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Sample records for sustained postprandial decrease

  1. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM...

  2. Increased Plasma Availability of L-arginine in the Postprandial Period Decreases the Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Older adults have exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL), which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the effects of increased plasma L-arginine availability on the oxidation of ingested fat (enriched with [1,1,1-13C]-triolein) and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations during the postprandial period in older subjects. Methods On one day, eight healthy subjects (67.8 ± 1.3 years old) received an intravenous infusion of L-arginine during the first hour of the postprandial period (L-ARG), while on a separate day they received saline (control trial; CON). Results The 8-h area under the curve (AUC0–8h) describing the postprandial plasma TG concentrations was considerably lower in the L-ARG trial than the CON trial (−4 ± 21 vs 104 ± 21 mg·dL−1·h; P postprandial oxidation of the ingested lipid was not different between the trials, but the average contribution of ingested-oleate to the oleate of TG of the plasma small TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL; Sf = 20–400) was lower in the L-ARG trial (11 ± 1 vs 18 ± 2%; P postprandial period decreases the PPL in older adults, in association with a decrease in the postprandial contribution of ingested lipid into TG of the plasma small TRL. PMID:22959634

  3. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

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    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  4. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans.

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    Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses.

  5. Postprandial lipaemia induces an acute decrease of insulin sensitivity in healthy men independently of plasma NEFA levels.

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    Pedrini, M T; Niederwanger, A; Kranebitter, M; Tautermann, C; Ciardi, C; Tatarczyk, T; Patsch, J R

    2006-07-01

    Typical Western diets cause postprandial lipaemia for 18 h per day. We tested the hypothesis that postprandial lipaemia decreases insulin sensitivity. Employing a randomised crossover design, we administered two types of virtually isocaloric meals to ten healthy volunteers on two separate occasions. The meals (Meals 1 and 2) were both designed to produce a rise in triglycerides, but only Meal 1 generated a rise in NEFA, too. Insulin sensitivity, as quantified by an IVGTT with minimal model analysis, was calculated postabsorptively at 08.00 h and postprandially at 13.00 h, i.e. 3 h after meal ingestion. Triglycerides rose from 0.91+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively to 2.08+/-0.70 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and from 0.92+/-0.41 to 1.71+/-0.79 mmol/l with Meal 2 (p=0.005). Neither the triglyceride levels at 13.00 h, nor the post-meal AUCs for triglycerides were statistically different between Meal 1 and Meal 2. NEFA rose from 0.44+/-0.17 mmol/l postabsorptively to 0.69+/-0.16 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and showed no significant change with Meal 2 (0.46+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively vs 0.36+/-0.32 mmol/l postprandially, p=0.09). Both the NEFA level at 13.00 h and the post-meal AUC for NEFA were significantly higher after Meal 1 than Meal 2. Compared with the postabsorptive state, insulin sensitivity decreased postprandially after each of the two meals to a comparable degree (Meal 1: -53%, p=0.02; Meal 2: -45%, p=0.005). Our study reveals a drop in insulin sensitivity during postprandial lipaemia and strongly suggests that decreased insulin sensitivity is brought about by elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of plasma NEFA levels.

  6. Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial production of acylation stimulating protein in type 2 diabetics

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    Tan Garry D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated plasma ASP and its precursor C3 in type 2 diabetic men with/without rosiglitazone (ROSI treatment compared to healthy non-obese men. We tested (1 whether plasma ASP or C3 are altered postprandially in subcutaneous adipose tissue or forearm muscle effluent assessed by arteriovenous (A-V differences in healthy lean men and older obese diabetic men and (2 whether treatment with ROSI changes the arteriovenous gradient of ASP and/or C3. Methods In this ongoing placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blinded study, AV differences following a mixed meal were measured in diabetic men (n = 6 as compared to healthy men (n = 9. Results Postprandial arterial and adipose venous TG and venous NEFA were increased in diabetics vs. controls (p Conclusion Increased postprandial venous production of ASP is specific for adipose tissue (absent in forearm muscle. Increased postprandial C3 and ASP in diabetic subjects is consistent with an ASP resistant state, this state is partially normalized by treatment with ROSI.

  7. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water

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    Schoppen, S.; Pérez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; Gómez-Gerique, J.A.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

  8. Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Gómez-Gerique, Juan A; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2005-10-01

    The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low mineral water (500 ml of each) with a standard fat-rich meal (4552 kJ; 75.3 g fat). The bicarbonated waters were rich in sodium and bicarbonate and bicarbonated mineral water 1 contained 5.7 times more fluoride than bicarbonated mineral water 2. Fasting blood samples and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after the end of the meal consumption. Cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined in serum and chylomicrons. A significant water consumption effect was observed in the total area under the curve (TAUC) of serum and chylomicron triacylglycerols (ANOVA, P=0.008 and P=0.027, respectively). TAUC of serum triacylglycerols for bicarbonated mineral water 2 was significantly lower compared to low mineral water (Bonferroni, P=0.039). Peak concentration of serum triacylglycerols showed a significant water effect (P=0.025). Changes in chylomicron cholesterol were not significantly affected by the type of water. Bicarbonated mineral waters 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences. Drinking sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral waters reduces postprandial lipaemia in healthy postmenopausal women compared to drinking a low mineral water.

  9. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

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    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  10. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet acutely decreases postprandial and diurnal glucose excursions in type 2 diabetes patients

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    Samkani, Amirsalar; Skytte, Mads J; Kandel, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether a simple substitution of carbohydrate in the conventionally recommended diet with protein and fat would result in a clinically meaningful reduction in postprandial hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In all, sixteen subjects......-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet. Macronutrient contents of the CRHP/CD diets consisted of 31/54 % energy from carbohydrate, 29/16 % energy from protein and 40/30 % energy from fat, respectively. Each diet was consumed on 2 consecutive days in a randomised order. Postprandial glycaemia, pancreatic and gut...... with T2DM treated with metformin only, fourteen male, with a median age of 65 (43-70) years, HbA1c of 6·5 % (47 mmol/l) (5·5-8·3 % (37-67 mmol/l)) and a BMI of 30 (sd 4·4) kg/m2 participated in the randomised, cross-over study. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet was compared with an iso...

  11. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

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    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  12. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

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    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... measured using scintigraphic and manometric techniques. Isosorbide dinitrate did not change the area under the curve of gastric retention versus time, and did not influence the frequency of antral contractions as assessed at 15-min intervals or the integrated duodenal motility index, as recorded over...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal....

  13. Lixisenatide reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia via gastrostatic and insulinotropic effects.

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    Becker, Reinhard H A; Stechl, Jens; Steinstraesser, Axel; Golor, Georg; Pellissier, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial, short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Its main antidiabetic effect is to delay gastric emptying to control postprandial plasma glucose excursions. The dose-response relationship of the integrated insulinotropic and gastrostatic response to lixisenatide in healthy volunteers after a standardized liquid meal was investigated. Twenty healthy subjects received acetaminophen 1000 mg with a standardized liquid meal 60 min after a single subcutaneous injection of placebo or lixisenatide 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 µg in randomized order separated by a 2- to 7-day washout. Acetaminophen pharmacokinetics served as a surrogate to assess rate of gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were assessed for 5 h after the meal test, and lixisenatide pharmacokinetics were determined for 6 h. After lixisenatide administration and prior to the standardized meal, insulin and C-peptide transiently increased, while fasting plasma glucose decreased in a dose-dependent manner. After the meal, postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were dose proportionally reduced with lixisenatide versus placebo for up to 6 h. Compared with placebo, glucagon levels were transiently lower after any lixisenatide dose, with more sustained reductions after the meal and no apparent dose-related trends. Acetaminophen absorption was significantly reduced and delayed compared with placebo for lixisenatide doses ≥5 µg and demonstrated dose-dependent slowing of gastric emptying. Lixisenatide displayed near dose-proportional exposure, with gastrointestinal events increasing with dose. Lixisenatide reduced fasting plasma glucose via stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin release and controlled postprandial plasma glucose by delaying gastric emptying, demonstrating it to be a valuable option for overall glycaemic control. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John

  14. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

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    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  15. The effects of medications used for the management of diabetes and obesity on postprandial lipid metabolism.

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    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelop; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Tentolouris, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    Postprandial lipemia has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this systematic review we examined the effect of the medications used for the management of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia on postprandial lipemia. It should be mentioned that no standardization exists for a test meal and for the duration of observation postprandially to allow for direct comparisons between the published studies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with enhanced postprandial lipemia. Insulin is effective in reducing both fasting and post prandial total triglyceride levels as well as triglycerides contained in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein sub-fractions. Additionally, the newer rapid-acting insulin analogues seem to be more effective in the reduction of postprandial lipemia than the short-acting human insulins. Acarbose ameliorates postprandial lipemia and reduces the atherogenic chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein remnants. Metformin reduces both fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia, fasting and post-prandial free fatty acids and may increase the concentrations of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sulfonylureas reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels while data on the effect on high density lipoprotein levels are inconsistent. The effect of meglitinides on postprandial lipid metabolism is neutral. Rosiglitazone decreases fasting and postprandial free fatty acids but has no significant effect on fasting and postprandial triglycerides. Pioglitazone has additional beneficial effects on lipid metabolism because it reduces postprandial free fatty acids, fasting and postprandial triglycerides and increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Limited available data suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues and vildagliptin reduce postprandial lipemia through reduction of intestinally-derived triglycerides. No data exist on the effect of sitagliptin on postprandial lipemia. Orlistat

  16. Isomers of conjugated linoleic acid decrease plasma lipids and stimulate adipose tissue lipogenesis without changing adipose weight in post-prandial adult sedentary or trained Wistar rat.

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    Faulconnier, Yannick; Arnal, Marie-Agnès; Patureau Mirand, Philippe; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2004-12-01

    The respective effects and interactions of supplementation with two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and exercise on plasma metabolic profile, activity of lipogenic enzymes and cellularity in two adipose tissue sites, those of the liver and heart, were examined in adult Wistar rats. Rats that were either sedentary or exercise-trained by treadmill running were fed one of four diets: a diet without CLA; a diet with either 1% cis 9, trans 11 CLA or 1% trans 10, cis 12 CLA; or a mixture of both isomers (1% of each) for 6 weeks. We observed that the exercise decreased lipogenic enzyme activities in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations were lower in exercise-trained rats than in sedentary rats. The ingestion of either CLA mixture or the trans 10, cis 12 CLA increased lipogenic enzyme activities in epididymal tissue and more markedly in perirenal adipose tissue, especially in sedentary rats, and without affecting adipose tissue weight or cellularity. A similar effect of trans 10, cis 12 CLA was observed in regard to malic enzyme activity in the liver. In addition, this isomer decreased plasma lipid and urea concentrations and increased plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate levels. The ingestion of cis 9, trans 11 CLA increased fatty acid synthase activity in perirenal adipose tissue in sedentary rats and decreased plasma cholesterol and leptin concentrations. These results show that isomers of CLA decrease plasma lipids and stimulate adipose tissue lipogenesis without changing adipose weight in adult sedentary or exercise-trained rat, thus suggesting a stimulation of adipose tissue turnover.

  17. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

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    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Proposal for Sustainable Dynamic Lighting in Sport Facilities to Decrease Violence among Spectators

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    Raquel Amorim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence among spectators at sports events has become a serious problem, not only for its evident impact on safety, but also from the perspective of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability. Although it could be considered a purely social problem, some solutions could come from a smart and efficient design and management of the lighting installations. Thus, the management of sports installations requires deep considerations of lighting technology for three reasons: (1 accurate illumination allows the users to achieve their visual task with comfort and safety; (2 the energy consumption of sports facilities can be decreased with an efficient design of the lighting installation; and (3 the lighting impacts some psychological and physiological aspects such as arousal, stress or relaxation which are directly related to violence. In this work, the recent advances on the matter of light sources and non-visual effects of light are deployed within a new proposal of dynamic Light-emitting diode (LED lighting to decrease violence among spectators. Here, sustainable sports facilities are considered from a global perspective where accurate illumination in each zone (court, bleachers, training rooms and surrounding streets plays an important role in violence avoidance.

  19. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

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    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  20. Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome

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    Т.V. Chaychenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome, or reactive hypoglycemia, — vegetative symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, hunger, nausea, palpitations, anxiety, tremor, sweating occurring one to two hours after ingestion. The syndrome is poorly described in literature and most of the information is disparate. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of postprandial reactive hypoglycemia are quite controversial, but most authors tend to consider that it is a blood glucose level, which is below 3.9 mmol/l for two hours after meal. Hypoglycemia is an unbalance between glucose influx to the circulation (from endogenous glucose production or exogenous glucose delivery and glucose efflux. The balance between glucose intake and consumption is controlled by a complex balance of glycoregulatory hormones. Insulin, glucagon and adrenaline are effective for several minutes, but cortisol and growth hormone — for seve-ral hours. This explains the presence of immediate and delayed various effects: adrenergic, neuroglycopenic ones and gastroin-testinal discomfort. Postprandial syndrome mechanisms are similar to post-gastric bypass patients with morbid obesity. The most likely cause of reactive hypoglycemia is post-prandial hypersecretion of insulin under the influence of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which is a component of the enteroendocrine system and acts at the cephalic phase of satiety. Both post-gastric bypass and relatively healthy individuals have symptoms after the meal rich of simple carbohydrates. Symptoms could be effectively reduced by low glycemic index diet rich of dietary fibers. When the effect is insufficient, it is recommended to use acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, which is the main stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Thus, obesity epidemics based on the inadequate nutritional habits in the children makes the postprandial syndrome feasible, and it requires further studies. At the same time, healthy diet can significantly improve

  1. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  2. Influence of stearic acid on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that fats rich in stearic acid may result in exaggerated postprandial lipemia and have adverse effects on hemostatic function. The effects of test meals containing different saturated and monounsaturated FA were compared in healthy subjects in a series of studies to investigate this hypothesis. Stearic acid, when present as cocoa butter, resulted in similar postprandial lipemia and factor VII activation compared with a meal containing high-oleic sunflower oil. Stearic acid when presented as shea butter or as randomized stearate-rich TAG resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia and decreased postprandial activation of factor VII. Stearic acid-rich test meals did not result in impaired fibrinolytic activity compared with either a low-fat meal or a meal high in oleate. The difference in responses between the different stearic acid-rich fats appears to be due to varying solid fat contents of the fats at 37 degrees C.

