost-effective style in this paper.

  12. Nuclear energy technology innovation and restructuring electric power industry for sustainable development in Korea in 21st century - issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.; Chae, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    After TMI and Chernobyl accidents, concerns on nuclear safety and radiation health risk from radioactive wastes become the target issues for anti-nuclear. Nevertheless, nuclear power is a substantial contributor to the world electricity production, supplying more than 16 % of global electricity. The objectives of Korean nuclear energy technology innovation are to improve safety, economic competitiveness, energy security and the effectiveness of radioactive waste management in harmony with environment. Meeting such objectives, public concerns on safety and health risks would be cleared. Innovative nuclear energy system will certainly enhance socio-political acceptance and enable wider application of nuclear energy for sustainable development in Korea in the 21st Century. In parallel to such technology innovations, the effective first phase restructuring of electric power industry is in progress to enhance management efficiency and customer services. The power generation division of the former state-run utility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was separated and divided into six companies - five thermal power and one hydro and nuclear power generation companies - in last April. After the reorganization of KEPCO and the break-up of monopoly, the new electric power industry will be driven by market force. (author)

  13. The promotion of sustainable development in China through the optimization of a tax/subsidy plan among HFC and power generation CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnier, Martin; Wang, Can; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is expected to reach record growth by 2020 in the energy sector by at least doubling its electricity generation capacity. In order to protect the environment and foster economic development, China will greatly benefit from transfers of state-of-the-art power generation technologies through international agreements such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). However, a buyer-driven carbon market and a highly competitive environment due to more cost-effective projects attribute to China's need to achieve a balance between sustainability and profitability for CDM projects implemented in China. In the CDM Tax/Subsidy Optimization Model (CDMTSO Model) here developed, a sustainable development assessment method evaluates the CDM projects' economic and environmental benefits and an optimization program returns tax/subsidy rates at which the greatest number of CDM technologies becomes viable and where 'better' CDM projects can be the most profitable, bringing China's development on a more sustainable path. The results show that the CDMTSO Model brings the sustainable CDM projects' Internal Rate of Return closed to 10%. If a discount rate of 9% is considered, it allows three clean energy technologies (natural gas combined cycle, wind energy, and hydropower) to become economically viable and the environmental costs avoided are increased by 37%

  14. Electric power and vegetable oil for the sustainable development of the Rio Ouro Preto, Rondonia, BR extractive reservation; Eletricidade e oleo vegetal para o desenvolvimento sustentavel da reserva extrativista do Rio Ouro Preto em Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ana Teresa Siqueira; Lascio, Marco Alfredo Di; Dias, Elizabete Moreira; Hutin, Jill Rochelle Anahita [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Depto. de Eng. Eletrica]. E-mails: anateresa22@bol.com.br; marcodilascio@unb.br; bete.cead@gmail.com; bete.cead@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This article gives an option of sustainable development of the area, through the implementation of two small vegetable oil extraction industries, use of the residues for electric power generation, commercialization of ecological tourism products and two small furniture industries.

  15. Development of Micro-sized Microbial Fuel Cells as Ultra-Low Power Generators Using Nano-engineered Materials and Sustainable Designs

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the most pressing global challenges today and in the future center around the scarcity of sustainable energy and water sources. The innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology addresses both as it utilizes bacteria to convert wastewaters into electricity. Advancing this technology requires a better understanding of the optimal materials, designs and conditions involved. The micro-sized MFC was recently developed to serve this need by providing a rapid testing device requiring only a fraction of the materials. Further, development of micro-liter scale MFCs has expanded into potential applications such as remote and self-sustained power sources as well as on-chip energy generators. By using microfabrication, the fabrication and assembly of microsized MFCs is potentially inexpensive and mass produced. The objective of the work within this dissertation was to explore and optimize the micro-sized MFC to maximize power and current generation towards the goal of a usable and application-oriented device. Micro-sized MFCs were examined and developed using four parameters/themes considered most important in producing a high power generating, yet usable device: Anode- The use of nano-engineered carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as anode as well as testing semiconductor industry standard anode contact area materials for enhanced current production. 5 Cathode- The introduction of a membrane-less air cathode to eliminate the need for continuous chemical refills and making the entire device mobile. Reactor design- The testing of four different reactor designs (1-75 μLs) with various features intended to increase sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and usability of the microsized MFC. Fuels- The utilization of real-world fuels, such as industrial wastewaters and saliva, to power micro-sized MFCs. The micro-sized MFC can be tailored to fit a variety of applications by varying these parameters. The device with the highest power production here was

  16. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC's) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  17. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening

  18. Hybrid Off-Grid SPV/WTG Power System for Remote Cellular Base Stations Towards Green and Sustainable Cellular Networks in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the sustainability of power resources and environmental conditions for telecommunication base stations (BSs at off-grid sites. Accordingly, this study examined the feasibility of using a hybrid solar photovoltaic (SPV/wind turbine generator (WTG system to feed the remote Long Term Evolution-macro base stations at off-grid sites of South Korea the energy necessary to minimise both the operational expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions. Three key aspects have been discussed: (i optimal system architecture; (ii energy yield analysis; and (iii economic analysis. In addition, this study compares the feasibility of using a hybrid SPV/WTG system vs. a diesel generator. The simulation results show that by applying the proposed SPV/WTG system scheme to the cellular system, the total operational expenditure can be up to 48.52% more efficient and sustainability can be ensured with better planning by providing cleaner energy.

  19. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Balzan, R., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Vasos, P. R. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Toxicologiques et Pharmacologiques UMR-8601, Université Paris Descartes - CNRS, PRES Paris Sorbonne Cité, 75006 Paris (France)

    2014-08-07

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  20. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  1. An investigation of decreasing reactor coolant inventory as a mechanism to reduce power during a boiling water reactor anticipated transient without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Chexal, V.K.; Gose, G.C.; Hentzen, R.D.; Layman, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Under certain anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequences for a boiling water reactor, it would be desirable to reduce system power, particularly where the primary system has been isolated by closure of all main steam isolation valves and is discharging steam through its safety/relief valve system to the suppression pool. Reducing reactor power increases the time available to shut down the reactor by minimizing the heat dumped to the suppression pool and by helping to keep the suppression pool temperature within limits. Under proposed emergency procedure guidelines for the ATWS event, the reactor water level would be lowered to reduce reactor power. The analyses provide an assessment of the power level that would be attained, assuming the reactor operators were to reduce the the downcomer level down to the top of the active fuel

  2. Technical and Economic Approaches to Decrease of Power Consumption in Some Branches of the Belarusian Republican Association of Consumers Societies (Belkoopsoyuz)

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Germanovich; Y. I. Voloshin; M. I. Kichaev

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers an approach to execution of measures pertaining to higher power efficiency in some branches of consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus. The approach is based on the method for unification of the investigated enterprises. The described mechanism takes into account organizational peculiarities of the Belkoopsoyuz structure and also technical equipment of the investigated consumers’ cooperation and it permits to specify the most power consuming directions and develop t...

