WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained postural contractions

  1. Comparison of Contraction Rates of Abdominal Muscles of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients in Different Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Kang Hoon; Baek, Il-Hun; Goo, Bong-Oh

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the contraction rates of abdominal muscles in relation to the posture of chronic lumbar pain patients and normal subjects. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients and 17 normal people between the ages of 20 and 59. [Methods] Experimental postures included a supine position, a sitting position, and a standing position. Measurements were taken at rest and during abdominal contraction. The measurement at rest was taken during expiration...

  2. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  3. Comparison of contraction rates of abdominal muscles of chronic low back pain patients in different postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Kang Hoon; Baek, Il-Hun; Goo, Bong-Oh

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the contraction rates of abdominal muscles in relation to the posture of chronic lumbar pain patients and normal subjects. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients and 17 normal people between the ages of 20 and 59. [Methods] Experimental postures included a supine position, a sitting position, and a standing position. Measurements were taken at rest and during abdominal contraction. The measurement at rest was taken during expiration with comfortable breathing, and the measurement during contraction was taken at maximum expiration of forced expiration. Muscle contraction rates (on contraction and at relaxation) were calculated. [Results] There were significant differences between CLBP patients and normal subjects in the transversus abdominis (TrA) in the standing position. [Conclusion] Changes in contraction rates of the abdominal muscles of normal subjects and CLBP patients were examined in different postures at maximum expiration. It was found that the contraction rate of TrA in CLBP patients in a standing position, is significantly lower than that of normal subjects.

  4. Individuals with chronic low back pain do not modulate the level of transversus abdominis muscle contraction across different postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takuya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Ukishiro, Kengo; Tohyama, Harukazu; Saito, Hiroshi; Samukawa, Mina; Kobayashi, Takumi; Ino, Takumi; Takeda, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle in three basic postures in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Subjects were classified into a chronic low back pain group (n = 27) and a healthy control group (n = 23). The thickness of the TrA muscle was measured at rest and during the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in supine, sitting and standing postures using B-mode ultrasound imaging. Contraction ratio (TrA thickness during the ADIM/TrA thickness at rest) was calculated for each posture. At rest, the TrA thickness in the sitting and standing postures was significantly greater than in the supine posture (p postures in the low back pain group. TrA thickness was similar in the low back pain and control group in all three postures. During the ADIM, TrA thickness was significantly greater in the control group than in the chronic low back pain group in all three postures. The contraction ratio was also significantly higher in the control group than in the chronic low back pain group in all three postures. These results indicate that the automatic postural contraction of the TrA observed in the control subjects in the sitting and standing postures was not demonstrated in subjects with chronic low back pain. The present study revealed the one aspect of different response of the TrA muscle to changing posture between two groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies....... However, this hardening function is questionable face-to-face the lack of case law or another proof of SCCs’ formal enforcement. This article aims to shed a light on the question whether SCCs can be the efficient regulatory solution for global challenges we are looking for or whether they are yet another...

  6. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  7. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  8. Planckian Power Spectral Densities from Human Calves during Posture Maintenance and Controlled Isometric Contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J E Lugo

    Full Text Available The relationship between muscle anatomy and physiology and its corresponding electromyography activity (EMGA is complex and not well understood. EMGA models may be broadly divided in stochastic and motor-unit-based models. For example, these models have successfully described many muscle physiological variables such as the value of the muscle fiber velocity and the linear relationship between median frequency and muscle fiber velocity. However they cannot explain the behavior of many of these variables with changes in intramuscular temperature, or muscle PH acidity, for instance. Here, we propose that the motor unit action potential can be treated as an electromagnetic resonant mode confined at thermal equilibrium inside the muscle. The motor units comprising the muscle form a system of standing waves or modes, where the energy of each mode is proportional to its frequency. Therefore, the power spectral density of the EMGA is well described and fit by Planck's law and from its distribution we developed theoretical relationships that explain the behavior of known physiological variables with changes in intramuscular temperature or muscle PH acidity, for instance.EMGA of the calf muscle was recorded during posture maintenance in seven participants and during controlled isometric contractions in two participants. The power spectral density of the EMGA was then fit with the Planckian distribution. Then, we inferred nine theoretical relationships from the distribution and compared the theoretically derived values with experimentally obtained values.The power spectral density of EMGA was fit by Planckian distributions and all the theoretical relationships were validated by experimental results.Only by considering the motor unit action potentials as electromagnetic resonant modes confined at thermal equilibrium inside the muscle suffices to predict known or new theoretical relationships for muscle physiological variables that other models have failed

  9. Effects of training programs based on ipsilateral voluntary and stimulated contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Mohamed Abdelhafid; Noé, Frederic; Nouar, Merbouha Boulahbel; Paillard, Thierry

    2017-07-03

    To compare the effects of unilateral strength training by stimulated and voluntary contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb. 36 non-active healthy male subjects were recruited and split randomly into three groups. Two groups of 12 subjects took part in a strength-training program (3 sessions a week over 8 weeks) comprising 43 contractions of the quadriceps femoris of the ipsilateral limb (at 20% of the MVC). One group carried out voluntary contractions exclusively (VOL group), while the other group benefited exclusively from electro-induced contractions (NMES group). The other 12 subjects formed the control (CON) group. Assessments of MVC and monopedal postural control in static and dynamic postural tasks were performed with the ipsilateral (ISPI) and contralateral (CONTRA) limbs before (PRE) and after (POST) completion of the training program. After the training program, the MVC of the IPSI and CONTRA limbs increased similarly for both experimental groups (VOL and NMES). There were no significant improvements of monopedal postural control for the IPSI or CONTRA limbs in either the VOL or NMES experimental group. No change was observed for the CON group over the protocol period. The purposed training program with NMES vs VOL contractions induced strength gains but did not permit any improvement of contralateral monopedal postural control in healthy young subjects. This has potential for therapeutic application and allows clinicians to focus their training programs on dynamic and poly-articular exercises to improve the postural control in young subjects.

  10. Muscle co-contraction in elderly people change due to postural stability during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2017-12-16

    Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group. This study included eight young adults (age 23.4 ± 2.6 years) and nine community dwelling older adults (age 74.7 ± 3.4 years). The task was SLS under the following conditions: (1) no supporting structure, FR; (2) light index fingertip contact to a stationary supporting structure (to touch in force < 1 N), LT; and (3) dependence on a supporting structure for stabilization as desired, DO. Center of pressure (COP) variables [root-mean-square distance (RDIST), total excursion (TOTEX), mean velocity (MVELO), and standard deviation area (AREA-SD)] and the co-contraction index (CI) between the tibialis anterior and soleus were measured using surface electromyography. With regard to the effect of the light fingertip contact to stationary surface, in the young group, TOTEX, MVELO, AREA-SD, and CI during SLS were smaller under the LT condition than under the FR condition. However, in the elderly group, only AREA-SD and CI were smaller under the LT condition than under the FR condition. No significant difference was observed in COP variables and CI under the DO condition between the young and elderly groups. Both young and elderly groups could decrease muscle co-contraction using the light fingertip contact. On the other hand, in the elderly group, COP variables showed a limited effect from the light fingertip contact; only the "sway" domain measure (AREA-SD). Both young and elderly groups showed the smallest CI under the DO

  11. Influence of joint angle on EMG-torque model during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Martel, Francois; Rancourt, Denis; Clancy, Edward A

    2013-10-01

    Electromyogram (EMG)-torque modeling is of value to many different application areas, including ergonomics, clinical biomechanics and prosthesis control. One important aspect of EMG-torque modeling is the ability to account for the joint angle influence. This manuscript describes an experimental study which relates the biceps/triceps surface EMG of 12 subjects to elbow torque at seven joint angles (spanning 45-135°) during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions. Advanced EMG amplitude (EMGσ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) were investigated and three non-linear EMGσ-torque models were evaluated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the seven distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.23±2.2% MVCF90 resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so (i.e., parameterized the angle dependence), achieved an error of 4.17±1.7% MVCF90. Results demonstrated that advanced EMGσ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation. We also contrasted models that did vs. did not account for antagonist muscle co-contraction. Models that accounted for co-contraction estimated individual flexion muscle torques that were ∼29% higher and individual extension muscle torques that were ∼68% higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Joint Angle on EMG-Torque Model During Constant-Posture, Torque-Varying Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Clancy, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Relating the electromyogram (EMG) to joint torque is useful in various application areas, including prosthesis control, ergonomics and clinical biomechanics. Limited study has related EMG to torque across varied joint angles, particularly when subjects performed force-varying contractions or when optimized modeling methods were utilized. We related the biceps-triceps surface EMG of 22 subjects to elbow torque at six joint angles (spanning 60° to 135°) during constant-posture, torque-varying contractions. Three nonlinear EMG σ -torque models, advanced EMG amplitude (EMG σ ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) and the duration of data used to train models were investigated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the six distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.01±1.2% MVC(F90) resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so achieved a statistically equivalent error of 4.06±1.2% MVC(F90). Results demonstrated that advanced EMG σ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation as do longer model training durations.

  13. Differences of muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint between young and elderly adults during dynamic postural control at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2017-08-02

    Agonist and antagonist muscle co-contractions during motor tasks are greater in the elderly than in young adults. During normal walking, muscle co-contraction increases with gait speed in young adults, but not in elderly adults. However, no study has compared the effects of speed on muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint during dynamic postural control in young and elderly adults. We compared muscle co-contractions of the ankle joint between young and elderly subjects during a functional stability boundary test at different speeds. Fifteen young adults and 16 community-dwelling elderly adults participated in this study. The task was functional stability boundary tests at different speeds (preferred and fast). Electromyographic evaluations of the tibialis anterior and soleus were recorded. The muscle co-contraction was evaluated using the co-contraction index (CI). There were no statistically significant differences in the postural sway parameters between the two age groups. Elderly subjects showed larger CI in both speed conditions than did the young subjects. CI was higher in the fast speed condition than in the preferred speed condition in the young subjects, but there was no difference in the elderly subjects. Moreover, after dividing the analytical range into phases (acceleration and deceleration phases), the CI was larger in the deceleration phase than in the acceleration phase in both groups, except for the young subjects in the fast speed conditions. Our results showed a greater muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint during dynamic postural control in elderly subjects than in young subjects not only in the preferred speed condition but also in the fast speed condition. In addition, the young subjects showed increased muscle co-contraction in the fast speed condition compared with that in the preferred speed condition; however, the elderly subjects showed no significant difference in muscle co-contraction between the two speed conditions. This indicates

  14. Towards sustainable infrastructure development through integrated contracts : Experiences with inclusiveness in Dutch infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Sander; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    Current complex society necessitates finding inclusive arrangements for delivering sustainable road infrastructure integrating design, construction and maintenance stages of the project lifecycle. In this article we investigate whether linking stages by integrated contracts can lead to more

  15. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body for labor and delivery. Labor contractions signal the beginning of childbirth. What causes contractions? Braxton-Hicks (false ... of your last menstrual period.) Labor contractions signal the beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, ...

  16. Decerebrate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lead to: Coma Inability to communicate Paralysis Seizures Alternative Names Opisthotonos - decerebrate posture; Abnormal posturing - decerebrate posture; Traumatic brain injury - decerebrate posture; Decorticate posture - decerebrate posture References ...

  17. Sitting on a Sloping Seat Does Not Reduce the Strain Sustained by the Postural Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui, Alain; Hassaïne, Myriam; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of a forward sloping seat on posture and muscular activity of the trunk and lower limbs. To this aim, twelve asymptomatic participants were tested in six conditions varying seat slope (0°, 15° forward) and height (high, medium, low). Angular position of head, trunk and pelvis was assessed with an inertial orientation system, and muscular activity of 11 superficial postural muscles located in the trunk and lower limbs was estimated using normalized EMG. Results showed that a forward sloping seat, compared to a flat seat, induced a greater activity of the soleus (pposture. PMID:25587989

  18. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  19. Decorticate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lead to: Coma Inability to communicate Paralysis Seizures Alternative Names Abnormal posturing - decorticate posture; Traumatic brain injury - decorticate posture References Ball JW, Dains JE, ...

  20. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients manifest characteristic spatial EMG potential distribution pattern during sustained isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yoji; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Moritani, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate spatial surface electromyography (SEMG) potential distribution pattern in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Nine T2DM patients and nine age-matched healthy men (CON) performed a sustained isometric knee extension at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction for 120s. Multi-channel SEMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle by means of 64 electrodes. To characterize spatial SEMG potential distribution pattern, modified entropy and correlation coefficients between same electrode locations were calculated at 15, 60 and 120s for the root mean square values. At 60 and 120s, modified entropy in T2DM was significantly lower than those in CON (p<0.05). Correlation coefficients for T2DM were significantly higher than those for CON at 60 and 120s (p<0.05). From these results, we suggested that T2DM patients continue to recruit limited and same motor units during the sustained contraction at low force level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental muscle pain changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Leclerc, Fredéric; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ravier, Philippe; Farina, Dario

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effect of local excitation of nociceptive muscle afferents on the spatial distribution of muscle activity. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the upper trapezius muscle of 10 healthy volunteers with a 5 x 13 electrode grid during 90-s isometric contractions before, during, 15 and 30 min after intramuscular injection of hypertonic (painful) or isotonic (non-painful) saline. From the multi-channel EMG recordings, two-dimensional maps of root mean square and mean power frequency were obtained. The centre of gravity of the root mean square map was used to quantify global changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. During sustained contractions, average root mean square increased, average mean frequency decreased and the centre of gravity moved cranially. During experimental muscle pain, compared to before injection, the average root mean square decreased and there was a caudal shift of the centre of gravity. Fifteen minutes after the painful injection the centre of gravity returned to its original position. Short-term dynamic reorganization of the spatial distribution of muscle activity occurred in response to nociceptive afferent input. The study furnishes an extension of the pain adaptation model indicating heterogeneous inhibition of muscle activity.

  4. Intensity-dependent EMG response for the biceps brachii during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua C; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Wages, Nathan P

    2016-09-01

    There have been recent attempts to characterize the mechanisms associated with fatigue-induced task failure. We compared the time to failure and the corresponding changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric force tasks. EMG activity was measured from the biceps brachii of 18 male participants as they sustained either a maximal or submaximal (60 % MVC) isometric contraction of the dominant elbow flexors until force could not be maintained above 55 % MVC. Intensity-dependent patterns of change were observed for EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MNF) between the two force tasks. Interestingly, the only significant predictor of failure time was the rate of change in EMG MNF during the submaximal task (r (2) = 0.304). In addition, EMG amplitude at submaximal failure was significantly lower (p EMG response emphasize the basis of neuromuscular fatigue and task dependency. Additionally, our data suggest that the EMG MNF should be used when monitoring the progression of local muscle fatigue.

  5. Reduced Voluntary Activation During Brief and Sustained Contractions of a Hand Muscle in Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Heersema, Dorothea J; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-05-01

    Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients have structural cortical damage resulting in increased compensatory cortical activity during (submaximal) performance. However, functional effects of changed cortical output are difficult to measure. The interpolated-twitch technique allows for measurement of voluntary activation (VA) necessary for force production. This study aimed to determine VA, force, and muscle fatigue during brief and sustained contractions in SPMS patients. Because fatigue effects are not confined to the motor system, we additionally examined fatiguing effects on cognitive performance. Twenty-five SPMS and 25 sex-, age-, and education-matched participants performed brief (5 seconds) and sustained (2 minutes) maximal index finger abductions. To evaluate VA, double-pulse twitches were evoked before, during, and after contractions. Additionally, data were compared with data obtained in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Subjects also performed choice-reaction time tasks before and after the sustained contraction. During brief contractions, VA (85% vs 94%,P= .004) and force (25 N vs 32 N,P= .011) were lower for SPMS patients than controls. During sustained contractions, VA (P= .001) was also lower, resulting in greater force decline (73% vs 63%,P< .001) and reduced peripheral fatigue (19% vs 50%,P< .001). Comparisons with RRMS resulted in lower VA, greater force decline, and greater estimated central fatigue in SPMS. SPMS patients were slower (P< .001) and made more errors (P< .001) than controls, but neither group reduced their performance after the sustained contraction. SPMS patients had lower VA than RRMS patients and controls. The importance of voluntary activation for muscle force and fatigability warrants targeted rehabilitation strategies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Blackcurrant Alters Physiological Responses and Femoral Artery Diameter during Sustained Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Cook

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may affect exercise-induced physiological responses. We examined tissue oxygen saturation, muscle activity, cardiovascular responses and femoral artery diameter during a submaximal sustained isometric contraction. In a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, healthy men (n = 13, age: 25 ± 4 years, BMI: 25 ± 3 kg·m−2, mean ± SD ingested New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL for 7-days separated by 14-days washout. Participants produced isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVC and a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps with electromyography (EMG, near-infrared spectroscopy, hemodynamic and ultrasound recordings. There was no effect of NZBC extract on iMVC (NZBC: 654 ± 73, PL: 650 ± 78 N. During the 30%iMVC with NZBC extract, total peripheral resistance, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were lower with increased cardiac output and stroke volume. With NZBC extract, EMG root mean square of the vastus medialis and muscle oxygen saturation were lower with higher total haemoglobin. During the 30%iMVC, femoral artery diameter was increased with NZBC extract at 30 (6.9%, 60 (8.2%, 90 (7.7% and 120 s (6.0%. Intake of NZBC extract for 7-days altered cardiovascular responses, muscle oxygen saturation, muscle activity and femoral artery diameter during a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps. The present study provides insight into the potential mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance with intake of blackcurrant.

  7. Cortical and spinal mechanisms of task failure of sustained submaximal fatiguing contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra S Williams

    Full Text Available In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks. On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2-3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5 ± 7.9 min than the position-matching task (26.9 ± 15.11 min; p0.05. Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p0.10 and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40. Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing intracortical inhibition with constant levels of intracortical facilitation and upstream excitability that together eventually fail to provide the input to the motor cortex necessary for descending drive to overcome the spinal cord resistance, thereby contributing to task failure.

  8. Cortical and Spinal Mechanisms of Task Failure of Sustained Submaximal Fatiguing Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Petra S.; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF) of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks). On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2–3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5±7.9 min) than the position-matching task (26.9±15.11 min; pmuscle fatigue (p = 0.59). There were no task-specific differences for the total amount or rate of change in the neurophysiologic outcome variables over time (p>0.05). Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p0.10) and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40). Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing intracortical inhibition with constant levels of intracortical facilitation and upstream excitability that together eventually fail to provide the input to the motor cortex necessary for descending drive to overcome the spinal cord resistance, thereby contributing to task failure. PMID:24667484

  9. Enhancing Economic Sustainability by Markdown Money Supply Contracts in the Fashion Industry: China vs U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Shen; Tsan-Ming Choi; Chris Kwan-Yu Lo

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy (MMP), are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms (suppliers), one from China and one from U.S.A., that are adopting MMP in their respective supply chains. Via semi-structured interviews with staff members and some public data searching of the target companie...

  10. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  11. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  12. Enhancing Economic Sustainability by Markdown Money Supply Contracts in the Fashion Industry: China vs U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy (MMP, are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms (suppliers, one from China and one from U.S.A., that are adopting MMP in their respective supply chains. Via semi-structured interviews with staff members and some public data searching of the target companies, we find that the cultural factors, such as power distance and collectivism/individualism, affect contract selection, contract management, supplier–retailer leadership, and supplier–retailer relationship. We use the Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions theory to explain our insights. Specifically, in China, a country with a relatively high degree of power distance and collectivism, the companies tend to care more about the group interest and loyalty. The Chinese fashion companies are more willing to play the leading role in managing the relationships with their retailers, and offer MMP to them. In the U.S.A., a country with a relatively low degree of power distance and individualism, the companies are more likely to emphasize their own interest in trading. In fact, we find that American fashion suppliers tend to bargain with their retailers, and they are less willing to proactively provide the markdown money as a sponsor. Finally, managerial implications are provided, and several future challenges on MMP are examined.

  13. The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Gandevia, Simon C; Todd, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    several minutes while MVC torque only returned to approximately 85% baseline. The resting twitch showed no recovery. Thus, as well as fatigue in the muscle, the prolonged low-force contraction produced progressive central fatigue, and some of this impairment of the subjects' ability to drive the muscle......Subjects quickly fatigue when they perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Much of the loss of force is from processes within muscle (peripheral fatigue) but some occurs because voluntary activation of the muscle declines (central fatigue). The role of central fatigue during submaximal...... stimulation (TMS) was followed by stimulation of either brachial plexus or the motor nerve of biceps brachii. After nerve stimulation, a resting twitch was also evoked before subjects resumed the 15% MVC. Perceived effort, elbow flexion torque and surface EMG from biceps, brachioradialis and triceps were...

  14. Effects of muscle pain induced by glutamate injections during sustained clenching on the contraction pattern of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Ambrosina; Cioffi, Iacopo; Rongo, Roberto; Borrelli, Roberta; Chiodini, Paolo; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the contraction pattern of masticatory muscles during sustained clenching tasks with or without experimental pain induced by glutamate injection into the masseter muscle. It was hypothesized that acute muscle pain could induce compensatory changes in the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masticatory muscles. Fifteen volunteers (seven males, mean age ± SD = 29.7 ± 1.1 years; eight females, mean age ± SD = 23.5 ± 1.2 years) were recruited in a crossover experimental study. All subjects participated in two randomized 20-minute experimental sessions. Each subject was asked to clench at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). After 10 minutes, isotonic saline or glutamate was injected in random order into the right masseter. EMG activity (root mean square [RMS] and mean power frequency [MPF]) was assessed in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on both sides. Pain and fatigue were assessed by 0-10 numeric rating scales (NRS) every minute. Differences between conditions (isotonic saline vs glutamate) for all the outcome parameters were analyzed by using a mixed effect model. The EMG activity of the masticatory muscles and pain and fatigue scores were not dependent on isotonic saline/glutamate injection (all P > .05). The RMS in the temporalis and masseter muscles increased with time (right masseter P = 0.001, left masseter P = .004, right temporalis P = .22, left temporalis P = .006), whereas the MPF decreased (right masseter P = .0001, left masseter P muscles during a sustained clenching task. This finding strongly suggests the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system in the presence of acute nociceptive inputs.

  15. Methods for measuring maximal isometric grip strength during short and sustained contractions, including intra-rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, C; Nordgren, B

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop methods for measuring maximal isometric grip strength during short and sustained contractions in a laboratory setting, and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of these methods in short- and long-term perspectives. Eleven healthy men and women were assessed on four occasions. Maximal voluntary isometric grip strength (MVC) was measured in standardized and optional positions, and sustained maximal isometric strength (SMVC) in the standardized position. The results indicated that three trials in a session might be insufficient to obtain a true measure of MVC. The within-session and test-retest reliability of the described multi-trial procedure was considered satisfactory. The mean score of the last three trials tended to show the highest short-term and long-term variability. There were no clear differences between scores obtained in standardized and optional positions. The standardized position seemed more consistently to yield higher test-retest reliability and lower variability over time. The described method for measuring SMVC, expressed as area and peak score, had high test-retest reliability and an acceptable degree of short-term and long-term variability. The time taken to reach the peak score was not a reliable measure.

  16. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  17. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  18. Is there interaction between vision and local fatigue of the lower limbs on postural control and postural stability in human posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Olivier

    2004-06-03

    An investigation of the interaction between local fatigue and vision on postural control and postural stability was carried out. Fatigue was effected in a sitting position and was assumed based on a shortening of the exertion time of the soleus muscles (60% of their maximal voluntary contractions). Postural stability was assessed by centre of gravity motion, which was computed from centre of pressure motion, evaluating postural control. Ten healthy male subjects were asked to stand as still as possible with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) before and after the fatigue protocol. Results showed that fatigue produced similar effects for the two vision conditions on postural control and postural stability analyzed separately, increasing postural control and leaving postural stability unchanged. Local fatigue essentially produced an increase of neuromuscular activity in high frequencies. However, this increase was more pronounced for the EO, as compared to the EC condition.

  19. Can Conservation Contracts Co-exist with Change? Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptive Decision-Making and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  20. Army Corps of Engineers and Gulf Region Division contingency contracting in Iraq/Afghanistan: sustaining civilian voluntary workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, Paige; Wigfall, Henry; Clemons, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Joint Applied Project The objective of this project is to describe, analyze, and recommend the strategy and process of using an Army volunteer civilian contracting deployable workforce in Iraq and Afghanistan particularly in terms of the U S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) accomplishing the contingency contracting mission, and completing the construction portion of the reconstruction efforts. The Corps has been extensively involved in the nation building effort in Iraq/Afghanistan usi...

  1. The Contracting Support Brigade: Is It Capable of Sustaining Tempo and Combat Power in the Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Veldhuizen, CPT Roy Faulkner , CPT Nate Miatech, MSG Kelvin Barton, and MSG Chester Montgomery. I conclude these acknowledgments by breaking protocol. However...Support: Cultural Change Needed to Improve How DOD Plans for and Manages Operational Contract Support, by William M. Solis. GAO-10-829T, 2010. Accessed...Operational Contract Support Enabler-Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO), by William E. Gortney. Washington, DC: CJCS, 2011.