  3. Effect of Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (sacha inchi) on postprandial triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Huamán, Juan; Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Chávez, Katterine; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Castañeda, Erdwin; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Carranza, Santiago; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Chávez, Tania; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Beltrán, Yuri; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Caffo, Carlos; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Cadillo, Rómulo; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.; Cadenillas, Jeff; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postprandial lipemia is a coronary risk factor and is affected by omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence that omega-3 acids decrease plasma lipids. Plukenetia volubilis Linne (sacha inchi) is rich in omega-3. Objectives: To determine the effect of sacha inchi ingestion on postprandial triglycerides in young adults. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Participants: Medical students. Interventions: To 12 randomly select...

  4. Definition of postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bilianou, Helen; Panotopoulos, George

    2011-05-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process.

  5. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  6. Method for sustaining microorganism culture in syngas fermentation process in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Stephen S.; Scott, Syrona; Ko, Ching-Whan

    2015-05-19

    The present invention relates to methods for sustaining microorganism culture in a syngas fermentation reactor in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates comprising: adding carbon dioxide and optionally alcohol; maintaining free acetic acid concentrations; and performing the above mentioned steps within specified time.

  7. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  8. Sustainable Assessment of Aerosol Pollution Decrease Applying Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution with various materials, particularly with aerosols, increases with the advances in technological development. This is a complicated global problem. One of the priorities in achieving sustainable development is the reduction of harmful technological effects on the environment and human health. It is a responsibility of researchers to search for effective methods of reducing pollution. The reliable results can be obtained by combining the approaches used in various fields of science and technology. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM methods in investigating and solving the environmental pollution problems. The paper presents the study of the process of the evaporation of a toxic liquid based on using the MADM methods. A schematic view of the test setup is presented. The density, viscosity, and rate of the released vapor flow are measured and the dependence of the variation of the solution concentration on its temperature is determined in the experimental study. The concentration of hydrochloric acid solution (HAS varies in the range from 28% to 34%, while the liquid is heated from 50 to 80 °C. The variations in the parameters are analyzed using the well-known VIKOR and COPRAS MADM methods. For determining the criteria weights, a new CILOS (Criterion Impact LOSs method is used. The experimental results are arranged in the priority order, using the MADM methods. Based on the obtained data, the technological parameters of production, ensuring minimum environmental pollution, can be chosen.

  9. Postprandial lipaemia and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Ooi, Teik Chye

    2013-07-01

    In this review we discuss the postprandial pathophysiological mechanisms that promote vascular disease, the evidence for a role of postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in vascular disease and the effect of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors in PPL. PPL refers to the dynamic changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins (mainly in serum triglycerides) that occur after a fat load or a meal. Recent data indicate that postprandial or nonfasting triglyceride levels are better predictors of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that efficiency of postprandial handling of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins plays a role in the causation of vascular disease. The recent finding that postprandial serum triglyceride levels are even better than fasting serum triglyceride levels as predictors of vascular disease indicate that it is better to measure an index of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (in most cases serum triglyceride levels) in the postprandial period than in the postabsorptive fasting state. Moreover, by the time the postabsorptive state is reached, some of these proatherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein changes may be missed in the measurement.

  10. l-Arginine Supplementation Alleviates Postprandial Endothelial Dysfunction When Baseline Fasting Plasma Arginine Concentration Is Low: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Overweight Adults with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveaux, Ambre; Pham, Isabelle; West, Sheila G; André, Etienne; Lantoine-Adam, Frédérique; Bunouf, Pierre; Sadi, Samira; Hermier, Dominique; Mathé, Véronique; Fouillet, Hélène; Huneau, Jean-François; Benamouzig, Robert; Mariotti, François

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, is induced transiently by a high-fat meal. High doses of free l-arginine supplements reduce fasting endothelial dysfunction. We sought to determine the effects of a low dose of a sustained-release (SR) l-arginine supplement on postprandial endothelial function in healthy overweight adults with cardiometabolic risk factors and to investigate whether this effect may vary by baseline arginine status. In a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover, placebo-controlled trial (4-wk treatment, 4-wk washout), we compared the effects of 1.5 g SR-l-arginine 3 times/d (4.5 g/d) with placebo in 33 healthy overweight adults [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 25 to >30] with the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype [plasma triglycerides > 150 mg/dL; waist circumference > 94 cm (men) or > 80 cm (women)]. The main outcome variable tested was postprandial endothelial function after a high-fat meal (900 kcal), as evaluated by use of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and Framingham reactive hyperemia index (fRHI), after each treatment. By use of subgroup analysis, we determined whether the effect was related to the baseline plasma arginine concentration. In the total population, the effects of SR-arginine supplementation on postprandial endothelial function were mixed and largely varied with baseline fasting arginine concentration (P-interaction supplementation attenuated the postprandial decrease in both FMD (29% decrease with SR-arginine compared with 50% decrease with placebo) and fRHI (5% increase with SR-arginine compared with 49% decrease with placebo), resulting in significantly higher mean ± SEM values with SR-arginine (FMD: 4.0% ± 0.40%; fRHI: 0.41 ± 0.069) than placebo (FMD: 2.9% ± 0.31%; fRHI: 0.21 ± 0.060) at the end of the postprandial period (P Supplementation with low-dose SR-arginine alleviates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy HTW adults when the baseline plasma arginine

  11. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  12. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL) refers to a dynamic sequence of plasma lipid/lipoprotein changes induced by ingestion of food. PPL results from absorption of digested dietary lipids which form chylomicrons (CM) and increased hepatic production of VLDL, stimulated by increased delivery of fats...... such as the amount and type of food consumed, and (b) endogenous factors such as the metabolic/genetic status of the subjects, on PPL. To study PPL appropriately, different methods are used to suit the study goal. This paper provides an overview of the methodological aspects of PPL testing. It deals with markers...... of postprandial lipoproteins, testing conditions and protocols and interpretation of postprandial data. The influence of the meal itself will not be discussed as it is the subject of another paper in this series....

  14. A quality improvement project sustainably decreased time to onset of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglas, Victor D; Parker, Ann M; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Zanni, Jennifer M; Turnbull, Alison E; Nelliot, Archana; Ciesla, Nancy; Needham, Dale M

    2014-10-01

    Rehabilitation started early during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with improved outcomes and is the basis for many quality improvement (QI) projects showing important changes in practice. However, little evidence exists regarding whether such changes are sustainable in real-world practice. To evaluate the sustained effect of a quality improvement project on the timing of initiation of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). This was a pre-post evaluation using prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients with ALI admitted pre-quality improvement (October 2004-April 2007, n = 120) versus post-quality improvement (July 2009-July 2012, n = 123) from a single medical ICU. The primary outcome was time to first active physical therapy intervention, defined as strengthening, mobility, or cycle ergometry exercises. Among ICU survivors, more patients in the post-quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group received physical therapy in the ICU (89% vs. 24%, P quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group, there was a shorter median (interquartile range) time to first physical therapy (4 [2, 6] vs. 11 d [6, 29], P quality improvement period was associated with shorter time to physical therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.38 [4.98, 14.11], P quality improvement period. The following variables were independently associated with a longer time to physical therapy: higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.93 [0.89, 0.97]), higher FiO2 (0.86 [0.75, 0.99] for each 10% increase), use of an opioid infusion (0.47 [0.25, 0.89]), and deep sedation (0.24 [0.12, 0.46]). In this single-site, pre-post analysis of patients with ALI, an early rehabilitation quality improvement project was independently associated with a substantial decrease in the time to initiation of active physical therapy intervention that was sustained over 5 years. Over the entire pre

  15. Decreasing Fertilizer use by Optimizing Plant-microbe Interactions for Sustainable Supply of Nitrogen for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicklberger, M. F.; Huang, J.; Felix, P.; Pettenato, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA and proteins and consequently a key element of life. N often is limited in plants, affecting plant growth and productivity. To alleviate this problem, tremendous amounts of N-fertilizer is used, which comes at a high economic price and heavy energy demand. In addition, N-fertilizer also significantly contributes to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, the addition of fertilizer to overcome N limitation is highly undesirable. To explore reduction in fertilizer use our research focuses on optimizing the interaction between plants and diazotrophic bacteria, which could provide adequate amounts of N to the host-plant. Therefore we investigated the diversity of microbes associated with Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered as potential energy crop for bioenergy production. Several bacterial isolates with representatives from Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Bacilli were obtained from the roots, leaves, rhizoplane and rhizosphere of these plants. Majority of these isolates grew best with simple sugars and small organic acids. As shown by PCR amplification of nifH, several of these isolates are potential N2-fixing bacteria. We investigated diazotrophs for their response to elevated temperature and salinity (two common climate change induced stresses found on marginal lands), their N2-fixing ability, and their response to root exudates (which drive microbial colonization of the plant). Together this understanding is necessary for the development of eco-friendly, economically sustainable energy crops by decreasing their dependency on fertilizer.

  16. Postprandial Hyperlipidemia and Remnant Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shizuya

    2017-01-01

    Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation. The cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins significantly correlate with small, dense LDL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and CHD prevalence. We have developed an assay of apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 levels to evaluate the accumulation of CM remnants. Fasting apoB-48 levels correlate with the morbidity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and IGT. Fasting apoB-48 levels also correlate with carotid intima-media thickening and CHD prevalence, and a high apoB-48 level is a significant predictor of CHD risk, independent of the fasting TG level. Diet interventions, such as dietary fibers, polyphenols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerol, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ameliorate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, moreover, drugs for dyslipidemia (n-3 PUFA, statins, fibrates or ezetimibe) and diabetes concerning incretins (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor or glucagon like peptide-1 analogue) may improve postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since the accumulation of CM remnants correlates to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, further studies are required to investigate the characteristics, physiological activities, and functions of CM remnants for the development of new interventions to reduce atherogenicity. PMID

  17. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  18. Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... with that of another indigenous vegetable also identified to be taken by diabetic patients, Gongronema ... glucose levels were checked at fasting (0 min) and postprandially at 30 min intervals for 2 h. ... most postprandial time points and for area-under-curve (AUC) values: AUC reductions; Vernonia, 15%;.

  19. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  20. The effect of statin alone or in combination with ezetimibe on postprandial lipoprotein composition in obese metabolic syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, Gideon R.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; van Vark-van der Zee, Leonie C.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are essential features of metabolic syndrome. Statins decrease fasting lipid levels but fail to reduce fat load induced hypertriglyceridemia. We established whether ezetimibe combined with simvastatin differently influences post fat load

  1. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function.

  2. The solid fat content of stearic acid-rich fats determines their postprandial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah E E; Miller, George J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2007-06-01

    The process of randomization is used commercially to harden fats as an alternative to partial hydrogenation, but its effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors are uncertain. The objective was to compare the chronic and acute effects of randomization of a fat rich in 1,3-distearyl, 2-oleyl glycerol on fasting and postprandial lipids, glucose, insulin, and activated clotting factor VII (FVIIa) concentrations. A crossover design study in 16 men compared fasting and postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and FVIIa concentrations at baseline and after a 3-wk diet providing 30 g unrandomized or randomized shea butter and sunflower oil blends (SSOBs), both of which contained approximately 50% stearic acid. Fecal fat excretion was measured during each dietary period. Postprandial changes were assessed after the consumption of meals providing 50 g test fat. A subsequent study compared postprandial changes after the consumption of an oleic acid-rich sunflower oil meal and an unrandomized SSOB meal. Both SSOBs were well digested and absorbed. Randomization did not affect fasting or postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, or FVIIa concentrations. Compared with the oleic acid-rich meal, the unrandomized SSOB resulted in 53% lower postprandial lipemia, 23% higher hepatic lipase activity, and a 25% lower postprandial increase in FVIIa concentration. The solid fat contents at 37 degrees C were 22%, 41%, and 0% with the unrandomized SSOB, randomized SSOB, and oleic acid-rich meals, respectively. Stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol in both unrandomized and randomized forms does not adversely affect lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The high proportion of solid fat at 37 degrees C may explain the decreased postprandial lipemic response.

  3. Effect of growth hormone (GH) on fasting and postprandial metabolism in GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepp, R; Stettler, C; Diem, P; Christ, E R

    2010-10-01

    Hypopituitarism with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to premature and progressive atherosclerosis. An underlying cause of atherosclerosis is increased insulin resistance. Elevated fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid levels may contribute to premature atherosclerosis. We studied effects of growth hormone replacement (GHRT) on fasting and postprandial metabolic parameters as well as on insulin sensitivity in patients with adult-onset GHD. Using a standardized mixed meal, we studied insulin, glucose, non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations in the fasting state and during a 4 h postprandial period in 15 patients with adult-onset GHD before and after 4 months of GHRT. Identical investigations were performed in healthy matched control subjects. GHD patients before and after GHRT: GHRT did not result in significant changes in fasting glucose, insulin, NEFA and TG concentrations. In the postprandial period GHRT resulted in a non-significant increase in glucose and a decrease in NEFA levels in the presence of unchanged postprandial insulin and TG concentrations. GHD patients vs. control subjects: GHD patients showed similar fasting glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations, but TG were increased. In the postprandial period GHD patients exhibited similar glucose and TG, but increased insulin and NEFA concentrations. GHRT patients vs. control subjects: Patients after GHRT had similar fasting glucose, insulin and NEFA, but increased TG concentrations. In the postprandial period patients after GHRT had increased glucose and insulin levels in the presence of similar NEFA and TG concentrations. While impaired insulin action in patients with GHD translates mainly by an impaired fasting TG metabolism, GHRT induced insulin resistance additionally encompasses postprandial glucose metabolism. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  5. MTP gene polymorphisms and postprandial lipemia in familial combined hyperlipidemia: effects of treatment with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; Verseyden, Caroline; Ribalta, Josep; Salazar, Juliana; Masana, Luis; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in hepatic and intestinal apoB secretion. We studied the effect of the functional MTP-493G/T polymorphism on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Eight FCH heterozygote carriers of the rare -493T allele were compared to 9 matched FCH homozygotes for the wild-type allele in a pilot study. Oral fat loading tests were carried out to measure triglycerides (TG) and apo B48 and B100 in the different fractions of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) before and after treatment with atorvastatin. Before treatment, TG were similar between the -493T allele carriers and non-carriers. In the T-allele carriers, a trend was observed for increased postprandial apo B48 and B100 concentrations in Sf >400 and Sf 60-400 compared to non-carriers. After treatment, fasting and postprandial TG were significantly lowered in carriers of the T allele, but atorvastatin had no effect on postprandial TG in non-carriers. Atorvastatin resulted in similar reductions of apo B48 and B100 in TRLs in both groups. The MTP-493G/T polymorphism modulates postprandial apo B48 and apo B100 of TRLs in FCH. Atorvastatin decreases postprandial TG in T-allele carriers with FCH. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Effect of Metformin on Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia through Delayed Gastric Emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Murata, Koichiro; Sekine, Osamu; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-16

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. Metformin has been reported to reduce plasma triglyceride concentrations in the postprandial states. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the triglyceride-lowering effect of metformin. Here, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid metabolism after olive oil-loading in 129S mice fed a high fat diet for three weeks. Metformin administration (250 mg/kg) for one week decreased postprandial plasma triglycerides. Pre-administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin resulted in a stronger triglyceride-lowering effect (approximately 45% lower area under the curve) than post-administration. A single administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin lowered plasma postprandial triglycerides comparably to administration for one week, suggesting an acute effect of metformin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. To explore whole body lipid metabolism after fat-loading, stomach size, fat absorption in the intestine, and fat oxidation ( 13 C/ 12 C ratio in expired CO₂ after administration of glyceryl-1- 13 C tripalmitate) were measured with and without metformin (250 mg/kg) pre-treatment. In metformin-treated mice, larger stomach size, lower fat oxidation, and no change in lipid absorption were observed. In conclusion, metformin administration before fat loading reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, most likely by delaying gastric emptying.