  3. Teaching Sustainable Energy and Power Electronics to Engineering Students in a Laboratory Environment Using Industry-Standard Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, David S.; Miller, Ruth Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics and renewable energy are two important topics for today's power engineering students. In many cases, the two topics are inextricably intertwined. As the renewable energy sector grows, the need for engineers qualified to design such systems grows as well. In order to train such engineers, new courses are needed that highlight the…

  4. Environmental evaluation of electric power from a systems perspective. Guidance for sustainable development; Miljoevaerdering av el ur systemperspektiv. En vaegledning foer haallbar utveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Byman, Karin; Persson, Agneta; Trygg, Louise

    2009-12-15

    The electricity market is deregulated. This means that all electricity customers are free to choose their electricity supplier. Many utilities market renewable electricity products such as wind power or hydroelectric power, saying that the customer makes a contribution to the environment by choosing these products. But is that really true? In this report, four researchers and consultants give an account of their views on how environmental valuation of electricity should be made. Specifically they discusses the driving forces for the development of the electricity system and the purchase of environmentally certified electricity and the link to environmental benefits. An important objective is to provide guidance as to how individuals and businesses through their actions can contribute to sustainable development

  5. Technical and Economic Approaches to Decrease of Power Consumption in Some Branches of the Belarusian Republican Association of Consumers Societies (Belkoopsoyuz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Germanovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach to execution of measures pertaining to higher power efficiency in some branches of consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus. The approach is based on the method for unification of the investigated enterprises. The described mechanism takes into account organizational peculiarities of the Belkoopsoyuz structure and also technical equipment of the investigated consumers’ cooperation and it permits to specify the most power consuming directions and develop typical innovation technical solutions pertaining to the objects of the consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus.

  6. The exercise of power through multi-stakeholder initiatives for sustainable agriculture and its inclusion and exclusion outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheyns, Emmanuelle; Riisgaard, Lone

    2014-01-01

    they generate. In this introduction, we highlight differences in theoretical approaches to analyzing MSIs and to the manifestation of power through them. We distinguish between more traditional political-economy approaches and approaches concerned with ideational and normative power such as convention theory...... with a balance of power is at the heart of a new type of action that forms part of a broader political liberal model for building coalitions of interest groups. The intention of this symposium is to assess the nature of processes and outcomes of this model and in particular the forms of inclusion and exclusion...

  7. Evolutions of the power grid: vector of sustainable development; Evolutions du reseau de transport d'electricite: vecteur du developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croguennoc, Alain; Dalle, Bernard; Archambault, R.; Bony, P.E.; Bouneau, C.; Bourguignon, B.; Bouvier, D.; Beltran, A.; Chauvancy, A.; Chevassus-au-Louis, B.; Citi, S.; Claverie, B.; Colomb, B.; Dallet, M.; Deveaux, L.; Dubus, D.; Fresnedo, S.; Herreros, J.; Herz, O.; Isoard, J.; Jaussaud, E.; Laffaye, H.; Laroche, J.P.; Lasserre, D.; Lebas, N.; Lebranchu, D.; Leclerc, F.; Lemoine, D.; Leydier, C.; Malique, F.; Mazoyer, F.; Meudic, M.A.; Nguefeu, S.; Pajot, S.; Pilate, J.M.; Real, G.; Rosso, F.; Waeraas de Saint Martin, G.; Schwartzmann, S.; Serres, E.

    2011-09-01

    The abatement of energy consumption and the mass production of renewable energy are the main actions implemented to meet the climate challenge. In this context, the share of electric power in the final consumption is continuously growing up. Adapting the power transportation grid is necessary if we want to take up the challenge of the new paradigm 'new power generation sites, fatal and intermittent energy'. If this grid is the symbol of a modern and well-equipped France, it is also the revealer of our society antagonisms: change without disruption, progress without sacrifice of heritage and natural landscapes. Industries and grid operators will have to show some innovation and anticipation if they want this deep change to be a success. The French power grid has permitted the regional development in the past and will allow to take up the climate challenge in the future. Its inevitable position in the success of past transformations makes it an essential vector of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  8. Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalie, S.; Gaftea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

  9. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  10. Developing a Mystery Shopping Measure to Operate a Sustainable Restaurant Business: The Power of Integrating with Corporate Executive Members’ Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mystery shopping has been used to objectively measure whether employees follow the visions of a company’s quality service standards. It then creates a feedback loop that allows companies to train their employees to consistently deliver quality services. The main purposes of this project are aimed at examining (1 the overall benefits of mystery shopper projects in the hospitality business through literature reviews; and (2 the importance of how a company can work with an outside agency (consultant, academic institution, etc. to develop a mystery shopping program that can enhance and complement ongoing service quality programs. A casual steakhouse restaurant in the Eastern U.S. was selected as our pilot project. The basic concept of using secret shoppers is to have individuals experience real-time and onsite quality of services and record how the mystery shoppers felt about the quality of services and if the employees met or exceeded the company’s standards. For this reason, the authors believe that mystery shopping, especially in hospitality, is an important means of developing and maintaining a sustainable business. While the sustainability of a business is largely dependent upon “people, profits and planet” in the hospitality industry, it is also dependent upon meeting service standards and developing a feedback loop. Mystery shopping programs have demonstrated their ability to contribute to organizations in this regard.

  11. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  12. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  13. THE JUDICIARY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. The approval of 17 goals and 169 targets for sustainable development by the ... commentary evaluates the role of the judiciary in promoting sustainable .... a healthy quality of life, imposing on the Public Power and the community.

  14. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  15. Selection Ideal Coal Suppliers of Thermal Power Plants Using the Matter-Element Extension Model with Integrated Empowerment Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable.

  16. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional micro-fluidic carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Barbara; Evans, Anna; Santis-Alvarez, Alejandro J.; Jiang, Bo; Martynczuk, Julia; Galinski, Henning; Nabavi, Majid; Prestat, Michel; Tölke, René; Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Poulikakos, Dimos; Muralt, Paul; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Maeder, Thomas; Heeb, Peter; Straessle, Valentin; Muller, Claude; Gauckler, Ludwig J.