  2. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 3. Immunohistochemistry of flight muscles and the "shoulder lock" in albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Ron A; Stakebake, Eric F

    2005-01-01

    As a postural behavior, gliding and soaring flight in birds requires less energy than flapping flight. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are specialized for sustained contraction with high fatigue resistance and are typically found in muscles associated with posture. Albatrosses are the elite of avian gliders; as such, we wanted to learn how their musculoskeletal system enables them to maintain spread-wing posture for prolonged gliding bouts. We used dissection and immunohistochemistry to evaluate muscle function for gliding flight in Laysan and Black-footed albatrosses. Albatrosses possess a locking mechanism at the shoulder composed of a tendinous sheet that extends from origin to insertion throughout the length of the deep layer of the pectoralis muscle. This fascial "strut" passively maintains horizontal wing orientation during gliding and soaring flight. A number of muscles, which likely facilitate gliding posture, are composed exclusively of slow fibers. These include Mm. coracobrachialis cranialis, extensor metacarpi radialis dorsalis, and deep pectoralis. In addition, a number of other muscles, including triceps scapularis, triceps humeralis, supracoracoideus, and extensor metacarpi radialis ventralis, were found to have populations of slow fibers. We believe that this extensive suite of uniformly slow muscles is associated with sustained gliding and is unique to birds that glide and soar for extended periods. These findings suggest that albatrosses utilize a combination of slow muscle fibers and a rigid limiting tendon for maintaining a prolonged, gliding posture.

  3. Axial Extension (Posture Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this helps: It lengthens your spine, which improves posture, and increases comfort, mobility and range of motion. Many of us have a forward head posture. We get this from the type of recreation ...

  4. [Risks of awkward posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  5. Effects of postural muscle fatigue on the relation between segmental posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabran, E; Maton, B; Fourment, A

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether fatigue of postural muscles might influence the coordination between segmental posture and movement. Seven healthy adults performed series of fifteen fast wrist flexions and extensions while being instructed to keep a dominant upper limb posture as constant as possible. These series of voluntary movements were performed before and after a fatiguing submaximal isometric elbow flexion, and also with or without the help of an elbow support. Surface EMG from muscles Deltoïdeus anterior, Biceps brachii, Triceps brachii, Flexor carpi ulnaris, Extensor carpi radialis were recorded simultaneously with wrist, elbow and shoulder accelerations and wrist and elbow displacements. Fatigue was evidenced by a shift of the elbow and shoulder muscles EMG spectra towards low frequencies. Kinematics of wrist movements and corresponding activations of wrist prime-movers, as well as the background of postural muscle activation before wrist movement were not modified. There were only slight changes in timing of postural muscle activations. These data indicate that postural fatigue induced by a low-level isometric contraction has no effect on voluntary movement and requires no dramatic adaptation in postural control.

  6. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2017-11-10

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensitivity. Other NINDS-funded research is investigating the hypothesis that POTS is a syndrome of different subtypes, with different underlying mechanisms. ... Publications Definition Postural ...

  8. Impact of ankle muscle fatigue and recovery on the anticipatory postural adjustments to externally initiated perturbations in dynamic postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ashleigh; Guevel, Arnaud; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how young participants modulate their postural response to compensate for postural muscle fatigue during predictable but externally initiated continuous and oscillatory perturbations. Twelve participants performed ten postural trials before and after an ankle muscle fatigue protocol. Each postural trial was 1 min long and consisted of continuous backward and forward oscillations of the platform. Fatigue was induced by intermittent, bilateral isometric contractions of the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors until the force production was reduced to 50 % of the pre-fatigue maximal voluntary contraction. Changes in the center of mass (COM) displacement, center of pressure (COP) displacement, and anterior-posterior location of the COP within the base of support were quantified as well as the activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), quadriceps, and hamstring. All participants demonstrated postural stability post-fatigue by maintaining the displacement of their COM. Everyone also demonstrated a general forward shift in the anterior-posterior location of the COP within the base of support; however, two distinct postural modifications, corresponding to either an immediate fatigue-induced increase or decrease in the COP displacement during the backward platform translation, were recorded immediately post-fatigue. The changes in muscle onset latencies lasted beyond the recovery of the force production of the fatigued postural muscles. By 10 min post-fatigue, the participants showed a decrease in the COP displacement as well as an earlier activation of the postural muscles and an increased TA/MG co-activation relative to pre-fatigue. Although different strategies were used, the participants were able to adjust to and overcome postural muscle fatigue and remain balanced during the postural perturbations regardless of the direction of the platform movement. These adjustments lasted beyond the recovery

  9. Visual directional anisotropy does not mirror the directional anisotropy apparent in postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, Vivian; Donker, Stella F.; Stuit, Sjoerd M.; Verstraten, Frans A J; van der Smagt, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a large optic flow pattern to observers is likely to cause postural sway. However, directional anisotropies have been reported, in that contracting optic flow induces more postural sway than expanding optic flow. Recently, we showed that the biomechanics of the lower leg cannot account

  10. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  11. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.

  12. Profitability Implications of Sustainable Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Office Properties Trust Financial Services Goldman Sachs Group Inc. Financial Services Merrill Lynch & Co. Inc. Financial Services Coca - Cola Co. Food...of this study should not be imparted directly onto construction contractors. 43 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Articulating the Business and Ethical Arguments...zero loss- making projects, zero work place accidents, zero environmental incidents and zero ethical breaches. They were selected as a green conaktrf

  13. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to lie flat in this position, place a pillow under your chest and a folded towel under ... bent resting posture at night. Avoid using a pillow, if possible, to prevent pain from over-extension ...

  14. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static posture is how you ... are sitting, standing, or sleeping. It is important to make sure that you have good dynamic and ...

  15. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  16. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  17. THE COMPARISON OF THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS MUSCLES FUNCTION BETWEEN GYMNASTIC ATHLETES WITH SWAY-BACK POSTURE AND NORMAL POSTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavie, Elnaz; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Simorgh, Leila

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of sway back posture (SBP) is very high among elite gymnasts. This posture may be partly due to the improper function of lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) as lumbar stabilizers muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the thicknesses of LMM measured at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift between elite gymnasts with SBP and normal posture. Observational, descriptive, comparative. The participants consist of twenty gymnasts between the ages of 17 and 30 who had trained in gymnastics for more than ten years. They were assigned to two groups: SBP (n=10) and control (n=10). Posture analysis with grid paper and plumb line was performed for all subjects. The thickness of LMM on dominant side of spinal column was measured by a real-time ultrasound at five lumbar levels. The thickness of the LMM was measured both at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift. The variation between the LMM thickness between the muscle at rest and muscle at the peak of contraction was regarded as LMM muscle function. The thickness of LMM was less in SBP group than the control group at all lumbar segments. The variation in LMM thickness between the state of rest and muscle contraction was significantly less in athletes with SBP than controls when compared at all levels of the lumbar spine (p antigravity and stabilizing muscle group was decreased during arm raising in gymnasts with SBP. 3a.

  18. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  19. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  20. Postural control in underachieving students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaz, Andreza; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Kessler, Natalia; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2014-01-01

    Postural balance is a sensory-motor function resulting from a learning process. To evaluate the postural control of underachieving students through static posturography together with virtual reality stimulation...

  1. Working postures: prediction and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    To date, workstation designers cannot see the effects of a design on working posture before a mock-up/prototype is available. At that moment, usually the margin for creating the conditions required for adopting favourable working postures is still very limited. Posture prediction at an early design

  2. The Relationship Between Therapist Approach Postures, Avoidance Postures and Posture Sharing, and Subjects' Experience of Rapport

    OpenAIRE

    Carcelli, Lawrence A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between approach, avoidance and congruent postures and the experience of rapport was investigated. Sixty undergraduate college students (30 male, 30 female) were interviewed by a therapist who displayed either approach postures, avoidance postures or who posture shared. The degree of rapport experienced by the 20 subjects in the three groups was compared. In addition, the subjects' behaviors were divided into four groups (n = 11, or 19) along two orthogonal dimensions (high a...

  3. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters—for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  4. Postural dependence of human locomotion during gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Simoneau, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human walking involves postural motor actions for body orientation and balance stabilization that must be effectively integrated with locomotion to allow safe and efficient transport. Our ability to coordinately adapt these functions to environmental or bodily changes through error-based motor learning is essential to effective performance. Predictive compensations for postural perturbations through anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that stabilize mediolateral (ML) standing balance normally precede and accompany stepping. The temporal sequencing between these events may involve neural processes that suppress stepping until the expected stability conditions are achieved. If so, then an unexpected perturbation that disrupts the ML APAs should delay locomotion. This study investigated how the central nervous system (CNS) adapts posture and locomotion to perturbations of ML standing balance. Healthy human adults initiated locomotion while a resistance force was applied at the pelvis to perturb posture. In experiment 1, using random perturbations, step onset timing was delayed relative to the APA onset indicating that locomotion was withheld until expected stability conditions occurred. Furthermore, stepping parameters were adapted with the APAs indicating that motor prediction of the consequences of the postural changes likely modified the step motor command. In experiment 2, repetitive postural perturbations induced sustained locomotor aftereffects in some parameters (i.e., step height), immediate but rapidly readapted aftereffects in others, or had no aftereffects. These results indicated both rapid but transient reactive adaptations in the posture and gait assembly and more durable practice-dependent changes suggesting feedforward adaptation of locomotion in response to the prevailing postural conditions. PMID:25231611

  5. Postural control in children with strabismus: effect of eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Agathe; Quoc, Emmanuel Bui; Vacher, Sylvette Wiener; Ribot, Jérôme; Lebas, Nicolas; Milleret, Chantal; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2011-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural control in children with strabismus before and after eye surgery. Control of posture is a complex multi-sensorial process relying on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. Reduced influence of one of such systems leads to postural adaptation due to a compensation of one of the other systems [3]. Nine children with strabismus (4-8 years old) participated in the study. Ophthalmologic, orthoptic, vestibular and postural tests were done before and twice (2 and 8 weeks) after eye surgery. Postural stability was measured by a platform (TechnoConcept): two components of the optic flux were used for stimulation (contraction and expansion) and two conditions were tested eyes open and eyes closed. The surface area of the center of pressure (CoP), the variance of speed of the CoP and the frequency spectrum of the platform oscillations by fast Fourier transformation were analysed. Before surgery, similar to typically developing children, postural stability was better in the eyes open condition. The frequency analysis revealed that for the low frequency band more energy was spent in the antero-posterior direction compared to the medio-lateral one while the opposite occurred for the middle and the high frequency bands. After surgery, the eye deviation was reduced in all children and their postural stability also improved. However, the energy of the high frequency band in the medio-lateral direction increased significantly. These findings suggest that eye surgery influences somatosensory properties of extra-ocular muscles leading to improvement of postural control and that binocular visual perception could influence the whole body. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlates Between Force and Postural Tremor in Older Individuals with Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Keogh, Justin W L

    2016-12-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is commonly associated with kinetic tremor. However, other forms of tremor, such as force and postural tremor, may occur in ET with less severity. This study objectively assessed force and postural tremor characteristics in ET with the purpose of identifying the relationships between these tremors. Ten individuals with ET (age 71 ± 5 years) and ten healthy controls (age 70 ± 5 years) participated in the study. Force tremor was quantified as fluctuations in index finger abduction force during isometric contractions at 10 % maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and 60 % MVC. Postural tremor was quantified as index finger acceleration when the subjects held their entire arm unsupported, and when their arm was supported so that only the index finger could move. Time- and frequency-domain parameters were extracted from tremor data, and then correlations within, and between, tremor subtypes were examined. ET force tremor was dependent on contraction intensity whereas postural tremor was unaffected by the level of limb support. Significant correlations existed between frequency components of postural tremor and force tremor amplitude. Force tremor amplitude normalised to the level of contraction intensity correlated to the proportion of power for postural tremor. These correlations were observed for both contraction intensities and both levels of postural support. The proportion of power represents the output of central oscillators in ET patients and therefore correlated well to force tremor. Given that significant relationships existed between spectral features of postural tremor and the overall force tremor amplitude, it is clear that these tremor modalities are not completely independent in older adults with ET.

  7. The effects of posture and cognitive information processing from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical work exposures often include having to maintain awkward, static postures for sustained periods of time, which ultimately result in the onset of local muscle fatigue and accompanied symptoms of discomfort. Perceived discomfort has been suggested to trigger the realization for recovery of depleted resources.

  8. Posture Screening. A Program that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Sally A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A posture screening program for Portland State University students is described in terms of (1) program components and time requirements, (2) materials used, and (3) training of posture screeners. The article includes samples of posture analysis and evaluation forms, illustrations of posture enhancement exercises, and photos of the posture area.…

  9. Relationship between force fluctuation in the plantar flexor and sustainable time for single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazushige; Yano, Sumio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between force fluctuation during isometric plantar flexion and the sustainable time for single-leg standing. Fourteen healthy males (21+/-1 years) performed unilateral (preferred leg) force matching tasks and single-leg quiet standing. Force matching tasks were performed to maintain isometric plantar flexion for 15 s at levels corresponding to 10% and 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with the visual feedback of force. Force fluctuation during force matching tasks was quantified as the standard deviation of force. Sustainable time for single-leg quiet standing was performed to maintain a single-leg quiet standing barefoot on a platform using the preferred leg with their eyes closed. Force fluctuation was significantly greater in 20% MVC task compared to 10% MVC task. The sustainable time for single-leg quiet standing was strongly correlated with force fluctuation in 20% MVC task (r=-0.56, p=0.04). However, it was not related to force fluctuation in 10% MVC task (r=0.19, p=0.52) or MVC value (r=0.13, p=0.65). These results suggest that a specificity of contraction intensity is observed between force steadiness and the posture stability during single-leg quiet standing; force steadiness during 20% MVC plantar flexion is one of the important components for posture stability during single-leg quiet standing.

  10. Postural development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  11. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  12. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  13. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  14. Postural Muscle Dyscoordination in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda C. van der Heide

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the knowledge currently available on muscular dyscoordination underlying postural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Such information is a prerequisite for developing successful therapeutic interventions in children with CP. Until now, three children with CP functioning at GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System level V have been documented. The children totally or partially lacked direction specificity in their postural adjustments and could not sit independently for more than 3 seconds. Some children functioning at GMFCS level IV have intact direction-specific adjustments, whereas others have problems in generating consistently direction-specific adjustments. Children at GMFCS levels I to III have an intact basic level of control but have difficulties in fine-tuning the degree of postural muscle contraction to the task-specific conditions, a dysfunction more prominently present in children with bilateral spastic CP than in children with spastic hemiplegia. The problems in the adaptation of the degree of muscle contraction might be the reason that children with CP, more often than typically developing children, show an excess of antagonistic coactivation during difficult balancing tasks and a preference for cranial-caudal recruitment during reaching. This might imply that both stereotypies might be regarded as functional strategies to compensate for the dysfunctional capacity to modulate subtly postural activity.

  15. Contract out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S. (Independent Editorial and Technical Services, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1999-05-01

    Mining companies opt to offer all or part of their operations out to contract mainly to reduce risk. Contract mining has been most popular in the Southern Hemisphere over the last 15 years, with some exceptions - contractors were often employed in the UK's opencast coal sector and some US coal operators have made extensive use of contract mining. The article discusses the pros and cons of outsourcing, giving examples of contracted out work in Australia (by Thiess Contractors) the USA (Morrison Knudsen), and the UK (Kie Mining). The author comments that successful contracting can only be achieved where both parties know where they stand and have a good working relationship. 2 photos.

  16. Determining posture from physiological tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resultingcomplications. Weshow how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications. PMID:21997329

  17. Postural performance of vestibular loss patients under increased postural threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Dumitrescu, Michel; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane; Lacour, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of increasing postural task difficulty on balance control was investigated in 9 compensated vestibular loss patients whose results were compared to 11 healthy adults. Subjects were tested in static (stable support) and dynamic (sinusoidal translation of the support) conditions, both at floor level and at height (62 cm above the floor), and with and without vision, to create an additional postural threat. Wavelet analysis of the center of foot pressure displacement and motion analysis of the body segments were used to evaluate the postural performance. Evaluation questionnaires were used to examine the compensation level of the patients (DHI test), their general anxiety level (SAST), fear of height (subjective scale), and workload (NASA TLX test). (Vestibular loss patients rely more on vision and spend more energy maintaining balance than controls, but they use the same postural strategy as normals in both static and dynamic conditions.) Questionnaire data all showed differences in behavior and perceptions between the controls and the patients. However, at height and without vision, a whole body strategy leading to rigid posture replaces the head stabilization strategy found for standing at floor level. The effects of height on postural control can be attributable to an increase in postural threat and attention changes resulting from modifications in perception.

  18. Antiadrenergic autoimmunity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Artur; Li, Hongliang; Yu, Xichun; Koelsch, Kristi A; Harris, Valerie M; Liles, Campbell; Murphy, Taylor A; Quadri, Syed M S; Scofield, Robert Hal; Sutton, Richard; Melander, Olle; Kem, David C

    2017-07-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a common and debilitating cardiovascular disorder, is characterized by an exaggerated heart rate increase during orthostasis and a wide spectrum of adrenergic-related symptoms. To determine the aetiology of POTS, we examined a possible pathophysiological role for autoantibodies against α1-adrenergic (α1AR) and β1/2-adrenergic receptors (β1/2AR). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) derived from 17 POTS patients, 7 with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS), and 11 normal controls was analysed for its ability to modulate activity and ligand responsiveness of α1AR and β1/2AR in transfected cells and to alter contractility of isolated rat cremaster arterioles in vitro. Immunoglobulin G activation of α1AR and β1/2AR was significantly higher in POTS compared with VVS and controls in cell-based assays. Eight, 11, and 12 of the 17 POTS patients possessed autoantibodies that activated α1AR, β1AR and β2AR, respectively. Pharmacological blockade suppressed IgG-induced activation of α1AR and β1/2AR. Eight of 17 POTS IgG decreased the α1AR responsiveness to phenylephrine and 13 of 17 POTS IgG increased the β1AR responsiveness to isoproterenol irrespective of their ability to directly activate their receptors. Postural tachycardia syndrome IgG contracted rat cremaster arterioles, which was reversed by α1AR blockade. The upright heart rate correlated with IgG-mediated β1AR and α1AR activity but not with β2AR activity. These data confirm a strong relationship between adrenergic autoantibodies and POTS. They support the concept that allosteric-mediated shifts in the α1AR and β1AR responsiveness are important in the pathophysiology of postural tachycardia.

  19. Learning contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There are four different expressions to describe the method of learning, which increases the efficiency of adult learning. The article explains the translation of »learning contract« into Slovene as a method in adult learning area, which came in use in USA in 1970, also in organizations offering formal education. In the period of lifelong learning, when everyone is supposed to be able to learn efficiently from different sources it is even more important to have the skills to plan our learning. Learning contract develops these competencies and has already become established in organizations, which support learning processes. Learning contract is slowly gaining ground also to the area of formal education. Learning contract is an agreement in writing between two people, where one of them offers advice, the other undertakes the learning process. How do we prepare the agreement, who is responsible for its preparation and execution? Learning contract in writing explains objectives, techniques, strategies and how the learning process will be assessed. At the same time, learning is also limited in time. It is a strong motivational took, since it comprises needs of an individual and is adapted to the interests and learning style of a particular individual. This is especially suitable method for acquiring competencies, for field work and experiential learning at work. Learning contract is very suitable and efficient also for independent academical studies, especially when combined with the method of discussion.

  20. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  1. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  2. Stabilizing posture through imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Eleonora; Manzoni, Diego; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the general population, suppression of vision modulates body sway by increasing the center of pressure (CoP) velocity, while a light fingertip touch reduces the area of the CoP displacement in blindfolded subjects. This study assessed whether imagined fixation and fingertip touch differentially stabilize posture in subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. Visual and tactile imageries were ineffective in lows. In highs, the effects of visual imagery could not be evaluated because the real information was ineffective; real tactile stimulation was effective only on velocity, but the imagery effects could not be definitely assessed owing to low effect size. The highs' larger variability could account for this and represents the most important finding.

  3. Postural control in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Yumi Fukunaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease. Objective: To evaluate postural balance in Parkinson's disease. Methods: Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease were compared with controls using Tetrax™ interactive balance system posturography. Results: For different positions, patients with Parkinson's disease showed a significantly higher weight distribution index, fall index, Fourier transformation at low-medium frequencies (F2–F4, and significantly lower right/left and toe/heel synchronization versus controls. Conclusion: Postural imbalance in Parkinson's disease patients is characterized by the abnormalities of weight distribution index, synchronization index, Fourier transformation index, and fall index as measured by Tetrax™ posturography.

  4. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  5. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas; Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-01-01

    ...; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a) questionnaire; (b) a checkerboard; (c) postural chart; (d) measure tape; (e) camera and (f) pedoscope were used as instrument...

  6. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  7. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...

  8. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 2. Gliding flight in the California gull, Larus californicus: a paradox of fast fibers and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A; Mathias, E

    1997-09-01

    Gliding flight is a postural activity which requires the wings to be held in a horizontal position to support the weight of the body. Postural behaviors typically utilize isometric contractions in which no change in length takes place. Due to longer actin-myosin interactions, slow contracting muscle fibers represent an economical means for this type of contraction. In specialized soaring birds, such as vultures and pelicans, a deep layer of the pectoralis muscle, composed entirely of slow fibers, is believed to perform this function. Muscles involved in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow fibers using myosin ATPase histochemistry and antibodies. Surprisingly small numbers of slow fibers were found in the M. extensor metacarpi radialis, M. coracobrachialis cranialis, and M. coracobrachialis caudalis, which function in wrist extension, wing protraction, and body support, respectively. The low number of slow fibers in these muscles and the absence of slow fibers in muscles associated with wing extension and primary body support suggest that gulls do not require slow fibers for their postural behaviors. Gulls also lack the deep belly to the pectoralis found in other gliding birds. Since bird muscle is highly oxidative, we hypothesize that fast muscle fibers may function to maintain wing position during gliding flight in California gulls.

  9. Strategic Posture and Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    IT-enabled innovations are of increasing importance for competitive success in a rangeto develop associated competencies -in-house and/or through outsourcing - consequential for creating and sustaining competitive advantage. Against the backdrop of the importance of IT-enabled innovation, the key...

  10. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  11. Is there an association between variables of postural control and strength in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    Is there an association between variables of postural control and strength in adolescents? The risk of sustaining sport injuries is particularly high in adolescents. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength represent 2 important intrinsic injury risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of static and dynamic postural control and isometric and dynamic muscle strength and to find out whether there is an association between measures of postural control and muscle strength. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 16.8 ± 0.6 years; body mass index 20.5 ± 1.8 kg · m(-2)). Biomechanic tests included the measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force (MIF) and rate of force development (RFDmax) of the leg extensors on a leg press with the feet resting on a force platform, vertical jumping force, and height (countermovement jump [CMJ]) on a force plate and the assessment of static (1-legged stance on a balance platform) and dynamic (mediolateral perturbation impulse on a balance platform) postural control. The significance level was set at p postural control. Significant positive correlations were detected between variables of isometric and dynamic muscle strength with r-values ranging from 0.441 to 0.779 (p postural control and muscle strength. The nonsignificant correlation between static/dynamic postural control and muscle strength implies that primarily dynamic measures of postural control should be incorporated in injury risk assessment and that postural control and muscle strength are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementary for lower extremity injury prevention and rehabilitation purposes.

  12. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  13. The implication of upright posture on pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K T; Deckardt, R

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant women spend more than half of the day in an upright position. The physiological effects of this posture on the mother and the fetus are evaluated. Changes in vascular autoregulation and anatomy lead to maternal fainting in about 8% of women during early pregnancy. The immediate effects of such episodes on the fetus are unknown. There is a positive correlation of orthostatic dysregulations and abortions. In late pregnancy we found a significant increase in functional residual capacity in the upright posture. Minute volume and oxygen consumption were also significantly increase (p less than 0.001). Regarding the cardiovascular changes we detected a rhythmic change of the maternal heart rate with the change to upright position, which had not been published before. Change from the left lateral position to unsupported standing increased maternal heart rate by a mean of 27 beats per minute and a mean duration of 105 seconds in two thirds of the women. This was accompanied by a decreased cardiac output, systolic blood pressure and an increased oxygen consumption. The gravid uterus is responsible for these changes. During the upright position, the venous flow to the right ventricle is inhibited by the relaxed uterus. Contractions, leaning forward and the muscle pump improve the venous return. The phenomenon reached its maximum during the 38th week, where 71% of pregnant women displayed a cyclic change in heart rate. The fetal heart rate baseline is significantly increased in the upright position with a significantly reduced acceleration frequency (p less than 0.001). Combined with the data from epidemiologic studies, prolonged standing during late pregnancy may signal potential risks for the fetus such as low birth weight, prematurity and stillbirths because of an 'uterovascular syndrome'. Maternal standing possibly may be used as a physiological fetal stress test.

  14. Back posture and low back muscle activity in female computer workers: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2009-02-01

    Few studies have investigated sitting posture and low back muscle activity in occupational settings. This study aims to determine back posture and its influence on low back muscle activity in computer workers, and to investigate whether the work situation is associated with exacerbation of low back pain. Twenty-one female computer workers participated. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from lumbar multifidus, longissimus, and iliocostalis throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from pelvis, upper trunk, and left thigh were used to determine back posture and identify periods with sitting, standing, and walking. Low back pain intensity was recorded by visual analogue scale every hour throughout the work and leisure periods. All subjects adopted a markedly flexed back posture while seated at work. Surface electromyographic activity was very low for all muscles during sitting (group median Back posture moderately influenced electromyographic activity, accounting for 19% (sitting) to 38% (standing) of intra-individual variation in muscle activity. Subjects reporting aggravating low back pain (n=10) during the workday were not distinguished by duration of sitting, sitting posture, or low back muscle activity. Low back pain was markedly reduced from the last hour of work to the first hour of leisure, accompanied by an increase in low back muscle activity. Low back muscle activity was very low during seated posture, presumably due to the flexion-relaxation phenomenon. Sustained stretch of passive lumbar structures in combination with essentially silent muscles may exacerbate low back pain in sedentary workers.