  7. Effects of angiopoietin-like protein 3 deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicocci, Ilenia; Tikka, Anna; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Metso, Jari; Montali, Anna; Ceci, Fabrizio; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Fontana, Mario; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Maranghi, Marianna; Rosano, Aldo; Ehnholm, Christian; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Jauhiainen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated in humans. We studied 7 homozygous (undetectable circulating ANGPTL3 levels) and 31 heterozygous (50% of circulating ANGPTL3 levels) subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia (FHBL2) due to inactivating ANGPTL3 mutations in comparison with 35 controls. All subjects were evaluated at fasting and during 6 h after a high fat meal. Postprandial lipid and lipoprotein changes were quantified by calculating the areas under the curve (AUCs) using the 6 h concentration data. Plasma changes of β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-HBA) were measured as marker of hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. Compared with controls, homozygotes showed lower incremental AUCs (iAUCs) of total TG (−69%, P postprandial lipemia, but the difference was significant only for the iAUC of apoB-48 (−28%; P postprandial period, homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, showed a lower increase of β-HBA. Our findings demonstrate that complete ANGPTL3 deficiency associates with highly reduced postprandial lipemia probably due to faster catabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins, larger expansion of the postprandial FFA pool, and decreased influx of dietary-derived fatty acids into the liver. These results add information on mechanisms underlying hypolipidemia in FHBL2. PMID:27040449

  8. Effects of angiopoietin-like protein 3 deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicocci, Ilenia; Tikka, Anna; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Metso, Jari; Montali, Anna; Ceci, Fabrizio; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Fontana, Mario; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Maranghi, Marianna; Rosano, Aldo; Ehnholm, Christian; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Jauhiainen, Matti; Arca, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    The consequences of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) deficiency on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated in humans. We studied 7 homozygous (undetectable circulating ANGPTL3 levels) and 31 heterozygous (50% of circulating ANGPTL3 levels) subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia (FHBL2) due to inactivating ANGPTL3 mutations in comparison with 35 controls. All subjects were evaluated at fasting and during 6 h after a high fat meal. Postprandial lipid and lipoprotein changes were quantified by calculating the areas under the curve (AUCs) using the 6 h concentration data. Plasma changes of β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-HBA) were measured as marker of hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. Compared with controls, homozygotes showed lower incremental AUCs (iAUCs) of total TG (-69%, P postprandial lipemia, but the difference was significant only for the iAUC of apoB-48 (-28%; P postprandial period, homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, showed a lower increase of β-HBA. Our findings demonstrate that complete ANGPTL3 deficiency associates with highly reduced postprandial lipemia probably due to faster catabolism of intestinally derived lipoproteins, larger expansion of the postprandial FFA pool, and decreased influx of dietary-derived fatty acids into the liver. These results add information on mechanisms underlying hypolipidemia in FHBL2. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    ). Plasma glucose (P = 0.001) and serum insulin (P beta-glucan. In contrast, postprandial ghrelin or PYY responses or appetite sensations did not differ among the meals. CONCLUSION: Oat beta-glucan decreased postprandial plasma...

  10. Hypertriglyceridaemia, postprandial lipaemia and non-HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits decreases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) and cardiovascular (CV) events. The predictive value of elevated TG levels for coronary artery disease (CAD) seen in univariate analysis tends to disappear on multivariate analyses, especially when correction is made for HDL-C. The relationship between TG and HDL-C is complex and not fully understood. Hydrolysis of TG by lipoprotein lipase converts HDL subclass 3 to a larger lipoprotein enriched in both phospholipid and TG. This process occurs in postprandial lipaemia (PPL). An additional factor for the complex relationship between TGs and CV risk is that the lipoproteins which transport plasma TG (chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and their remnants) are heterogeneous particles. Therefore, they may differ in their level of atherogenicity. PPL is a physiological process during which plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses undergo variations in concentration and composition following consumption of food, particularly fatty food. "Postprandial hyperlipidaemia" is the quantitative/qualitative alteration of this normal process. These lipoprotein alterations could play a role in the development of CV disease (CVD). However, lipid levels used to evaluate CV risk are usually measured in the fasting state. This review focuses on TG, PPL, postprandial hyperlipidaemia and non-HDL-C, their relationships and potential predictive role in atherogenesis and CVD.

  11. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, de Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms

  12. Food perception and postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M D

    2006-08-30

    The postprandial response to macronutrients in the diet, particularly carbohydrates and fats, underpins the detrimental changes in metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance or postprandial hyperlipaemia) and later pathology (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or atherosclerosis) associated with Westernised diets. Research has shown that in addition to what and how much we eat, eating behaviour in itself may be implicated in postprandial regulation. The process of ingestion stimulates cholinergic-vagal activity, irrespective of what is eaten, important in determining both the absorption and subsequent utilisation of nutrients but also potentially food intake through effects on hunger and satiety. Modifications in this aspect of physiology have the potential to influence all aspects of postprandial metabolism and subsequent disease risk in humans.

  13. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  14. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized.We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals.HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%.Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines offer a unique opportunity to

  15. Postprandial administration of intranasal insulin intensifies satiety and reduces intake of palatable snacks in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, Manfred; Higgs, Suzanne; Thienel, Matthias; Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-04-01

    The role of brain insulin signaling in the control of food intake in humans has not been thoroughly defined. We hypothesized that the hormone contributes to the postprandial regulation of appetite for palatable food, and assessed the effects on appetite and snack intake of postprandial versus fasted intranasal insulin administration to the brain in healthy women. Two groups of subjects were intranasally administered 160 IU insulin or vehicle after lunch. Two hours later, consumption of cookies of varying palatability was measured under the pretext of a taste test. In a control study, the effects of intranasal insulin administered to fasted female subjects were assessed. Compared with placebo, insulin administration in the postprandial but not in the fasted state decreased appetite as well as intake and rated palatability of chocolate chip cookies (the most palatable snack offered). In both experiments, intranasal insulin induced a slight decrease in plasma glucose but did not affect serum insulin concentrations. Data indicate that brain insulin acts as a relevant satiety signal during the postprandial period, in particular reducing the intake of highly palatable food, and impacts peripheral glucose homeostasis. Postprandial intranasal insulin administration might be useful in curtailing overconsumption of snacks with accentuated rewarding value.

  16. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hiel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse. We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  17. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Sophie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Rodriguez, Julie; Pachikian, Barbara D; Bouzin, Caroline; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-04-25

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 ( Apoc3 , inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  19. Postprandial Plasma Phospholipids in Men Are Influenced by the Source of Dietary Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Peter J; Barlow, Christopher K; Mellett, Natalie A; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Bonham, Maxine P; Larsen, Amy; Cameron-Smith, David; Sinclair, Andrew; Nestel, Paul J; Wong, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia represents a risk factor for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of dietary fat on the plasma lipidome in the postprandial period. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dairy fat and soy oil on circulating postprandial lipids in men. Men (40-60 y old, nonsmokers; n = 16) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume 2 breakfast meals of dairy-based or soy oil-based foods. The changes in the plasma lipidome during the 4-h postprandial period were analyzed with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and included 316 lipid species in 23 classes and subclasses, representing sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and sterols. Nonparametric Friedman tests showed significant changes in multiple plasma lipid classes, subclasses, and species in the postprandial period after both dairy and soy meals. No difference was found in triglyceridemia after each meal. However, 6 endogenous lipid classes increased after dairy but decreased after soy (P postprandial plasma phospholipids in men relate to the diet composition and the relative size of the endogenous phospholipid pools. Despite similar lipemic responses as measured by changes in triglyceride concentrations, the differential responses to dairy and soy meals derived through lipidomic analysis of phospholipids suggest differences in the metabolism of soybean oil and dairy fat. The increased concentrations of plasmalogens, with potential antioxidant capacity, in the postprandial period after dairy but not soy meals may represent a further important difference in the response to these sources of fat. The trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12610000562077. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-04-01

    Lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses may have significant beneficial implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide in a daily basis, and the use of different baking technologies may modify the glucose and insulin response. The aim of this review was to critically record the human studies examining the application of different bread making processes on postprandial glucose and insulin response to bread. Literature is rich of results which show that the use of sourdough fermentation instead of leavening with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to modulate glucose response to bread, whereas evidence regarding its efficacy on lowering postprandial insulin response is less clear. The presence of organic acids is possibly involved, but the exact mechanism of action is still to be confirmed. The reviewed data also revealed that the alteration of other processing conditions (method of cooking, proofing period, partial baking freezing technology) can effectively decrease postprandial glucose response to bread, by influencing physical structure and retrogradation of starch. The development of healthier bread products that benefit postprandial metabolic responses is crucial and suggested baking conditions can be used by the bread industry for the promotion of public health.

  1. Blood pressure variability in the elderly. Association between postprandial and sleeping periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abrão Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The variability of arterial blood pressure (BP is considered an important cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: To verify the possible associations between the postprandial and the sleeping blood pressure variability. Methods: This study evaluated systolic, diastolic, mean, pulse pressures and heart variability in 69 elderly patients in preprandial, postprandial and sleeping periods. One 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used for measurements and the results were showed in the time-rate index. Results: We observed a decrease in the systolic blood pressure values from preprandial to postprandial and to the sleeping periods (124.7 ± 14.6, 113.2 ± 15.3 and 108.5 ± 13.9mmHg, respectively; p = 0.003. Associations between BP variability of the postprandial and sleeping periods were obtained for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: The correlation between postprandial and sleeping BP variability has rarely been demonstrated in the literature. These correlations between BP changes after eating and during sleep might suggest that both events could coexist in other clinical situations.

  2. Effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on postprandial fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowska, Anna; De Giorgi, Sara; Theytaz, Fanny; Campos, Vanessa; Hodson, Leanne; Stefanoni, Nathalie; Rey, Valentine; Schneiter, Philippe; Laville, Martine; Giusti, Vittorio; Gabert, Laure; Tappy, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Fructose is partly metabolized in small bowel enterocytes, where it can be converted into glucose or fatty acids. It was therefore hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may significantly alter fructose metabolism. We performed a randomized clinical study in eight patients 12-17 months after RYGB and eight control (Ctrl) subjects. Each participant was studied after ingestion of a protein and lipid meal (PL) and after ingestion of a protein+lipid+fructose+glucose meal labeled with (13) C-fructose (PLFG). Postprandial blood glucose, fructose, lactate, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, (13) C-palmitate concentrations in chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG, fructose oxidation ((13) CO2 production), and gluconeogenesis from fructose (GNGf) were measured over 6 hours. After ingestion of PLFG, postprandial plasma fructose, glucose, insulin, and lactate concentrations increased earlier and reached higher peak values in RYGB than in Ctrl. GNGf was 33% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.041), while fructose oxidation was unchanged. Postprandial incremental areas under the curves for total TG and chylomicrons-TG were 72% and 91% lower in RYGB than Ctrl (P = 0.064 and P = 0.024, respectively). ApoB48 and (13) C-palmitate concentrations were not significantly different. Postprandial fructose metabolism was not grossly altered, but postprandial lipid concentrations were markedly decreased in subjects having had RYGB surgery. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. The acute effects of psyllium on postprandial lipaemia and thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khossousi, A; Binns, C W; Dhaliwal, S S; Pal, S

    2008-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is one of the risk factors for developing CVD. At present, very little is known about the acute effects of dietary fibre on lipids, glucose and insulin, resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese individuals. This study examined the postprandial metabolic effects of dietary fibre in overweight and obese men. Ten overweight and obese men consumed a mixed meal accompanied by either a high-fibre or low-fibre supplement on two separate visits, in a random order, 1 week apart. Two isoenergetic breakfast meals with similar composition were consumed by ten overweight/obese men. The meals contained either a low (3 g) or high (15 g) amount of fibre, low-fibre meal (LFM) and high-fibre meal (HFM) respectively. Analysis was carried out using paired t test and ANOVA. Serum TAG incremental area under the curve during 6 h of the postprandial period was significantly lower after the consumption of HFM compared with LFM. At the first hour of the postprandial period, plasma apo B48 concentration after consumption of HFM was significantly lower compared with LFM. The resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis after both meals was similar during 6 h of the postprandial period. Collectively, these findings suggest that a single acute dose of dietary fibre in the form of psyllium supplement can decrease arterial exposure to TAG and modify chylomicron responses in the postprandial period.