    2014-07-01

    Low temperature micro-solid oxide fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable electronic devices due to their high energy efficiency and density. Here, we report on a thermally self-sustainable reformer-micro-SOFC assembly. The device consists of a micro-reformer bonded to a silicon chip containing 30 micro-SOFC membranes and a functional glass carrier with gas channels and screen-printed heaters for start-up. Thermal independence of the device from the externally powered heater is achieved by exothermic reforming reactions above 470 °C. The reforming reaction and the fuel gas flow rate of the n-butane/air gas mixture controls the operation temperature and gas composition on the micro-SOFC membrane. In the temperature range between 505 °C and 570 °C, the gas composition after the micro-reformer consists of 12 vol.% to 28 vol.% H2. An open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V and maximum power density of 47 mW cm-2 at 565 °C is achieved with the on-chip produced hydrogen at the micro-SOFC membranes.

  17. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively.

  18. ECH power deposition at 3rd harmonic in high elongation TCV discharges sustained by 2nd harmonic current profile broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A. . E-mail : Antoine.Pochelon@epfl.ch; Arnoux, G.; Camenen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises the present effort aimed at developing high elongation heated discharges and testing their confinement properties at normalised currents for which the highest ideal MHD β-limits are predicted. 2nd harmonic (X2) far off-axis ECH/CD is used to stabilise the plasma vertically at high elongation by broadening the current profile in stationary conditions (during the current flat top and over several current diffusion times). Current broadening is maximal for a power deposition in a narrow region (∼a/5), for a finite toroidal injection angle and for high plasma density using upper lateral launchers to minimise refraction. In these discharges which are twice X2 overdense in the centre, 3rd harmonic (X3) is injected from a top launcher to deposit power in the centre and increase the central pressure, simultaneously with far off-axis X2. Using modulated X3, full absorption is measured by the diamagnetic probe. Absorption higher than calculated by thermal ray tracing is occasionally found, indicating absorption on the electron bulk as well as in the suprathermal electron population sometimes with a hollow deposition profile. The high sensitivity of the power coupling to the beam angle stresses the need for developing a mirror feedback scheme to increase the coupling efficiency in transient heating scenarios. (author)

  19. 2017 NEA Annual Report: Nuclear Power in 2017; Innovation and Education: Necessary Enablers for Sustainable Nuclear Energy, or the Virtuous Circle; NEA Activities by Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The NEA Annual Report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for the year ending on 31 December 2017 provides an overview of the status of nuclear power in OECD countries and illustrative descriptions of the Agency's activities and international joint projects. Content: 1 - Message from the Director-General; 2 - Innovation and Education: Necessary Enablers for Sustainable Nuclear Energy, or the Virtuous Circle; 3 - Nuclear Technology in 2017; 4 - NEA Activities by Sector: Nuclear Development, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Human Aspects of Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, 5 - General Information: Information and Communications, Organisational Structure of the NEA, NEA Committee Structure in 2017, NEA Management Structure in 2017, NEA Publications and Brochures Produced in 2017

  20. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  1. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  2. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  3. Toward the Target Model 2.0. Policy Recommendations for a Sustainable EU Power Market Design. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2015-06-01

    One of the 10 key priorities of the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker consists of 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. The Energy Union work programme released on 25 February 2015 suggests that a new electricity market design is needed in order to tackle Europe's chosen policy objectives of de-carbonisation whilst maintaining security of supply. The current regulatory and market framework does not provide a sound basis for the investments needed to maintain security of supply and de-carbonise the power sector at an affordable cost. As policy priorities in favour of de-carbonisation and maintaining security of supply have taken centre stage on the policy agenda in the past decade, the design of liberalised electricity markets has failed to evolve and be reconciled with these new priorities. In addition, the issues of competitiveness and affordability of electricity in Europe remain central in the discussions about the market framework. The objective of this study is to assess the deficiencies and gaps in the current European Target Model and the wider regulatory framework for power generation and to propose a number of policy recommendations for improvement. Recognising the need for 'fresh thinking' on the issue, this study looks outside Europe to learn the lessons from experiences with a range of alternative market designs that exist around the globe. The study provides a comprehensive assessment of the issues with current European electricity markets. The study investigates the lessons from market reforms in North America and in Latin America in the past decade to identify 'out of the box' thinking to fill the gaps in the current European Target model. This report presents some of the research findings and concludes with a set of alternative potential directions for reform of European power markets models in the long term, as well as a number of

  4. Wave power - Sustainable energy or environmentally costly? A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhamer, Olivia [Dept. of Animal Ecology, UU, Norbyvaegen 18D, S-75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialisation, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonisation patterns and biofouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques. (author)

  5. Community renewable energy in Panama: a sustainability assessment of the “Boca de Lura” PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madriz-Vargas Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a community renewable energy project implemented in the community of “Boca de Lura” located in rural Panama. This is a 2.17 kW stand-alone PV-Wind-Battery hybrid power system supplying energy to a local school also serving as a community facility. A novel sustainability assessment framework is used to examine the Boca de Lura experience and future perspectives for the power system and the project as a whole. The main challenges for Boca de Lura are discussed and recommendations to overcome some of the obstacles encountered are provided. Findings suggest that, even though the project was successfully implemented, its long-term operation is jeopardized due to non-technical aspects rather than technical ones. A potential solution is upgrading the stand-alone system into a minigrid; however, more studies and external advice are required to understand the implications for Boca de Lura, local institutions and possible national and international sponsors.

  6. Life cycle assessment and evaluation of sustainable product design strategies for combined cycle power plants; Lebenszyklusanalyse und Bestimmung von Einflussfaktoren zur nachhaltigen Produktgestaltung von GuD-Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Falko

    2010-03-26

    The growth of the national GDP on a worldwide level and the associated increasing demand for primary energy inevitably result in higher emissions levels. According to recent international scientific studies the energy sector (including electricity generation, industrial activities and traffic) contributes up to 83 % to the worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change and the projection of its impacts have been acknowledged also on the political level and concise measures are being considered. Since access to electricity and sustainable development are inseparable, the question arises whether and how adequate answers can be given within the coming years. Furthermore, the definite lifetime of the existing power plant fleet will result in a gap of up to 12.000 MWh in 2020, depending on the scenario. One part of the answer lies in the sustainable design of power plants. The main contribu-tion of this work is therefore the life cycle analysis of a combined cycle power plant from of a manufacturer's perspective. The visualisation of the entire product system and the re-sults of the impact assessment facilitate the determination of improvement potential. The system boundaries for this study include all relevant phases of the product life cycle (materials, manufacturing, transport, operation, service and end of life). The life cycle inventory consists of all bills of materials and energy consumption for all components and life cycle phases. The interpretation of the results of the impact assessment showed the expected significant contribution in kg CO{sub 2}e for the emission of the full load operation. Nevertheless, the results for all impact categories over the entire lifecycle are given. Various operation scenarios and configurations can now be analysed based on the elaborated modules, and can now serve as decision support already during product development. The visualisation of impacts of design decisions on the ecological footprint of the product system in

  7. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  8. A feasibility assessment for the application of biogas and wind power in the farm environment as sustainable sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Laura C.