  15. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  16. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina Oliveira de; Voos,Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  17. Measuring Postural Sway in Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...... group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...

  18. A pinned polymer model of posture control

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C C; Chow, Carson C; Collins, J J

    1995-01-01

    A phenomenological model of human posture control is posited. The dynamics are modelled as an elastically pinned polymer under the influence of noise. The model accurately reproduces the two-point correlation functions of experimental posture data and makes predictions for the response function of the postural control system. The physiological and clinical significance of the model is discussed.

  19. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  20. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  1. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  2. 41 CFR 102-76.50 - What is sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.50 What is sustainable development? Sustainable... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is sustainable development? 102-76.50 Section 102-76.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  3. The effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behavior: a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela; Abbott, J Haxby; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Feasibility randomized controlled trial. To assess the feasibility of a trial to investigate the effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor as a feedback device for modifying postural behavior during daily work-related activities. Frequent or sustained flexed postures play a role in the development or maintenance of nonspecific low back pain. The provision of postural feedback could help individuals with or at risk of nonspecific low back pain improve their postural awareness and avoid hazardous or pain-provoking postures. Sixty-two participants employed in a health care organization were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: a control group, an intermittent feedback group, and a constant feedback group. Adherence and follow-up rates were assessed. Differences in postural pattern between baseline and follow-up measurements were used to assess the effectiveness of the lumbopelvic monitor as a postural feedback device. Adherence was approximately 75%. With the exception of 1 center, the follow-up overall rates exceeded the a priori desired threshold of 80%. Within-group comparisons revealed no significant differences in postural pattern for the control group and intermittent feedback group. The constant feedback group showed a significant reduction in flexed posture at the follow-up period compared with the baseline period. Differences between groups did not reach statistical significance; however, the constant feedback group, compared with the control group, demonstrated an effect size (d) of 0.60. The provision of constant postural feedback seems promising for promoting changes in postural behavior. This feasibility trial identified adherence and follow-up rates and sample-size estimates important to the conduct of a fully powered efficacy trial. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b-.

  4. The Contribution of Pre-impact Posture on Restrained Occupant Finite Element Model Response in Frontal Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Nie, Bingbing; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of the pre-impact posture to the response of a finite element human body model (HBM) in frontal impacts. This study uses previously published cadaveric tests (PMHS), which measured six realistic pre-impact postures. Seven postured models were created from the THUMS occupant model (v4.0): one matching the standard UMTRI driving posture as it was the target posture in the experiments, and six matching the measured pre-impact postures. The same measurements as those obtained during the cadaveric tests were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation (CORA) were established to compare the response of the seven models to the experiments. The HBM responses showed good agreement with the PMHS responses for the reaction forces (CORA = 0.80 ± 0.05) and the kinematics of the lower part of the torso but only fair correlation was found with the head, the upper spine, rib strains (CORA= 0.50 ± 0.05) and chest deflections (CORA = 0.67 ± 0.08). All models sustained rib fractures, sternal fracture and clavicle fracture. The average number of rib fractures for all the models was 5.3 ± 1.0, lower than in the experiments (10.8 ± 9.0). Variation in pre-impact posture greatly altered the time histories of the reaction forces, deflections and the rib strains, mainly in terms of time delay, but no definite improvement in HBM response or injury prediction was observed. By modifying only the posture of the HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments. The postured HBM sustained from 4 to 8 rib fractures, confirming that the pre-impact posture influenced the injury outcome predicted by the simulation. This study tries to answer an important question: what is the effect of occupant posture on kinematics and kinetics. Significant differences in kinematics observed between HBM and PMHS suggesting more coupling between the pelvis

  5. A small sample test of the factor structure of postural movement and bilateral motor integration using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chung-Hui; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wu, Pei-Fang; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Yeung, Kwok-Tak

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory. Participants in this study were 61 Chinese children ages 48 to 70 months. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess the relation between measures tapping postural movement and bilateral motor integration: for postural movement, the measures involve the Monkey Task, Side-Sit Co-contraction, Prone on Elbows, Wheelbarrow Walk, Airplane, and Scooter Board Co-contraction from the DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration, and Standing Balance with Eyes Closed/Opened in Southern California Sensory Integration Tests. For bilateral motor integration, the measures chosen were the Rolling Pin Activity, Jump and Turn, Diadokokinesis, Drumming, and Upper Extremity Control from the DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration, and Cross the Midline in Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT). Postural movement was highly correlated with the bilateral motor integration. The factor structure fit the theoretical conceptualization, classifying postural movement and bilateral motor integration together in the same category. Therapists could combine two separate objectives (postural movement and bilateral motor integration) of intervention in an activity to improve the adaptive skills based on the vestibular-proprioceptive integration.

  6. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  7. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    neoclassical theory to be classified as financial, physical, legal, human, organizational, informational, and relational. Each firm will have some...social science theories applicable to contracting research, identify a contracting paradigm (or paradigms) and potential contracting theories and...principles, examine the nature of contracting research and practice, and present thoughts and ideas toward a general theory of contracting which, hopefully

  8. Postural Synergies and Their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Latash

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of a particular approach to analyzing motor synergies based on the principle of motor abundance has allowed a quantitative assessment of multieffector coordination in motor tasks involving anticipatory adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations and in voluntary posturalsway. This approach, the uncontrolled manifold (UCM hypothesis, is based on an assumption that the central nervous system organizes covariation of elemental variables to stabilize important performance variables in a task-specific manner. In particular, this approach has been used to demonstrate and to assess the emergence of synergies and their modification with motor practice in typical persons and persons with Down syndrome. The framework of the UCM hypothesis allows the formulation of testable hypotheses with respect to developing postural synergies in typically and atypically developing persons.

  9. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  10. Postural Control in Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Abbas Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the reliability of static control evaluation with Synapsys Posturography System (SPS, Marseille, France and to compare the static postural control of deaf children with typically developing children. This study was conducted in 2 phases on 81 children of 7 to 12 years old in Tehran schools. The first phase examined the reliability of static balance evaluation with SPS. In this phase, a total of 12 children with typical development were evaluated and then do a re-test 1 week later. In the second phase, 30 children with profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and high risk in their balance (selected from Baghcheban Schools for the Deaf as the experimental group, and 37 children with typical development (selected randomly from 2 primary schools for girls and boys in District 12 of Tehran Department of Education as control group were enrolled in the study. They were all placed under sensory organization test evaluation. Based on the results of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the unilateral random effects model, test-retest reliability in different sensory conditions, the moderate to excellent results were obtained (ICC between 0.68 and 0.94. Also, the mean displacement of pressure center in all sensory conditions, the limits of stability (LOS area, the overall balance scores, and scores for balance sensory ratio (except the somatosensory ratio of children with typical development were better than the deaf peers (P˂0.05. The SPS has acceptable reliability to evaluate static posture in children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Furthermore, deaf children as compared to children with typical development had a lower static postural control in all sensory conditions. This finding confirms the need to examine the postural control for identifying the extent of sensory deficit that has caused poor balance function, and also the need for early intervention to address the balance deficit in deaf

  11. Postural control in underachieving students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz, Andreza; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Kessler, Natalia; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2014-04-01

    Postural balance is a sensory-motor function resulting from a learning process. To evaluate the postural control of underachieving students through static posturography together with virtual reality stimulation. This was a controlled cross-sectional study of a group of 51 underachieving students and a control group of 60 students with good school performance, with no history of vestibular disorders or neurotological complaints, volunteers from the community, age- and gender-matched. The students were submitted to Balance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU™) posturography. A total of 111 students aged 7 to 12 years old were evaluated. At posturography evaluation, there was no significant difference between the limit of stability area (cm2) of the control group and the experimental group. The comparison between groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p center of pressure area (cm2) in the ten sensory conditions evaluated. Posturography with virtual reality stimulation, allows for the identification of incapacity to maintain postural control, with or without visual deprivation, and the assessment of visual, somatosensory, and vestibular-visual interaction conflict in underachieving students.

  12. Systematic review of postural control and lateral ankle instability, part II: is balance training clinically effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay

    2008-01-01

    To answer the following clinical questions: (1) Can prophylactic balance and coordination training reduce the risk of sustaining a lateral ankle sprain? (2) Can balance and coordination training improve treatment outcomes associated with acute ankle sprains? (3) Can balance and coordination training improve treatment outcomes in patients with chronic ankle instability? PubMed and CINAHL entries from 1966 through October 2006 were searched using the terms ankle sprain, ankle instability, balance, chronic ankle instability, functional ankle instability, postural control, and postural sway. Only studies assessing the influence of balance training on the primary outcomes of risk of ankle sprain or instrumented postural control measures derived from testing on a stable force plate using the modified Romberg test were included. Studies had to provide results for calculation of relative risk reduction and numbers needed to treat for the injury prevention outcomes or effect sizes for the postural control measures. We calculated the relative risk reduction and numbers needed to treat to assess the effect of balance training on the risk of incurring an ankle sprain. Effect sizes were estimated with the Cohen d for comparisons of postural control performance between trained and untrained groups. Prophylactic balance training substantially reduced the risk of sustaining ankle sprains, with a greater effect seen in those with a history of a previous sprain. Completing at least 6 weeks of balance training after an acute ankle sprain substantially reduced the risk of recurrent ankle sprains; however, consistent improvements in instrumented measures of postural control were not associated with training. Evidence is lacking to assess the reduction in the risk of recurrent sprains and inconclusive to demonstrate improved instrumented postural control measures in those with chronic ankle instability who complete balance training. Balance training can be used prophylactically or after

  13. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K.; Giuliani, C.; Marshall, S.; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  14. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  15. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is there an association between variables of postural control and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sustaining falls and sports-related injuries is particularly high in children. Deficits in balance and muscle strength represent 2 important intrinsic fall and injury-risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of static and dynamic postural control and isometric and dynamic muscle strength and to find out whether there is an association between measures of postural control and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Thirty children participated in this study (age 6.7 ± 0.5 years; body mass index 16.0 ± 1.8 kg·m(-2)). Biomechanic tests included the measurements of maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, jumping power and height (countermovement jump [CMJ]) on a force plate, and the assessment of static and dynamic posture during bipedal stance on a balance platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. No significant associations were observed between variables of static and dynamic postural control. Significant positive correlations were detected between the RFD of the plantar flexors and CMJ height (r = 0.425, p < 0.01). No statistically significant associations were found between measures of postural control and muscle strength. The nonsignificant correlations between static and dynamic postural control and muscle strength imply that primarily dynamic measures of postural control should be incorporated in fall and injury-risk assessment and that postural control and muscle strength appear to be independent of each other and may have to be trained in a complementary manner for fall and injury-preventive purposes.

  17. Effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behaviour: a protocol for the ELF cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the most common, costly and disabling musculoskeletal disorder worldwide, and is prevalent in healthcare workers. Posture is a modifiable risk factor for LBP shown to reduce the prevalence of LBP. Our feasibility research suggests that postural feedback might help healthcare workers avoid hazardous postures. The Effectiveness of Lumbopelvic Feedback (ELF) trial will investigate the extent to which postural monitor and feedback (PMF) can reduce exposure to hazardous posture associated with LBP. Methods This is a participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial with blocked cluster random allocation. Participants will include volunteer healthcare workers recruited from aged care institutions and hospitals. A postural monitoring and feedback device will monitor and record lumbopelvic forward bending posture, and provide audio feedback whenever the user sustains a lumbopelvic forward bending posture that exceeds predefined thresholds. The primary outcome measure will be postural behaviour (exceeding thresholds). Secondary outcome measures will be incidence of LBP, participant-reported disability and adherence. Following baseline assessment, we will randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 intervention arms: a feedback group and a no-feedback control group. We will compare between-group differences of changes in postural behaviour by using a repeated measures mixed-effect model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 6 weeks. Postural behaviour baseline scores, work-related psychosocial factors and disability scores will be input as covariates into the statistical models. We will use logistic mixed model analysis and Cox's proportional hazards for assessing the effect of a PMF on LBP incidence between groups. Discussion Posture is a modifiable risk factor for low back disorders. Findings from the ELF trial will inform the design of future clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of wearable technology on minimising hazardous posture

  18. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  19. THORACIC KYPHOSIS TREATED WITH GLOBAL POSTURAL REEDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, Marisa de Castro

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the case of a patient subjected to physical therapy who had thoracic kyphosis of 55 degrees, chronic lumbar pain, and other postural deviations. The physical therapeutic treatment used was the technique of Global Posture Reeducation (RPG), aiming at morphological corrections and pain relief. The results obtained demonstrated improvement concerning the postural aspect, decrease of 16 degrees in the thoracic kyphosis and remission of the pain.

  20. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    , National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense   INTRODUCTION: Poor postural balance control (stability) is one of the major risk factors for falling. If individuals at risk of falling are to be identified...... at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... effectively demonstrate differences in postural balance control between physically active old and young women....

  1. Postural Behavior in Children Born Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Fallang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical followup studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  2. Postural behavior in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallang, Bjørg; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  3. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  4. An analysis of the training and development of the contract specialist 1102 interns

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Pamela; Pettygrue, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Joint Applied Project This thesis analyzed the U.S. Army Contracting Command (ACC) training and development programs for contract specialists (1102s). Involvement in two wars has generated unintended consequences in the contracting community, which may be adversely affecting the Army's ability to meet and sustain its contracting responsibilities, e.g., an expanding contracting mission accompanied by substantial attrition of experienced contracting professionals. The study analyzed 11...

  5. Postural control in sitting children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogren, E; Hadders-Algra, M; Forssberg, H

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) display postural problems, largely interfering with daily life activities. Clarification of neural mechanisms controlling posture in these children could serve as a base for more successful intervention. Studies on postural adjustments following horizontal forward

  6. Monocular versus binocular vision in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotalo, Elina; Kapoula, Zoi; Feret, Pierre-Henri; Gauchon, Karine; Zamfirescu, Françoise; Gagey, Pierre-Marie

    2004-03-01

    In previous studies about the control of posture there have been controversial findings. Our aim was to examine the role of monocular and binocular vision in controlling posture in quiet stance. Twenty-eight normal subjects were tested. We used a force platform in measuring postural stability. In main experiment, postural stability was measured in four conditions: both eyes open (BEO), dominant eye open (DEO) non-dominant eye open (NDEO), and both eyes closed (BEC). In a further experiment, 11 subjects were tested in conditions where a vertical prism was placed in front of dominant eye. Prism was strong enough to cause diplopia. Our interest was to see, if diplopia affected the balance. In main experiment, at level of group the body-sway in any of the three ocular (viewing) conditions did not differ from each other. At level of individuals, binocular vision was more effective on controlling posture in only half of subjects. In prism experiment, relative to normal binocular viewing the postural stability was modified in both prism conditions, but there was no difference between monocular and binocular viewing with prism. In quiet stance and in subjects with perfect binocular vision and stereopsis, the benefit out of binocular viewing in postural stability is subject-dependent. At the level of group, monocular vision provides equally good postural stability as binocular vision.

  7. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  8. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  9. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  10. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  11. Evaluation of head and neck postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the literature and two experiments on the evaluation of head and neck postures. It is concluded that health and safety professiona1s and ergonomists during posture evaluation should consider neck flexion/extension (head vs. trunk), besides the traditionally used inclination of

  12. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  13. Policies Governing Military Food Service Contracts Effect Soldier Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Often Soldiers providing these functions serve in alternative roles as truck drivers, guards or guardians in the form of contracting officer technical ...officer technical representatives of these outsourced facilities. Commanders endorse these temporary increases of capability, because of the... Culinary Center of Excellence1 When the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the Army drafted the 2010 Army Posture Statement and stated, “The Army must

  14. EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL CONTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Florea; Constantin Giurca

    2014-01-01

    The contract is a legal instrument used to organize economic and social life. International trade agreement has certain features in order to ensure the international exchange of goods and services between the Contracting Parties. In terms of commercial contract, there is a foreign origin element, that gives the parties the right to determine the law to govern the contract. A fundamental aspect of commercial contract, in addition to that of determining the law applicable to judicial report est...

  15. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  16. Effects of Exercise Therapy on Postural Instability in Parkinson Disease: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamroth, Sarah; Steib, Simon; Devan, Surendar; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is a common intervention for improving postural stability. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of exercise therapy on postural instability in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) based on the available literature, and to evaluate the efficacy across various types of exercise interventions. In January 2015, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, PEDro) and study reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials with moderate or high methodological quality (PEDro score ≥ 5), investigating the effect of exercise on postural instability in persons with PD. Three reviewers extracted data and assessed quality. Postural stability as measured using the Berg Balance Scale, postural sway, Timed Up and Go, or Functional Reach test. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty-two trials, with a total of 1072 participants, were eligible for inclusion. The pooled estimates of effects showed significantly improved postural instability (SMD, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.36; P exercise therapy, in comparison with no exercise or sham treatment. Exercise interventions specifically addressing components of balance dysfunction demonstrated the largest efficacy, with moderate to high effect sizes (SMD, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.66; P exercise programs (SMD, 0.02; 95% CI -0.20 to 0.25; P = 0.86). Exercise therapies specifically addressing balance dysfunction are an important treatment option for improving postural stability in persons with PD. Future studies should investigate sustainability of the short-term effects and establish the dose-response relationship of balance training in persons with PD.Video abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A121).

  17. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  18. Ensuring sustained user quality in buildings. Success contracting with functional tendering of the building services equipment guarantees quality for 15 years; Nutzerqualitaet in Gebaeuden dauerhaft sicherstellen. Erfolgscontracting mit funktionaler Ausschreibung ermoeglicht eine 15-jaehrige Garantie auf die Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Until now, buildings regularly require more energy and provide less user quality in practice than was to be expected from the installed technology during the planning. That has structural reasons. The naerco research project has investigated this aspect and developed the success contracting concept: pre-defined energy and quality parameters are contracted out as part of a function-based tender. A contractor guarantees their realisation for 15 years. The contractual process also includes continual control of the agreed values and a bonus-malus system.

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-7 - Sustainable acquisition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management, and Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance... Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings (Guiding Principles) shall be achieved through... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

  20. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Ya; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP), radial deviation (RD), and ulnar deviation (UD). The root mean square (RMS) of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint.

  1. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ya Lee

    Full Text Available The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP, radial deviation (RD, and ulnar deviation (UD. The root mean square (RMS of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC, normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint.

  2. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  3. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S

    2014-01-01

    reports the results of the secondary objective, which was to increase the understanding of possible mechanisms underlying such neck pain and its intervention-related relief. METHODS: In a parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 55 F-16 pilots were evaluated at baseline and randomized......BACKGROUND: During maneuvering, fighter pilots experience loads of up to 50-70 kg on their necks. Neck disorders are common and have been linked to impairment in muscle control. We conducted an intervention study introducing targeted training for 24 wk that reduced neck pain. The current study...... to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. RESULTS: At follow...

  4. Dental occlusion and postural control in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Corinne; Dumitrescu, Michel; Giraudeau, Anne; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Cheynet, François; Borel, Liliane

    2009-01-30

    We studied the influence of a dental occlusion perturbation on postural control. The tests were performed in three dental occlusion conditions: (Rest Position: no dental contact, Maximal Intercuspal Occlusion: maximal dental contact, and Thwarted Laterality Occlusion: simulation of a dental malocclusion) and four postural conditions: static (stable platform) and dynamic (unstable platform), with eyes open and eyes closed. A decay of postural control was noted between the Rest Position and Thwarted Laterality Occlusion conditions with regard to average speed and power indexes in dynamic conditions and with eyes closed. However, the head position and stabilization were not different from those in the other experimental conditions, which means that the same functional goal was reached with an increase in the total energetic cost. This work shows that dental occlusion differently affects postural control, depending on the static or dynamic conditions. Indeed, dental occlusion impaired postural control only in dynamic postural conditions and in absence of visual cues. The sensory information linked to the dental occlusion comes into effect only during difficult postural tasks and its importance grows as the other sensory cues become scarce.

  5. BODY POSTURE OF STUDENTS SIXTH GRADE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Beganović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether, how and to what extent present irregular posture of students in the sixth grade. The study was conducted on a sample of 60 students, aged from 11-12 years. Testing was conducted in elementary school, "Kovačići" in Sarajevo. Diagnosing the condition of keeping the body was carried by Napoleon Wolanskog criteria (1975, which is based on determining the dimensions of segmented in mutual relations, as follows: D1 - keeping the head (ODG, D2 - keeping your shoulders (ODR, D3 - holding breasts (ODGR , D4 - keeping the blades (ODL, D5 - keeping the spine (ODC, D6 - keeping the abdomen (ODTR, D7 - keeping legs (ODN, D8 - keeping feet (ODS. Analyzing measurements of posture can be concluded that 3 or 5% of students have excellent posture, 15 or 25% of pupils have very good posture, 33 or 55% of students have good posture, 8, or 13% of pupils have poor posture, and 1 or 2% of students have very bad posture.

  6. Confounders of vasovagal syncope: postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwazue, Victor C; Raj, Satish R

    2013-02-01

    Most patients who present to a cardiologist with syncope have vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice often also sees patients with postural tachycardia syndrome, often presenting with severe recurrent presyncope. Recognition of this syncope confounder might be difficult without adequate knowledge of their presentation, and this can adversely affect optimal management. Postural tachycardia syndrome can often be differentiated from vasovagal syncope by its hemodynamic pattern during tilt table test and differing clinical characteristics. This article reviews the presentation of postural tachycardia syndrome and its putative pathophysiology and presents an approach to nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contingency Contracting Customer Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    deployed contracting officer to train individual customers on the process, the customer support guide provides the necessary explanations without...straining valuable manpower resources. The Contracting Deployment Customer Guide aids the customer in contingency situations and addresses purchase requests

  8. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  9. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Goulème; Christophe-Loïc Gérard; Maria Pia Bucci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dys...

  10. Neutral lumbar spine sitting posture in pain-free subjects

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP o...

  11. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Deed E; Normand Martin C; Descarreaux Martin; Lafond Danik

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet databas...

  12. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  13. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaee, Fateme; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Manshadi, Farideh D; Naimi, Sedigheh S; Baghban, Alireza A; Azimi, Hadi

    Forward head posture (FHP) is a forward positioning of the head relative to the trunk in the sagittal plane. This posture is one of the most prevalent poor postures in patients with head and neck pain. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) is a reliable method to objectively evaluate muscle thickness and function. To compare thickness of cervical muscles that control both head and neck posture between asymptomatic women with and without FHP. Seventy asymptomatic women aged between 20 and 40 years, with and without FHP (35 in each group), participated in the study. The thickness of the cervical muscles (rectus capitis posterior - RCP, oblique capitis superior - OCS, semispinalis capitis - SSC, sternocleidomastoid - SCM, and longus coli - LCo) was measured using RUSI and the data was compared between the two groups. The comparison of cervical muscle thickness between women with and without FHP revealed significant difference only with regard to the muscle thickness of the SCM muscle (mean difference: 0.7mm, 95% confidence interval of the difference: 0.14, 1.26mm, p value: 0.014). The thickness of this muscle was greater in women with FHP. Tonic contraction of the SCM muscle can lead to greater thickness of this muscle in subjects with FHP. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Peter; VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using th...

  15. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, A.; Crane, YZ; Menz, HB

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual ...

  16. Confounders of Vasovagal Syncope: Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nwazue, Victor C.; Raj, Satish R.

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who present to a cardiologist with syncope will have vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice will often also see patients with postural tachycardia syndrome, often presenting with severe recurrent presyncope. Recognition of this “syncope confounder” might be difficult without adequate knowledge of their presentation, and this can adversely affect optimal management. Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome exhibit an excessive increase in heart rate ≥ 30 bpm withi...

  17. Ways to influence amateur's athletes postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Jan FIŠER

    2016-01-01

    Title Ways to influence amateur s athletes postural stability Objectives The aim of this study is to describe the selected parameters of body composition and postural stability of the amateur s athletes (floorball players) group and to assess the efficiency of short-term intervention exercise based on senzomotor stimulation, acral coactivation therapy and plyometrics. Methods This work is a descriptive work, one part of it is the intervention. Two groups of amateur s athletes (floorball playe...

  18. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new...... theoretical ‘contract management model' and a ‘mature contract model', and explores the mechanisms, formal rules and informal norms that influence the way governments contract for public services. This book is essential reading for all students of public management and all public service managers....

  19. PALMILHAS PROPRIOCEPTIVAS PARA O CONTROLE POSTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Madia Mantovani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The postural control and balance depend of the sensory system and musculoskeletal biomechanics being the feet one of the main sensors of the sensory system. The aim were to evaluate postural control and plantar pressures before, during and after the use of proprioceptive insoles. Participated 15 subjects, age 19,62,1 years old, and body mass índex (BMI of 24,45,4 kg/m2. Postural assessment values have been measured the arrows on the spine curvature, followed by analysis of plantar pressures and measures for pedobarometricstabilometric for measuring of displacement of center of pressure before, during andafter the use of insoles. In the results we saw normal arrows post insole plantar pressureand stabilometry not statistically significant after its use. Conclued that after using these insole, was saw an adequate postural realignment, probably due to adequate muscle and posture tonedemonstrating the importance of assessing the captor podal for understanding postural disordens.