  4. Sustained Overexpression of IGF-1 Prevents Age-Dependent Decrease in Charge Movement and Intracellular Ca2+ in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi,...

  5. Introduction to the DISRUPT postprandial database: subjects, studies and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kim G.; Clarke, Dave T.; Murray, Peter; Lovegrove, Julie A.; O’Malley, Brendan; Minihane, Anne M.; Williams, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the postprandial state are recognised as important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to create a comprehensive, standardised database of postprandial studies to provide insights into the physiological factors that influence postprandial lipid and glucose responses. Data were collated from subjects (n = 467) taking part in single and sequential meal postprandial studies conducted by...

  6. Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Carducci, Michael A; Umbricht, Annie; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Margaret A

    2016-12-01

    Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study. High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00465595. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Decreased use of pesticides for increased yields of rice and fish-options for sustainable food production in the Mekong Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Håkan; Tam, Nguyen Thanh

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the use of pesticides and the attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Can Tho and Tien Giang provinces in Vietnam. Interviews were made with 80 farmers. The farmers were divided in to farmers cultivating only rice with a high use (RHP) and low use (RLP) of pesticides, and farmers cultivating rice and fish with a high use (RFHP) and low use (RFLP) of pesticides. 80% of the HP farmers relied mainly on pesticides to control pests, while >80% of the LP farmers also applied IPM strategies. Insecticides were the most commonly used pesticides. 85% of all farmers experienced health effects from using pesticides. 80% of the farmers felt that the yield of fish had decreased over the last three years, and that this mainly was caused by pesticides. The RFHP farmers had lower fish survival and fish yields as compared to the RFLP farmers. The RFHP farmers also had significant lower rice yields than the RFLP farmers, and there were significant correlations between both decreased fish yields and rice yields with increased use of pesticides among rice-fish farmers. Increased rice yields were positively correlated with increased fish survival, indicating the synergistic effects between rice and fish production. Overall, the RFLP farmers had the highest income of the four farmers´ groups, while RFHP farmers had the lowest income. This shows that rice-fish farming provides a competitive and sustainable alternative to intensive rice-farming, but only if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides. This would not only help to reduce the production costs, but also to decrease environmental and health effects, and it is proposed that rice-fish farming with a low use of pesticides provides an attractive alternative to rice-monocropping for a sustainable and diversified food production in the Mekong Delta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different postprandial lipid metabolism and insulin resistance between non-diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Kozu, Katsuya; Ikeda, Shohei; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has an impact on lipid metabolism, however, little is known about the relationship between the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To compare the postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in normoglycemic patients with and without CAD, a total of 36 normoglycemic patients: 19 patients with stable CAD (CAD group, age 60.2±11.3 years) and 17 patients without CAD (Non-CAD group, age 60.4±9.6 years) were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal, and the changes in serum level of the lipid and glucose parameters were monitored before and 0, 2, 4, and 6h later. In the Non-CAD group, postprandial serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol increased significantly and reached peak levels at the 4th hour and decreased significantly at the 6th hour of observation, whereas those levels in CAD group kept rising during 6h of observation. Although there was no significant difference in the area under the curves (AUCs) for the postprandial plasma glucose levels between CAD and Non-CAD group, the AUCs for the postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the CAD group than in the Non-CAD group. The AUCs for postprandial TG levels showed good correlation with those for postprandial plasma insulin and C-peptide levels (insulin: r=0.455, ppostprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia may have a close relationship in CAD patients without DM and might play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis even before the onset of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using (2-/sup 3/H) or (3-/sup 3/H) glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM.

  10. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using [2- 3 H] or [3- 3 H] glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM

  11. The postprandial situation as a pro-inflammatory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marijke A; Klop, Boudewijn; Eskes, Silvia A; van der Loos, Theo L J M; Klessens-Godfroy, Françoise J M; Wiebolt, Janneke; Janssen, Hans W; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been associated with cardiovascular disease. The current pathophysiological concept is that postprandial remnant lipoproteins migrate into the subendothelial space and that remnants activate circulating leukocytes and endothelial cells. Activated monocytes adhere to endothelial adhesion molecules, facilitating subendothelial migration of monocytes. These cells differentiate into macrophages, with the risk of foam cell formation, due to uptake of remnants and modified lipoproteins. Evidence is emerging that specific interventions may reduce the atherogenic postprandial inflammation. Fruits rich in polyphenols, virgin olive oil, carotenoids and exercise have recently been found to reduce postprandial inflammation. Pharmaceutical interventions with fibrates or statins not only improve the overall lipid profile, but reduce postprandial inflammation as well. This review will deal with the current concept of postprandial inflammation in relation to the development of atherosclerosis and potential interventions to reduce postprandial inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Postprandial Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Bariatric Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heide, L. J.M.; Emous, M.; van Beek, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (PHH) is a complication of bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The true incidence is not known as the definition of PHH is not clear. Continuous glucose monitoring shows a prevalence of hypoglycemia in 75% of patients, with only 1 in 5

  13. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  14. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  15. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3) examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated), isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia. PMID:25061524

  18. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Plaisance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1 provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2 inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3 examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated, isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia.

  19. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  20. Leptin increases skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase and postprandial lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, William T; Stob, Nicole R; Ammon, Stefen; Levin, Nancy; Eckel, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    The ability of leptin to preserve lean tissue during weight loss may be in part due to differences in nutrient partitioning. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in partitioning lipid nutrients, this study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leptin would modify the tissue-specific regulation of LPL and result in increased lipid oxidation and decreased storage. The effects of daily intraperitoneal leptin injections (2 mg/kg body weight) over 2 weeks on LPL activity and postprandial lipid metabolism were tested in both wild-type (WT), leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice and mice pair fed to the leptin-treated mice. On the experimental day, mice were given food by gavage, blood was drawn periodically, and adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were harvested for measurements of LPL activity at 240 minutes. After 2 weeks of leptin administration, skeletal muscle LPL (SMLPL) activity was increased in leptin-treated compared with pair-fed (P = .012) and WT (P = .002) mice. There was no effect of leptin or pair feeding on postprandial adipose tissue LPL activity. In ob/ob mice, leptin treatment normalized the decrease in postprandial free fatty acid concentration (P = .066). Leptin had no effect on either the area under the triglyceride (TG) excursion or the integrated area under the TG excursion in WT mice. In ob/ob mice, however, the TG excursion was lower in the leptin-treated than the pair-fed mice by area under the TG excursion (P = .012) and was lower than in the WT mice by integrated area under the TG excursion (P = .027). As expected, 2 weeks of leptin treatment decreased body weight in both the WT and ob/ob mice (-2.6% and -10.4%, respectively). Leptin treatment increased SMLPL, an effect that may have contributed to the leptin-induced weight loss. The leptin-induced decreased postprandial TG excursion in ob/ob mice suggests that leptin acts to augment clearance of postprandial TG-rich lipoprotein lipid and that this increase may in part be secondary

  1. A Model of NEFA Dynamics with Focus on the Postprandial State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, K.; Hallgreen, Christine E.; Colding-Jorgensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipolysis results in a net export of NEFA from adipose tissue to other tissues. Postprandially, the rise in insulin results in: Decreased lipolysis; a higher rate of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity; and decreased NEFA uptake and reesterification by adipose tissue stimulation of reesterification....... The result is a drop in plasma NEFA after a carbohydrate containing meal. When insulin returns to postabsorptive levels, a rebound in plasma NEFA often occurs. This rebound is due to a restoration of lipolysis, a decrease in NEFA reesterification by adipose tissue and an increased LPL-as insulin activates...... dynamics. Insulin is the major regulator of NEFA metabolism in the postprandial state. Plasma NEFA levels are thus highly dependent on the insulin concentration, the insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, and the maximal lipolytic rate. In the postabsorptive state, e.g., at low insulin, adipose tissue...

  2. Exercise and Dietary-Mediated Reductions in Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and ...

  3. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-03-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i).

  4. An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postprandial hyperglykaemi. Postprandiale blodglukosesvingninger og kardiovaskulaer sygdom samt sendiabetiske komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have demo...... have focused on specific treatment of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the importance of postprandial hyperglycaemia for development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis is unclear.......Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have...

  6. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-04-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  7. Acute effects of pomegranate extract on postprandial lipaemia, vascular function and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aarati Susan; Capel-Williams, Gabriella M; Berry, Sarah E E; Hall, Wendy L

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether a test drink enriched in pomegranate polyphenols, consumed with a high-fat meal, can reduce postprandial lipaemia and improve vascular function and blood pressure compared to placebo. Nineteen young, healthy men completed a randomized, controlled crossover trial. The active drink (containing a pomegranate extract) was consumed during a high-fat meal (ET-DUR) or 15 min before (ET-PRE), and the placebo drink (no pomegranate extract) was consumed during the high-fat meal (CONTROL). Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by venous plasma TAG 0-2 h, and capillary plasma TAG 0-4 h. Blood pressure and digital volume pulse, to measure reflection index (DVP-RI) and stiffness index (DVP-SI), were monitored at baseline, 2 and 4 h. There was no inhibition of postprandial lipaemia by the active drink compared to CONTROL. ET-PRE caused a greater increase in the venous plasma TAG at 2 h compared to CONTROL and ET-DUR (treatment effect P = 0.001). The incremental area under the curve 0-4 h for capillary plasma TAG was not significantly different between treatments. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in the ET-PRE and ET-DUR groups to a lesser extent than the CONTROL group (treatment effect P = 0.041). There were no treatment effects for DVP-RI, DVP-SI or diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the consumption of a single drink containing ET-rich pomegranate extract did not decrease postprandial plasma TAG concentrations, but suppressed the postprandial increase in SBP following the high-fat meal.

  8. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge meal made with either water (Control, fish oil (FO, vegetable oil (VO or coconut oil (CO. Blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours postprandial and measured for endotoxin. Furthermore, ex vivo ileum endotoxin transport was assessed using modified Ussing chambers and intestines were treated with either no oil or 12.5% (v/v VO, FO, cod liver oil (CLO, CO or olive oil (OO. Ex vivo mucosal to serosal endotoxin transport permeability (Papp was then measured by the addition of fluorescent labeled-lipopolysaccharide. Results Postprandial serum endotoxin concentrations were increased after a meal rich in saturated fatty acids and decreased with higher n-3 PUFA intake. Compared to the no oil control, fish oil and CLO which are rich in n-3 fatty acids reduced ex vivo endotoxin Papp by 50% (P  Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that saturated and n-3 PUFA differentially regulate intestinal epithelial endotoxin transport. This may be associated with fatty acid regulation of intestinal membrane lipid raft mediated permeability.

  9. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect...... meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. RESULTS: The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before...... in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk...

  10. Postprandial VLDL-TG metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Johansen, Rakel Fuglsang; Jensen, Michael D; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess postprandial lipemia due to accumulation of chylomicrons and VLDL particles. This is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the excess lipemia is associated with an impaired suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and/or reduced clearance into adipose tissue is unknown. We measured the postprandial VLDL-TG secretion, clearance and adipose tissue storage to test the hypothesis that impaired postprandial suppression of VLDL-TG secretion, combined with impaired VLDL-TG storage in adipose tissue, is associated with excess postprandial lipemia. We studied 11 men with type 2 diabetes and 10 weight-matched non-diabetic men using ex-vivo labeled VLDL-TG tracers during an oral high-fat mixed-meal tolerance test to measure postprandial VLDL-TG secretion, clearance and storage. In addition, adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed for LPL activity and cellular storage factors. Men with type 2 diabetes had greater postprandial VLDL-TG concentration compared to non-diabetic men. However, postprandial VLDL-TG secretion rate was similar in the two groups with equal suppression of VLDL-TG secretion rate (≈50%) and clearance rate. In addition, postprandial VLDL-TG storage was similar in the two groups in both upper body and lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue. Despite greater postprandial VLDL-TG concentration, men with type 2 diabetes have similar postprandial suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and a similar ability to store VLDL-TG in adipose tissue compared to non-diabetic men. This may indicate that abnormalities in postprandial VLDL-TG metabolism are a consequence of obesity/insulin resistance more than a result of type 2 diabetes per se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Thol?n; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 hea...

  12. The effects of omeprazole on interdigestive motility and early postprandial levels of gastrin and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1992-01-01

    Ten healthy men participated in a crossover study, and the experiments took place after 10 days of treatment (40 mg omeprazole every morning). Blood samples were drawn at fixed intervals during a complete migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle. The manometric pressure tube was removed after passage ...... plasma gastrin, ii) a decrease in secretin in phases I and III, iii) an augmented meal-stimulated gastrin response, and iv) a secretin response characterized by a significantly lower mean in the immediate postprandial period....