    The depletion of energy sources and the ever-increasing energy demand---and consequently price escalation---is a problem that concerns the global population. Despite the concept of energy crisis being widely accepted nowadays, there is a lot of scepticism and misinformation on the possible alternatives to alleviate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional energy generation. Renewable energy technologies are constantly experiencing significant innovation and improvements. This thesis sought to assess the potential of small dairy farms to make an energy shift and identify the practical benefits and possible downfalls of this shift. Wind power and biogas digestion were analysed in this thesis, and a model to assess these technologies at any given farm was developed on VBA. For the case studied in this research both technologies were concluded to be feasible from an economic point of view. Although the initial investment can seem costly, considering the relatively low payback period and the currently available subsidies the economic implications are not an obstacle. The model developed on VBA is applicable to any region, given the right data is put into the programme. Considering the global energy concern, models such as the one developed in this thesis are an appropriate tool to identify potential shifts to greener solutions and prove to users that it can be economically profitable for them as well as environmentally beneficial.

  9. Primacy of wind power. Deliberations on a sustainable renewable energy supply; Primat Wind Energie. Betrachtung einer nachhaltigen regenerativen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Gerd A.

    2008-07-01

    Time and again the author has felt his adrenaline rise on listening to reports or talk shows in the media (radio, television, newspapers) that were based on nothing but misinformation and subjective sentiment. In this publication he has therefore endeavoured to give a popular scientific overview of the advantages of using wind power for the public energy supply. In the introduction he expresses his heart-felt thanks to the diploma'd journalist Anke Baars for her amiable support. The explanatory calculations are given as examples with the intention of clarifying the relationships and orders of magnitude involved. The numerical examples are presented with the intent of explaining target figures and assumptions. All information was collected through scrupulous research. The reader is encouraged to check on the numerical examples given. These have been presented to give a rough idea of the orders of magnitude and global relationships involved. This publication stands somewhat apart from the mainstream. The author hopes that the reader will gain instructive insights into the energy era, find food for thought and feel encouraged to participate and take action.

  10. Application of the analytic hierarchy process to a sustainability assessment of coastal beach exploitation: a case study of the wind power projects on the coastal beaches of Yancheng, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Bai, Jie; Sun, Huimei; Zhao, Yangguo

    2013-01-30

    Sustainability assessments of coastal beach exploitation are difficult because the identification of appropriate monitoring methodologies and evaluation procedures is still ongoing. In particular, the most suitable procedure for the application of sustainability assessment to coastal beaches remains uncertain. This paper presents a complete sustainability assessment process for coastal beach exploitation based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We developed an assessment framework consisting of 14 indicators derived from the three dimensions of suitability, economic and social value, and ecosystem. We chose a wind power project on a coastal beach of Yancheng as a case study. The results indicated that the wind power farms on the coastal beach were not completely in keeping with sustainable development theory. The construction of the wind power farms had some negative impacts. Therefore, in the design stage, wind turbines should be designed and planned carefully to minimize these negative impacts. In addition, the case study demonstrated that the AHP was capable of addressing the complexities associated with the sustainability of coastal beaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  12. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  13. The road to green power in Mexico - reflections on the prospects for the large-scale and sustainable implementation of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huacuz, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the prospects for renewable energy as a source of electricity in Mexico. It shows that, in spite of the abundance of renewable energy resources, applications to green power generation are minimal. Opportunities to use renewables as part of the Mexican energy mix are many, and could bring a number of benefits, social, economic, political, environmental and otherwise. Barriers to do so are also many and are analysed here. A pragmatic approach based on six strategic elements is proposed for barrier removal, namely: enabling policy and regulatory frameworks; adequate and effective institutional and technical settings; ad hoc financing mechanisms; concerted action plans among government sectors; mechanisms to facilitate participation of private and social sectors; and effective coordination among national and international stakeholders. It is concluded that Mexico is at cross-roads with respect to renewable energy, and that a swift, strong and sustained effort has to be made to alter the present situation. Otherwise, the opportunity ahead will be lost and Mexico will remain a net importer of the new energy technology

  14. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  16. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  17. Investigating the Trade-Off Between Power Generation and Environmental Impact of Tidal-Turbine Arrays Using Array Layout Optimisation and Habitat Sustainability Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Feu, R. J.; Funke, S. W.; Kramer, S. C.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The installation of tidal turbines into the ocean will inevitably affect the environment around them. However, due to the relative infancy of this sector the extent and severity of such effects is unknown. The layout of an array of turbines is an important factor in determining not only the array's final yield but also how it will influence regional hydrodynamics. This in turn could affect, for example, sediment transportation or habitat suitability. The two potentially competing objectives of extracting energy from the tidal current, and of limiting any environmental impact consequent to influencing that current, are investigated here. This relationship is posed as a multi-objective optimisation problem. OpenTidalFarm, an array layout optimisation tool, and MaxEnt, habitat sustainability modelling software, are used to evaluate scenarios off the coast of the UK. MaxEnt is used to estimate the likelihood of finding a species in a given location based upon environmental input data and presence data of the species. Environmental features which are known to impact habitat, specifically those affected by the presence of an array, such as bed shear stress, are chosen as inputs. MaxEnt then uses a maximum-entropy modelling approach to estimate population distribution across the modelled area. OpenTidalFarm is used to maximise the power generated by an array, or multiple arrays, through adjusting the position and number of turbines within them. It uses a 2D shallow water model with turbine arrays represented as adjustable friction fields. It has the capability to also optimise for user created functionals that can be expressed mathematically. This work uses two functionals; power extracted by the array, and the suitability of habitat as predicted by MaxEnt. A gradient-based local optimisation is used to adjust the array layout at each iteration. This work presents arrays that are optimised for both yield and the viability of habitat for chosen species. In each scenario

  18. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  19. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  20. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research

  1. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  2. Electric Road Systems: Strategic Stepping Stone on the Way towards Sustainable Freight Transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesko Schulte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of today’s main challenges, such as global warming, air pollution, and eco-system degradation. While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS in comparison to the current diesel system. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to assess whether ERS could be a stepping stone on the way towards sustainability. Strategic life-cycle assessment was applied, scanning each life-cycle phase for violations against basic sustainability principles. Resulting sustainability “hot spots” were quantified with traditional life-cycle assessment. The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. Environmental payback times of less than five years are achievable if freight traffic volumes are sufficiently high. However, some severe violations against sustainability principles were identified. Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport.