  20. Dental occlusion and posture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Ambra; Buonocore, Gerarda; Manzo, Paolo; Pellegrino, Gioacchino; Farella, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been suggested that disorders of the masticatory system such as malocclusions, can influence whole body posture. A growing number of patients are seeking concomitant treatment for dental malocclusions and postural disorders. The aim of this overview is to critically analyze the relationship between dental occlusion and posture. A literature overview was carried out to analyze the association between "malocclusion" versus "head posture", "spine curvature", and "body sway". The studies showed that even if some associations have been found between occlusal factors and postural alterations, there is not enough scientific evidence to support a cause-effect relations. Most studies suffer from major flaws such as lack of control groups, failure to take into account for the possible confounders, inappropriate study design, and lack of sufficient reliability and validity of used diagnostic tests. On the basis of this overview, it is not advisable to perform occlusal and/or orthodontic treatment, especially if irreversible and expensive, to treat or prevent postural imbalances or alteration of spine curvatures. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Contracts in distributed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bartoletti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a parametric calculus for contract-based computing in distributed systems. By abstracting from the actual contract language, our calculus generalises both the contracts-as-processes and contracts-as-formulae paradigms. The calculus features primitives for advertising contracts, for reaching agreements, and for querying the fulfilment of contracts. Coordination among principals happens via multi-party sessions, which are created once agreements are reached. We present two instances of our calculus, by modelling contracts as (i processes in a variant of CCS, and (ii as formulae in a logic. With the help of a few examples, we discuss the primitives of our calculus, as well as some possible variants.

  2. Age-related changes in posture control are differentially affected by postural and cognitive task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Demanze, L; Dumitrescu, M; Jimeno, P; Borel, L; Lacour, M

    2009-07-01

    The simple postural task of quiet standing, which requires minimal attentional resources, is generally paired with cognitive activity. Competition for attentional resources is a consequence of simultaneously performing balance tasks and cognitive tasks, and impairment of attentional resource allocation with aging leads to increased risks of fall. We investigated age-related changes in posture control during dual task performance, using a paradigm that crossed a static (quiet standing) and a dynamic (keeping balance on a translational force plate) postural task and cognitive tasks of low demand (mental arithmetic) and high demand (spatial memory). Postural performance was analyzed through center-of-pressure displacements using both statistical (body sway area/sway velocity) and nonlinear (wavelet transform) methods in three age groups (younger, middle-aged, and older healthy participants). Results showed that 1) the nonlinear analysis method was more sensitive than the traditional approach in distinguishing performance between age groups, a result that explains discrepancies in the dual-task literature; 2) dual-tasking costs were dependent on both postural task difficulty and cognitive task complexity, corroborating previous investigations; 3) younger adults improved their postural performance during dual-tasking, but older adults lowered their performance; 4) balance recovery strategies in the dynamic postural task appeared to differ in younger versus older adults. Together, our findings on dual-tasking can be interpreted within the conceptual frame of task prioritization: shifting attention away from postural task automates posture control in the younger adults, whereas prioritization of postural task and selection of compensatory strategy are the main characteristics of posture control in the older population.

  3. Neuromuscular fatigue following isometric contractions with similar torque time integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozand, V; Cattagni, T; Theurel, J; Martin, A; Lepers, R

    2015-01-01

    Torque time integral (TTI) is the combination of intensity and duration of a contraction. The aim of this study was to compare neuromuscular alterations following different isometric sub-maximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles but with similar TTI. Sixteen participants performed 3 sustained contractions at different intensities (25%, 50%, and 75% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) torque) with different durations (68.5±33.4 s, 35.1±16.8 s and 24.8±12.9 s, respectively) but similar TTI value. MVC torque, maximal voluntary activation level (VAL), M-wave characteristics and potentiated doublet amplitude were assessed before and immediately after the sustained contractions. EMG activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) and -rectus femoris (RF) muscles was recorded during the sustained contractions. MVC torque reduction was similar in the 3 conditions after the exercise (-23.4±2.7%). VAL decreased significantly in a similar extent (-3.1±1.3%) after the 3 sustained contractions. Potentiated doublet amplitude was similarly reduced in the 3 conditions (-19.7±1.5%), but VL and RF M-wave amplitudes remained unchanged. EMG activity of VL and RF muscles increased in the same extent during the 3 contractions (VL: 54.5±40.4%; RF: 53.1±48.7%). These results suggest that central and peripheral alterations accounting for muscle fatigue are similar following isometric contractions with similar TTI. TTI should be considered in the exploration of muscle fatigue during sustained isometric contractions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Trait dominance promotes reflexive staring at masked angry body postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Hortensius

    Full Text Available It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger.

  5. Chaos in balance: non-linear measures of postural control predict individual variations in visual illusions of motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Apthorp

    Full Text Available Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance. Subsequently, we collected vection strength ratings for large optic flow displays while seated, using both verbal ratings and online throttle measures. We also collected measures of postural sway (changes in anterior-posterior CoP in response to the same visual motion stimuli while standing on the plate. The magnitude of standing sway in response to expanding optic flow (in comparison to blank fixation periods was predictive of both verbal and throttle measures for seated vection. In addition, the ratio between eyes-open and eyes-closed CoP excursions during quiet stance (using the area of postural sway significantly predicted seated vection for both measures. Interestingly, these relationships were weaker for contracting optic flow displays, though these produced both stronger vection and more sway. Next we used a non-linear analysis (recurrence quantification analysis, RQA of the fluctuations in anterior-posterior position during quiet stance (both with eyes closed and eyes open; this was a much stronger predictor of seated vection for both expanding and contracting stimuli. Given the complex multisensory integration involved in postural control, our study adds to the growing evidence that non-linear measures drawn from complexity theory may provide a more informative measure of postural sway than the conventional linear measures.

  6. [Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, R G; Khairullin, I Kh; Mukhametova, E R; Esin, O R

    2017-01-01

    To study persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD) in outpatients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and patients with presbiataxia (PAt). Eighty-four patients with PPPD, including 14 with Meniere's disease (MD), 19 with BPPV, 17 with a history of ischemic stroke (IS) in the vertebrobasilar system and 34 with Pat, were examined. For the diagnosis of anxiety, the original 15-point questionnaire with the Likert Scale structure was used. Patients received anvifen (aminophenylbutyric acid hydrochloride) in dose of 250 mg 3 times a day for 6 weeks. Results and сonclusion. The most common trigger of PPPD was sleep deprivation. The highest level of anxiety was identified in the PAt group (19,5±2,89). There was a good effect of the drug: it reduced anxiety in all patients studied. The quality of sleep was improved as well. The authors recommend anvifen as the drug of choice in patients with PPPD during vestibular rehabilitation and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

  7. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  8. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  9. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavenka, Thomas M; Christner, Vanessa F K; Gregory, Diane E

    2017-07-01

    Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given). The retracted neck resulted in less lumbar spine flexion and increased lumbar erector spinae, external oblique, and sternocleidomastoid activity. The retracted posture also resulted in decreased activity in the thoracic erector spinae and dorsal neck musculature. The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body Posture, Postural Stability, and Metabolic Age in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Jacek; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Mucha, Dariusz; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Mucha, Dawid

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the relationship between body posture and composition, as well as postural stability in Parkinson's disease patients. 32 people were evaluated. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Posturology at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce (Poland). Body posture was examined using the optoelectronic body posture Formetric Diers Method III 4D. Postural stability was evaluated using the Biodex Balance System platform. Body composition was assessed with the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis using the Tanita MC 780 MA analyzer. 11 patients (34.37%) had hyperkyphosis, 10 (31.25%) hyperlordosis, and 3 (9.37%) hyperkyphosis-hyperlordosis posture. Scoliosis (>10°) was observed in 28 (87.5%) subjects, whereas 4 (12.5%) presented scoliotic body posture (1-9°). In the examined population, all parameters of postural stability were within normal limits. A significant positive correlation was observed between surface rotation (°), General Stability Index (r = 0.4075, p = 0.0206), and Anteroposterior Stability Index (r = 0.3819, p = 0.0310). There was also a significant positive correlation between surface rotation (+max) (°), General Stability Index (r = 0.3526, p = 0.0206), and Anteroposterior Stability Index (r = 0.3873, p = 0.0285). Metabolic age also presented a significant positive correlation between metabolic age and General Stability Index (r = 0.4057, p = 0.0212), as well as Anteroposterior Stability Index (r = 0.3507, p = 0.0490).

  12. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  13. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  15. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  16. Contracting in crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Z P; Mowry, D D

    1976-01-01

    The use of contracts in the social services is an important area that needs to be looked at. This paper is concerned specifically with the use of contracts in one particular part of social services: crisis intervention. Contracts that define the working relationship between the client and mental health counselor can be beneficial for both when they attempt to solve the problems that contributed to the crisis situation. There are five benefits to be gained from the use of contracts in crisis intervention and they are briefly discussed.

  17. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  18. Assessment of factors that impact on the viability of contract farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research analyses factors that affect the viability of contract farming in the Zimbabwean maize and soya sector. The objective was to analyse how sustainability factors (social, ethical, environmental and economic factors) were integrated to ensure the viability and sustainability of contract ventures. A sample of 70 ...

  19. Back muscle EMG of helicopter pilots in flight: effects of fatigue, vibration, and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Gomes; Nadal, Jurandir

    2004-04-01

    The high prevalence of low back pain in helicopter pilots has been attributed to back muscle fatigue due to a pilot's required posture and/or aircraft vibration. This study investigated the effect of posture and vibration on the surface electromyogram (EMG) of right and left erector spinae (ES) muscles of pilots and evaluated ES fatigue during flight. There were 12 male pilots who were monitored during helicopter flights lasting an average of 2 h. Prior to the flight, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of ES was performed and the EMG was recorded. Vibration was measured at the pilot's seat through a triaxial accelerometer. The effect of posture on EMG was tested by comparing four characteristics of left and right EMG expressed as % MVC. Effect of Z vibration on EMG was investigated by coherence function and through correlation between coherently averaged EMG and Z for the frequencies of the main rotor of the helicopter (1R) and its first harmonic (2R). Fatigue was investigated through median frequencies (MF) of the EMG power spectra. No effect of posture on EMG was found for any parameter (p > 0.05). Data from one pilot suggested an effect of 1R on EMG, but statistical tests revealed this not to be significant (p > 0.05) for any pilot. No fatigue was evidenced by linear regression of MF. While the scientific literature contains the hypothesis that low back pain in helicopter pilots is mainly due to muscle fatigue caused by posture and/or vibration, the present study did not lend support to this hypothesis.

  20. Effect of sustained typing work on changes in scapular position, pressure pain sensitivity and upper trapezius activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sustained computer keyboard typing on the human musculoskeletal system by assessing the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer. Activation of the upper trapezius during 20 minutes of computer keyboard work was measured by electromyography, and four consecutive 5-minute segments were analyzed. The vertical distance from the seventh cervical process to the acromion, and the horizontal distance from the inferior angle to the same level of the spinal process were significantly increased after keyboard typing work compared with before keyboard typing work (ptrapezius activity increased with increased time at the keyboard. The percent reference voluntary contraction of phase 1 (from start to 5 minutes) was lower than those of phase 2 (from 5 to 10 minutes), and phase 3 (from 10 to 15 minutes) (ptrapezius. To prevent musculoskeletal problems in the shoulder region, posture reeducation during computer work should be considered in terms not only of neck and trunk posture, but also of scapular position.

  1. Postural characteristics of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, U; Kohen-Raz, R; Alex, D; Kohen-Raz, A; Azarya, M

    1999-02-01

    the other hand, spectral analysis of sway on stressful positions involving head turning appears to differentiate diabetic neuropathy from other disorders involving postural disturbances.

  2. Reeducation of vergence dynamics improves postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morize, Aurélien; Kapoula, Zoï

    2017-08-24

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of vergence reeducation on postural control, in subjects with isolated vergence disorders. We studied the dynamics of vergence in 19 subjects (20-44 years old) using video-oculography (Eye See Cam). On the basis of orthoptic and symptomatology assessments, ten of the subjects were diagnosed for vergence disorders then vergence eye movements were reeducated with the REMOBI method (US8851669, 5 weekly sessions lasting for 35min). Postural control was measured before and after reeducation, postural recording was done in upright stance (Dynaport), with both eyes closed or open and looking a visual target located at 2m distance. After reeducation with REMOBI, the visual symptomatology faded away and the stereoacuity improved at least for some subjects; the vergence latency decreased significantly and the vergence accuracy increased significantly. In terms of posture, the Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the body sway decreased significantly in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Considering all subjects together (i.e. healthy subjects and subjects with vergence disorders before the reeducation), the antero-posterior body sway (Root Mean Square A/P) was positively correlated with the visual symptomatology: the higher the visual symptomatology, the higher was the body sway. The results bring evidence for synergy between the quality of vergence and the quality of postural control. They open a new research line that bridges the gap between neuroscience, ophthalmology-orthoptics and posturology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  4. Postural instability detection: aging and the complexity of spatial-temporal distributional patterns for virtually contacting the stability boundary in human stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP or center-of-mass (COM fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC, a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a

  5. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  6. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjøgaard Gisela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85 and without (N = 109 neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling and fast (trembling component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81% failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61% (p Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  7. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  8. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  9. Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, F.; Paillard, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the postural performance of two groups of male skiers competing at different levels and the consequences on postural control of the suppression of visual afferences by eye closure.

  10. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  11. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... LBP patients were evaluated. The correlations between CoP measurements and pain, fear of pain, and physical function were poor. There were no significant differences in CoP measurements between patients with no change or deterioration and patients with improvement in pain and back-specific function......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  12. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  13. Contracting out local services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt; Ring Christensen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Governments face a fundamental choice between in-house production and contracting out for the delivery of services to citizens. This article examines the importance of ideology, fiscal pressure, and size for contracting out in technical and social services. The analysis builds on a panel data set...... that the size effect is contingent on the transaction cost characteristics of the service....

  14. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  15. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    -firm linkages) and develop three scenarios for the implications for vendor firms. We find that BOT contracts, under certain circumstances, may imply benefits of process and knowledge upgrading for the emerging market vendor firm. However, given different sets of circumstances, engaging in a BOT contract carries...

  16. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp......Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when...... there is an incomplete contract or reduces transaction costs for renegotiation of complete contracts when new information arises. Design - The study is a cross-sectional design comprising document analysis and interviews. Findings - Firstly that partnering does not necessarily entail more incomplete contracts, which...... contradicts the incomplete contracting theory. Secondly, in complete contract setting partnering can be motivated when seen as a willingness to renegotiate complete contracts i.e. partnering lowers transaction costs for renegotiation. Partnering can make it rational for one party to accept disadvantageous...

  17. Contracting for Telecommunications Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Reasons for changing telephone systems at colleges and universities and the preparation and evaluation of requests for proposals (RFP) are discussed. The negotiation and monitoring of the contract are also addressed. It is noted that contracting for a new telecommunications system is extremely complex. Reasons for changing systems include cost…

  18. Contracting Productivity Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Roberts, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the interactions between growth and the contracting environment in the production sector.Allowing incompleteness in contracting implies that viable production relationships for firms and workers, and therefore the profitability of industries, depend on the rates of

  19. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  20. Contract Training for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes contract training whereby industries arrange with community colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools to prepare employees for specific job assignments. Indicates that industrial training performed under contract with public institutions should be encouraged in favor of expansion of training that industry performs for…

  1. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  2. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan; Bernard C. Jiang; Hardianto Iridiastadi

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed th...

  3. Contribution to contract theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom share the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2016, awarded to them by Sveriges Riksbank. They have been rewarded for their work in enhancing the design of contracts, i.e. arrangements connecting employers with employees or companies with clients, in other words, for their contribution to contract theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions. Hart is an expert in contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His contribution to contract theory is exquisite when it comes to designing contracts which cover eventualities that cannot be precisely specified in advance.

  4. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...... with up to 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts, and provide near optimal solutions. This makes it possible for a major liner shipping company to plan bunker purchasing on a global level, and provides an efficient tool for assessing new contracts....

  5. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  6. The architecture and contraction time of intrinsic foot muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosovic, Danijel; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Glen, Christopher; Gorelick, Mark; Mark Brown, J

    2012-12-01

    Although critical for effective human locomotion and posture, little data exists regarding the segmentation, architecture and contraction time of the human intrinsic foot muscles. To address this issue, the Abductor Hallucis (AH), Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) and Extensor Digitorum Brevis (EDB) were investigated utilizing a cadaveric dissection and a non-invasive whole muscle mechanomyographic (wMMG) technique. The segmental structure and architecture of formaldehyde-fixed foot specimens were determined in nine cadavers aged 60-80 years. The wMMG technique was used to determine the contraction time (Tc) of individual muscle segments, within each intrinsic foot muscle, in 12 volunteers of both genders aged between 19 and 24 years. While the pattern of segmentation and segmental -architecture (e.g. fibre length) and -Tc of individual muscle segments within the same muscle were similar, they varied between muscles. Also, the average whole muscle Tc of FDB was significantly (p muscles investigated (ADM Tc = 72 ms, EDB Tc = 72 ms and ABH Tc = 69 ms). The results suggest that the architecture and contraction time of the FDB reflect its unique direct contribution, through toe flexion, to postural stability and the rapid development of ground reaction forces during forceful activities such as running and jumping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Posture, performance and discomfort in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, J A; Grieve, D W

    1992-04-01

    This study examined changes in posture, discomfort and performance during various stages of pregnancy. Twelve subjects performed a typing task in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Posture was measured using goniometry and comfort was assessed using body-mapping techniques. The subjects showed a marked increase in their angles of trunk inclination and a general increase in discomfort between the second and third trimesters of their pregnancies. All body parts were found to be more uncomfortable in the third trimester and the largest changes occurred in the low back and lower legs. Advancing pregnancy had no effect on typing performance.

  8. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  9. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  10. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  11. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  12. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postural instability causes limitations in daily activities of diabetic patients. There is paucity of data regarding central motor pathway involvement in these patients and its relation to postural control. Aim: To evaluate postural control and centralmotor pathway involvement in type 2 diabetic patients. Subjects and ...

  13. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Postural instability causes limitations in daily activities of diabetic patients. There is paucity of data regarding central motor pathway involvement in these patients and its relation to postural control. Aim: To evaluate postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

  14. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  15. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  16. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Daniel J; Howlett, Neil; Pine, Karen; Tracey, Megan; Moggridge, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The impact of posture on wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers: the San Francisco study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; You, Doohee; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Rempel, David

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of wrist posture on incidence of wrist tendinosis in a prospective cohort of blue-collar workers. Previous studies have identified awkward wrist posture as a risk factor for wrist tendinosis, though the magnitude of the relationship is unclear. Workers (N = 413) at four industries were followed for up to 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months. Individualized exposure assessments of wrist posture were based on video analysis to determine the wrist extension/flexion angle for up to four tasks. Posture measures were calculated while in "heavy pinch" (> 1 kg force), "heavy power grip" (> 4 kg force), and across "all grips." A proportional hazards model estimated the relationship between time-weighted average posture measures and incidence of dominant-side wrist tendinosis. In a model based on tertiles of exposure, adjusted for age, gender, hand force, and repetition of exertions, risk of tendinosis more than doubled in the highest category (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.01-7.21) across all grips. The relative risk was highest during heavy pinch (HR = 5.03, 95% CI = 0.74-34.05), though not statistically significant. Increased median wrist extension while in heavy power grip was protective (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06-0.94). In this study of production workers, median wrist flexion of more than 70, across all grips, was associated with an increased risk of tendinosis. The protective findings on median wrist extension during power grip deserve further investigation. Work tasks and tools should be designed to prevent sustained wrist flexion, especially during tasks involving forceful pinch.

  18. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p < 0.01). However, the risk of failure in unilateral stance was statistically elevated in cleaners with concurrent neck/low back pain compared to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p < 0.01), whereas pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p < 0.01), rambling (p < 0.05) and trembling (p < 0.05) was observed among cleaners with neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  19. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Petersen, Nicolas C; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p < 0.01). However, the risk of failure in unilateral stance was statistically elevated in cleaners with concurrent neck/low back pain compared to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p < 0.01), whereas pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p < 0.01), rambling (p < 0.05) and trembling (p < 0.05) was observed among cleaners with neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. ISRCTN96241850.

  20. Body Posture, Postural Stability, and Metabolic Age in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aims to analyze the relationship between body posture and composition, as well as postural stability in Parkinson’s disease patients. Material and Methods. 32 people were evaluated. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Posturology at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce (Poland. Body posture was examined using the optoelectronic body posture Formetric Diers Method III 4D. Postural stability was evaluated using the Biodex Balance System platform. Body composition was assessed with the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis using the Tanita MC 780 MA analyzer. Results. 11 patients (34.37% had hyperkyphosis, 10 (31.25% hyperlordosis, and 3 (9.37% hyperkyphosis-hyperlordosis posture. Scoliosis (>10° was observed in 28 (87.5% subjects, whereas 4 (12.5% presented scoliotic body posture (1–9°. In the examined population, all parameters of postural stability were within normal limits. Conclusions. A significant positive correlation was observed between surface rotation (°, General Stability Index (r=0.4075, p=0.0206, and Anteroposterior Stability Index (r=0.3819, p=0.0310. There was also a significant positive correlation between surface rotation (+max (°, General Stability Index (r=0.3526, p=0.0206, and Anteroposterior Stability Index (r=0.3873, p=0.0285. Metabolic age also presented a significant positive correlation between metabolic age and General Stability Index (r=0.4057, p=0.0212, as well as Anteroposterior Stability Index (r=0.3507, p=0.0490.

  1. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  2. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co...

  3. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  4. Craniocervical posture and bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-03-01

     The aim of this study was to investigate, using photogrammetry, the relationship between head posture and bruxism in children with complete deciduous dentition.  Forty-two children aged between 3 and 6 years, with complete deciduous dentition, participated in the study. Twenty-one children diagnosed with bruxism according to the diagnostic criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine were selected for the bruxism group, and 21 children without bruxism were selected for the control group. Markers were placed on three anatomical landmarks (spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, manubrium of the sternum and mental protuberance) and photographic measurements were made to evaluate head posture. Angles between markers were determined using the ALCimagem® software for quantitative image analysis. The Student's t-test was used at a significance level of 0.05 for the comparison of head posture (mean cervical angle) between the bruxism and control groups.  There was a significant difference (p bruxism (98.99° ± 8.15°) groups.  In the present study, children with bruxism showed greater alterations in head posture than controls. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    resolution of the Kinect with respect to movements and postures that are relevant to the physical therapy community. Importantly, our observation...4 42 k Ac tu al E xp en di tu re : ~$ 38 4k U pd at ed : 3 0 O ct ob er 2 01 6 Ti m el in e an d C os t Ac tiv iti es

  6. Injury incidence and selected biomechanical, postural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strongest predictors for lower extremity injuries (I>0.3) were uneven hips, pronated feet, tight hamstrings, anatomical leg length differences, gait pronation and a tall stature. It was concluded that certain postural and biomechanical imbalances in the lower extremities could contribute to injury among rugby union players.

  7. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  8. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  9. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  10. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  11. EEG correlates of postural audio-biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirini, Marco; Mancini, Martina; Farella, Elisabetta; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    The control of postural sway depends on the dynamic integration of multi-sensory information in the central nervous system. Augmentation of sensory information, such as during auditory biofeedback (ABF) of the trunk acceleration, has been shown to improve postural control. By means of quantitative electroencephalography (EEG), we examined the basic processes in the brain that are involved in the perception and cognition of auditory signals used for ABF. ABF and Fake ABF (FAKE) auditory stimulations were delivered to 10 healthy naive participants during quiet standing postural tasks, with eyes-open and closed. Trunk acceleration and 19-channels EEG were recorded at the same time. Advanced, state-of-the-art EEG analysis and modeling methods were employed to assess the possibly differential, functional activation, and localization of EEG spectral features (power in α, β, and γ bands) between the FAKE and the ABF conditions, for both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed tasks. Participants gained advantage by ABF in reducing their postural sway, as measured by a reduction of the root mean square of trunk acceleration during the ABF compared to the FAKE condition. Population-wise localization analysis performed on the comparison FAKE - ABF revealed: (i) a significant decrease of α power in the right inferior parietal cortex for the eyes-open task; (ii) a significant increase of γ power in left temporo-parietal areas for the eyes-closed task; (iii) a significant increase of γ power in the left temporo-occipital areas in the eyes-open task. EEG outcomes supported the idea that ABF for postural control heavily modulates (increases) the cortical activation in healthy participants. The sites showing the higher ABF-related modulation are among the known cortical areas associated with multi-sensory, perceptual integration, and sensorimotor integration, showing a differential activation between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  13. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  14. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  15. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  17. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  18. Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively.

  19. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting.

  20. How does practise of internal Chinese martial arts influence postural reaction control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgy, Olivier; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Coyle, Thelma

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chinese martial arts practice on postural reaction control after perturbation. Participants standing in Romberg tandem posture were subjected to an unexpected lateral platform translation with the eyes open or closed at two translation amplitudes. The peak displacement of the centre of pressure and of the centre of mass, and the onset latency of muscular activity (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, lumbodorsal muscular group, and rectus abdominis), were evaluated for martial arts practitioners and for sport and non-sport participants. Compared with the sport and non-sport participants, the martial arts group showed lower maximal centre of pressure and centre of mass peak displacements in both the lateral and anterior - posterior directions, but no difference was found in the onset of muscular responses. We conclude that martial arts practice influences postural reaction control during a fixed-support strategy in a tandem task. The martial arts group used the ankle joint more frequently than the sport and non-sport participants, especially in the eyes-closed conditions. Our results suggest that the better balance recovery in the martial arts group is a consequence of better control of biomechanical properties of the lower limbs (e.g. through muscular response by co-contraction), not a change in the neuromuscular temporal pattern.