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. → PPARα activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO 2 production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. → Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO 2 production in small intestinal epithelial cells. → Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. → It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPARα activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPARα activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPARα activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPARα agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO 2 and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover

  14. INFLUENCE OF ACARBOSE ON POSTPRANDIAL DYSMETABOLISM: RESULTS OF AN OPEN-LABEL RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Cherniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate postprandial changes of lipid and glucose profiles, inflammation markers levels and flow-mediated vasodilatation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and to estimate acarbose course treatment efficacy in glucose intolerant patients.Material and methods. A total of 114 MS patients (83 men, 31 women were examined, MS was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in 55 cases. At the first stage postpran- dial dynamics of flow-mediated dilation (FMD, lipid profile parameters, inflammation markers and insulin levels were estimated. At the second stage patients with MS and IGT (n=55 were randomly assigned to the two groups of treatment. Patients of the first group (n=28 had non-drug treatment. Patients of the second group (n=27 received acarbose 300 mg/day for 3 months in addition to recommendations for lifestyle change. 3 months later postprandial values of lipid and glucose profiles parameters, inflammation markers levels and FMD were reassessed. Results. MS patients with IGT revealed maximal disorders in metabolic parameters during postprandial period: increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol by 6.1%, high density lipoproteins – by 1.7%, and triglycerides – by 27.87%, increase in atherogenic index by 4.8%, and plasma concentrations of glucose – by 54.7%, insulin – by 30.2%, HOMA index – by 73.3%, as well as concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP – by 49.7%, tumor necrose factor alpha – by 20.8%, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 – by 51.9%. FMD decreased by 34.3%.After 12 weeks of the acarbose treatment we had revealed positive dynamics of studied indices in postprandial period as compared to an only non-drug management: levels of glucose in- creased by 24.1% vs 44.4%, insulin – by 14.4% vs 24.4%, CRP – by 19.9% vs 36.6%, IL-6 – by 25.1% vs 41.7%; postprandial FMD decreased by 18.9% vs 31.1%.Conclusion. Prescription of acarbose 300 mg/day for 12 weeks in glucose intolerant patients is characterized

  15. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p < 0.01). The peak intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (in muM): 14.5 +/- 0.9 and 16 +/- 2.1 (ns), whereas in old wild-type and transgenic mice the values were 9.9 +/- 0.1 and 14 +/- 1.1 (p < 0.01), respectively. No significant changes in the voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:11867450

  16. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth): a 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Holst, Jens J; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between protein types and fatty acid compositions, as well as any interaction between the two. Fifty-two participants completed the study. We found that the postprandial apoB-48 response decreased significantly after whey compared with casein (P = 0.025) independently of fatty acid composition. Furthermore, supplementation with casein resulted in a significant increase in the postprandial GLP-1 response compared with whey (P = 0.003). We found no difference in postprandial triacylglycerol, FFA, insulin, glucose, glucagon, or GIP related to protein type or MC-SFA content. We observed no interaction between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a

  17. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, A. J. H. H. M.; Alipour, A.; Sijmonsma, T. P.; Verseyden, C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Castro Cabezas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50 +/- 4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of

  18. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Antoine, J.M.; Benton, D.; Bjorck, I.; Bozzetto, L.; Brouns, F.; Diamant, M.; Dye, L.; Hulshof, T.; Holst, J.J.; Lamport, D.J.; Laville, M.; Lawton, C.L.; Meheust, A.; Nilson, A.; Normand, S.; Rivellese, A.A.; Theis, S.; Torekov, S.S.; Vinoy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in

  19. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  20. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1) the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2) the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3) the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk. PMID:21736746

  1. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koska Juraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1 the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2 the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3 the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk.

  2. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS...

  3. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomonori; Kanasaki, Akane; Hayashi, Noriko; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    d-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of d-fructose, has been reported to decrease body weight and adipose tissue weight in animal studies and is expected to be a potent antiobese sweetener. Our animal study suggested that one of the mechanisms of d-allulose's antiobesity function is an increase in energy expenditure. However, a few studies have thus far explored the underlying mechanism in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single ingestion of d-allulose on postprandial energy metabolism in healthy participants. Thirteen healthy men and women (mean age of 35.7 ± 2.1 y and body mass index 20.9 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) were studied. The study was a randomized, single-blind crossover design with a 1-wk washout period. At 30 min after taking 5 g of d-allulose or 10 mg of aspartame without any sugar as a control, overnight-fasted participants ingested a standardized meal, and energy metabolism was evaluated by a breath-by-breath method. During the experiment, blood was collected and biochemical parameters such as plasma glucose were analyzed. In the d-allulose-treated group, the area under the curve of fat oxidation was significantly higher than in the control group (10.5 ± 0.4 versus 9.6 ± 0.3 kJ·4 h·kg -1 body weight [BW]; P allulose group than in the control group. No other parameters such as insulin, total cholesterol, or triacylglycerol were modified. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans, indicating that it could be a novel sweetener to control and maintain healthy body weight, probably through enhanced energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Selective PPARα Modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), Attenuates Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Masami; Kobayashi, Takuya; Masuda, Daisaku; Kanno, Koutaro; Zhu, Yinghong; Okada, Takeshi; Koseki, Masahiro; Ohama, Tohru; Nishida, Makoto; Sakata, Yasushi; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2018-02-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) are caused by the accumulation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, which have atherogenic effects. Fibrates can improve fasting and PHTG; however, reduction of remnants is clinically needed to improve health outcomes. In the current study, we investigated the effects of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), K-877 (Pemafibrate), on PHTG and remnant metabolism. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) only, or an HFD containing 0.0005% K-877 or 0.05% fenofibrate, from 8 to 12 weeks of age. After 4 weeks of feeding, we measured plasma levels of TG, free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48/B-100 during fasting and after oral fat loading (OFL). Plasma lipoprotein profiles after OFL, which were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and fasting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were compared among the groups. Both K-877 and fenofibrate suppressed body weight gain and fasting and postprandial TG levels and enhanced LPL activity in mice fed an HFD. As determined by HPLC, K-877 and fenofibrate significantly decreased the abundance of TG-rich lipoproteins, including remnants, in postprandial plasma. Both K-877 and fenofibrate decreased intestinal mRNA expression of ApoB and Npc1l1; however, hepatic expression of Srebp1c and Mttp was increased by fenofibrate but not by K-877.Hepatic mRNA expression of apoC-3 was decreased by K-877 but not by fenofibrate. K-877 may attenuate PHTG by suppressing the postprandial increase of chylomicrons and the accumulation of chylomicron remnants more effectively than fenofibrate.

  5. Postinduction serum infliximab trough level and decrease of C-reactive protein level are associated with durable sustained response to infliximab: a retrospective analysis of the ACCENT I trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, Freddy; Hanauer, Stephen B; Diamond, Robert H; Wang, Jianping; Tang, Kezhen L; Xu, Zhenhua; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment. Objective To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline). Design ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs. Results After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab. Conclusions Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher

  6. Acarbose improved severe postprandial hypotension in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, E; Goda, K; Nagata, K; Kitaoka, H; Ohsawa, N; Hanafusa, T

    2001-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a decrease of systolic blood pressure by more than 20 mmHg after meals. Severe PPH is a troublesome diabetic complication, which has no established means of treatment. We encountered a patient who had diabetes mellitus complicated by severe PPH and attempted to treat this problem using several medications (octreotide, midodrine hydrochloride, and acarbose). A 58-year-old male with diabetic triopathy complained of orthostatic dizziness and vertigo after meals. The blood pressure was monitored for 24 h with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor, revealing that the systolic blood pressure decreased markedly after breakfast and dinner by 45 and 50 mmHg, respectively. PPH was not improved by a subcutaneous injection of octreotide. Administration of midodrine hydrochloride reduced the frequency of hypotensive episodes from twice to once daily, but the magnitude of the postprandial fall in blood pressure was still around 30 mmHg. After the patient started to receive acarbose therapy, the postprandial fall in blood pressure was diminished to 18 mmHg and his symptoms largely disappeared. For the treatment of PPH in diabetic patients, our experience suggests that it may be appropriate to try first on alpha-glucosidase inhibitor like acarbose.

  7. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Pinto, Rui [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (Sweden); Trygg, Johan [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-02-18

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  8. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Pinto, Rui; Trygg, Johan; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  9. Strength exercise and training in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Correa, C; Rebolledo Cobos, R C; Reischak-Oliveira, Á

    2015-09-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been associated to alterations on lipid profile as well found during postprandial period, phenomenon known as postprandial lipaemia (PL). Physical exercise is currently the major non-pharmacological intervention used to prevention and reduction of risk factors to developing of CVD. For this reason, there is growing interest under the effects of physical exercise, especially strength training, on regulation and balance of lipid metabolism, particularly of risk groups such as post-menopausal women that have more prone to CVD than men and lose much of the cardioprotective effect of estradiol during and after menopause period. In this review, we seek to compare the results of articles that addressed the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We used articles selected in databases PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO dating from the year 1975-2012, with many quotes from leading researchers in subject and published in international journals. All studies were obtained to report at least three variables of interest. The authors of this review concluded that strength training proves to be effective in reducing PL concentrations by inducing an improvement of basal energy demand, can be seen as an important strategy to treatment of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  10. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  11. Nutrient re-routing and altered gut-islet cell crosstalk may explain early relief of severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, M S; Toft-Nielsen, M B; Kristiansen, V B; Hartmann, B; Holst, J J; Madsbad, S; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2017-12-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with an increased risk of postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, but the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the effect of re-routing of nutrient delivery on gut-islet cell crosstalk in a person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia, who underwent surgical reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, was studied before reversal and at 2 weeks and 3 months after reversal surgery using liquid mixed meal tests and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps. The nadir of postprandial plasma glucose rose from 2.8 mmol/l to 4.1 mmol/l at 2 weeks and to 4.4 mmol/l at 3 months after reversal. Concomitant insulin- and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion (peak concentrations and area under the curve) clearly decreased after reversal, while concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and ghrelin increased. Insulin clearance declined after reversal, whereas clamp-estimated peripheral insulin sensitivity was unchanged. The person remained without symptoms of hypoglycaemia, but had experienced significant weight gain at 15-month follow-up. Accelerated nutrient absorption may be a driving force behind postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Re-routing of nutrients by reversal of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass diminished postprandial plasma glucose excursions, alleviated postprandial insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 hypersecretion and eliminated postprandial hypoglycaemia, which emphasizes the importance of altered gut-islet cell crosstalk for glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  12. Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA reduces weight gain and improves postprandial lipaemia and the associated inflammatory response in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Z; Ametaj, B N; Field, C J; Proctor, S D; Vine, D F

    2010-02-01

    Postprandial dyslipidaemia occurs in obesity and insulin resistance (IR), and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We have recently established that the JCR:LA-cp rodent model develops postprandial dyslipidaemia concomitant with complications of the metabolic syndrome. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are proposed to modulate plasma lipids, serum hormone levels, lipoprotein metabolism and the inflammatory state; however, results remain inconsistent during conditions of IR. To assess the acute metabolic and inflammatory effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on existing postprandial dyslipidaemia in the JCR:LA-cp model. JCR:LA-cp rats (14 weeks of age) were fed either a control, isocaloric, lipid balanced diet (15% w/w total fat, 1.0% cholesterol, P:S ratio 0.4), a lipid balanced diet with 5% n-3 PUFA [fish oil derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or a lipid balanced diet with 10% n-3 PUFA for 3 weeks. Fasting plasma lipid, cytokine levels, postprandial chylomicron (apoB48) metabolism and the postprandial inflammatory response [haptoglobin and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)] were assessed following a standardized 'oral fat challenge'. n-3 PUFA treatment resulted in a significant improvement (i.e. decrease) in the postprandial response for triglyceride (45%) (p postprandial haptoglobin (165%) (p postprandial lipid metabolism and components of the associated inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat. Further, moderate dose n-3 PUFA supplementation may reduce corresponding body weight during conditions of hypercholesterolaemia and/or modulate inflammation associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  13. A sequential two meal challenge reveals abnormalities in postprandial TAG but not glucose in men with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Minihane, Anne M; Williams, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components on postprandial lipaemia. Healthy men (n=112) underwent a sequential meal postprandial investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (0min) and lunch (330min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting sample, with triacylglycerol (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids and glucose analysed in the postprandial samples. Subjects were grouped according to the number of MetS components regardless of the combinations of components (0/1, 2, 3 and 4/5). As expected, there was a trend for an increase in body mass index, blood pressure, fasting TAG, glucose and insulin, and a decrease in fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with increasing numbers of MetS components (P≤0.0004). A similar trend was observed for the summary measures of the postprandial TAG and glucose responses. For TAG, the area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (maxC) were significantly greater in men with ≥3 than postprandial TAG and glucose responses. Furthermore, the two meal challenge discriminated a worsening of postprandial lipaemic control in subjects with ≥3 MetS components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary cocoa butter or refined olive oil does not alter postprandial hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Teng, Kim-Tiu; Raff, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Contrary to other long chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), fats high in stearic acid do not raise plasma cholesterol concentrations, however, a slight elevation in inflammatory markers, plasma fibrinogen and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been observed in the fasting state. The effect of stearic acid on inflammation in the postprandial state has not yet been reported. We conducted a single blind crossover, randomized, postprandial study to compare the effects of a fat load of cocoa butter high in stearic acid and olive oil in ten healthy women. The test meals contained 1 g of fat per kg body weight (mean 62 g). Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasting), 4 and 6 h. Both diets resulted in a significant increase in serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration over time (P = 0.003) and a decrease in serum IL-6 concentration after 4 h followed by an increase to post absorptive values after 6 h (P < 0.001); whereas serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration was not affected. There was no difference between diets in effects on serum TAG, hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations and no association between postprandial lipemia and inflammatory markers. High intake of dietary fats increase postprandial serum TAG, however, may not affect inflammatory markers postprandially. Thus, fat rich in stearic acid does not seem to increase postprandial inflammation.

  15. Theobromine consumption does not improve fasting and postprandial vascular function in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; van den Driessche, Jose J; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-12

    Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and retinal microvasculature measurements were performed. These measurements were carried out under fasting conditions and 2.5 h after a high-fat mixed meal challenge. 4-week theobromine consumption did not change fasting vascular function markers, except for a decrease in central AIx (cAIx, - 1.7 pp, P = 0.037) and a trend towards smaller venular calibers (- 2 µm, P = 0.074). Consuming a high-fat mixed meal decreased FMD (0.89 pp, P = 0.002), reactive hyperemia index (RHI, - 0.30, P Theobromine did not modify these postprandial effects, but increased postprandially the brachial artery diameter (0.03 cm, P = 0.015), and decreased the cAIx corrected for a HR of 75 (cAIx75, - 5.0 pp, P = 0.004) and peripheral AIx (pAIx, - 6.3 pp, P = 0.017). Theobromine consumption did not improve fasting and postprandial endothelial function, but increased postprandial peripheral arterial diameters and decreased the AIx. These findings do not suggest that theobromine alone contributes to the proposed cardioprotective effects of cocoa. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under study number NCT02209025.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and gender differences in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Pavlidis, Antonis N; Salpea, Klelia D; Iraklianou, Stella A; Hoursalas, Ioannis S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2006-08-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia may be a predictor of vascular risk. We evaluated postprandial lipaemia after an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) in men (n=41) and women (n=21) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the fat load. Men showed a greater plasma TG response 8 h after the fat load (284+/-117 versus 224+/-126 mg/dl, P=0.029). Only fasting TG levels significantly predicted the TG area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC. Men had a more pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia and seem to have delayed TG clearance.