  3. Nuclear and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Balle, St.; Barandas, Ch.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Bellefontaine, E.; Bernard, H.; Bouhand, M.H.; Bourg, D.; Bourgoignon, F.; Bourlat, Y.; Brunet, F.; Buclet, N.; Buquet, N.; Caron, P.; Cartier, M.; Chagneau, E.; Charles, D.; Chateau, G.; Collette, P.; Collignon, A.; Comtesse, Ch.; Crammer, B.; Dasnias, J.; Decroix, G.; Defoy, B.; Delafontaine, E.; Delcroix, V.; Delerue, X.; Demet, M.; Dimmers, G.; Dodivers, S.; Dubigeon, O.; Eimer, M.; Fadin, H.; Foos, J.; Ganiage, D.; Garraud, J.; Girod, J.P.; Gourod, A.; Goussot, D.; Guignard, C.; Heloury, J.; Hondermarck, B.; Hurel, S.; Jeandron, C.; Josse, A.; Lagon, Ch.; Lalleron, Ch.; Laurent, M.; Legrand, H.; Leveau, E.

    2006-01-01

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  4. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  5. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  6. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  7. The role of Carbon Capture and Storage in a future sustainable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2012-01-01

    systems, the number of utilisation hours of power and CHP plants will have to decrease substantially due to the energy efficiency measures in combination with the inclusion of renewable energy power inputs from wind and similar resources. Consequently, no power or CHP plants exist in future sustainable......This paper presents the results of adding a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) plant including an underground CO2 storage to a well described and well documented vision of converting the present Danish fossil based energy system into a future sustainable energy system made by the Danish Society...... huge construction costs with the expectation of long lifetimes. Consequently, the CCS has to operate as part of large-scale power or CHP plants with high utilisation hours for the CCS investment to come even close to being feasible. However, seen in the light of transforming to sustainable energy...

  8. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  10. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  11. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  12. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  13. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Energy System for Electricity Generation and Environmental Sustainability – Equivalent to 650VA Fuel-Powered Generator – Popularly Known as “I Pass My Neighbour”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu, E-mail: vincent_ani@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2015-09-11

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system can be used to replace wholly 650VA generator for electricity generation for household use in Nigeria. This paper presented the feasibility analysis of load data and simulation study of a stand-alone PV power system that produced the electrical needs of a household. This study is based on designing of PV energy system for household use. The patterns of load consumption within the household were studied and suitably modeled for simulation. The simulation study indicates that energy requirements to provide electricity, which is equivalent to 650VA generator for household use in Nigeria, can be accomplished by 520 W solar PV array, 2312 Ah nominal capacity battery, and a 1 kW DC/AC inverter. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for environmental sustainability and uninterruptable power performance in the household. The results of this research show that, with a low-power consuming appliances, it is possible to meet the entire annual electricity demand of a single household solely through a stand-alone PV energy supply. Installing solar panels by most Nigerian home can significantly reduce home reliance on government power thereby reduce the strain on the current capacity of our power generation infrastructure. A detailed design and description of the system were presented in this paper.

  14. Consumerism and sustainable tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2000-01-01

    This article recognises the immense and growing interest for the development of a sustainable tourism. However, it demonstrates a gap between general awareness and preferences on the one hand, and the practices and behaviour of tourists and tourist industries on the other hand. The constraints...... for the development of a consumerism in the fields of tourism are addressed in the article. A particular emphasis is put on a lack of appropriate institutional frameworks that provide individual tourists with reliable information and co-ordinate their purchasing power in order to enhance the issues of environmental...... sustainability....

  15. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  16. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  17. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren't always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation

  18. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  19. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  20. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  1. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  2. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  3. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  4. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  5. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  6. Empowering Women for Development through Community-Driven Sustainable Programmes: A Response to Traditional Patriarchal Power in the Southern African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca; Alade, Eunice B.

    2004-01-01

    In the Southern Africa region, the act of prejudice against women mostly occurs where patriarchal power reigns. This type of power is felt in areas such as inheritance right, division of labour, access to political and economic resources and legal and social matters. Other areas of discrimination against women include access to educational and…

  7. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  8. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  9. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  10. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  11. Power to the people : how sustainable energy services and development can be facilitated through grass root development- a case study from the Bondo district in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Marius Halkinrud

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave i development management- Universitetet i Agder 2010 Serious international actors like the IPCC, the UNFCCC and the WEO, highlight the need to implement sustainable energy resources as fossil fuels has contributed to increase the global CO2 emission, which again has contributed to climate change. In many parts of the developing world there is currently no access to energy services. WEO predicts that developing countries will be responsible for much of ...

  12. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  13. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  14. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  15. Geoscience and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores how scientists entangle themselves in between keywords and buzzwords when they make use of concepts like sustainability. It sketches out theoretical distinctions between keywords and buzzwords. Then it turns to the concept of nature discussing the paradox that nature embraces...... the same fuzzy, slippery and contingent character as does sustainability, yet the former has a deep ontological status, the latter does not. The paper explores a related paradox: natural sciences claim we live in the Anthropocene, in which humans have transformed geochemical cycles, e.g. of methane...... and carbon dioxide as much as they changed between glacial and interglacial periods. Yet, science favors (external) nature as a keyword, sustainability as a buzzword. This should cause deep reflections on how scientists make use of the power of reference in between keywords and buzzwords – as well...

  16. Toward a Critical Peace Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the need for peace education as a field to embrace critical power analysis of place in efforts toward social and environmental sustainability. Rather than status quo reproduction, a critical peace education for sustainability should both elucidate and transform the power dynamics inherent in structural violence and cultural…

  17. The Fiction of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    research with organisations providing help to "Orphans and Vulnerable Children" in Malawi, this paper discusses how donors, international and local NGOs, and CBOs all participate in keeping alive 'the fiction of sustainability', each for their different reasons. Rather than overt resistance to the power...... of international donors, the processes I discuss reflect how actors from their different positions become skilled in using established policy models and available resources for their own ends....