  1. Analysis of the postural stability in individuals with or without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Gerdi Kittel Ries

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and the distribution of weight of individuals with TMD (Temporomandibular Disorder when placed in an orthostatic position. Forty female volunteers, participating in this study, were distributed into a control and a TMD group. Clinical examinations of the craniomandibular system and of the neck were performed. Postural stability was evaluated using a stabilographic platform. Through this system, the sway index (SI, the maximum medial-lateral distance (MMLD, the maximum anterior-posterior distance (MAPD and the medial-lateral symmetry (MLS could be determined. Tests were performed in the mandibular rest position and during isometric and isotonic contraction. The variables were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was p < 0.05. The results of this study indicate that individuals with TMD present more pain in the cervical region (p < 0.05. The group with TMD showed a significant reduction in SI (p < 0.05, MMLD (p < 0.05 and MLS (p < 0.01. Individuals with TMD presented greater postural asymmetry, and cervical pain demonstrated a potential link with an increase in postural stability.

  2. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  3. 36 CFR 223.117 - Administration of cooperative or Federal sustained yield units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Federal sustained yield units. 223.117 Section 223.117 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Contract Administration § 223.117 Administration of cooperative or Federal sustained yield units. With respect to sustained yield units established pursuant to the provisions of the Act of March 29...

  4. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Paillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing. In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  5. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  6. Life-Cycle Based Climate Regulation Through Supply Chain Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    Environmental action is a necessary component of any corporate sustainability efforts. While companies address many environmental issues, climate change belongs to the most pressing ones for them. Companies report on their scope 1 and 2 emissions, set ambitious reduction goals and adopt policies...... to that end. The paper concludes with a discussion on that this big but dormant potential of commercial contracting could be triggered through policy, law and amended contract drafting style....

  7. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  8. Postural rehabilitation and Kinesio taping for axial postural disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Marianna; Serpicelli, Chiara; Fiorentini, Luca; Censi, Giovanna; Ferretti, Matteo; Orni, Chiara; Renzi, Rosita; Provinciali, Leandro; Ceravolo, Maria Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effects of postural rehabilitation (PR) on trunk asymmetry and balance, with and without Kinesio taping (KT) of the back muscles as additional treatment, in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have postural disorders. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial with 1-month follow-up. Ambulatory care in referral center. Patients (N=20) with PD showing postural abnormalities of the trunk, in the sagittal and/or coronal plane. Four weeks of patient-tailored proprioceptive and tactile stimulation, combined with stretching and postural reeducation, was provided to 13 subjects (PR group), while 7 received no treatment (control group). Six of the 13 subjects receiving PR also had KT strips applied to their trunk muscles, according to the features of their postural abnormalities. Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, and degrees of trunk bending in the sagittal and coronal planes were assessed at the enrollment (t0), 1 month later (t1), and 2 months later (t2). At t1, all treated patients showed a significant improvement in trunk posture in both the sagittal (P=.002) and coronal planes (P=.01), compared with baseline. Moreover, they showed an improvement in measures of gait and balance (P<.01). Benefits persisted at t2 for all measures, except lateral trunk bend. No differences were found when comparing the PR and KT groups. The combination of active posture correction and trunk movements, muscle stretching, and proprioceptive stimulation may usefully impact PD axial symptoms. Repeated training is advocated to avoid waning of the effect. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cough-Anal Reflex May Be the Expression of a Pre-Programmed Postural Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Paolo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). On these basis, we searched in literature for similarities between APAs and the cough-anal response, observing that both follow the same predictive homeostatic principle, namely that anticipatory collateral actions are needed to prevent the unwanted mechanical consequences induced by the primary movement. We thus propose that the cough-anal response also belongs to the family of pre-programmed actions, as it may be interpreted as an APA acting on the abdominal-thoracic compartment; in other words, the cough-anal response may actually be an Anticipatory Sphincter Adjustment, the visceral counterpart of APAs.

  10. Neutral lumbar spine sitting posture in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP of seventeen pain-free subjects was initially recorded. Subjects then assumed their own subjectively perceived ideal posture (SPIP). Finally, 2 testers independently positioned the subjects into a tester perceived neutral posture (TPNP). The inter-tester reliability of positioning in TPNP was very good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.91, mean difference = 3% of range of motion). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that HSP was significantly more flexed than both SPIP and TPNP (p 0.05). HSP was more kyphotic than all other postures. This study suggests that pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral lumbar sitting posture. Further investigation into the role of neutral sitting posture in LBP subjects is warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  12. Energetics of contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2015-04-01

    Muscles convert energy from ATP into useful work, which can be used to move limbs and to transport ions across membranes. The energy not converted into work appears as heat. At the start of contraction heat is also produced when Ca(2+) binds to troponin-C and to parvalbumin. Muscles use ATP throughout an isometric contraction at a rate that depends on duration of stimulation, muscle type, temperature and muscle length. Between 30% and 40% of the ATP used during isometric contraction fuels the pumping Ca(2+) and Na(+) out of the myoplasm. When shortening, muscles produce less force than in an isometric contraction but use ATP at a higher rate and when lengthening force output is higher than the isometric force but rate of ATP splitting is lower. Efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy provided by ATP that is converted into external work. Each ATP molecule provides 100 zJ of energy that can potentially be converted into work. The mechanics of the myosin cross-bridge are such that at most 50 zJ of work can be done in one ATP consuming cycle; that is, the maximum efficiency of a cross-bridge is ∼50%. Cross-bridges in tortoise muscle approach this limit, producing over 90% of the possible work per cycle. Other muscles are less efficient but contract more rapidly and produce more power. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  13. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  14. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation. Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years. Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary normative data for the alignment of a child's sagittal plane posture.

  15. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. METHODS: Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. FINDINGS: (1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. INTERPRETATION: Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  16. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS...UNCLASSIFIED 4 Program Description The Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) will be the Army’s single, next-generation, enterprise-wide contract writing

  17. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...... there is a great need for full-service packages including consulting, contract work, follow-up, financing and operation and maintenance. There are few Nordic examples of such service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently. The success of these concepts is yet...

  18. Optimising contract design in modern food supply chains: The case of paprika sector in Central Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana A. Repar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming remains one of the most efficient tools for integrating small-scale farmers into modern food markets. However, the literature lacks evidence on best practices in designing contracts for food supply chains in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to analyse the design of an existing contract in the emerging Malawian paprika sector using a qualitative analytical approach. The study compared a contract design in Malawi’s paprika supply chain with four similar contracts from the horticultural sector in Malawi, India, Zambia and Cape Verde. This study employed a thematic qualitative analysis and developed 17 categories for analysing contracts. The findings showed that the Malawian contract contained in total eleven defined clauses. There were missing clauses that influenced the risk and power distribution between parties in the contract. The comparison of the Malawian contract with other contracts revealed that none of the analysed contracts included all clauses necessary for a sustainable and fair relationship. The study proposed improved contract design and future actions to contribute to decreasing inequalities between parties engaged in the Malawi’s paprika supply chain. The implications of the study include initiation of changes in public policies related to contract farming strategies as the findings suggest that vulnerable small-scale farmers might be left unprotected and generate low gains through supply contracts due to poorly formulated contract clauses.

  19. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...... effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared...

  20. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early postoperative mobilisation may reduce patient morbidity and improve hospital efficiency by accelerated discharge. The aim of this study was to measure postural stability early after laparoscopic surgery in order to assess how early it is safe to mobilise and discharge patients....... METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post......-anaesthesia care unit using a force platform where sway area, mean sway and sway velocity were determined. The assessments were done with eyes closed and with eyes open. The primary outcome was the change in sway area with eyes closed 30 min after extubation. Data are reported as median (25-75% range). RESULTS...

  1. Postural tremor and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiming; Menon, Parvathi; Ching-Fen Chang, Florence; Mahant, Neil; Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Fung, Victor S C; Vucic, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) typically presents with a combination of sensory and motor impairments. Tremor is recognized as a common and debilitating feature in CIDP, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Clinical tremor severity and disability scores were collected prospectively in 25 CIDP patients and compared with 22 neuromuscular controls. Postural and kinetic tremor were significantly more frequent in CIDP patients (80%) than in neuromuscular controls (35%; P Tremor severity and tremor-related disability were also significantly greater in CIDP patients than in controls. Accelerometry data confirmed the presence of a 5.5 Hz postural tremor and a 5 Hz kinetic tremor. Tremor appears to be a common clinical feature of CIDP that results in significant disability. Sensory and motor impairment may be associated with development of tremor in CIDP. Muscle Nerve 55: 338-343, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...

  3. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint and its influence on postural control and lower limb kinematics in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Wook; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants) were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait. Changes in postural control parameters anteroposterior sway speed and total center of pressure distance differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. In addition, changes in gait kinematic parameters knee and ankle angles of initial contact differed significantly between stroke (paretic and non-paretic) and control groups. Muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee and ankle impaired postural control and debilitates kinematic movement of ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs, and may place the fatigued stroke patients at greater risk for falls.

  4. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint and its influence on postural control and lower limb kinematics in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait. Changes in postural control parameters anteroposterior sway speed and total center of pressure distance differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. In addition, changes in gait kinematic parameters knee and ankle angles of initial contact differed significantly between stroke (paretic and non-paretic and control groups. Muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee and ankle impaired postural control and debilitates kinematic movement of ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs, and may place the fatigued stroke patients at greater risk for falls.

  5. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  6. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  7. Balance and postural control in basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Curtolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Basketball is one of the most popular sports involving gestures and movements that require single-leg based support. Dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM, balance and postural control may influence the performance of this sport. Objective: To compare and correlate measures of balance, postural control and ankle DROM between amateur basketball athletes and non-athletes. Methods: Cross-sectional study, composed by 122 subjects allocated into one control group (CG = 61 and one basketball group (BG = 61. These groups were subdivided into two other groups by age: 12-14 years and 15-18 years. The participants were all tested for postural balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, postural control with the Step-down test and DROM with the Weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT. Between-groups differences were compared using repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. Normalized reaching distances were analyzed and correlated with the WBLT and Step-down test. Results: There was no difference in the scores of WBLT (P = .488 and Step-down test (P =. 916 between the groups. Scores for the anterior reach (P = .001 and total score of SEBT (P = .030 were higher in BG. The values for the posterolateral (P = .001 and posteromedial reach (P = .001 of SEBT were higher in BG at the age of 15-18. The correlation between the anterior reach of the SEBT and WBLT was significant in BG between 12-14 years (r = 0.578, P = .008, and in the CG between 15-18 years (r = 0.608, P=.001. Conclusion: The balance was better in the BG, although adolescents between 15-18 years have better balance control for the posteromedial and posterolateral reaches of the SEBT.

  8. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  9. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  10. Primate Resting Postures: Constraints by Foregut Fermentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Chapman, Colin A; Shi Physilia, Chua Ying; Mun Sha, John Chih; Clauss, Marcus

    Although resting is one of the dominant behaviors of foregut-fermenting primates (i.e., colobines), their resting posture has rarely received attention. We hypothesize that colobines are more constrained in their resting position than hindgut-fermenting primates and that colobines assume a sitting resting position for specific reasons. To test this hypothesis, we followed two approaches. First, we observed resting positions in two captive individuals each of eight species and tested whether colobines rested in a sitting position more than other primates. Second, we collected literature data on free-ranging specimens of 31 species and again tested whether colobines rested in a sitting position more than other primates. Both approaches indicated that colobines spent more time in a sitting posture than other primates (73.0% vs. 23.2% in captivity and 83.0% vs. 60.9% in the wild, respectively). We hypothesize that the position of the digestive chamber and the necessity of frequently having to eructate digestion gases force colobines to take a sitting posture to avoid pressure on the thorax and respiratory organs.

  11. Spinal postural training: Comparison of the postural and mobility effects of electrotherapy, exercise, biofeedback trainer in addition to postural education in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelenay, Şeyda Toprak; Kaya, Derya Özer; Özüdoğru, Anıl

    2015-01-01

    Spinal posture and mobility are significant for protecting spine. The aim was to compare effects of different postural training interventions on spinal posture and mobility. Ninety-six university students (ages: 18–25 years) were allocated into Electrical Stimulation (ES) (n = 24), Exercise (n = 24), Biofeedback Posture Trainer (Backtone) (n = 24), and Postural Education (n = 24, Controls) groups. All the groups got postural education. The interventions were carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Spinal Mouse device (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland) was used to detect thoracic and lumbar curvatures and mobility (degrees) in standing and sitting positions. Paired Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, and pairwise post-hoc tests were used. ES decreased thoracic curvature, the exercise decreased thoracic and lumbar curvature and increased thoracic mobility in standing position between pre-post training (p < 0.05). Exercise and Backtone improved thoracic curvature in sitting (p <0.05). In Exercise Group, thoracic curvature decreased compared to Backtone and Education Groups, and thoracic mobility increased compared to all groups (p < 0.05). The exercise was effective and superior in improving thoracic and lumbar curves, and mobility among university students. ES decreased thoracic curve. Biofeedback posture trainer improved sitting posture. A prospective randomized controlled trial, Level 1.

  12. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...... and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal...

  13. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  14. The influence of foot posture on dorsiflexion range of motion and postural control in those with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kathleen K; Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Matthew C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effect of foot posture on postural control and dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with chronic ankle instability. The study employed a cross-sectional, single-blinded design. Twenty-one individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability (male=5; age=23.76(4.18)years; height=169.27(11.46)cm; weight=73.65(13.37)kg; number of past ankle sprains=4.71(4.10); episode of giving way=17.00(18.20); Cumberland Ankle Instability Score=18.24(4.52); Ankle Instability Index=5.86(1.39)) participated. The foot posture index was used to categorize subjects into pronated (n=8; Foot Posture Index=7.50(0.93)) and neutral (n=13; Foot Posture Index=3.08(1.93)) groups. The dependent variables of dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic and static postural control were collected for both groups at a single session. There were no significant differences in dorsiflexion range of motion between groups (p=0.22) or any of the eyes open time-to-boundary variables (p>0.13). The pronated group had significantly less dynamic postural control than the neutral group as assessed by the anterior direction of the Star Excursion Balance Test (p<0.04). However, the pronated group had significantly higher time-to-boundary values than the neutral group for all eyes closed time-to-boundary variables (p≤0.05), which indicates better eyes closed static postural control. Foot posture had a significant effect on dynamic postural control and eyes closed static postural control in individuals with chronic ankle instability. These findings suggest that foot posture may influence postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  16. Preliminary results of dancing exercise on postural stability in adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hsu-Sheng; Law, Cheung-Lun; Pan, Hui-Fang; Hsiao, Yueh-Ping; Hu, Jeng-Ho; Chuang, Fu-Kai; Huang, Mao-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six female student dancers of Chung-hua school of Art (mean age 17.5 ± 0.5 years) and twenty-five healthy active female collegiate students (mean age 18.1 ± 1.0 years) participated in this study to investigate the effects of dancing exercise on postural stability of adolescent female through a comparison study of two cohorts. The groups were matched in height and weight. Participants were excluded for left-side dominance, sustained lower extremity injury, any known vestibular system dy...

  17. Illusory visual motion stimulus elicits postural sway in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eImaizumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the perception of visual motion modulates postural control, it is unknown whether illusory visual motion elicits postural sway. The present study examined the effect of illusory motion on postural sway in patients with migraine, who tend to be sensitive to it. We measured postural sway for both migraine patients and controls while they viewed static visual stimuli with and without illusory motion. The participants’ postural sway was measured when they closed their eyes either immediately after (Experiment 1, or 30 seconds after (Experiment 2, viewing the stimuli. The patients swayed more than the controls when they closed their eyes immediately after viewing the illusory motion (Experiment 1, and they swayed less than the controls when they closed their eyes 30 seconds after viewing it (Experiment 2. These results suggest that static visual stimuli with illusory motion can induce postural sway that may last for at least 30 seconds in patients with migraine.

  18. The Reactive Postural Control in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Akbar Fahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The purpose of this paper is to review the reactive postural control in spastic children with CP. Methods: Researches on development of reactive postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with Cerebral Palsy (CP were analyzed. Results: The results of this review revealed at least three main systems of reactive postural control, including: sensory, motor, and cognitive systems. These systems develop in a nonlinear mode. Maturation of postural control depends on the reach of each system to an adequate threshold of development and organization. Discussion: limited data indicated the development of reactive postural control in children with CP occur similar to TD children but with limitation in motor function and sensory organization.

  19. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  20. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1

  1. Postural responses explored through classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Dakin, C J; Carpenter, M G

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an auditory tone cued the onset of balance perturbations in Conditioning blocks. A single Cue-Only trial followed each block (Cue-Only(Control) and Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials) in the absence of balance perturbations. Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials were used to determine whether postural perturbations were required in order to trigger PRs. Counter-balancing the order of Control and Conditioning blocks allowed Cue-Only(Control) trials to examine both the audio-spinal/acoustic startle effects of the auditory cue and the carryover effects of the initial conditioning procedure. In Experiment 2, six participants first experienced five consecutive Tone-Only trials that were followed by twenty-five conditioning trials. After conditioning, five Tone-Only trials were again presented consecutively to first elicit and then extinguish the conditioned PRs. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity in soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF). EMG onset latencies and amplitudes were calculated together with the onset latency, peak and time-to-peak of shank angular accelerations. Results indicated that an auditory cue could be conditioned to initiate PRs in multiple muscles without balance-relevant sensory triggers generated by balance perturbations. Postural synergies involving excitation of TA and RF and inhibition of SOL were observed following the Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials that resulted in shank angular accelerations in the direction required to counter the expected toes-up tilt. Postural synergies were triggered in response to the auditory cue even 15 min post-conditioning. Furthermore

  2. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  3. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Tai Kubo; Mugino O Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar; Eliane Maria Dias von Söhsten Lins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 pati...

  5. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  6. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Espindula, Ana Paula; Ribeiro,Mariane Fernandes; Souza,Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de; Ferreira,Alex Abadio; Ferraz,Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individual...

  7. Postural control in a simulated saturation dive to 240 msw.

    OpenAIRE

    Goplen, Frederik Kragerud; Aasen, T. B.; Nordahl, Stein Helge G

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that increased ambient pressure causes an increase in postural sway. This article documents postural sway at pressures not previously studied and discusses possible mechanisms. METHODS: Eight subjects participated in a dry chamber dive to 240 msw (2.5 MPa) saturation pressure. Two subjects were excluded due to unilateral caloric weakness before the dive. Postural sway was measured on a force platform. The path length described by the center of pr...

  8. Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomingas Allan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dose and time-pattern of sitting has been suggested in public health research to be an important determinant of risk for developing a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the time-pattern of seated and standing/walking postures amongst male and female call centre operators, on the basis of whole-shift posture recordings, analysed and described by a number of novel variables describing posture variation. Methods Seated vs. standing/walking was recorded using dichotomous inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analysed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of and switches between seated and standing/walking, posture similarity across the day, and compliance with standard recommendations for computer work. Results The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture with an average of 10.4 switches/hour between seated and standing/walking or vice versa. Females spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; males 4.6% (p = 0.013. Only 38% and 11% of the operators complied with standard recommendations of getting an uninterrupted break from seated posture of at least 5 or 10 minutes, respectively, within each hour of work. Two thirds of all investigated variables showed coefficients of variation between subjects above 0.5. Since work tasks and contractual break schedules were observed to be essentially similar across operators and across days, this indicates that sedentary behaviours differed substantially between individuals. Conclusions The extensive occurrence of uninterrupted seated work indicates that efforts should be made at call centres - and probably in other settings in the office sector - to introduce more physical variation in terms of standing

  9. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  10. Photogrammetric Assessment of Upper Body Posture Using Postural Angles: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepika; Veqar, Zubia; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature regarding the measurement properties of various angles used for postural assessment of the head, neck, shoulder, and thorax and to discuss the utility of these measures. The inclusion criteria for this literature review were use of postural angles to assess posture, measurement of upper body posture, and research studies conducted in last 3 decades that had free full-text available online entirely in the English language. The exclusion criteria were review articles; studies involving subjects having obesity, visual problems, any history of surgery, respiratory, cardiovascular, neurologic, or congenital pathology or disease; and research studies in which postural angles were measured with respect to vertical only. The following databases were searched: PubMed Central, PubMed, ResearchGate, Springer Link, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scielo through February 20, 2016. A total of 21 studies that were found to be best suited to explain the craniovertebral (CV) angle, sagittal head tilt, sagittal shoulder-C7 angle, coronal head tilt, coronal shoulder angle, and thoracic kyphosis angle were included in this review. Craniovertebral angle, sagittal head tilt, sagittal shoulder-C7 angle, coronal head tilt, and coronal shoulder angle possess moderate to high intrarater reliability. Craniovertebral angle, sagittal head tilt, sagittal shoulder-C7 angle and thoracic kyphosis angle possess high interrater reliability (except for sagittal head tilt when measured using the goniometer). Craniovertebral angle, sagittal head tilt, and sagittal shoulder-C7 angle have been proved to be valid measures of posture when compared with similar angles measured on radiographs. None of the studies reported intrarater reliability of thoracic kyphosis angle, interrater reliability of coronal head tilt and coronal shoulder angle, and validity of coronal angles and thoracic kyphosis angle. We found several reliable methods to measure the

  11. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... commercial services used by the Government, such as transportation, food, and maintenance. Office of... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is...

  12. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  13. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of nu...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  14. Joint Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    parents, Ellsworth K. Johnson, Jr. and Helen E. Johnson, for their lifelong love and support. Mom, thanks for always being there when I needed you...Hurricanes Charley , Jeanne and Andrew are examples of domestic disaster emergency relief. 2. Phases of Contingency Contracting Contingency

  15. Construction Contract Provisions Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    tractor, and localized variations characteristic of the subsurface materials of the region are anticipated and if encountered, such variations will...34Contract drawings, maps, and specification. On larger projects, provide one set of sepias , both large scale and reduced, in addition to the contact

  16. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Tirole

    2009-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  17. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  18. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Goulème

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support. Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  19. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  20. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge. DESIGN: Open study. SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 55...... with polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance....... RESULTS: Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p

  1. KAJIAN POSTUR KERJA PADA PENGRAJIN TENUN SONGKET PANDAI SIKEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Mufti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Working position of Songket workers at Tenunan Antik Pusako Minang Pandai Sikek were not ergonomic. There were indicated by the presence of curvature, incompatibility machine dimension with operator anthropometric (artisans songket so that appear complaints on a worker’s limb. It required the assessment and review of work postures using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. The results is that final score of each work posture and level of risk. There are 6 working posture is often performed by workers. Working posture has final score 7 and higher risk level is sitting hunched forward with his arms and legs on tiptoe, and sat with his arms held forward positions.

  2. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  3. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  4. Effect of Posture on Hip Angles and Moments during Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara L.; Sahrmann, Shirley A.

    2014-01-01

    Anterior hip pain is common in young, active adults. Clinically, we have noted that patients with anterior hip pain often walk in a swayback posture, and that their pain is reduced when the posture is corrected. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential mechanism for the reduction in pain by testing the effect of posture on movement patterns and internal moments during gait in healthy subjects. Fifteen subjects were instructed to walk while maintaining three postures: 1) natural, 2) swayback, and 3) forward flexed. Kinematic and force data were collected using a motion capture system and a force plate. Walking in the swayback posture resulted in a higher peak hip extension angle, hip flexor moment and hip flexion angular impulse compared to natural posture. In contrast, walking in a forward flexed posture resulted in a decreased hip extension angle and decreased hip flexion angular impulse. Based on these results, walking in a swayback posture may result in increased forces required of the anterior hip structures, potentially contributing to anterior hip pain. This study provides a potential biomechanical mechanism for clinical observations that posture correction in patients with hip pain is beneficial. PMID:25262565

  5. Layout for Assessing Dynamic Posture: Development, Validation, and Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Vieira, Adriane; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    To determine the psychometric properties of the layout for assessing dynamic posture (LADy). The study was divided into 2 phases: (1) development of the instrument and (2) determination of validity and reproducibility. The LADy was designed to evaluate the position adopted in 9 dynamic postures. The results confirmed the validity and reproducibility of the instrument. From a total of 51 criteria assessing 9 postures, 1 was rejected. The reproducibility for each of the criteria was classified as moderate to excellent. The LADy constitutes a valid and reproducible instrument for the evaluation of dynamic postures in children 11 to 17 years old. It is low cost and applicable in the school environment.

  6. Experience of handicap and anxiety in phobic postural vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Johan; Karlberg, Mikael; Harlacher, Uwe; Magnusson, Mans

    2005-03-01

    We found a difference in gender distribution in a population of phobic postural vertigo patients compared with dizzy patients seen in general neuro-otological practice. It appears as if women with phobic postural vertigo suffer more and are more handicapped by dizziness than both men with phobic postural vertigo and a population with dizziness. These differences may reflect other causes of phobic postural vertigo besides anxiety, such as gender-related coping behaviour and postural strategy. Anxiety influences the degree of suffering and handicap in dizzy patients. Experiences of anxiety and handicap were investigated among a population with phobic postural vertigo. Using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Vertigo Symptom Scale and the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire, 34 consecutive patients with phobic postural vertigo were compared with a population of 95 consecutive patients seen at a balance disorder clinic. Patients with phobic postural vertigo scored higher than the control subjects with respect to all parameters with the exception of the physical subscale of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Because there were significantly more women in the control group we performed a gender-specific analysis of the results. The higher test scores among patients with phobic postural vertigo can be explained by the higher scores among women in this group, while the test results for men were more similar to those of the control group.

  7. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  8. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  9. Saccades improve postural control: a developmental study in normal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Ajrezo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®. Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. RESULTS: During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades in comparison with a simple task of fixation. DISCUSSION - CONCLUSION: These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway.