  17. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  18. Correcting Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats With an SGLT2 Inhibitor Restores Glucose Effectiveness in the Liver and Reduces Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tracy P; Jenkins, Erin C; Estes, Shanea K; Castaneda, Antonio V; Ueta, Kiichiro; Farmer, Tiffany D; Puglisi, Allison E; Swift, Larry L; Printz, Richard L; Shiota, Masakazu

    2017-05-01

    Ten-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at an early stage of diabetes embody metabolic characteristics of obese human patients with type 2 diabetes, such as severe insulin and glucose intolerance in muscle and the liver, excessive postprandial excursion of plasma glucose and insulin, and a loss of metabolic flexibility with decreased lipid oxidation. Metabolic flexibility and glucose flux were examined in ZDF rats during fasting and near-normal postprandial insulinemia and glycemia after correcting excessive postprandial hyperglycemia using treatment with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) for 7 days. Preprandial lipid oxidation was normalized, and with fasting, endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased by 30% and endogenous glucose disposal (E-Rd) decreased by 40%. During a postprandial hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp after SGLT2-I treatment, E-Rd increased by normalizing glucose effectiveness to suppress EGP and stimulate hepatic glucose uptake; activation of glucokinase was restored and insulin action was improved, stimulating muscle glucose uptake in association with decreased intracellular triglyceride content. In conclusion, SGLT2-I treatment improves impaired glucose effectiveness in the liver and insulin sensitivity in muscle by eliminating glucotoxicity, which reinstates metabolic flexibility with restored preprandial lipid oxidation and postprandial glucose flux in ZDF rats. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Fasting and postprandial levels of ghrelin, leptin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Hanna; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Kupsz, Justyna; Piątek, Małgorzata; Piątek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ghrelin, leptin and insulin are involved in neurohormonal regulation of energetic homeostasis. Aim We investigated the correlation between nutritional status and plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects. Material and methods Nineteen obese and 18 anorexic adults were enrolled in the study. Seventeen adults with normal body mass index (BMI) served as controls. Blood samples were taken twice: before breakfast and 2 h after breakfast. Fasting and postprandial ghrelin, leptin and insulin were examined. The following correlations were estimated: between BMI and basal level of tested hormones, between insulin and ghrelin, and between insulin and leptin. The threshold level of significance was p ≤ 0.05 for all calculations. Results Basal insulin level was lowest in anorexic patients and greatest in obese subjects. Fasting plasma ghrelin was lower in obesity and higher in anorexia as compared with the controls. Comparing with controls, fasting leptin levels were higher in obese and lower in anorexic subjects. There was positive correlation between BMI and basal leptin level in obesity. A significant postprandial increase was noted for insulin in all studied groups. Increased leptin and decreased ghrelin levels were detected 2 h after a meal in the control group. In obese patients, postprandial leptin was lower than before food intake, and fasting leptin showed positive correlation with basal insulin level. Conclusions Basal plasma ghrelin, leptin and insulin levels differ according to nutritional status. Impaired ghrelin and leptin secretion and insulin sensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. PMID:24868288

  20. SORT1 protective allele is associated with attenuated postprandial: lipaemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kimberly E; Karlos, Angela E; Gnatiuk, Elizabeth A; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S

    2014-10-01

    Elevated levels of lipids and lipoproteins have strong genetic determinants and are recognized as key risk factors for atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease, particularly in the postprandial state. The aim of the study to determine whether young adults, when stratified by genotype at the rs646776 variant of the 1p13 locus, displayed differential postprandial responses to an oral fat tolerance test. Participants (n=30) received a high-fat mixed meal (91 g; 55% kcal from fat) after an overnight fast and a fat-exclusion meal (3.9 g; 6% kcal from fat) at 8 hours postprandially. Blood samples were obtained at t=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours for lipoprotein analyses via nuclear magnetic resonance profiling. Carriers of the minor, protective allele (TC/CC) displayed lower fasting (TC/CC, 30.1±3.0 nmol/L versus TT, 48.8±5.1 nmol/L; Ppostprandial (TC/CC, 44.2±3.1 nmol/L versus TT, 57.0±4.5 nmol/L; P=0.03) very low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron particle number in addition to triglyceride content when compared with individuals homozygous for the major, risk allele (TT). We report a novel association between the SORT1 1p13 locus and extent of postprandial lipaemia. These results provide evidence of decreased exposure to atherogenic particles in carriers of the minor SORT1 allele, suggesting relative protection against cardiovascular disease when compared with TT homozygotes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...... bile acids were measured. We found similar basal glucose concentrations in the two groups, whereas cholecystectomized subjects had elevated postprandial glucose excursions. Cholecystectomized subjects had reduced postprandial concentrations of duodenal bile acids, but preserved postprandial plasma GLP......-1 responses, compared with control subjects. Also, cholecystectomized patients exhibited augmented fasting glucagon. Basal plasma CCK concentrations were lower and peak concentrations were higher in cholecystectomized patients. The concentrations of GIP, GLP-2, and gastrin were similar in the two...

  2. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 differe...

  3. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    that more closely approximate 'normal' physiological postprandial responses, as well as technologies that advance the mode of insulin delivery or optimize methods to sense glycemic levels and variation. In conclusion, the precise role of postprandial hyperglycemia in relation to development of diabetic...... complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes....

  4. Effect of Dietary Lipids on Endotoxemia Influences Postprandial Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Javier; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Jimenez-Lucena, Rosa; Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Roche, Helen M; López-Miranda, José; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-09-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) results in postprandial metabolic alterations that predisposes one to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We aimed to assess the effect of the consumption of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on fasting and postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A subgroup of 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome was randomized to receive 1 of 4 diets: HSFA, rich in saturated fat; HMUFA, rich in monounsaturated fat; LFHCC n-3, low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; LFHCC low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo, for 12 weeks each. We administered a fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diets at postintervention. We determined the plasma lipoproteins and glucose and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and adipose tissue. LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) plasma levels were determined by ELISA, at fasting and postprandial (4 h after a fat challenge) states. We observed a postprandial increase in LPS levels after the intake of the HSFA meal, whereas we did not find any postprandial changes after the intake of the other three diets. Moreover, we found a positive relationship between the LPS plasma levels and the gene expression of IkBa and MIF1 in PBMC. No statistically significant differences in the LBP plasma levels at fasting or postprandial states were observed. Our results suggest that the consumption of HSFA diet increases the intestinal absorption of LPS which, in turn, increases postprandial endotoxemia levels and the postprandial inflammatory response.

  5. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    and exercise perfomance. Nevertheless, postprandial glycaemia is interrelated with many other (risk) factors as well as to fasting glucose. In many studies, meal-related glycaemic response is not sufficiently characterized, or the methodology with respect to the description of food or meal composition...... to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia....

  6. Physical activity status and postprandial lipaemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, M; Park, J H; Takahashi, M; Burns, S; Kim, H S; Suzuki, K; Nakamura, Y

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity-induced lowering of postprandial lipaemia is short-lived. However, little is known regarding the role of physical activity status on postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of the present study was to compare postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations in active and inactive older adults. A total of 26 older adults (aged 69.8±0.9 years, mean±SEM; 10 male and 16 female) were analysed in a cross-sectional design. Based on accelerometer data, participants were divided into either the active group (≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity physical activity, N=15) or the inactive group (postprandially. After adjusting for fasting triacylglycerol concentrations, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference, postprandial capillary triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly lower in the active than inactive group ( P=0.046). These findings demonstrate that regular physical activity lowers postprandial lipaemia independent of the acute effects of physical activity in older adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Postprandial lipaemia, oxidative stress and endothelial function: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J P; Johnson, B; Padilla, J; Mather, K

    2010-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction is felt to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. In this review, we have examined the cross-sectional relationships found among these three variables. We found 20 studies conducted by 16 independent investigative teams through a Medline search from 1980 to 2008; studies were required to report correlations between at least two of the three variables of interest in studies of humans. This review is divided into (i) discussions on the biomarkers and other measures of postprandial lipaemia, oxidative stress and endothelial function; (ii) associations reported among the three variables; and (iii) other considerations including alternative intervention studies. Triglycerides and free fatty acids are robust and well-standardised biomarkers of lipaemia. Measures of oxidative stress ranged from electron spin techniques to measures of lipid peroxidation and are limited by lack of standardisation. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation is the most commonly used measure of endothelial function. The associations between postprandial lipaemia and oxidative stress and between postprandial lipaemia and endothelial function are strong and consistent. However, the association between postprandial oxidative stress and endothelial function appears weak, at least using current approaches to measurement of oxidative stress. These observations are consistent with the proposed concept that oxidative stress mediates the adverse effects of postprandial lipaemia on endothelial function; they are limited by the difficulties in measuring oxidative stress. Efforts directed at optimising and standardising the measurement of oxidative stress will be of value in future works in this area.

  8. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  9. Single vagus nerve stimulation reduces early postprandial C-peptide levels but not other hormones or postprandial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M W; van Nierop, F S; Koopman, F A; Eggink, H M; Gerlag, D M; Chan, M W; Zitnik, R; Vaz, F M; Romijn, J A; Tak, P P; Soeters, M R

    2018-02-01

    A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism. Six female patients with RA were studied twice in balanced assignment (crossover design) to either VNS or no stimulation. The patients selected for this substudy had been on VNS therapy daily for at least 3 months and at maximum of 24 months. We compared 10-, 20-, and 30-min poststimulus levels to baseline levels, and a 4-h mixed meal test was performed 30 min after VNS. We also determined energy expenditure (EE) by indirect calorimetry before and after VNS. VNS did not affect pituitary hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), postprandial metabolism, or EE. Of note, VNS reduced early postprandial insulin secretion, but not AUC of postprandial plasma insulin levels. Cortisol and catecholamine levels in serum did not change significantly. Short stimulation of vagal activity by VNS reduces early postprandial insulin secretion, but not other hormone levels and postprandial response. This suggests VNS as a safe treatment for RA patients.

  10. Expansion of HAART Coverage Is Associated with Sustained Decreases in HIV/AIDS Morbidity, Mortality and HIV Transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” Experience in a Canadian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaner, Julio S.G.; Lima, Viviane D.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Nosyk, Bohdan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Shannon, Kate; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S.; Barrios, Rolando; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Gustafson, Reka; Daly, Patricia; Kendall, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP). However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. Methods We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. Results HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330) and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115). New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004) with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003). Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. Conclusions Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines

  11. Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, François; Valette, Marion; Lopez, Christelle; Fouillet, Hélène; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Mathé, Véronique; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Huneau, Jean François

    2015-12-01

    Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated. We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)]. The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion. The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules. In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  12. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass normalizes the blunted postprandial bile acid excursion associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N N; Pfalzer, A; Kaplan, L M

    2013-12-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are nutrient-responsive hormones that modulate energy balance through cell surface and nuclear receptors. Postprandial plasma BAs have been found to be decreased in obesity. We aimed to determine whether meal-stimulated circulating BA levels are altered by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), an operation that modifies the neurohumoral determinants of food intake and energy expenditure to cause significant and durable weight loss. Longitudinal study measuring fasting and postprandial plasma BAs before and after RYGB. Five obese surgical patients and eight lean controls underwent frequent blood sampling after a standard liquid meal. Obese subjects were also tested at 1, 4 and 40 weeks after RYGB. Primary and secondary circulating BAs, as well as their glycine and taurine conjugates, were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. We found that postprandial excursion of conjugated BAs was 52.4% lower in obese than in lean individuals by area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis (378 vs 793 μmol min l(-1), respectively, P<0.05). By 40 weeks after RYGB, the meal-induced rise in conjugated BAs increased by 55.5% to the level of healthy lean controls (378 pre-op vs 850 μmol min l(-) post-op by AUC analyses, P<0.05). In contrast, postprandial concentrations of unconjugated BAs were similar in lean and obese individuals and were not affected by surgery. In light of the growing evidence that BAs have key roles in glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis, the observation that RYGB normalizes the blunted postprandial circulating BA response in obesity suggests that BAs may contribute to the improvement in meal-related physiology seen after RYGB. Further studies are warranted to examine this hypothesis and to determine the degree to which an augmented BA response to nutrient ingestion may mediate the increased incretin response, brown adipose tissue activation and thermic effect of feeding that has been observed after

  13. Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah E E; Tucker, Sally; Banerji, Radhika; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phillip J; Charles, Sonia M; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2008-10-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function possibly via an oxidative stress mechanism. A stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) (shea butter) results in a blunted postprandial increase in plasma TAG compared with an oleic acid-rich TAG; however, its acute effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress are unknown. A randomized crossover trial (n = 17 men) compared the effects of 50 g fat, rich in stearic acid [shea butter blend (SA)] or oleic acid [high oleic sunflower oil (HO)], on changes in endothelial function [brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)], arterial tone [pulse wave analysis (PWA), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV(c-f))], and oxidative stress (plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha) at fasting and 3 h following the test meals. The postprandial increase in plasma TAG was lower (66% lower incremental area under curve) following the SA meal [28.3 (9.7, 46.9)] than after the HO meal [83.4 (57.0, 109.8); P < 0.001] (geometric means with 95% CI, arbitary units). Following the HO meal, there was a decrease in FMD [-3.0% (-4.4, -1.6); P < 0.001] and an increase in plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha [10.4ng/L (3.8, 16.9); P = 0.005] compared with fasting values, but no changes followed the SA meal. The changes in 8-isoprostane F2alpha and FMD differed between meals and were 14.0 ng/L (6.4, 21.6; P = 0.001) and 1.75% (0.10, 3.39; P = 0.02), respectively. The reductions in PWA and PWV c-f did not differ between meals. This study demonstrates that a stearic acid-rich fat attenuates the postprandial impairment in endothelial function compared with an oleic acid-rich fat and supports the hypothesis that postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function via an increase in oxidative stress.

  14. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes decreased libido? Decreased libido often accompanies other sexual disorders. Although most men with erectile dysfunction do not complain of decreased libido, after time, persistent failure with erections and sexual performance can lead to reduced sex drive in ...