  18. Sustainability or profitability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khennas, Smail; Doig, Alsion [Intermediate Technology, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    For small rural communities off-grid, micro-hydro power is often the most cost-effective means of providing electricity. Whether the electricity should be provided without cost to the beneficiaries or whether it should be paid for are the points under discussion. Details of cost and technology of schemes in both Nepal and Sri Lanka show that micro hydro can be sustainable in small isolated communities. (UK)

  19. Geothermal power in the H2 Office in Duisburg.. New standards in the matter of sustainability; Geothermie im H2 Office in Duisburg. Neue Massstaebe in Sachen Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias; Oehlert, Stephan [Zent-Frenger Gebaeudetechnik mbH, Heppenheim (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Geothermie

    2011-07-01

    There are many innovations in the second stage of construction of this project. The office area of nearly 10,500 m{sup 2} primarily is heated and cooled primarily by means of a geothermal plant. 230 of the statically necessary foundation piles take over the role of the geothermal heat exchangers. In combination with a geothermal plant, a concrete core activation as well as additional convectors are used in the official space. Besides this, a photovoltaic plant and a central controlling of the building services by means of bus technology are to reduce the additional expenses sustainable.

  20. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  1. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  2. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  3. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  4. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  5. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  6. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  7. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  8. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  9. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  10. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  11. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  12. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  13. How to Deliver Open Sustainable Innovation: An Integrated Approach for a Sustainable Marketable Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product development and peer production, combined with 3D printing, to deliver more sustainable, yet competitive, marketable products. In particular, this experimental study is conducted in the context of mobile forensics, an emerging market where limited expensive products exist and alternative solutions are needed. The technical viability and economic feasibility of the prototype developed in this research validate the proposed integrated approach, which could be a game-changer in the field of mobile forensics, as well as in other sectors. The sustainability improvements with this approach are a reduction of the total cost, thereby making it affordable for lower income users, and a decrease in energy consumption and pollutant emissions. The validated integrated approach offers start-up opportunities to develop and deliver more sustainable, marketable products, towards the paradigm of Open Sustainable Innovation. While the device developed and tested in this research has similar features to existing products, the methodology, implementation, and motivation are original.

  14. Reconstructing Masculinity and Power in Africa through Open Distance Learning for Sustainable Development: A Critical Analysis of Wole Soyinka's "Climate of Fear"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Barihi; Adesida, Aderonke Adetunji

    2009-01-01

    The strabismus conception of masculinity and power with its manipulation as reflected in the consequences of actions endorsed and demonstrated by leaders, followers, citizens as individuals and groups at different times in the past, and present has been a major source of the seemingly quiescence and underdevelopment in Africa. Masculinity has…

  15. Sympathetic Activity, Assessed by Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability, in White-Coat, Masked and Sustained Hypertension Versus True Normotension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagard, R.H.; Stolarz, K.; Kuznetsova, T.; Seidlerová, J.; Tikhonoff, V.; Grodzicki, T.; Nikitin, Y.; Filipovský, J.; Peleška, Jan; Casiglia, E.; Thijs, L.; Staessen, J.A.; Kawecka-Jaszcz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 11 (2007), s. 2280-2285 ISSN 0263-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : heart rate variability * masked hypertension * power spectral analysis * sympathetic activity * white-coat hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2007

  16. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  17. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  18. The energy highways. The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants. Where does coal fit into the energy mix?. Sustainable urban development in Hanover. Energy in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter contains a main press-kit about the economics of interconnected power distribution systems and 4 articles dealing with reactors safety, the advantages and drawbacks of coal in the energy mix, the environmental policy of Hanover city, and the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 - 'The energy highways': Spotlight on the electrical power grids. From the much needed modernization of existing installations to the extension of networks in developing countries, Alternatives takes a look at these infrastructures that shape our environment, which can be considered as veritable 'energy highways' ensuring the coverage of our planet. 2 - 'The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants': Review of the three protective barriers deployed in the nuclear industry to ensure reactor safety. 3 - 'Where does coal fit into the energy mix?': Two experts put into perspective the challenges related to the use of coal, its efficiency and its environmental impact, on the basis of the Chinese and Polish examples. 4 - 'Sustainable urban development in Hanover': Bringing together quality of living and energy savings, this is the challenge taken up by Hanover in the Kronsberg area. Alternatives has examined this original model, which could serve as an example for other European cities. 5 - 'Energy in sub-Saharan Africa': Relatively abundant resources but which are poorly utilized and distributed characterize the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of the situation and explanation of this paradox

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  20. Model of electric power generation for isolated places of the Amazon: intervention with sustainability; Modelo de geracao de energia eletrica para localidades isoladas da Amazonia: intervencao com sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia (GPERS/UNIR), Porto Velho (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Grupo de Pesquisa Energia Renovavel Sustentavel], E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal which has as reference the implementation of electric power generation using vegetable in natura palm oil in a Diesel cycle engine not modified to attend the N. S. dos Seringueiros at the extractivist reservation Rio Ouro Preto, Brazil. It must be detached that the interventions at the RESEX has assumed that it is possible and necessary to aggregate value to the forest products having the biodiversity preserved.

  1. Sustainability assessment of cogeneration sector development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liposcak, Marko; Afgan, Naim H.; Duic, Neven; Graca Carvalho, Maria da

    2006-01-01

    The effective and rational energy generation and supply is one of the main presumptions of sustainable development. Combined heat and power production, or co-generation, has clear environmental advantages by increasing energy efficiency and decreasing carbon emissions. However, higher investment cost and more complicated design and maintenance sometimes-present disadvantages from the economical viability point of view. As in the case of most of economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has a strong but not very efficient co-generation sector, delivering 12% of the final energy consumption. District heating systems in the country's capital Zagreb and in city of Osijek represent the large share of the overall co-generation capacity. Besides district heating, co-generation in industry sector is also relatively well developed. The paper presents an attempt to assess the sustainability of Croatian co-generation sector future development. The sustainability assessment requires multi-criteria assessment of specific scenarios to be taken into consideration. In this respect three scenarios of Croatian co-generation sector future development are taken into consideration and for each of them environmental, social and economic sustainability indicators are defined and calculated. The assessment of complex relationships between environmental, social and economic aspects of the system is based on the multi-criteria decision-making procedure. The sustainability assessment is based on the General Sustainability Index rating for different cases reflecting different criteria and their priority. The method of sustainability assessment is applied to the Croatian co-generation sector contributing to the evaluation of different strategies and definition of a foundation for policy related to the sustainable future cogeneration sector development