  10. Saccades improve postural control: a developmental study in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Dual-task performance is known to affect postural stability in children. This study focused on the effect of oculomotor tasks like saccadic eye movements on postural stability, studied in a large population of children by recording simultaneously their eye movements and posture. Ninety-five healthy children from 5.8 to 17.6 years old were examined. All children were free of any vestibular, neurological, ophtalmologic and orthoptic abnormalities. Postural control was measured with a force platform TechnoConcept®, and eye movements with video oculography (MobilEBT®). Children performed two oculomotor tasks: fixation of a stable central target and horizontal saccades. We measured the saccade latency and the number of saccades during fixation as well as the surface, length and mean velocity of the center of pressure. During postural measurement, we observed a correlation between the age on the one hand and a decrease in saccade latency as well as an improvement in the quality of fixation on the other. Postural sway decreases with age and is reduced in the dual task (saccades) in comparison with a simple task of fixation. These results suggest a maturation of neural circuits controlling posture and eye movements during childhood. This study also shows the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor system and the postural system. Engaging in oculomotor tasks results in a reduction of postural sway.

  11. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring

  12. Improved Dynamic Postural Task Performance without Improvements in Postural Responses: The Blessing and the Curse of Dopamine Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Foreman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dopamine-replacement medications may improve mobility while not improving responses to postural challenges and could therefore increase fall risk. The purpose of this study was to measure reactive postural responses and gait-related mobility of patients with PD during ON and OFF medication conditions. Methods. Reactive postural responses to the Pull Test and performance of the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA were recorded from 15 persons with PD during ON and OFF medication conditions. Results. Persons with PD demonstrated no significant difference in the reactive postural responses between medication conditions but demonstrated significantly better performance on the FGA when ON medications compared to OFF. Discussion/Conclusion. Dopamine-replacement medications alone may improve gait-related mobility without improvements in reactive postural responses and therefore could result in iatrogenic increases in fall risk. Rehabilitation providers should be aware of the side effects and limitations of medication treatment and implement interventions to improve postural responses.

  13. Postural Stability During Single-Leg Stance: A Preliminary Evaluation of Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip F

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with a prospective cohort design. Background Postural stability deficits during single-leg stance have been reported in persons with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL reconstruction, and chronic ankle instability. It remains unclear whether impaired postural stability is a consequence or cause of these injuries. Objectives To prospectively investigate whether postural stability deficits during single-leg stance predict noncontact lower extremity injuries. Methods Fifty injury-free female athletes performed a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance with eyes closed. Center-of-pressure displacement, the main outcome variable, was measured during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was reached during single-leg stance. Noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded at a 1-year follow-up. Results Six participants sustained a noncontact ACL injury or ankle sprain. Center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was significantly increased in the injured (P = .030) and noninjured legs (P = .009) of the injured group compared to the respective matched legs of the noninjured group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point of the injured (AUC = 0.814, P = .015) and noninjured legs (AUC = 0.897, P = .004) of the injured group compared to the matched legs of the noninjured group. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that postural stability measurements during the single-leg stance phase of the double- to single-leg stance transition task may be a useful predictor of increased risk of noncontact lower extremity injury. Further research is indicated. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports PhysTher 2016

  14. Practical concepts in Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan, zarrokh

    2008-01-01

    A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (literally, promises must be kept) [1]. Breach of a contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone makes contracts everyday. Sometimes written contracts are required, e.g., when buying a house [2]. However the vast majority of contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law text book,...

  15. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  16. [Assessment of influence of breath holding and hyperventilation on human postural stability with spectral analysis of stabilographic signal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, M V; Makarenkova, E A; Mel'nikov, A A; Vikulov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The influence of breath holding and voluntary hyperventilation on the classic stabilometric parameters and the frequency characteristic of stabilographic signal were studied. We measured the stabilometric parameters on the force platform ("Ritm", Russia) on the healthy volunteers (n = 107) during quiet breath, voluntary hyperventilation (20 seconds) and maximal inspiratory breath holding (20 seconds). Respiratory frequency, respiratory amplitude and ventilation were estimated with strain gauge. We found that antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway amplitude and velocity as well as sway surface at breath-holding and at quiet breathing were the same, so breath holding didn't influence the postural stability. However the spectral parameters shifted to the high frequency range due to alteration of the respiratory muscles contractions during breath-holding versus quiet breath. Voluntary hyperventilation caused significant increase of all stabilographic indices that implied an impairment of postural stability, which was due to the increase of respiration frequency and amplitude. We also found that the spectral indices moved toward the high-frequency range with more pronounced degree of this shift versus breath holding. Besides, amplitudes of spectral peaks also increased. Perhaps such change of spectral indices was due to distortion of proprioceptive information because of increased excitability of nerve fibers during hyperventilation. Maximal inspiration breath holding causes strain of the postural control mechanisms that is reflected as elevation of postural sway frequency with no postural stability changes. Hyperventilation leads to the most prominent strain of balance function and decrease of steadiness that is manifested as increase of center of pressure oscillations amplitude and frequency.

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  18. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  19. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  20. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  1. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  2. Navy construction contract regulations vs. the Board of Contract Appeals.

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, Thomas David

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses construction contracting in the United States Navy. It compares the Government construction contract regulations with decisions by the Boards of Contract Appeals. Nine topics are researched including submittal reviews, profit, change orders and changes, notices to proceed, acceleration, beneficial occupancy, weather delays, and extended overhead. The Boards' decisions are used to understand...

  3. The role of central vision in posture: Postural sway adaptations in Stargardt patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Sbrollini, Agnese; Cavallini, Chanda; Busso, Alessandra; Pignata, Giulia; Knaflitz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The role of central and peripheral vision in the maintenance of upright stance is debated in literature. Stargardt disease causes visual deficits affecting the central field, but leaving unaltered a patient's peripheral vision. Hence, the study of this rare pathology gives the opportunity to selectively investigate the role of central vision in posture. Postural sway in quiet stance was analyzed in 10 Stargardt patients and 10 control subjects, in three different conditions: (1) eyes closed, (2) eyes open, gazing at a fixed target, and (3) eyes open, tracking a moving target. Stargardt patients outperformed controls in the condition with eyes closed, showing a reduced root mean square (RMS) of the medio-lateral COP displacement, while their performance was not significantly different from controls in the antero-posterior direction. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in open eyes conditions. These results suggest that Stargardt patients adapted to a different visual-somatosensory integration, relying less on vision, especially in the medio-lateral direction. Hence, the central vision seems to affect mostly the medio-lateral direction of postural sway. This finding supports the plausibility of the "functional sensitivity hypothesis", that assigns complementary roles to central and peripheral vision in the control of posture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  5. Control of postural alignment in patients with Parkinsons disease: analysis through postural software (SAPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Martins Barbatto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the alignment of posture and postural control in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fifty individuals, aged 60–80 years, were viewed in the anterior, posterior, right lateral, and left positions by software for postural assessment (SAPO. The individuals were grouped according to the disease stage and the stage of medication (i.e. “on” or “off” levodopa. In the intermediate to advanced stages, there was a significant standard deviation in the horizontal alignment acromions, in the horizontal alignment of the anterior superior iliac spines, and in the angle between the acromia and the two anterior superior iliac spines. The side view of the left and right relationships was statistically significant for all variables. The “on” stage and the “off” stage groups showed no significant deviation. There was no statistically significant correlation between the center of gravity in the frontal and sagittal planes of the dominant hand and the side of symptom onset. In PD, individuals have increased cervical lordosis and thoracic kyphosis; an anteriorized head; reduced lumbar curvature; increased valgus, increased knee flexion angle; a decline in the support base; zero step; reduced postural stability; anteriorized center of gravity; and changes in the base of support.

  6. Hypermobilita hlezenního kloubu ve vztahu k posturální stabilitě evaulované posturálni Somatooscilografii.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahánková, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Title: Ankle joint hypermobility in relation to the postural stability evaluated by the postural somatooscillography method Objectives: The aim of this dissertation is to assess the influence of the local joint hypermobility on the postural stabilization measured by postural somatooscilography. It also compares the postural stabilization ability in case of local ankle joint hypermobility to the constitutional hypermobility on the lower limb including acre. Methods: This thesis has been compos...

  7. Changes in Habitual and Active Sagittal Posture in Children and Adolescents with and without Visual Input – Implications for Diagnostic Analysis of Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor posture in children and adolescents has a prevalence of 22-65% and is suggested to be responsible for back pain. To assess posture, photometric imaging of sagittal posture is widely used, but usually only habitual posture positions (resting position with minimal muscle activity) are analysed. Aim The objective of this study was 1) to investigate possible changes in posture-describing parameters in the sagittal plane, when the subjects changed from a habitual passive posture to an actively corrected posture, and 2) to investigate the changes in posture parameters when an actively corrected posture was to be maintained with closed eyes. Materials and Methods In a group of 216 male children and adolescents (average 12.4 ± 2.5 years, range 7.0 – 17.6 years), six sagittal posture parameters (body tilt BT, trunk incline TI, posture index PI, horizontal distances between ear, shoulder and hip and the perpendicular to the ankle joint) were determined by means of photometric imaging in an habitual passive posture position, in an actively erect posture with eyes open, and in active stance with eyes closed. The change in these parameters during the transition between the posture positions was analysed statistically (dependent t-Test or Wilcoxon-Test) after Bonferroni correction (pposture BT, TI, PI, dEar, dShoulder, and dHip decreased significantly(pposture positions. Conclusion Changes in sagittal posture parameters that occur when a habitual passive posture switches into an active posture or when an active posture is to be maintained while the eyes are closed can be used for diagnostic purposes regarding poor posture and posture regulation. PMID:27042547

  8. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  9. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  10. Postural performance and strategy in the unipedal stance of soccer players at different levels of competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    .... Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within...

  11. Contracts for dispatchable power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  13. Preliminary Results Towards Contract Monitorability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalizz Vella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses preliminary investigations on the monitorability of contracts for web service descriptions. There are settings where servers do not guarantee statically whether they satisfy some specified contract, which forces the client (i.e., the entity interacting with the server to perform dynamic checks. This scenario may be viewed as an instance of Runtime Verification, where a pertinent question is whether contracts can be monitored for adequately at runtime, otherwise stated as the monitorability of contracts. We consider a simple language of finitary contracts describing both clients and servers, and develop a formal framework that describes server contract monitoring. We define monitor properties that potentially contribute towards a comprehensive notion of contract monitorability and show that our simple contract language satisfies these properties.

  14. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  15. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  16. Evaluating Terrain Irregularity by Robot Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Luneckas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A method that allows evaluate the terrain irregularity by a robot posture is presented in this paper. A necessity to evaluate terrain irregularity is pointed out. Description of irregular terrain is given. A possibility to evaluate terrain irregularity by feet coordinate standard deviation is proposed. When deviation is σ = 0, all robots are in one plane. Bigger σ the more robot legs are scattered, meaning robot is walking in irregular terrain. A method to evaluate robot horizontality according to terrain by position of three planes is introduced.Article in Lithuanian

  17. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  18. The relationship among foot posture, core and lower extremity muscle function, and postural stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Stephen C; Bazett-Jones, David M; Joshi, Mukta N; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E; James, C Roger

    2014-01-01

    Identification of impaired balance as a risk factor for lower extremity injury regardless of injury history has led to subsequent investigation of variables that may adversely affect balance in healthy individuals. To investigate the relationship among core and lower extremity muscle function, foot posture, and balance. Descriptive laboratory study. Musculoskeletal injury biomechanics laboratory. A total of 108 individuals (40 men, 68 women; age = 22.8 ± 4.7 years, height = 168.5 ± 10.4 cm, mass = 69.9 ± 13.3 kg) participated in the study. Core endurance was assessed during 1 time-to-failure trial, and isometric hip and ankle strength were assessed using a handheld dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Foot structure was quantified using the digital photographic measurement method. Single-limb-stance time to boundary was assessed using a force plate during an eyes-closed condition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict balance using lower extremity strength, foot posture, and core endurance. Foot posture (β = -0.22, P = .03) and ankle-inversion strength (β = -0.29, P = .006) predicted mediolateral balance. Increasing arch posture and ankle-inversion strength were associated with decreased mediolateral single-limb-stance balance. Increasing arch height was associated with decreased mediolateral control of single-limb stance. The relationship between time to boundary and injury risk, however, has not been explored. Therefore, the relationship between increasing arch height and injury due to postural instability cannot be determined from this study. If authors of future prospective studies identify a relationship between decreased time to boundary and increased injury risk, foot structure may be an important variable to assess during preparticipation physical examinations. The relationship between increasing ankle-inversion strength and decreased balance may require additional study to further elucidate the

  19. Experimental muscle pain challenges the postural stability during quiet stance and unexpected posture perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Rogério Pessoto; Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impairs postural control and stability. Nine subjects stood as quietly as possible on a moveable force platform before, during, and after experimental pain in the right leg muscles. A moveable force platform was used to measure the center of pressure and provided unexpected perturbations. Lower limb muscle activity, joint angles, and foot pressure distributions were measured. Hypertonic saline was used to induce pain in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, or biceps femoris muscle of the right leg. Compared to baseline and control sessions, pain in the knee extensor muscles during quiet standing evoked: 1) larger sway area, greater medial-lateral center of pressure displacement and higher speed (P increased sway displacement in the anterior-posterior direction (P increased electromyography (EMG) activity for left tibialis anterior and left erector spinae muscles (P < .05). Pain provoked longer time to return to an equilibrium posture after forward EMG activity for, and pain in vastus medialis muscle decreased the time for the maximum hip flexion during this perturbation (P < .05). These results show that muscle pain impairs postural stability during quiet standing and after unexpected perturbation, which suggest that people suffering from leg muscle pain are more vulnerable to falls. This article presents the acute responses to leg muscle pain on the postural control. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how pain responses may contribute to patient's postural control and stability during quiet standing and after recovering from unexpected perturbations. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  1. Respostas cardiovasculares durante a postura sentada da Reeducação Postural Global (RPG Cardiovascular responses in the seated posture of the Global Postural Reeducation (GPR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YL Mota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as respostas da freqüência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD, média (PAM e duplo produto (DPr, durante a postura sentada do método de Reeducação Postural Global (RPG. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Nove voluntárias saudáveis (23±2,1 anos, 56,4±7,8kg, 1,61±0,05m, 21,6±2,4kg.m2-1, inexperientes na prática do método RPG, foram submetidas a uma sessão de RPG na postura sentada, realizada em três fases: repouso pré-postura, execução da postura e recuperação pós-postura. No repouso e na recuperação, as voluntárias permaneceram sentadas por 20 minutos, sendo PA e FC verificadas a cada cinco minutos. A fase de execução da postura foi realizada em três séries e mantida por três minutos cada, com intervalo de um minuto entre elas. A verificação da PA e da FC foi realizada a cada um minuto e 30 segundos de execução da postura. RESULTADOS: Os valores de PAS, PAD, PAM e DPr foram significativamente maiores (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate heart rate (HR, systolic arterial pressure (SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP and double product (DP responses in the seated posture of the Global Postural Reeducation (GPR method. METHODS: Nine healthy female volunteers (23±2.1 years; 56.4±7.8kg; 1.61±0.05m, 21.6±2.4kg/m², without experience of the GPR, method underwent a treatment session in the seated posture. It was a three-step experiment: pre-posture resting, posture maintenance and post-posture recovery. In both the resting and the recovery step, the volunteers remained seated for 20 minutes and arterial pressure and HR were measured every five minutes. The posture maintenance step lasted for three minutes and was implemented three times with one-minute intervals between implementations. Arterial pressure and HR were measured every 1.5 minutes, while the posture was being maintained. RESULTS: The SAP, DAP, MAP and DP values were significantly greater (p<0.05 from

  2. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  3. Prevalence of osteoporosis increased in postmenopausal women with postural scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2015-12-01

    In post menopausal women with postural scoliosis found a higher incidence of osteoporosis. High endurance of erector spinae muscle lowers the risk of scoliosis. Exercise to improve posture and increase endurance of erector spinae muscle need to be done to prevent decline of BMD.

  4. Associations between Posture, Voice, and Dysphonia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ricardo; Lumini-Oliveira, José; Meneses, Rute F

    2017-10-11

    The study aimed to systematize the associations between posture, voice, and dysphonia in order to support future research directions and possible clinical interventions. The study is a systematic review. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flowchart, a search on PubMed/Medline, SciELO, RCAAP, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PEDro, and Isi Web of Knowledge was performed from their inception through January of 2017 using the key words "posture" and ("voice" or "dysphonia"). The inclusion criteria were full-text journal articles in French, English, Portuguese, or Spanish, exploring the relationship between posture and voice or dysphonia, in adult human beings. The exclusion criteria coupled treatments for voice disorders, literature reviews and meta-analyses, case studies, opinion articles, and studies linking breathing with posture without assessing voice. Studies were analyzed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Twelve papers met the inclusion criteria with high methodological quality through the NOS. The review shows that a correct posture is necessary for an efficient voice production; however, the relation between dysphonia and posture seems to be contradictory. An effective posture allows a subject in a static posture or while moving to more easily shift the tension between muscles, allowing for a free movement of the larynx without blockages and with benefits to voice production. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi and Down Syndrome Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano; Vismara, Luca; Precilios, Helmer; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Down (DS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterised by some common clinical and functional features including gait disorders and reduced postural control. The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and DS. We studied 12 PWS and 19 DS adult patients matched for age, height, weight…

  6. problems of display postures in the charadrii (aves: charadriiformes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROBLEMS OF DISPLAY POSTURES IN THE CHARADRII. (AVES: CHARADRIIFORMES). G. L. MACLEAN. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. ABSTRACT. Studies of displays in the Charadrii (= waders or shorebirds) show that the same posture in different species, even quite closely ...

  7. Group Rapport: Posture Sharing as a Nonverbal Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Marianne; Broadbent, Maida

    1976-01-01

    Systematic observation and a questionnaire format were used to investigate the relationship between posture sharing and self-report indications of rapport in a group situation--college seminar classrooms. The greater the amount of mirroring and congruent postures evidenced by students vis-a-vis the teacher, the higher the ratings of involvement.…

  8. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Fits, IBM; Flikweert, ER; Stremmelaar, EF; Martijn, A; Hadders-Algra, M

    Preterm infants often show postural abnormalities, such as hyperextension of neck and trunk, which can interfere with motor and cognitive development. Little is, however, known on the pathophysiology of postural development in preterm infants. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the development of

  9. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  10. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: Anesthetic management in the obstetric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Motiaa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS is an autonomic disorder which is characterized by postural tachycardia and orthostatic symptoms without associated hypotension. We report a case of a parturient, after her consent, with POTS, who underwent a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The anesthetic implications are also discussed.

  11. Posture Recognition with a Top-view Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.; Sugano, S.; Kaneko, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a system that recognizes human postures with heavy self-occlusion. In particular, we address posture recognition in a robot assisted-living scenario, where the environment is equipped with a top-view camera for monitoring human activities. This setup is very useful because top-view

  12. An investigation of posture and manual materials handling as risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of low back pain symptoms, posture and manual materials handling among delivery drivers was investigated. Information about health history, driving experience, work postures and MMH was obtained from 49 male and 2 female persons who did intra-city deliveries and drove vehicles such as trucks, vans ...

  13. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about ethnic differences in developing countries such as South Africa, particularly with regard to prevalence of postural deviations and body composition profiles. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa ...

  14. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  15. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common postural defect found in both groups were kyphosis (100% in adults and 89.7% in primary school boys) and lordosis (70% in adults and 93.1% in primary school boys). Barlow (1956; 1990) in a study on various groups, found that students in Physical Education had worse postures than other students.

  16. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  17. Postural deformities in children: A review | Stroebel | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postural deformities are a commonly encountered problem among children. Most of the aches and pains of adults are the result, not of injuries, but of the long-term effects of distortions in posture or alignment that have their origins in childhood or adolescence. Television, video entertainment, motorized transportation, fast ...

  18. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  19. Back to the Basics--Whatever Happened to Posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Sally A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Data collected about 387 students mostly aged 18 to 34 participating in the Portland State University posture screening program revealed that, while almost 60 percent of students had postural asymmetrics, nearly half of the students were unaware of problems. Most students found the screening program valuable. (CB)

  20. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F O; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F; Igarashi, M; Guedry, F; Anderson, D J

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  1. Evaluation of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder and Postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato cultivation requires manual work and workers are exposed to extreme postural stresses. The present study was aimed at evaluating the musculoskeletal disorder and postural stress experienced by female workers engaged in potato cultivation. The study was conducted on 155 female cultivators in different districts of ...

  2. Using Posture Estimation to Enhance Personal Inertial Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    workday. This data can be used to identify certain postures that may be linked to occupational diseases . Like the previous application, this 7 also...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited USING POSTURE...ESTIMATION TO ENHANCE PERSONAL INERTIAL TRACKING by Adam E. Foushee June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zachary Staples

  3. Mood Recognition Based on Upper Body Posture and Movement Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrasher, M.L.; Van der Zwaag, M. D.; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    While studying body postures in relation to mood is not a new concept, the majority of these studies rely on actors interpretations. This project investigated the temporal aspects of naturalistic body postures while users listened to mood inducing music. Video data was collected while participants

  4. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...... the pressure drop in a contraction are given....

  5. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  6. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  7. Postural Tremor and Ataxia Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shi-Rui; Wang, Jie; Figueroa, Karla P; Pulst, Stefan M; Tomishon, Darya; Lee, Danielle; Perlman, Susan; Wilmot, George; Gomez, Christopher M; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Paulson, Henry; Shakkottai, Vikram G; Ying, Sarah H; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Bushara, Khalaf; Geschwind, Michael D; Xia, Guangbin; Subramony, S H; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2017-01-01

    Postural tremor can sometimes occur in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). However, the prevalence and clinical characteristics of postural tremor in SCAs are poorly understood, and whether SCA patients with postural tremor have different ataxia progression is not known. We studied postural tremor in 315 patients with SCA1, 2, 3, and 6 recruited from the Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (CRC-SCA), which consists of 12 participating centers in the United States, and we evaluated ataxia progression in these patients from January 2010 to August 2012. Among 315 SCA patients, postural tremor was most common in SCA2 patients (SCA1, 5.8%; SCA2, 27.5%; SCA3, 12.4%; SCA6, 16.9%; p = 0.007). SCA3 patients with postural tremor had longer CAG repeat expansions than SCA3 patients without postural tremor (73.67 ± 3.12 vs. 70.42 ± 3.96, p = 0.003). Interestingly, SCA1 and SCA6 patients with postural tremor had a slower rate of ataxia progression (SCA1, β = -0.91, p < 0.001; SCA6, β = -1.28, p = 0.025), while SCA2 patients with postural tremor had a faster rate of ataxia progression (β = 1.54, p = 0.034). We also found that the presence of postural tremor in SCA2 patients could be influenced by repeat expansions of ATXN1 (β = -1.53, p = 0.037) and ATXN3 (β = 0.57, p = 0.018), whereas postural tremor in SCA3 was associated with repeat lengths in TBP (β = 0.63, p = 0.041) and PPP2R2B (β = -0.40, p = 0.032). Postural tremor could be a clinical feature of SCAs, and the presence of postural tremor could be associated with different rates of ataxia progression. Genetic interactions between ataxia genes might influence the brain circuitry and thus affect the clinical presentation of postural tremor.

  8. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  9. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  10. Grasp posture alters visual processing biases near the hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Observers experience biases in visual processing for objects within easy reach of their hands that may assist them in evaluating items that are candidates for action. I investigated the hypothesis that hand postures affording different types of actions differentially bias vision. Across three experiments, participants performed global motion detection and global form perception tasks while their hands were positioned a) near the display in a posture affording a power grasp, b) near the display in a posture affording a precision grasp, or c) in their laps. Although the power grasp posture facilitated performance on the motion task, the precision grasp posture instead facilitated performance on the form task. These results suggest that the visual system weights processing based on an observer’s current affordances for specific actions: fast and forceful power grasps enhance temporal sensitivity, while detail-oriented precision grasps enhance spatial sensitivity. PMID:25862545

  11. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  12. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  13. Effects of saccadic eye movements on postural control stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tosi Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several structures of the central nervous system share involvement in both ocular and postural control, but the visual mechanisms in postural control are still unclear. There are discrepant evidences on whether saccades would improve or deteriorate stabilization of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of saccadic eye movements on postural control while standing in different basis of support. Twelve young adults stood upright in wide and narrow stances while performing fixation and saccades of low and high frequencies. Body sway was attenuated during saccades. Trunk anterior-posterior sway and trunk total displacement decreased during saccades compared to fixation; higher sway mean frequency in anterior-posterior direction during saccades was observed. Body sway was reduced in wide compared to narrow stance during high frequency saccades. These results indicate that eye movement improves postural stabilization and this effect is stronger in combination of wide stance-high frequency gaze condition.

  14. Postural sway under muscle vibration and muscle fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Danion, Frédéric; Forestier, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent

    2002-11-22

    Separate studies have demonstrated that vibration and fatigue of ankle muscles alter postural control. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of ankle muscle vibration on the regulation of postural sway in bipedal stance following ankle muscle fatigue. Center of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Results showed a similar increase in postural sway under muscle fatigue as well as under muscle vibration. Interestingly, under muscle fatigue muscle vibration did not induce a further increase in postural sway. Two hypotheses could, at least, account for this observation: (1). fatigued muscles are less sensitive to muscle vibration and (2). the central nervous system relies less upon proprioceptive information originating from fatigued muscles for regulating postural sway.