  15. Impact of improving postprandial glycemic control with intensifying insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Tamer

    2017-11-01

    Worldwide, many people with type 2 diabetes are not at recommended glycemic targets and remain at increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Reaching recommended glycemic targets requires normalizing both fasting and postprandial glucose (PPG). For some patients, this will require addition of a prandial insulin delivered by injection to control PPG excursions. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease, and thus, expert guidelines recommend that treatment for elevated PPG not be delayed. Indeed, studies have demonstrated that PPG makes the greatest contribution to HbA 1c in patients who are approaching, but have not yet reached HbA 1c insulin is critical in suppressing hepatic glucose output (and therefore PPG levels) after a meal. Rapid-acting insulin analogs, with their faster onset and shorter duration of action, offer advantages over regular human insulin. Unfortunately, even with improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, rapid-acting insulin analogs are still unable to fully reproduce the rapid release of insulin into the portal circulation and suppression of hepatic glucose output that occurs in the individual without diabetes after starting a meal. The next generation of rapid-acting insulin analogs will have an even more favorable pharmacokinetic profile that should allow patients to further improve glycemic control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) represents another option for intensifying therapy and improving postprandial control in some patients, and studies have shown that the benefits are sustainable long-term. However, it is currently unclear which patients stand to benefit the most from the extra expense and complexity of a CSII regimen, and further studies are needed.

  16. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  18. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic...... syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD). Methods: Nineteen subjects completed the randomised...... lipid content were measured. Results: We found no diet effects on postprandial lipaemia. However, there was a significant diet × statin interaction on total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). HCD decreased total cholesterol (−0.72 mmol/l, 95% CI (−1.29; −0.14) P = 0.03) and LDL...

  19. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia was significantly higher in homozygous carriers of the 1166-C allele (9.39±8.36 mM*h/L compared to homozygous carriers of the 1166-A allele (2.02±6.20 mM*h/L (P<0.05. Postprandial lipemia was similar for the different C573T polymorphisms. Conclusion. The 1166-C allele of the AT1R gene seems to be associated with increased postprandial lipemia. These data confirm the earlier described relationships between the renin-angiotensin axis and triglyceride metabolism.

  20. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil reduces postprandial t-PA activity compared with palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Seljeflot, I; Solvoll, K; Pedersen, J I

    2001-04-01

    The effects of dietary trans fatty acids on fasting and diurnal variation in hemostatic variables are not known. This study compares the effects of three diets with three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-diet), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO, TRANS-diet) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-diet) on diurnal postprandial hemostatic variables. A strictly controlled dietary Latin square study was performed and nine young female participants consumed each of the diets for 17 days in a random order. The sum of the cholesterol-increasing fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0) was 36.3% of total fatty acids in the PALM-diet, the same as the sum of saturated-(C12:0, C14:0, C16:0) (12.5%) and trans fatty acids (23.1%) in the TRANS-diet. The sum of C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 was 20.7% in the PUFA-diet. The amount of fat made up 30-31% of energy in all diets. Nine participants completed the study. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared with the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared with PALM-diet but the difference was below statistical significance (P=0.07, Bonferonni adjusted). There were no significant differences in either fasting levels or in circadian variation of t-PA antigen, PAI-1 activity, PAI-antigen, factor VII coagulant activity or fibrinogen between the three diets. Our results indicate that dietary trans fatty acids from PHSO has an unfavourable effect on postprandial t-PA activity and thus possibly on the fibrinolytic system compared with palm oil.

  1. Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.

  2. Sustained Domestic Vector Exposure Is Associated With Increased Chagas Cardiomyopathy Risk but Decreased Parasitemia and Congenital Transmission Risk Among Young Women in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Michelle; Jois, Malasa; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Rendell, Victoria R; Shah, Vishal; Do, Rose Q; Marcus, Rachel; Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; LaFuente, Carlos; Bozo, Ricardo; Valencia, Edward; Verastegui, Manuela; Colanzi, Rony; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2015-09-15

    We studied women and their infants to evaluate risk factors for congenital transmission and cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected women. Women provided data and blood for serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infants of infected women had blood tested at 0 and 1 month by microscopy, PCR and immunoblot, and serology at 6 and 9 months. Women underwent electrocardiography (ECG). Of 1696 women, 456 (26.9%) were infected; 31 (6.8%) transmitted T. cruzi to their infants. Women who transmitted had higher parasite loads than those who did not (median, 62.0 [interquartile range {IQR}, 25.8-204.8] vs 0.05 [IQR, 0-29.6]; P Transmission was higher in twin than in singleton births (27.3% vs 6.4%; P = .04). Women who had not lived in infested houses transmitted more frequently (9.7% vs 4.6%; P = .04), were more likely to have positive results by PCR (65.5% vs 33.9%; P Chagas cardiomyopathy; risk was higher for older women (odds ratio [OR], 1.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.12] per year) and those with vector exposure (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 1.4-10.2]). We observed a strong dose-response relationship between ECG abnormalities and reported years of living in an infested house. We hypothesize that repeated vector-borne infection sustains antigen exposure and the consequent inflammatory response at a higher chronic level, increasing cardiac morbidity, but possibly enabling exposed women to control parasitemia in the face of pregnancy-induced Th2 polarization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy and Gastric Bypass on Postprandial Lipid Profile in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a 2-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffo, E; Cotugno, M; Nosso, G; Saldalamacchia, G; Mangione, A; Angrisani, L; Rivellese, A A; Capaldo, B

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is known to favorably impact fasting lipid profile. Fasting and postprandial lipids were evaluated before and 2 years after BS in obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. A prospective study was conducted in 19 obese T2DM patients: ten undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and nine undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Before and 2 years after BS, clinical parameters and the response of lipid and incretin hormones to a mixed meal (MM) were assessed. The two groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After BS, weight loss was similar in the two groups (p ≤ 0.01). Fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides decreased while HDL cholesterol increased in a similar way (p Postprandial triglycerides decreased after both procedures (p postprandial LDL cholesterol decreased only after RYGB (p postprandial triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol decreases only after RYGB through a mechanism likely mediated by the restoration of GLP-1.

  5. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Katayama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM using a retrospective design. Patients and Methods Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG. We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. Results Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. Conclusions Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves.

  6. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrom, A J H H M; Alipour, A; Sijmonsma, T P; Verseyden, C; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Plokker, H W M; Castro Cabezas, M

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50+/-4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of rosuvastatin 40 mg/day on postprandial parameters were assessed. Standardised oral fat-loading tests (OFLT) and ambulant self-measurements of daylong capillary triglycerides (TGc) were performed. Total responses of individual lipoproteins, plasma TG (TGp) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) were estimated as area under the curve (AUC). Most AUCs were highest in untreated patients and reached control levels after rosuvastatin. From all AUCs, RLP-C-AUC was best associated to TGp-AUC in untreated patients and controls (adjusted R2=0.84, beta=0.92, p.

  7. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  8. Fast food increases postprandial cardiac workload in type 2 diabetes independent of pre-exercise: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Malmo, Vegard; Follestad, Turid; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk

    2015-08-14

    Type 2 diabetes aggravates the postprandial metabolic effects of food, which increase cardiovascular risk. We investigated the acute effects of fast food on postprandial left ventricular (LV) function and the potential effects of pre-exercise in type 2 diabetes individuals. We used a cross-over study including 10 type 2 diabetes individuals (7 male and 3 females; 53.4 ± 8.1 years; 28.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2); type 2 diabetes duration 3.1 ± 1.8 years) and 10 controls (7 male and 3 females; 52.8 ± 10.1 years; 28.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) performing high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 40 min, 4 × 4 min intervals, 90-95% HRmax), moderate intensity exercise (MIE; 47 min, 70% HRmax) and no exercise (NE) in a random order 16-18 hours prior to fast-food ingestion. Baseline echocardiography, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were recorded prior to and 16-18 hours after exercise, and 30 minutes, 2 hours and 4 hours after fast food ingestion. LV diastolic (peak early diastolic tissue velocity, peak early diastolic filling velocity), and systolic workload (global strain rate, peak systolic tissue velocity, rate pressure product) increased after consumption of fast food in both groups. In contrast to controls, the type 2 diabetes group had prolonged elevations in resting heart rate and indications of prolonged elevations in diastolic workload (peak early diastolic tissue velocity) as well as reduced systolic blood pressure after fast food consumption. No significant modifications due to exercise in the postprandial phase were seen in any group. Our findings indicate that fast-food induces greater and sustained overall cardiac workload in type 2 diabetes individuals versus body mass index and age matched controls; exercise 16-18 hours pre-meal has no acute effects to the postprandial phase. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01991769.

  9. Broad sustainability versus sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl

  10. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.) [de

  11. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.).

  12. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 and Postprandial Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Prediabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Birgitta W; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan W; Kersten, Sander; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-06-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) decreases plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and may contribute to impairments in lipid metabolism under compromised metabolic conditions. To investigate the effects of a high-saturated fatty acid (SFA) mixed meal on plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in relation to in vivo muscle LPL activity, to study the effects of dietary fat quality, and to examine skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 release. Design, Participants, Setting, and Interventions: We used a dual stable-isotope tracer technique in combination with measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences across forearm muscle to investigate muscle ANGPTL4 secretion and fatty acid handling under fasting conditions and after a high-SFA mixed meal in 73 overweight and obese humans at the Metabolic Research Unit of Maastricht University. The effect of dietary fat quality manipulation on plasma ANGPTL4 was investigated in 10 obese insulin-resistant participants. The high-SFA meal decreased circulating ANGPTL4 concentrations (fasting, 5.2 ng/mL; vs 4 hours postprandial, 4.0 ng/mL; P postprandial conditions after a high-SFA meal. Plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations were not associated with in vivo skeletal muscle LPL activity after a high-SFA meal. Dietary fat quality affects plasma ANGPTL4, but it remains to be elucidated whether this influences short-term skeletal muscle lipid handling.

  13. Small HDL subclasses become cholesterol-poor during postprandial period after a fat diet intake in subjects with high triglyceridemia increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Cantú, Armando; Peña-de-la-Sancha, Paola; Flores-Castillo, Cristobal; Mejía-Domínguez, Ana María; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Bautista-Pérez, Rocío; Enriquez-Calderón, Reyna Esmeralda; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Fragoso, José Manuel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial triglyceridemia may transitory affect the structure of HDL subclasses and probably their antiatherogenic properties but little is known in this field. We analyzed the HDL subclasses lipid content along postprandial period. Fifteen metabolic syndrome (MS) patients and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. HDL were isolated from plasma samples obtained at fasting and every 2-h up to 8-h, after a 75-g fat meal. Cholesterol (C), triglycerides (TAG), and phospholipid (Ph) plasma concentrations of five HDL subclasses were determined by densitometry of electrophoresis gels enzymatically stained. The increase of postprandial triglyceridemia expressed as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was twice in MS patients than in controls. Only large HDL2b-TAG were higher in MS than controls at 4, 6 and 8h after meal intake, whereas cholesterol of HDL2a, 3a and 3b were lower at 8h. HDL size distribution shifted towards large HDL and HDL3a-, 3b- and 3c-subclasses had a lower content of cholesterol (estimated by the C-to-Ph ratio) in subjects whose iAUC>289.5mgh/dl (n=15) in comparison with those subjects with iAUC below this cutoff point (n=15), independently of the MS status and fasting TAG. Triglycerides content of HDL subclasses changed only discreetly along the postprandial period, whereas paraoxonase-1 remained unchanged. A high postprandial triglyceridemia conditions the shift of HDL size distribution towards large particles and the decrease of cholesterol in HDL3 subclasses. These data demonstrate that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia contributes to a transitory hypoalphalipoproteinemia that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A whole-grain cereal-based diet lowers postprandial plasma insulin and triglyceride levels in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacco, R; Costabile, G; Della Pepa, G; Anniballi, G; Griffo, E; Mangione, A; Cipriano, P; Viscovo, D; Clemente, G; Landberg, R; Pacini, G; Rivellese, A A; Riccardi, G

    2014-08-01

    Until recently, very few intervention studies have investigated the effects of whole-grain cereals on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, and the existing studies have provided mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week intervention with either a whole-grain-based or a refined cereal-based diet on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-one men and women age range 40-65 years, with the metabolic syndrome were recruited to participate in this study using a parallel group design. After a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week diet based on whole-grain products (whole-grain group) or refined cereal products (control group). Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the intervention, both fasting and 3 h after a lunch, to measure biochemical parameters. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used for between-group comparisons. Overall, 26 participants in the control group and 28 in the whole-grain group completed the dietary intervention. Drop-outs (five in the control and two in the whole-grain group) did not affect randomization. After 12 weeks, postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses (evaluated as average change 2 and 3 h after the meal, respectively) decreased by 29% and 43%, respectively, in the whole-grain group compared to the run-in period. Postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses were significantly lower at the end of the intervention in the whole-grain group compared to the control group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05; respectively) whereas there was no change in postprandial response of glucose and other parameters evaluated. A twelve week whole-grain cereal-based diet, compared to refined cereals, reduced postprandial insulin and triglycerides responses. This finding may have implications for type 2 diabetes risk and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  16. The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial Profile of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus (NIDDM) Subjects. ... The result showed a significant reduction on the incremental glucose levels after the consumption of the Detariumm bread at 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The incremental insulin ...

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  18. Determinants of postprandial plasma bile acid kinetics in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamoncini, J.; Yiorkas, A.M.; Gedrich, K.; Rundle, M.; Alsters, S.I.; Roeselers, G.; Broek, T.J. van den; Clavel, T.; Lagkouvardos, I.; Wopereis, S.; Frost, G.; Ommen, B. van; Blakemore, A.I.; Daniel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are signaling molecules with a wide range of biological effects, also identified among the most responsive plasma metabolites in the postprandial state. We here describe this response to different dietary challenges and report on key determinants linked to its interindividual

  19. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  20. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E; Ackermans, Mariette T; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-05-15

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an intact sympathetic innervation of the liver is essential to maintain the secretion of triglycerides by the liver. In the current study, we hypothesized that in the postprandial condition the parasympathetic input to the liver inhibits hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. To test our hypothesis, we determined the effect of selective surgical hepatic denervations on triglyceride metabolism after a meal in male Wistar rats. We report that postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly elevated in parasympathetically denervated rats compared with control rats (P = 0.008), and VLDL-TG production tended to be increased (P = 0.066). Sympathetically denervated rats also showed a small rise in postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.045). On the other hand, in rats fed on a six-meals-a-day schedule for several weeks, a parasympathetic denervation resulted in >70% higher plasma triglycerides during the day (P = 0.001), whereas a sympathetic denervation had no effect. Our results show that abolishing the parasympathetic input to the liver results in increased plasma triglyceride levels during postprandial conditions.