  2. Sustained spheromak technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed.

  3. Sustained spheromak technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed

  4. Analysis of scenarios of the inclusion of fast reactors in the nuclear power of Russia in the context of sustainable development with the use of the INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usanov, V.I.; Kagramanyan, V.S.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Korobeinikov, V.V.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Moseyev, A.L.; Poplavskaya, E.V.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • The two-component NES of VVER and BN reactors can meet some critical challenges of the present nuclear industry and provide a substantial contribution to enhancing sustainability of a national NP: – basically to solve up to 2050 the problem of the VVER SNF accumulation by using Pu from VVER in MOX fuel for BN reactors; – to ensure management of Pu from VVER to reduce it by 2070 to operational reserve and thus to enhance the NES proliferation resistance; – to save natural U and SWU and thus to facilitate U supply and enrichment capacities for planed deployment of VVERs in Russia and abroad. • Implementation of these opportunities might be a substance of the first phase of the NFC closure • While some INPRO indicators have shown remarkable advantages of the NES with BNs comparing to the present system, some issues in economics and NFC technologies have not got convincing answers. • These challenges along with a crucial safety issues are addressed in the Federal target programmes on transition to a CNFC with advanced FRs which are currently run in Russia

  5. Sustainable Energy for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - renewable energy and energy efficiency. The promise of renewable energy can only be realised through significant R&D investments on technologies such as solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel coupled with energy storage technologies necessary......Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...

  6. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 100 kg/m(3,) respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Competency build up, sustained performance enhancement of human resource through effective man power planning, training and proper safety culture and organizational climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, B.D.; Goyal, O.P.

    2006-01-01

    Human resource competence building and continued enhancement of performance is the most vital input for safe and reliable operations of a Nuclear Power Plant. Integrated planning leading to the decision of timely selection of optimum number of fresh people and deployment of experienced manpower with desired lead time is inevitable to achieve the above objective. For safe and reliable plant operation human performance analysis followed by suggestive measures to improve the same is needed. Corrective or strengthening input may be in terms of training, work environment, motivations, organizational culture and climate, leadership and prevailing environmental force and bio-rhythm of individuals with critical days are to be worked out The adequacy in training and development not only gives safe and reliable plant operations but results in greater employee satisfaction and self esteem as well. As of date, in the present vibrant global scenario, only the organization which impart good training in addition to competitive pay and perks to their employees are able to attract good people. Indian nuclear power plant in general and TAPP 3 and 4 in particular has been referred. (author)

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  9. Power Markets. Creating a regional power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, K.; Belin, H.

    2009-01-01

    One article and one column in the section 'Power markets'. In the article attention is paid to the leading role of the Netherlands in the pursuit of a fully integrated North West European electricity market. the column 'View from Brussels' focuses on the 'Sustainable Energy Europe' campaign and the related EU Sustainable Energy Week in February 2009

  10. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  12. Making sustainability work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binswanger, Hans Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Today's economic theory usually neglects the role of nature and environment. To make sustainability work it is, however, essential to (re-)integrate nature into the standard concepts of economics, especially by incorporating natural factors into the production function. It must be acknowledged that economic growth is not (only) the result of technical change but is mainly caused by rising energy-inputs into the economy, and that this is necessarily followed by resource exhaustion and pollution. Therefore, nature must not only be taken into account as a central factor of production but also in the form of environmental quality which is the basis for human quality of life. A numeric example shows that a small, but steady decrease of yearly resource consumption is already apt to redirect the economy on a path of sustainable development

  13. ''No smoking''. CO2-low power generation in a sustainable German energy system. A comparison of CO2 abatement costs of renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trittin, Tom

    2012-05-01

    Significant reduction of CO 2 -emissions is essential in order to prevent a worsening of ongoing climate change. This thesis analyses two different pathways for the mitigation of CO 2 -emissions in electricity generation. It focuses on the calculation of CO 2 -mitigation costs of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as of power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). Under the frame of long-term CO 2 reductions targets for the German electricity sector future CO 2 -mitigation costs are calculated on a system-based and a technology-based approach. The calculations show that RES have lower system-based mitigation costs in all scenarios compared to a system based on CCS. If the retrofit of power plants is taken into consideration, the results are even more clearly in favour of RES. Further, the thesis investigates whether CCS can serve as a bridge towards a sustainable energy system based on RES. Findings of different scientific disciplines suggest that CCS is not the optimal choice. These findings lead to the conclusion that CCS cannot support an easier integration of RES. CCS rather has the potential to further strengthen the fossil pathway and delaying the large-scale integration of RES. Hence, CCS is rather unsuited as a bridging technology towards a system mainly based on RES.

  14. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  15. Institute for Sustainable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Alternate fuels offer unique challenges and opportunities as energy source for power generation, vehicular transportation, and industrial applications. Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) at UA conducts innovative research to utilize the complex mix of domestically-produced alternate fuels to achieve low-emissions, high energy-efficiency, and fuel-flexibility. ISE also provides educational and advancement opportunities to students and researchers in the energy field. Basic research probing the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels has generated practical concepts investigated in a burner and engine test platforms.

  16. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: Swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin-Si 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin-Si 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 100 kg/m{sup 3,} respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. - Highlights: • Waste MOCVD dust is treated through mechanochemical leaching. • GaN is hardly leached, and converted to NaGaO{sub 2} through ball milling and annealing. • Process for gallium recovery from waste MOCVD dust has been developed. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} is revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process is reported.

  17. Ensuring the sustainability of EDF power plant operating capacity; Assurer la perennite des competences d'exploitation des centrales d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Service d' Etude des Facteurs Humains, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2009-07-15

    The life extension of the power plants is considered whereas EDF must face an acceleration of the retirement rates due to the fact that the first generations of the baby-boom are ageing 60 years, now. Between 2000 and 2006, EDF gradually set up a system of management of competencies. On the one hand, EDF moved from logic of relatively standardized training to a more individualized logic of acquisition of competencies. In addition, the objective of maintenance of internat competencies defined in 2000 was supplemented in 2003 by a prospective dimension intended to anticipate the departures in inactivity. Then in 2006 competencies of sub-contractors were taken into account. During this period I.R.S.N. has assessed 3 times this system of management. This article briefly presents the principal lessons driven from these evaluations. It accounts for the undeniable effort made by EDF to ensure the maintenance of its competencies. However, it stresses that a high level of vigilance is still needed because it is not stabilized already. (author)

  18. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  19. C2 Lithium Campaign Power Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Erik; Deng, Bihe; Douglass, Jon; Garate, Eusebio; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sangeeta; Tuszewski, Michel; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Several key changes have lead to record performance of the Tri Alpha Energy's (TAE) C2 Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) device. Wall conditioning changes from titanium to lithium have decreased radiative losses, while changes in the magnetic field of the SOL and jet have substantially increased energy confinement times. An overview of 0D power flows and timescales will be presented demonstrating that ions behave classically, that anomalous electron losses have been substantially reduced, and that plasma sustainment will require modest increases in heating power. These observations will be quantitatively analyzed as well as compared with both theoretical modeling of the TAE transport and numerical simulations (Q2D).