  15. Is it Actually a Contract the Civil Union Agreement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Opazo González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to determine whether the civil union agreement, introduced into the Chilean legislation through the Act number 20.830, is a patrimonial contract, as it is established by its first article, or a Family Law contract. Assuming one option or the other will lead us into whether it is possible or not to apply the Private Autonomy Principle to this contract. The thesis that it is sustained is that it is a Family Law contract and, therefore, the Private Autonomy Principle appears to be restricted in this agreement, so the people who celebrate the civil union agreement in Chile will not be able to alter the legal rules established for it.

  16. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  17. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  18. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  19. Leader Fairness, Social Contract and Corporate Sustainability Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders, Henk; Miedema, Joost; Politis, J

    2009-01-01

    The world badly needs organizations who harness private interest to serve the public interest and who accrue fair returns to shareholders, but not at the expense of the legitimate interest of other stakeholders. We need new principles for future corporate design and new strategic leadership for

  20. Proprioceptive impairment and postural orientation control in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Hakam, Hussein; Azulay, Jean-Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Impairment of postural control is a common consequence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidences demonstrate that the pathophysiology of postural disorders in PD includes deficits in proprioceptive processing and integration. However, the nature of these deficits has not been thoroughly examined. We propose to establish a link between proprioceptive impairments and postural deficits in PD using two different experimental approaches manipulating proprioceptive information. In the first one, the subjects stood on a platform that tilted slowly with oscillatory angular movements in the frontal or sagittal planes. The amplitude and frequency of these movements were kept below the semicircular canal perception threshold. Subjects were asked to maintain vertical body posture with and without vision. The orientations of body segments were analyzed. In the second one, the postural control was tested using the tendon-vibration method, which is known to generate illusory movement sensations and postural reactions. Vibrations were applied to ankle muscles. The subject's whole-body motor responses were analyzed from center of pressure displacements. In the first experiment, the parkinsonian patients (PP) were unable to maintain the vertical trunk orientation without vision. Their performances with vision improved, without fully reaching the level of control subjects (CS). In the second experiment, the postural reactions of the PP were similar to those of the CS at the beginning of the perturbation and increased drastically at the end of the perturbation's period as compared to those of CS and could induce fall. These results will bring new concepts to the sensorimotor postural control, to the physiopathology of posture, equilibrium and falls in PD and to the role of basal ganglia pathways in proprioception integration. Nevertheless, in order to assess precisely the role played by sensorimotor integration deficits in postural impairments in PD, further studies

  1. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  2. Evaluation of the Body Posture in Mahyaman Industry by OWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Holding body in a special posture and holding load simultanausly is astatic work . These postures are the biggest and most common problems in the work places.Work related musckloskeletal disorders (WRMSDs are major occupational health problems inindustrial countries that are caused by a bad posture . One of the newest and usefull posture codingsystems that's used in a steel plant in finland for the first time is OWAS (Ovaco Working postureAnalysis System .Method :This is a cross sectional study that is done in Mahyaman plant , in which 200 worker'spostures are evaluated and coding by OWAS method directly . Firstly , we prepared OWAS formsand went to that plant , then coding worker's postures and filled OWAS forms . Finally , we analyzecollected datas by OWAS software and the charts are prepared bye excel soft ware .Results :In 32 work phases (12.5% worker's back had bending and twisting posture and in 7(2.7% work phases they work with a bended knee .In 184 work phases (72.4% , workers had a normal position and there is not any action needed butin 54 (21.2% they had a stressful postures , so action is necessary soon .Conclusion: Bad postures cause musckloskeletal disorders , consequently low productivity inworkplaces .In this study we find out that 184 (72.4% , 54 (21.2% , 7 (2.7% and 9 (3.5% workers ,subsequently are paced in category 1,2,3 and 4 .It's good to point out that hazardouse postures are related to cooler coloring , 3 meter scissor andcleaning units in this factory .

  3. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  4. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  5. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  6. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  7. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  8. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  9. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (pThales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03), knee flexion (p< 0.00) and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00). All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position. Investigar a postura dos estudantes de enfermagem antes e após a prática clínica. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas etapas, inicialmente com estudantes (2º, 4°, 6° e 8º períodos) tiveram sua postural corporal avaliada por meio da fotogrametria. Todas as imagens foram analisadas, de maneira aleatória e mascarada, por meio do software CorporisPro® 3.1.3. Foram realizadas três avaliações para cada ângulo e calculada a média. Dois anos depois, quando os estudantes do 4º período desenvolveram os estágios clínicos, foram novamente avaliados quanto à postura corporal. A amostra total foi composta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exceção do ângulo triângulo de Tales

  10. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  11. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  12. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S; Toft, Palle; Jørgensen, Marie B; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-04-01

    During maneuvering, fighter pilots experience loads of up to 50-70 kg on their necks. Neck disorders are common and have been linked to impairment in muscle control. We conducted an intervention study introducing targeted training for 24 wk that reduced neck pain. The current study reports the results of the secondary objective, which was to increase the understanding of possible mechanisms underlying such neck pain and its intervention-related relief. In a parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 55 F-16 pilots were evaluated at baseline and randomized to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. At follow-up, there was a significant between-group difference in the Romberg test with closed eyes only (95% confidence ellipse area; CG: 761 +/- 311 mm2; TG: 650 +/- 405 mm2). Prior to randomization, there were no significant differences in postural control and steadiness between 30 pilots who experienced neck pain within the previous 3 mo and 25 pilots without such pain. Impaired postural control and steadiness may only be quantifiable in individuals experiencing acute neck pain of certain intensity, and there may be a ceiling effect in the ability to improve these parameters. For individuals with highly developed physiological capacity, a battery of tests with more stringent demands should be considered, e.g., increased number of repetitions, prolonged duration of the tests, or testing with eyes closed.

  13. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  14. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    A complete, isostructural series of complexes with La-Lu (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural complexes from La-Lu (without Pm) with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater’s model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependence as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination. PMID:17705483

  15. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  16. Effect of Seated Trunk Posture on Eye Blink Startle and Subjective Experience: Comparing Flexion, Neutral Upright Posture, and Extension of Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.; Dankaerts, Wim; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes. PMID:24516664

  17. Contracting singular horseshoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C. A.; San Martín, B.

    2017-11-01

    We suggest a notion of hyperbolicity adapted to the geometric Rovella attractor (Robinson 2012 An Introduction to Dynamical Systems—Continuous and Discrete (Pure and Applied Undergraduate Texts vol 19) 2nd edn (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)) . More precisely, we call a partially hyperbolic set asymptotically sectional-hyperbolic if its singularities are hyperbolic and if its central subbundle is asymptotically sectional expanding outside the stable manifolds of the singularities. We prove that there are highly chaotic flows with Rovella-like singularities exhibiting this kind of hyperbolicity. We shall call them contracting singular horseshoes.

  18. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    should consider tendering out PPP projects in the spirit of joint utility because joint utility can increase the concept of more value for money; the cornerstone of the PPP concept. This paper discusses the positive gains from negotiation and compares it with the upcoming possibilities in the EU public....... Joint utility can increase the concept of more value for money; the cornerstone of the PPP concept. The paper draws upon existing legal content regarding collaboration and common goals and game theory to explain the benefits from implementing similar clauses in PPP contracts....

  19. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  20. Invisible Motivation of Online Adult Learners During Contract Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Youn (Yonnie Chyung, Ed.D.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In a face-to-face classroom, the instructor can easily diagnose students’ motivational status by observing their facial expressions and postures, but such cues are absent in an online classroom. Therefore, online instructors often estimate students’ motivational level based on their online behavior such as the number of messages they post, and look for effective strategies to help them actively participate in online dialogues. One such strategy is contract learning which facilitates self-directed behaviors through structuring an agreed learning process. This study reports a contract learning strategy in a graduate-level online class, examining whether a sample of 28 students’ motivation could indeed be predicted by their online behavior. Results from the study found that the students’ online behavior was not a predictor for their motivational status, though there were age and gender differences in their online behavior. The students felt more self-directed and motivated during contract learning, but what they really liked was being able to select assignments that were relevant to their interests and needs. This paper concludes by discussing practical implications of the findings at the end.

  1. Newly standing infants increase postural stability when performing a supra-postural task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Claxton

    Full Text Available Independent stance is one of the most difficult motor milestones to achieve. Newly standing infants exhibit exaggerated body movements and can only stand for a brief amount of time. Given the difficult nature of bipedal stance, these unstable characteristics are slow to improve. However, we demonstrate that infants can increase their stability when engaged in a standing goal-directed task. Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy. When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics. These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task.

  2. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  3. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P

    2016-01-01

    ) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied......OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were...... of pressure path length, COPL) was calculated, along with rambling and trembling components. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from the quadriceps (Q), hamstrings (H), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles was recorded, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary EMG (%MVE), and the co-contraction index (CCI...

  4. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain....... Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p low back pain compared...... cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. ISRCTN96241850....

  5. Postural orientation in microgravity depends on straightening up movement performed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Whether the vertical body orientation depends on the initial posture and/or the type of straightening up movement is the main question raised in this paper. Another objective was to specify the compensatory role of visual input while adopting an erected posture during microgravity. The final body orientation was analysed in microgravity during parabolic flights. After either (1) straightening up movement from a crouching or (2) a sitting posture, with and without vision. The main results are the following: (1) a vertical erected final posture is correctly achieved after sit to stand movement, whereas all subjects were tilted forward after straightening up from a crouching posture and (2) vision may contribute to correct final posture. These results suggest the existence of a re-weighting of the remaining sensory information, visual information, contact cutaneous cues and proprioceptive information under microgravity condition. We can put forward the alternative hypothesis that the control of body orientation under microgravity condition may also be achieved on the basis of a postural body scheme, that seems to be dependant on the type of movement and/ or the initial position of the whole body.

  6. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  7. Emotional and movement-related body postures modulate visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Khatereh; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Maier, Martin E.; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Human body postures convey useful information for understanding others’ emotions and intentions. To investigate at which stage of visual processing emotional and movement-related information conveyed by bodies is discriminated, we examined event-related potentials elicited by laterally presented images of bodies with static postures and implied-motion body images with neutral, fearful or happy expressions. At the early stage of visual structural encoding (N190), we found a difference in the sensitivity of the two hemispheres to observed body postures. Specifically, the right hemisphere showed a N190 modulation both for the motion content (i.e. all the observed postures implying body movements elicited greater N190 amplitudes compared with static postures) and for the emotional content (i.e. fearful postures elicited the largest N190 amplitude), while the left hemisphere showed a modulation only for the motion content. In contrast, at a later stage of perceptual representation, reflecting selective attention to salient stimuli, an increased early posterior negativity was observed for fearful stimuli in both hemispheres, suggesting an enhanced processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. The observed modulations, both at the early stage of structural encoding and at the later processing stage, suggest the existence of a specialized perceptual mechanism tuned to emotion- and action-related information conveyed by human body postures. PMID:25556213

  8. Averted body postures facilitate orienting of the eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Bobby; Buzzell, George A; Esser, Elizabeth G; Dornstauder, Alexander; Peterson, Matthew S

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that certain social cues, such as averted eye gaze, can automatically initiate the orienting of another's spatial attention. However, whether human posture can also reflexively cue spatial attention remains unclear. The present study directly investigated whether averted neutral postures reflexively cue the attention of observers in a normal population of college students. Similar to classic gaze-cuing paradigms, non-predictive averted posture stimuli were presented prior to the onset of a peripheral target stimulus at one of five SOAs (100ms-500ms). Participants were instructed to move their eyes to the target as fast as possible. Eye-tracking data revealed that participants were significantly faster in initiating saccades when the posture direction was congruent with the target stimulus. Since covert attention shifts precede overt shifts in an obligatory fashion, this suggests that directional postures reflexively orient the attention of others. In line with previous work on gaze-cueing, the congruency effect of posture cue was maximal at the 300ms SOA. These results support the notion that a variety of social cues are used by the human visual system in determining the "direction of attention" of others, and also suggest that human body postures are salient stimuli capable of automatically shifting an observer's attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  10. Electromyographic analysis of riding posture during the bicycling start moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Padulo

    Full Text Available Abstract Professional cyclists often adopt a competition-start standing posture, which has been shown to improve performance. The biomechanical basis of this is unclear, and might be due to a greater mechanical advantage or increased key muscle activity. Previous observations in steady state cycling showed greater activation of the tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii when adopting a standing vs. seated-riding posture. Little is known regarding the effect of riding posture on activation during a standing start. Eleven cyclists performed standing starts in seated and standing-postures using stationary-cycle and on the track. Electromyography of the gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii was recorded during first and subsequent pedal strokes. Results showed that the gastrocnemius medialis did not modify activity. The tibialis anterior, erector spinae, and biceps brachii activity was increased during the standing posture compared to seated, only during the first pedal stroke. These increased activation intensities were accompanied by a corresponding 10% increase in bike speed during the first 5 meters following a standing start in the standing posture compared to the seated one. Adopting a standing posture during a standing start improves performance through greater initial acceleration.

  11. Spatial and temporal analysis of postural control in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Gerard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine postural control of dyslexic children using both spatial and temporal analysis. Thirty dyslexic (mean age 9.7±0.3years) and thirty non-dyslexic age-matched children participated in the study. Postural stability was evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral®. Posture was recorded in the following conditions: eyes open fixating a target (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on stable (-S-) and unstable (-U-) platforms. The findings of this study showed poor postural stability in dyslexic children with respect to the non-dyslexic children group, as demonstrated by both spatial and temporal analysis. In both groups of children postural control depends on the condition, and improves when the eyes are open on a stable platform. Dyslexic children have spectral power indices that are higher than in non-dyslexic children and they showed a shorter cancelling time. Poor postural control in dyslexic children could be due to a deficit in using sensory information most likely caused by impairment in cerebellar activity. The reliability of brain activation patterns, namely in using sensory input and cerebellar activity may explain the deficit in postural control in dyslexic children. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global body posture evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Tiemi Saito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles. Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS: Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation, lumbar spine (hyperlordosis, thoracic spine (rectification, head (deviation to the right and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth. There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder.

  13. [Evalution of body posture in women with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Delaprane, Marina Lima

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the body posture of women submitted to treatment for breast cancer, to identify the postural changes in the first three months after surgery and to investigate the correlation of these findings with the woman's age and type and side of surgery. A longitudinal study that monitored the postural changes of 39 women who underwent mastectomy and quadrantectomy. Postural evaluation was performed using the technique of biophotogrammetry before surgery, after drain removal and three months after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The average age of the women studied was 50±10.5 years, 48.8% underwent mastectomy and the left breast was operated in 61.5% of them . There was no statistically significant difference in the women's posture during the study period. However, the pelvis and trunk of women submitted to quadrantectomy showed better alignment (90°) compared to the women submitted to mastectomy (91.3°). The women submitted to surgery in the left breast had shoulder elevation and ipsilateral inclination of the trunk within a short period of time. Postural changes were correlated with the type and side of surgery. The follow-up of this group after completion of treatment is needed to clarify long-term postural changes.

  14. PENINGKATAN STABILITAS POSTURAL PADA LANSIA MELALUI BALANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto .

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilitas postural adalah masalah yang umum pada lansia. Balance exercise dapat dijadikan alternative latihan bagi lansia. Latihan ini meliputi 5 gerakan (plantar flexion, hip flexion, hip flexion, knee flexion dan side leg raise. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa efek dari balance exercise terhadap peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Penelitian ini menggunakan design pre eksperimen. Populasi yang digunakan adalah lansia di Panti Wreda Bangkalan. Total sampel adalah 11 responden, yang diambil berdasarkan kriteria inklusi. Variabel dependen adalah balance exercise dan variabel independen adalah stabilitas postural. Stabilitas postural diukur menggunakan 2 tes, yaitu tes Tinetti dan TUGT (Time Up and Go Test. Data dianalisa menggunakan paired t test dengan level signifikan 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balance exercise secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan stabilitas postural. Pada tes Tinetti (p=0,000 dan di TUGT (p=0,001. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat hasil yang signifikan antara balance exercise dengan peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Hal ini disebabkan Karena balance exercise dapat membuat otot lansia menjadi hipertrofi. Hipertrofi dapat meningkatkan kekuatan otot sehingga stabilitas postural lansia dapat meningkat. Penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan melibatkan lebih banyak responden dengan waktu penelitian yang lebih lama dan pengukuran yang lebih baik untuk memastikan hasil yang lebih akurat.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of postural stress in school workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Adila Md; Dawal, Siti Zawiahmd Md; Yusoff, Nukman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the evaluation of postural analysis between a self-report questionnaire and physical assessments methods for students aged 13 to 15 years old in school workshop. 336 students were volunteered as participants to fill in the questionnaire and being observed in the workshop. Total of 104 positions were selected and analyzed while students performing their tasks. Questionnaire data was examined to specify the prevalence of postural stress symptoms. The relationship of postural stress by physical assessment methods (RULA and REBA methods) was defined to identify the risk level of students' working posture. From the results, comparison of four factors categorized from total of 22 questions among ages, the mean values were lower for 13 years old students meaning that they were faced higher posture problems while using the workstation. The obtained results from both physical assessment methods and questionnaire analysis have identified 13 years old students faced higher risk exposure. Analysis results emphasized the fact that self-reports questionnaire method has almost accurate as postural evaluation methods to identify physical risks in workplace. The result also shows that an intervention is needed to overcome the posture problems.

  16. Fatigue-induced adaptive changes of anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Adam J; Berg, William P

    2007-03-01

    To examine the fatigue-induced adaptive changes (e.g., timing) of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), APAs of 30 research participants were recorded before (baseline) and after (post-test) conditions of either rest (control group, n=15) or fatigue (fatigue group, n=15). Muscle fatigue was generated using a dead-lift exercise performed to exhaustion. Self-initiated postural perturbations were induced using a rapid unilateral arm-raising maneuver (focal movement), and APAs were obtained using electromyography (EMG) recorded bilaterally in the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscles as well as the hamstring muscles. Postural stability during the focal movement was assessed using a force plate. Results showed that fatigue had no effect on postural stability during the focal movement, and yet caused earlier APA onsets in three of the six muscles evaluated. In spite of early APA activation, the APA EMG integrals of two of the three postural control muscles which exhibited fatigue-induced early APA onsets (T9 and L4 contralateral paraspinals) did not differ between baseline and post-test measures. The findings suggest that early APA onset may enhance postural stability by permitting a longer duration APA which can counteract fatigue-induced decreases in the force-producing capability of muscles that contribute to postural stability.

  17. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  19. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  20. Defining Acquisition and Contracting Terms Associated with Contract Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Riemer Handbook of Government Contract Administration, the Armed Services Pricing Manual ( ASPM ), and AFIT’s Govern- ment Contract Law course and case book...these duties into general categories, as outlined in the ASPM and Government Contract Cost (16:B-3) (36:25-7,GL-3). NCMA’s Desktop Guide to Basic...processes by listing exactly how an audit is carried out and what it determines. For example, Arnavas, Rishe, and the ASPM conclude that an au- dit is

  1. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Deliagina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat.In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed.

  2. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  3. Unexpected terrestrial hand posture diversity in wild mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan E; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; McFarlin, Shannon C; Robbins, Martha M; Stoinski, Tara S; Almécija, Sergio

    2018-01-18

    Gorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as 'knuckle-walkers.' Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism. Here we documented hand postures during terrestrial locomotion in wild mountain gorillas to investigate the frequency with which KW and other hand postures are utilized in the wild. Multiple high-speed cameras were used to record bouts of terrestrial locomotion of 77 habituated mountain gorillas at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda) and Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda). We captured high-speed video of hand contacts in 8% of the world's population of mountain gorillas. Our results reveal that nearly 40% of these gorillas used "non-KW" hand postures, and these hand postures constituted 15% of all hand contacts. Some of these "non-KW" hand postures have never been documented in gorillas, yet match hand postures previously identified in orangutans. These results highlight a previously unrecognized level of hand postural diversity in gorillas, and perhaps great apes generally. Although present at lower frequencies than KW, we suggest that the possession of multiple, versatile hand postures present in wild mountain gorillas may represent a shared feature of the African ape and human clade (or even great ape clade) rather than KW per se. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Postural alignment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, airflow resistance impairs respiratory mechanics that may compromise postural alignment. There is a lack of studies that have investigated compromised postures and their possible associations with pulmonary function. Objectives: To compare the postural alignment of COPD patients with apparently healthy individuals; To correlate pulmonary function with postural alignment in the COPD group. Methods: 20 COPD patients and 20 apparently healthy individuals performed: anthropometry, spirometry and postural evaluation. The following postural changes were assessed: lateral head tilt (LHT, shoulder asymmetry (SA1, anterior pelvic asymmetry (APA, lateral trunk tilt (LTT, scapular asymmetry (SA2, posterior pelvic asymmetry (PPA, head protrusion (HP, shoulder protrusion (SP, anterior pelvic tilt (APT and thoracic kyphosis (TK. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between COPD patients and apparently healthy individuals in the following variables: PPT (p= 0.021, APT (p=0.014 and TK (p=0.011. There was a correlation between pulmonary variables and postural alignment in the COPD group: Forced Volume in one second (FEV1% pred and HP (° (r=0.488, p=0.029, FEV1 (% pred and APT (° (r= -0.472, p= 0.036; Forced Vital Capacity (FVC % pred and HP (° (r=0.568, p=0.009; FVC (% pred and APT (° (r=-0.461, p=0.041. Conclusion: Postural alignment of the anterior tilt of the right and left pelvis and thoracic kyphosis is different when compared with COPD patients and healthy individuals. There is a relationship between pulmonary function and postural alignment in COPD patients.

  5. Project management plan for Contract Management Information System (CONTRACT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severud, K.J.

    1995-01-27

    The office of the Vice President of A/E Construction for ICF Kaiser has requested that OSHA compliance statistics be made available to management for companies subcontracting to the ICF Kaiser Company. In addition, a need to better manage contract administrative data for the Contracts Administration and the Construction Management Projects organizations has been identified. The Contract Management Information System is being developed to achieve these objectives. This document provides a Project Management Plan for development of the Contract Management Administration System (CONTRACT) by Design Services DAD/CAE Support. The Project Management Plan describes the project work breakdown structure, safety and quality considerations, with associated cost, schedule and project management information. The CONTRACT System is intended to aid the ICF Kaiser divisions with tracking of A/E subcontractor information to include general contract administration information used by the Contracts Administration organization, contract and safety performance data used by the Construction Management Projects and office of the organization and Vice President of A/E Construction.

  6. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  7. 48 CFR 1416.405 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1416.405 Section 1416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1416.405 Contract clauses. The BPC, without the power...

  8. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) (b) USAID may obtain short... indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using the fixed-price...

  9. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  10. Exercise, posture, and back pain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Reid, J G; Wolfe, L A; Griffin, M P; McGrath, M J

    1995-03-01

    In this article the effect of exercise on pregnancy-related back pain is reported. Sixty five pregnant volunteers were included in the study, of whom 27 were enrolled in exercise classes designed according to Canadian guidelines, and 38 acted as sedentary controls. Back pain and functional limitations were assessed every 4 weeks during pregnancy and 4 months postpartum by questionnaires. No significant differences in back pain or functional limitations reported by the two groups were found. The biomechanical factors measured in this study, weight, back posture, and laxity, were unable to explain most of the variation in pain reported. RELEVANCE: This study showed that fitness classes for pregnant women designed according to Canadian guidelines had no detectable effect on back pain during pregnancy. If prevention of pregnancy-related back pain is sought through exercise, design of fitness programmes for pregnant women should be reconsidered.

  11. A review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    A 21-year-old female reports an 18-month history of light-headedness on standing. This is often associated with palpitations and a feeling of intense anxiety. She has had two black-outs in the past 12 months. She is not taking any regular medications. Her supine blood pressure was 126\\/84 mmHg with a heart rate of 76 bpm, and her upright blood pressure was 122\\/80 mmHg with a heart rate of 114 bpm. A full system examination was otherwise normal. She had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed which was unremarkable. She was referred for head-up tilt testing. She was symptomatic during the test and lost consciousness at 16 min. Figure 1 summarizes her blood pressure and heart rate response to tilting. A diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with overlapping vasovagal syncope was made.

  12. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  13. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  14. Postural correlates of viewing painful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eLelard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation.Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the centre of pressure (COP, leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations.Results:The anteroposterior path was shorter (p<0.05 when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm. Higher Tibialis Anterior (TA activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95 % vs 3.24 ± 1.85 %; p < 0.001 and higher variability of Soleus (SO activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2 % vs M = 9.0% ± 7.2 %; p<0.05 were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  15. Shoulder posture and median nerve sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Andrew

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with upper limb pain often have a slumped sitting position and poor shoulder posture. Pain could be due to poor posture causing mechanical changes (stretch; local pressure that in turn affect the function of major limb nerves (e.g. median nerve. This study examines (1 whether the individual components of slumped sitting (forward head position, trunk flexion and shoulder protraction cause median nerve stretch and (2 whether shoulder protraction restricts normal nerve movements. Methods Longitudinal nerve movement was measured using frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis from high frequency ultrasound images during individual components of slumped sitting. The effects of protraction on nerve movement through the shoulder region were investigated by examining nerve movement in the arm in response to contralateral neck side flexion. Results Neither moving the head forward or trunk flexion caused significant movement of the median nerve. In contrast, 4.3 mm of movement, adding 0.7% strain, occurred in the forearm during shoulder protraction. A delay in movement at the start of protraction and straightening of the nerve trunk provided evidence of unloading with the shoulder flexed and elbow extended and the scapulothoracic joint in neutral. There was a 60% reduction in nerve movement in the arm during contralateral neck side flexion when the shoulder was protracted compared to scapulothoracic neutral. Conclusion Slumped sitting is unlikely to increase nerve strain sufficient to cause changes to nerve function. However, shoulder protraction may place the median nerve at risk of injury, since nerve movement is reduced through the shoulder region when the shoulder is protracted and other joints are moved. Both altered nerve dynamics in response to moving other joints and local changes to blood supply may adversely affect nerve function and increase the risk of developing upper quadrant pain.