  20. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  1. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  2. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  3. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  4. Transforming Innovation for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Leach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.

  5. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  6. Sustainable IT and IT for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua

    industry's first Net-zero Energy Data Center. The second thrust of this thesis is to use IT systems to improve the sustainability and efficiency of our energy infrastructure through data center demand response. The main challenges as we integrate more renewable sources to the existing power grid come from the fluctuation and unpredictability of renewable generation. Although energy storage and reserves can potentially solve the issues, they are very costly. One promising alternative is to make the cloud data centers demand responsive. The potential of such an approach is huge. To realize this potential, we need adaptive and distributed control of cloud data centers and new electricity market designs for distributed electricity resources. My work is progressing in both directions. In particular, I have designed online algorithms with theoretically guaranteed performance for data center operators to deal with uncertainties under popular demand response programs. Based on local control rules of customers, I have further designed new pricing schemes for demand response to align the interests of customers, utility companies, and the society to improve social welfare.

  7. Capacity building for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2006-01-01

    Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development - Mission: To build capacity in Member States (MS) for comprehensive energy system, economic and environmental analyses to assist in: - making informed policy decisions for sustainable energy development; - assessing the role of nuclear power; - understanding environmental and climate change issues related to energy production and use

  8. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  9. Evidence of universal inverse-third power law for the shielding-induced fractional decrease in apex field enhancement factor at large spacings: a response via accurate Laplace-type calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Dall’Agnol, Fernando F.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations are important when assessing the many characteristics of field emission related phenomena. In small simulation domains, the electrostatic effect from the boundaries is known to influence the calculated apex field enhancement factor (FEF) of the emitter, but no established dependence has been reported at present. In this work, we report the dependence of the lateral size, L, and the height, H, of the simulation domain on the apex-FEF of a single conducting ellipsoidal emitter. Firstly, we analyze the error, ε, in the calculation of the apex-FEF as a function of H and L. Importantly, our results show that the effects of H and L on ε are scale invariant, allowing one to predict ε for ratios L/h and H/h, where h is the height of the emitter. Next, we analyze the fractional change of the apex-FEF, δ, from a single emitter, , and a pair, . We show that small relative errors in (i.e. ), due to the finite domain size, are sufficient to alter the functional dependence , where c is the distance from the emitters in the pair. We show that obeys a recently proposed power law decay (Forbes 2016 J. Appl. Phys. 120 054302), at sufficiently large distances in the limit of infinite domain size (, say), which is not observed when using a long time established exponential decay (Bonard et al 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 184) or a more sophisticated fitting formula proposed recently by Harris et al (2015 AIP Adv. 5 087182). We show that the inverse-third power law functional dependence is respected for various systems like infinity arrays and small clusters of emitters with different shapes. Thus, , with m  =  3, is suggested to be a universal signature of the charge-blunting effect in small clusters or arrays, at sufficient large distances between emitters with any shape. These results improve the physical understanding of the field electron emission theory to accurately characterize emitters in small clusters or arrays.

  10. Sustainable Industrial Development Programmes of International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more insightful corporate entrepreneurship programmes with improved infrastructural and electric power facilities should be encouraged. Increasing support to firms through diverse channels would boost rapid economic development of the sub region. Key words: Sustainable programmes, economic development, ...

  11. Winning the sustainable development debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, John; Cornish, Emma

    2002-01-01

    on a vast scale Access to energy - and in particular, electricity - will be critical if the world is to achieve these human goals. Access to clean electricity - and on a vast scale - will be necessary if the world is to meet the twin challenges of human need and environmental security. Anti-nuclear forces, which have held sway in the Kyoto process thus far, argue that nuclear energy is a dying technology and assert passionately that it has no place in tomorrow's sustainable development agenda. These ideologically driven arguments ignore underlying realities both as to what is feasible and what is actually occurring. Today, nuclear power plants are operational in countries comprising 64% of the world's population, and new power reactors are in the planning or construction stage in countries representing no less than 50% of the world's population. Among the latter are the world's two largest developing countries, China and India, which alone represent 40% of humankind and about half the developing world. With active nuclear reactor construction under way as we speak, these leading nations have already made nuclear power a part of their sustainable development strategies for the 21st century. Winning the sustainable development debate - This presentation will share information materials about sustainable development. It will describe the work of the World Nuclear Association Sustainable Development Strategy Group, its preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and how participants to PIME can get involved. (author)

  12. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  13. How states exerted power to create the Millennium Development Goals and how this shaped the global health agenda: Lessons for the sustainable development goals and the future of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert

    2018-04-26

    Since 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provided the framework for global development efforts transforming the field now known as global health. The MDGs both reflected and contributed to shaping a normative global health agenda. In the field of global health, the role of the state is largely considered to have diminished; however, this paper reasserts states as actors in the conceptualisation and institutionalisation of the MDGs, and illustrates how states exerted power and engaged in the MDG process. States not only sanctioned the MDGs through their heads of states endorsing the Millennium Declaration, but also acted more subtly behind the scenes supporting, enabling, and/or leveraging other actors, institutions and processes to conceptualise and legitimize the MDGs. Appreciating the MDGs' role in the conceptualisation of global health is particularly relevant as the world transitions to the MDGs' successor, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs' influence, impact and importance remains to be seen; however, to understand the future of global health and how actors, particularly states, can engage to shape the field, a deeper sense of the MDGs' legacy and how actors engaged in the past is helpful.

  14. SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Beţianu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability tends to become in the new millennium the most important characteristic of economic and social development. The possibility to ensure economic development in the context of a reasonable use of raw materials, energy and natural resources in general and to decrease the impact of all human activities on the environment makes the essence of the sustainable development of these activities.

  15. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  16. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  17. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  18. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  19. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  20. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.