  16. Locomotor and postural development of wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarringhaus, L A; MacLatchy, L M; Mitani, J C

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives and their positional repertoire likely includes elements shared with our common ancestor. Currently, limitations exist in our ability to correlate locomotor anatomy with behavioral function in the wild. Here we provide a detailed description of developmental changes in chimpanzee locomotion and posture. Fieldwork was conducted on wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. The large size of the Ngogo chimpanzee community permitted cross-sectional analysis of locomotor and postural changes across many individuals. Chimpanzee positional behavior proceeds developmentally through a number of distinct stages, each characterized by its own loading regime. Infants principally used their upper limbs while moving; the loading environment changed to more hindlimb dominated locomotion as infants aged. Infants displayed more diversity in their forms of positional behavior than members of any other age-sex class, engaging in behaviors not habitually exhibited by adults. While the most common locomotor mode for infants was torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion, a large shift toward quadrupedal locomotion during infancy occurred at three years of age, when rates of this behavior increased. Overall, the most dramatic transition in positional behavior occurred during juvenility (at approximately five years), with the advent of complete independent locomotion. Juveniles decreased the amount of time they spent clinging and in torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion and increased their time spent sitting and walking and running quadrupedally compared with younger individuals. Juvenility marked the age at which quadrupedal walking became the most frequent locomotor behavior, but quadrupedal walking did not encompass the majority of locomotor time until individuals reached adolescence. Relative to all younger individuals, adolescent chimpanzees (10-13 years) experienced a further increase in the amount of time they walked

  17. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  18. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  19. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results...... of contraction analysis. In this paper, we review and place into perspective some references of this era, and relate them with contraction....

  20. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter.......Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...

  1. Performance contracts for police forces

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Vollaard

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, the government will enter into performance contracts with each of the 25 regional police forces. The performance contracts establish a direct link between meeting a number of quantitative performance targets and financial incentives. A major improvement in police performance is necessary to meet the objective of 20 to 25 percent less criminal and disorderly behavior by 2006. A closer look at the performance contracts learns that they may not be the most appropriate policy instrument ...

  2. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... the 1983 Danish fiscal reform. We use a structural VAR/event study methodology following Blanchard and Perotti (2002) that explicitly allows us to distinguish between normally marginal changes in fiscal policy and comprehensive fiscal reforms. We find that 'marginal changes' in fiscal policy (expenditure...... and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis...

  3. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    development trends are indicated. A third section describes the contemporary external, regulative framework of construction projects. In the two final sections the construction process is decomposed with regard to 1)phases and activities and 2)procurement forms, actors and functions.......The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  4. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  5. The relationship between intermittent limit cycles and postural instability associated with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Chagdes; Huber, Jessica E.; Saletta, Meredith; Darling-White, Meghan; Raman, Arvind; Rietdyk, Shirley; Howard N Zelaznik; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many disease-specific factors such as muscular weakness, increased muscle stiffness, varying postural strategies, and changes in postural reflexes have been shown to lead to postural instability and fall risk in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, analytical techniques, inspired by the dynamical systems perspective on movement control and coordination, have been used to examine the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of postural declines and the emergence of postural in...

  6. Intensive Abdominal Drawing-In Maneuver After Unipedal Postural Stability in Nonathletes With Core Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam G.; You, Joshua (Sung) H.; Kim, Tae H.; Choi, Bong S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The exact neuromechanical nature and relative contribution of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) to postural instability warrants further investigation in uninjured and injured populations. Objective: To determine the effects of the ADIM on static core and unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 19 nonathletes (4 women: age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years, height = 164.0 ± 1.7 cm, mass = 56.0 ± 4.6 kg; 15 men: age = 24.6 ± 2.8 years, height = 172.6 ± 4.7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 7.6 kg) with core instability. Intervention(s): Participants received ADIM training with visual feedback 20 minutes each day for 7 days each week over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures(s): Core instability was determined using a prone formal test and measured by a pressure biofeedback unit. Unipedal postural stability was determined by measuring the center-of-pressure sway and associated changes in the abdominal muscle-thickness ratios. Electromyographic activity was measured concurrently in the external oblique, erector spinae, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Results: All participants initially were unable to complete the formal test. However, after the 2-week ADIM training period, all participants were able to reduce the pressure biofeedback unit by a range of 4 to 10 mm Hg from an initial 70 mm Hg and maintain it at 60 to 66 mm Hg with minimal activation of the external oblique (t18 = 3.691, P = .002) and erector spinae (t18 = 2.823, P = .01) muscles. Monitoring of the pressure biofeedback unit and other muscle activations confirmed that the correct muscle contraction defining the ADIM was accomplished. This core stabilization was well maintained in the unipedal-stance position, as evidenced by a decrease in the center-of-pressure sway measures (t18 range, 3.953–5.775, P

  7. Unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability after intensive abdominal drawing-in maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam G; You, Joshua Sung H; Kim, Tae H; Choi, Bong S

    2015-02-01

    The exact neuromechanical nature and relative contribution of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) to postural instability warrants further investigation in uninjured and injured populations. To determine the effects of the ADIM on static core and unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. A total of 19 nonathletes (4 women: age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years, height = 164.0 ± 1.7 cm, mass = 56.0 ± 4.6 kg; 15 men: age = 24.6 ± 2.8 years, height = 172.6 ± 4.7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 7.6 kg) with core instability. Participants received ADIM training with visual feedback 20 minutes each day for 7 days each week over a 2-week period. Core instability was determined using a prone formal test and measured by a pressure biofeedback unit. Unipedal postural stability was determined by measuring the center-of-pressure sway and associated changes in the abdominal muscle-thickness ratios. Electromyographic activity was measured concurrently in the external oblique, erector spinae, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. All participants initially were unable to complete the formal test. However, after the 2-week ADIM training period, all participants were able to reduce the pressure biofeedback unit by a range of 4 to 10 mm Hg from an initial 70 mm Hg and maintain it at 60 to 66 mm Hg with minimal activation of the external oblique (t(18) = 3.691, P = .002) and erector spinae (t(18) = 2.823, P = .01) muscles. Monitoring of the pressure biofeedback unit and other muscle activations confirmed that the correct muscle contraction defining the ADIM was accomplished. This core stabilization was well maintained in the unipedal-stance position, as evidenced by a decrease in the center-of-pressure sway measures (t(18) range, 3.953-5.775, P core and postural stability in nonathletes with core instability.

  8. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  9. Simplifying Contract-Violating Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Contract conformance is hard to determine statically, prior to the deployment of large pieces of software. A scalable alternative is to monitor for contract violations post-deployment: once a violation is detected, the trace characterising the offending execution is analysed to pinpoint the source of the offence. A major drawback with this technique is that, often, contract violations take time to surface, resulting in long traces that are hard to analyse. This paper proposes a methodology together with an accompanying tool for simplifying traces and assisting contract-violation debugging.

  10. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  12. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  13. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  14. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  15. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  16. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  17. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  18. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  19. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  20. Principles of contracting; Grundlagen des Contracting. Waermecontracting - worauf es ankommt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meixner, H. [HessenENERGIE, Gesellschaft fuer Rationelle Energienutzung mbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Contracting has established itself as a permanent factor in the debate about energy policy and the energy industry. In a survey of senior managers in the German energy sector on the trends and services which will gain heavily in importance from 2002 to 2004, contracting occupied a prime position, immediately after 'New services in general' and 'Multi-utility' and far ahead of 'Electricity trading' or 'Telecommunications/Power lines'. Energy policy expectations of contracting are high and a lot of confidence is being placed in this service. Similarly long-term planning perspectives to those usual for energy generation facilities (e.g. power stations) must thus be facilitated for investment in saving energy. In its original version, contracting is only intended for the implementation of investments dedicated purely to saving energy, if possible, and accompanying measures by third parties. The amortisation of investments made by the contractor from the savings which can be made on energy costs is disputed. In parallel to such 'economy contracting' (also known as 'performance contracting'), energy supply contracting (also known as plant contracting or the supply of useful energy) has predominantly emerged, with a stronger orientation towards ordinary customer energy supply contracts. The user commissions an energy utility to provide the useful energy required. The utility frequently also assumes investment in the necessary technical plant, including planning, finance and operation - analogous to the supply of district heating. Various forms of finance contracting also exist which tend towards leasing and contracting models for the management of existing technical installations, which does not anticipate any (major) investment by the contractor. (orig.) [German] In den 90er Jahren hat Contracting 'Karriere' gemacht - allerdings eher der Begriff als die Sache, die er bezeichnet. Inzwischen sind aber

  1. Postural and intention tremors: Detailed clinical study of essential tremor vs. Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer J Sternberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: An estimated 30-50% of essential tremor diagnoses are incorrect, and the true diagnosis in those patients is often Parkinson’s disease or other tremor disorders. There are general statements about the tremor in these essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease, but published data on the more subtle characteristics of tremor are surprisingly limited. Postural tremor may occur in both disorders, adding to the difficulty. There are several anecdotal impressions regarding specific features of postural tremor in essential tremor vs. Parkinson’s disease, including joint distribution (e.g., phalanges, metacarpal-phalangeal joints, wrist, tremor directionality (e.g., flexion-extension vs. pronation-supination, and presence of intention tremor. However, there is little data to support these impressions.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients (essential tremor, 50 Parkinson’s disease underwent detailed videotaped neurological examinations. Arm tremor was rated by a movement disorder neurologist who assessed severity and directionality across multiple joints. Results: During sustained arm extension, essential tremor patients exhibited more wrist than metacarpal-phalangeal and phalangeal joint tremor than did Parkinson’s disease patients (p<0.001, and more wrist flexion-extension tremor than wrist pronation-supination tremor (p<0.001. During the finger-nose-finger maneuver, intention tremor was present in approximately one in four (28% essential tremor patients vs. virtually none (4% of the Parkinson’s patients (p<0.001.Conclusions: We evaluated the location, severity, and directionality of postural tremor in essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease, and the presence of intention tremor, observing several clinical differences. We hope that detailed phenomenological data on tremor in essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease will help practicing physicians delineate the two diseases.

  2. Identification of static and dynamic postural instability following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, A C; Ribbers, G M; Knoop, J A; van Limbeek, J

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative evaluation of static and dynamic aspects of postural instability as a long-term consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Experimental two-group design. Outpatient rehabilitation department. From a consecutive sample of TBI patients at least 6 months after trauma, 20 subjects were selected who complained of reduced gross motor skills but showed no sensorimotor impairments in a standard neurological examination (11 men, 9 women; mean age 36.2 +/- 10.7 years). Thirteen patients had sustained mild, 2 moderate, and 5 severe TBI. Twenty healthy controls were matched for age and gender. None. A dual-plate force platform recorded the amplitude and velocity of the center-of-pressure fluctuations in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) sway directions during quiet standing. Also, the speed and fluency of weight shifting using visual feedback was registered. Both balance tasks were combined with an arithmetic task, whereas quiet standing was also tested with visual deprivation. Compared to controls, TBI patients showed an increase of over 50% in AP and LAT sway, and a weight-shifting speed 20% lower. Dual-task interference was never significant. Visual deprivation was most detrimental for the TBI patients, particularly for LAT sway control. A long-term overall reduction in both static and dynamic control of posture can be present after TBI, even in patients without clear neurological deficits. Force-plate recordings can identify such (latent) balance problems. Visual deprivation during quiet standing appears a simple, sensitive test for postural instability related to sensory integration deficits.

  3. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  4. Coordination between posture and phonation in vocal effort behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Ghio, Alain; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Postural correlates of vocal effort are rarely described in the literature, while they are extensively dealt with in speech therapy. This study aims at determining whether body movement is a side effect of vocal effort or an integral part of communication effort behavior. The answer to this question is mainly based on correlations between posture and phonation. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. They had to communicate with a listener under 3 conditions requiring different levels of vocal effort. The vocal parameters increased and confirmed that the subjects had made a vocal effort. The kinematic parameters (amplitude and duration of body movement) increased with vocal effort. Lastly, vocal and kinematic characteristics were significantly correlated. The close correlation of posture with vocal production shows that movement is not a mere consequence of vocal effort. Posture and voice are coordinated in communication behavior, and each body segment plays its specific role in the vocal effort behavior. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Non-specific exercise therapy for benign paroxysmal postural vertigo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yoshida, Tomoe; Ohwada, Satoko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Shigeta, Fuyuko; Tamura, Yuya

    2011-01-01

    We treated 1145 patients diagnosed as having benign paroxysmal postural vertigo at the Toho University Medical Center Sakura Hospital from August 2007 to July 2009 by the exercise therapy developed by us...

  6. Stress exposure and postural control in young females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    COCO, MARINELLA; FIORE, ANGELO SARRA; PERCIAVALLE, VINCENZO; MACI, TIZANA; PETRALIA, MARIA CRISTINA; PERCIAVALLE, VALENTINA

    The aim of this study was to determine if heightened stress had an adverse affect on the postural control of 14 young right-handed females during quiet standing in either the presence or the absence of visual input...

  7. Postural abnormalities to multidirectional stance perturbations in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, M.G.; Allum, J.H.J.; Honegger, F.; Adkin, A.L.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated trunk control, protective arm movements, and electromyographic responses to multidirectional support-surface rotations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), aiming to better understand the pathophysiology underlying postural instability in PD, on and off antiparkinson

  8. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  9. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... is capable of predicting realistic motions for a wide range of dynamic human movements remain open questions. In this thesis, we investigated the validity of different physiology-based cost functions for the prediction of kinematic and kinetic patterns for different human postures and motions. In each case......Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...

  10. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, A.C.; Blouin, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular

  11. Dental occlusion modifies gaze and posture stabilization in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, P; Louis, J P; Perrin, P P

    2000-11-03

    Repercussion of dental occlusion was tested upon postural and gaze stabilization, the latter with a visuo-motor task evaluated by shooting performances. Eighteen permit holders shooters and 18 controls were enrolled in this study. Postural control was evaluated in both groups according to four mandibular positions imposed by interocclusal splints: (i) intercuspal occlusion (IO), (ii) centric relation (CR), (iii) physiological side lateral occlusion and (iv) controlateral occlusion, in order to appreciate the impact of the splints upon orthostatism. Postural control and gaze stabilization quality decreased, from the best to the worst, with splints in CR, IO and lateral occlusion. In shooters, the improvement in postural control was parallel to superior shooting performance. A repercussion of dental occlusion upon proprioception and visual stabilization is suggested by these data.

  12. Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.

  13. Models of the vestibular system and postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.; Weiss, A.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of control theory and systems analysis to the problem of orientation and posture control are discussed, with the possible long range goals of contributing to the development of hardware for rehabilitation of the handicapped.

  14. Getting It Straight: Improve Your Posture for Better Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of older adults.” An extremely hunched posture, or hyperkyphosis, affects up to two-thirds of senior women ... or relaxation. In one study, older adults with hyperkyphosis showed significant improvement and less rounded shoulders after ...

  15. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microgravity) on lung volumes has not been reported. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box-and-flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements included functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume (RV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC and EVC), and tidal volume (V9sub T)). Total lung capacity (TLC) was derived from the measured EVC and RV values. With preflight standing values as a comparison, FRC was significantly reduced by 15% (approximately 500 ml) in microgravity and 32% in the supine posture. ERV was reduced by 10 - 20% in microgravity and decreased by 64% in the supine posture. RV was significantly reduced by 18% (310 ml) in microgravity but did not significantly change in the supine posture compared with standing. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 h of microgravity but returned to 1-G standing values within 72 h of microgravity exposure. IVC and EVC in the supine posture were significantly reduced by 12% compared with standing. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15% (approximately 90 ml), but supine V(sub T) was unchanged compared with preflight standing values. TLC decreased by approximately 8% during microgravity and in the supine posture compared with preflight standing. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and RV during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm, an increase in intrathoracic blood volume, and more uniform alveolar expansion.

  16. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at 900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  18. The effect of a combined strength and proprioceptive training on muscle strength and postural balance in boys with intellectual disability: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachouri, Hiba; Borji, Rihab; Baccouch, Rym; Laatar, Rabeb; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a combined strength and proprioception training (CSPT) program on muscle strength and postural balance in children with intellectual disability (ID). The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and postural parameters (CoPVm, CoPLX, CoPLY) of 20 children with ID were recorded before and after 8 weeks of a CSPT program. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group who attended a CSPT program and a control group who continued with daily activities. In the trained group, the MVC increased significantly (ptraining period and the postural parameters decreased significantly in Double-Leg Stance (DLS) and One-Leg Stance (OLS) during the firm surface condition as well as in the DLS during the foam surface condition; in both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. A CSPT program improves postural balance in children with ID could be due to the enhancement in muscle strength and proprioceptive input integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii , dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, dans le Parc National de Taï (Côte-d\\'Ivoire). EA Batty, WS McGraw, PK Kouassi. Abstract. Les cercopithèques sont des espèces de singe très actifs. A l\\'instar des autres espèces, ils adoptent la majeure partie du temps des postures diverses. Le but de notre ...

  20. Tratamiento postural y respiración en el linfedema

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrià Iranzo, M. Àngels

    2010-01-01

    El postural en declive representa el medio más sencillo de reducir la presión venolinfática, favoreciendo así la reabsorción y el trasporte del líquido intersticial. Además, es el postural indicado para la aplicación de otras medidas de tratamiento como las respiraciones o el drenaje linfático manual.

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Postural control deficits identify lingering post-concussion neurological deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, incidence rates have reached epidemic levels and impaired postural control is a cardinal symptom. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the linear and non-linear assessments of post-concussion postural control. The current acute evaluation for concussion utilizes the subjective balance error scoring system (BESS to assess postural control. While the sensitivity of the overall test battery is high, the sensitivity of the BESS is unacceptably low and, with repeat administration, is unable to accurately identify recovery. Sophisticated measures of postural control, utilizing traditional linear assessments, have identified impairments in postural control well beyond BESS recovery. Both assessments of quiet stance and gait have identified lingering impairments for at least 1 month post-concussion. Recently, the application of non-linear metrics to concussion recovery have begun to receive limited attention with the most commonly utilized metric being approximate entropy (ApEn. ApEn, most commonly in the medial-lateral plane, has successfully identified impaired postural control in the acute post-concussion timeframe even when linear assessments of instrumented measures are equivalent to healthy pre-injury values; unfortunately these studies have not gone beyond the acute phase of recovery. One study has identified lingering deficits in postural control, utilizing Shannon and Renyi entropy metrics, which persist at least through clinical recovery and return to participation. Finally, limited evidence from two studies suggest that individuals with a previous history of a single concussion, even months or years prior, may display altered ApEn metrics. Overall, non-linear metrics provide a fertile area for future study to further the understanding of postural control impairments acutely post-concussion and address the current challenge of sensitive identification of recovery.

  3. Humanoid posture generation on non-Euclidean manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Brossette, Stanislas; Escande, Adrien; Duchemin, Grégoire; Chrétien, Benjamin; Kheddar, Abderrahmane

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a reformulation of the posture generation problem that encompasses non-Euclidean manifolds. Such a formulation allows a more elegant mathematical description of the constraints, which we exemplify through some scenarios in the simulation results section. In our previous work, the posture generation problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization program with constraints expressed only through Euclidean manifolds; we solve the latter problem using on-the-s...

  4. Human posture classification for intelligent visual surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems (ISS) have gained a significant attention in recent years due to the nationwide security concerns. Some of the important applications of ISS include: homeland security, border monitoring, battlefield intelligence, and sensitive facility monitoring. The essential requirements of an ISS include: (1) multi-modality multi-sensor data and information fusion, (2) communication networking, (3) distributed data/information processing,(4) Automatic target recognition and tracking, (5) Scenario profiling from discrete correlated/uncorrelated events, (6) Context-based situation reasoning, and (7) Collaborative resource sharing and decision support systems. In this paper we have addressed the problem of humanposture classification in crowded urban terrain environments. Certain range of human postures can be attributed to different suspicious acts of intruders in a constrained environment. By proper time analysis of human trespassers' postures in an environment, it would be possible to identify and differentiate malicious intention of the trespassers from other normal human behaviors. Specifically in this paper, we have proposed an image processing-based approach for characterization of five different human postures including: standing, bending, crawling, carrying a heavy object, and holding a long object. Two approaches were introduced to address the problem: template-matching and Hamming Adaptive Neural Network (HANN) classifiers. The former approach performs human posture characterization via binary-profile projection and applies a correlation-based method for classification of human postures. The latter approach is based a HANN technique. For training of the neural, the posture-patterns are initially compressed, thresholded, and serialized. The binary posture-pattern arrays were then used for training of the HANN. The comparative performance evaluation of both approaches the same set of training and testing examples were used to measure

  5. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Robert L Nudds; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  6. Effects of sound on postural stability during quiet standing

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sung; Lee Kichol; Lockhart Thurmon; Kim Sukwon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length ...

  7. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Gunter P Siegmund; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwid...

  8. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  10. Mood Recognition Based on Upper Body Posture and Movement Features

    OpenAIRE

    Thrasher, M.L.; Van der Zwaag, M.D.; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    While studying body postures in relation to mood is not a new concept, the majority of these studies rely on actors interpretations. This project investigated the temporal aspects of naturalistic body postures while users listened to mood inducing music. Video data was collected while participants listened to eight minutes of music duringtwo sessions (happy and sad) in a within-subjects design. Subjectively reported mood scores validated that mood did differ significantly for valence and ener...

  11. Postural status of preschool children in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Romana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Novi Sad in the preschool institutions of 'Radosno detinjstvo' on a sample of 423 preschool children of both sexes, ages 6 and 7. The subject of this paper are postural disorders on the spinal column in the sagittal and frontal planes, as well as foot deformities. The aim of the research is to determine the frequency of disorder of postural status of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis and deviation from the normal status of the foot, and the analysis of the differences between boys and girls. Assessment of the postural status of the feet was performed by means of using the Pedikom computer system for digital computerised pedography. Assessment of spine postural status was done by means of SpineScan portable device. Data were analysed according to the frequency for the assessment of spinal status, the status of the foot, all according gender. Significance of the gender-conditioned differences was determined by the Chi-square test. The results indicate that in the examined population, the most common posture is lordotic bad posture, 41.31% with male examinees and 36.66% with female examinees. A statistically significant difference in relation to sexual dimorphism was found for the parameter of scoliotic bad posture (Sig. = 0.008. In terms of deviation from the normal status of the feet, in the examined population, pronating foot level I accounts for 43.23%, pronating foot level II accounts for 16.66% and high-arched foot accounts for 10.16%. Quantitative results indicate the need for corrective gymnastic to correct but also prevent postural deformities by introducing of the same as an everyday directed activity of preschool population.

  12. Posture and low back pain during pregnancy - 3D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Tomasik, Paweł; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Głuszak, Michał; Krawczak, Karolina; Michoński, Jakub; Czyżewska, Anna; Żukowska, Agnieszka; Sitnik, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. The posture, curvatures of the spine and the center of gravity changes are considered as the mechanisms leading to pain. The study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and search for relationships with the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Patients referred from University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics were examined outpatient at the Posture Study Unit of Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Sixty-five women at 4-39 weeks of pregnancy were assessed and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography. The study confirmed that difficulties in sitting and standing are significant in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed. Major changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line were not observed in the study group. The issue regarding how the pregnancy causes changes in spinal curvature and posture remains open for further studies. Presented method of 3D surface topography can reveal postural changes, but that requires several exams of each subject and strict follow-up of the series of cases.

  13. Weapons, Body Postures, and the Quest for Dominance in Robberies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselman, Floris; Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2018-01-01

    Objective: A small-scale exploration of the use of video analysis to study robberies. We analyze the use of weapons as part of the body posturing of robbers as they attempt to attain dominance. Methods: Qualitative analyses of video footage of 23 shop robberies. We used Observer XT software (version 12) for fine-grained multimodal coding, capturing diverse bodily behavior by various actors simultaneously. We also constructed story lines to understand the robberies as hermeneutic whole cases. Results: Robbers attain dominance by using weapons that afford aggrandizing posturing and forward movements. Guns rather than knives seemed to fit more easily with such posturing. Also, victims were more likely to show minimizing postures when confronted with guns. Thus, guns, as part of aggrandizing posturing, offer more support to robbers’ claims to dominance in addition to their more lethal power. In the cases where resistance occurred, robbers either expressed insecure body movements or minimizing postures and related weapon usage or they failed to impose a robbery frame as the victims did not seem to comprehend the situation initially. Conclusions: Video analysis opens up a new perspective of how violent crime unfolds as sequences of bodily movements. We provide methodological recommendations and suggest a larger scale comparative project. PMID:29416178

  14. Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Pilwon; Park, Kiwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures for both stance conditions, a robustness measure was assessed for the perturbation condition. The results suggest that wearing heavy bottles significantly increased excursion and randomness of postural sway only in medial-lateral direction but not in anterior-posterior direction. This result may be due to stiffening of plantar-flexor muscles. A significant interaction was obtained between SCBA bottle design and vision in anterior-posterior postural sway, suggesting that wearing heavy and large SCBA air bottles can significantly threaten postural stability in AP direction in the absence of vision. SCBA bottle should be redesigned with reduced weight, smaller height, and COM closer to the body of the firefighters. Firefighters should also widen their stance width when wearing heavy PPE with SCBA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI) values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems. PMID:21244705

  16. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  17. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  18. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  19. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejeva Julija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.