  1. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin ...

  2. Gastric emptying and postprandial symptoms after Billroth II resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Pasma, F. G.; Oei, H. Y.; Wittebol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying was studied in 18 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients after Billroth II (BII) resection (without vagotomy) and the possible relationships between emptying and postprandial symptoms in these patients were assessed. The BII patients were compared with 20 nonoperated patients who

  3. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  5. Fate of oral neutralizing antacid and its effect on postprandial gastric secretion and emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, T B; Carlson, G L; Malagelada, J R; Duenes, J A; McCall, J T

    1979-11-01

    The fate and neutralizing efficiency of oral antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) as well as their effect on postprandial gastric function were quantified in 6 patients with duodenal ulcer disease. We employed a double-marker technique for measurement of gastric secretion and emptying and combined this with back-titration of the gastric samples and analysis of aluminum to trace the fate of antacid in the stomach and duodenum. These studies show that: (a) antacid therapy with aluminum and magnesium hydroxides significantly increases gastric secretion; (b) intragastric neutralization of gastric acid produces a significant and substantial decrease in net acid output (acid secreted minus acid neutralized), but the beneficial effects of neutralization are partially offset by incomplete intragastric formation of aluminum trichloride; (c) most but not all of the ingested antacid is utilized in acid neutralization in the stomach (average 78.6% in our 6 patients); and (d) antacid therapy does not modify the absolute rate of postprandial gastric emptying, but increases dilution of gastric contents, expanding the intragastric volume. Thus, the fractional gastric emptying rate declines, and this, in turn, should enhance antacid utilization by delaying its emptying.

  6. Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Atkinson, Fiona; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2008-01-01

    In observational studies, habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We hy-pothesized that the mechanism may be related to delayed effects on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, sweetened and unsweetened, tea and sucrose, 1 h prior to a high carbohydrate meal. On separate occasions in random order, lean young healthy subjects (n = 8) consumed a potato-based meal 1 hour after consumption of 250 mL of black coffee (COF), black coffee sweetened with 10 g of sucrose (COF+SUC), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), black tea (TEA), 10 g sucrose (SUC) or hot water (CON). Fingerprick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h and the glucose and insulin responses quantified as area under the curve. Compared to CON, COF caused a 28% increase in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.022). In contrast, COF+SUC decreased glycemia compared with either COF (-38%, pdrinking to diabetes risk.

  7. Postprandial hepatic protein expression in trout Oncorhynchus mykiss a proteomics examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Eleni; Pierce, Graham J; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Stead, David; Martin, Samuel A M

    2017-03-01

    Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in animals as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients, the kinetics of these responses depends on metabolic rate and nutrient quality. Here we investigated the hepatic proteome in the ectothermic teleost, the rainbow trout, following a single meal to define the postprandial expression of hepatic proteins. The fish were fed a high marine fishmeal/fish oil single meal following a period of 24 h without feeding. Liver protein profiles were examined by 2D gel electrophoresis just before feeding (time 0 h) and at 6 and 12 h after feeding. Of a total of 588 protein spots analysed in a temporal fashion, 49 differed significantly in abundance between the three time groups (ANOVA, p<0.05), before and after feeding, 15 were increased and 34 were decreased in abundance after feeding. Amino acid metabolism-regulated proteins such as phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase and proliferating cell antigen were increased in abundance 12 and 6 h following the meal, suggesting by this time that the fish were increasing their protein turnover to utilize efficiently their dietary protein consumption. Overall, these results highlight some specificity of the trout metabolism and identify postprandial response of metabolism-related proteins 6-12 h after feeding a single meal.

  8. Postprandial hepatic protein expression in trout Oncorhynchus mykiss a proteomics examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mente

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in animals as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients, the kinetics of these responses depends on metabolic rate and nutrient quality. Here we investigated the hepatic proteome in the ectothermic teleost, the rainbow trout, following a single meal to define the postprandial expression of hepatic proteins. The fish were fed a high marine fishmeal/fish oil single meal following a period of 24 h without feeding. Liver protein profiles were examined by 2D gel electrophoresis just before feeding (time 0 h and at 6 and 12 h after feeding. Of a total of 588 protein spots analysed in a temporal fashion, 49 differed significantly in abundance between the three time groups (ANOVA, p<0.05, before and after feeding, 15 were increased and 34 were decreased in abundance after feeding. Amino acid metabolism-regulated proteins such as phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase and proliferating cell antigen were increased in abundance 12 and 6 h following the meal, suggesting by this time that the fish were increasing their protein turnover to utilize efficiently their dietary protein consumption. Overall, these results highlight some specificity of the trout metabolism and identify postprandial response of metabolism-related proteins 6–12 h after feeding a single meal.

  9. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Lluch, Anne; Stafleu, Annette

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydra......BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high......-carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2...... absorption test. RESULTS: The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin secretion more than did the HC breakfast (P Ghrelin concentrations were correlated with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (r = -0.65; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.29) and glucagon concentrations (r = -0.47; 95% CI: -0.75, -0...

  10. Effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on postprandial lipid responses and lipid metabolism in a high-sucrose-diet-impaired glucose-tolerant rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; He, Sih-Pin; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2012-05-02

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on postprandial lipid response and lipid metabolism in a high-sucrose (HS)-diet-impaired glucose-tolerant rat model. As the results, HS-diet-fed rats supplemented with 5 and 7% chitosan in diets for 9 weeks had lower postprandial plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels, but 7% chitosan in the diet had higher postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoprotein TG levels. Supplementation of chitosan significantly decreased the postprandial ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB)48/apoB100 in TG-rich lipoprotein fractions of HS-diet-fed rats. Long-term supplementation of 5 and 7% chitosan in diets for 16 weeks had lower plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) + very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) ratio, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in HS-diet-fed rats. Moreover, it was noticed that the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) protein expression in skeletal muscles of HS-diet-fed rats was significantly decreased, which could be significantly reversed by supplementation of 5 and 7% chitosan. Rats supplemented with 7% chitosan in the diet significantly elevated the lipolysis rate and decreased the accumulation of TG in epididymal fat pads of HS-diet-fed rats. The plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected in HS-diet-fed rats, but it was significantly increased in 7% chitosan-supplemented HS-diet-fed rats. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of chitosan in the diet can improve the impairment of lipid metabolism in a HS-diet-fed rat model, but long-term high-dose chitosan feeding may enhance postprandial plasma TG and TG-rich lipoprotein TG levels in HS-diet-fed rats through an ANGPTL4-regulated pathway.

  11. Comparisons of the Postprandial Inflammatory and Endotoxaemic Responses to Mixed Meals in Young and Older Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Milan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20–25 and 60–75 years (n = 15/group consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1 but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.

  12. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Granfeldt, Yvonne E; Björck, Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina) on glycaemic and insulina...

  13. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Yvonne E; Björck, Inger Me

    2011-05-21

    in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina) on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%), fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%); bilberries (BFOMD) or rose hip (RFOMD) respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47%) was tested (BBFOMD). As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD) was served. in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II) after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65) (P fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  14. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  15. Consumption of resistant starch decreases postprandial lipogenesis in white adipose tissue of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Marc A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic consumption of diets high in resistant starch (RS leads to reduced fat cell size compared to diets high in digestible starch (DS in rats and increases total and meal fat oxidation in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic organs following a high RS or DS meal. Following an overnight fast, male Wistar rats ingested a meal with an RS content of 2% or 30% of total carbohydrate and were then administered an i.p bolus of 50 μCi 3H2O either immediately or 1 hour post-meal. One hour following tracer administration, rats were sacrificed, a blood sample collected, and the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT, and gastrocnemius muscle excised and frozen until assayed for total 3H-lipid and 3H-glycogen content. Plasma triglyceride and NEFA concentrations and 3H-glycogen content did not differ between groups. In all tissues, except the liver, there was a trend for the rate of lipogenesis to be higher in the DS group than the RS group which reached significance only in WAT at 1 h (p

  16. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P effect (P fasting metabolic profile and the postprandial concentration of insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. The influence of dietary and supplemental calcium on postprandial effects of a high-fat meal on lipaemia, glycaemia, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da S; Antunes, Vanessa P; Leal, Priscila M; Sanjuliani, Antonio F; Klein, Márcia R S T

    2017-10-01

    Non-fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia is a risk factor for CVD and the amount of fat in a meal seems to be the main factor influencing postprandial lipaemia. Although several studies suggest that Ca can increase faecal fat excretion, it is not known whether Ca can decrease postprandial TAG. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary Ca (DC) and supplemental Ca (SC) on lipaemia, glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin during postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (approximately 2900 kJ; 48 % fat): high DC (547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (42 mg DC). Blood samples were collected in the fasting period and at minutes 120 and 240 after meals to evaluate total cholesterol and fractions, TAG, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity CRP and adiponectin. Serum levels of TAG and insulin increased significantly after all test meals. Only after HSCM total cholesterol did not present a significant increase and LDL-cholesterol had a significant decrease. Postprandial glucose, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and adiponectin did not present significant changes after the three test meals. The comparative analysis of the effects of the three test meals on serum lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP and adiponectin revealed no significant meal-by-time interaction. These results suggest that in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal DC and SC do not interfere with postprandial lipaemia, glucose metabolism, CRP and adiponectin.

  18. Risk of postprandial insulin resistance: the liver/vagus rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Paula; Lima, Inês S; Gaspar, Joana M; Afonso, Ricardo A; Patarrão, Rita S; Kim, Young-Bum; Ribeiro, Rogério T

    2014-03-01

    Ingestion of a meal is the greatest challenge faced by glucose homeostasis. The surge of nutrients has to be disposed quickly, as high concentrations in the bloodstream may have pathophysiological effects, and also properly, as misplaced reserves may induce problems in affected tissues. Thus, loss of the ability to adequately dispose of ingested nutrients can be expected to lead to glucose intolerance, and favor the development of pathologies. Achieving interplay of several organs is of upmost importance to maintain effectively postprandial glucose clearance, with the liver being responsible of orchestrating global glycemic control. This dogmatic role of the liver in postprandial insulin sensitivity is tightly associated with the vagus nerve. Herein, we uncover the behaviour of metabolic pathways determined by hepatic parasympathetic function status, in physiology and in pathophysiology. Likewise, the inquiry expands to address the impact of a modern lifestyle, especially one's feeding habits, on the hepatic parasympathetic nerve control of glucose metabolism.

  19. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  20. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    OpenAIRE

    Ansar, Sameer; Koska, Juraj; Reaven, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipi...

  1. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  2. Liraglutide suppresses postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 elevations after a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, K; Bækdal, T A; Düring, M; Pietraszek, A; Mortensen, L S; Jørgensen, H; Flint, A

    2013-11-01

    Postprandial triglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effects of steady-state liraglutide 1.8 mg versus placebo on postprandial plasma lipid concentrations after 3 weeks of treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a cross-over trial, patients with T2DM (n = 20, 18-75 years, BMI 18.5-40 kg/m²) were randomized to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (weekly dose escalation from 0.6 to 1.8 mg) and placebo. After each 3-week period, a standardized fat-rich meal was provided, and the effects of liraglutide on triglyceride (primary endpoint AUC(0-8h)), apolipoprotein B48, non-esterified fatty acids, glycaemic responses and gastric emptying were assessed. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00993304. Novo Nordisk A/S. After 3 weeks, mean postprandial triglyceride (AUC(0-8h) liraglutide/placebo treatment-ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.62-0.83], p = 0.0004) and apolipoprotein B48 (AUC(0-8h) ratio 0.65 [0.58-0.73], p postprandial glucose and glucagon AUC(0-8h) and C(max) were significantly reduced with liraglutide versus placebo. Postprandial gastric emptying rate [assessed by paracetamol absorption (liquid phase) and the ¹³C-octanoate breath test (solid phase)] displayed no treatment differences. Mean low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol decreased significantly with liraglutide versus placebo. Liraglutide treatment in patients with T2DM significantly reduced postprandial excursions of triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 after a fat-rich meal, independently of gastric emptying. Results indicate liraglutide's potential to reduce CVD risk via improvement of postprandial lipaemia. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of sprint interval versus continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Sze; Mok, Alexander; Yap, Mei Chan; Burns, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The present study compares the effect of a single bout of sprint interval cycling against continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia. Participants were nine healthy volunteers (five male), aged 20-26 years. Each participant undertook three 2-d trials in a random order. On day 1, participants rested (control), undertook a single 20 minute bout of continuous cycling at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake or completed four 30-second bouts of sprint interval cycling on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4.5 minutes of recovery. On day 2, participants rested and consumed a test meal (75% fat). Triacylglycerol concentrations were measured fasting and for 6 hours after the meal. The total area under the triacylglycerol concentration against time curve was similar among trials (mean (SD): control, 9.51 (3.50) mmol · l(-1) compared with continuous cycling, 8.58 (3.08) mmol · l(-1) compared with sprint interval cycling, 9.28 (1.89) mmol · l(-1); P = 0.517). There was no difference in the pattern of TAG response to the test meal among trials (trial × time interaction, P = 0.637). The present study found no effect of sprint interval or continuous cycling on postprandial lipaemia, with the reason for this finding unclear. Future studies need to more precisely determine the relationship between exercise and postprandial lipaemia across different types of exercise.

  4. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  5. Postprandial lipids accelerate and redirect nitric oxide consumption in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Kurt; Schroeder, Hobe J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and O2 are both three-to four-fold more soluble in biological lipids than in aqueous solutions. Their higher concentration within plasma lipids accelerates NO autoxidation to an extent that may be of importance to overall NO bioactivity. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that increased plasma lipids after a high-fat meal appreciably accelerate NO metabolism and alter the byproducts formed. We found that plasma collected from subjects after consumption of a single high-fat meal had a higher capacity for NO consumption and consumed NO more rapidly compared to fasting plasma. This increased NO consumption showed a direct correlation with plasma triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.006). The accelerated NO consumption in postprandial plasma was reversed by removal of the lipids from the plasma, was mimicked by the addition of hydrophobic micelles to aqueous buffer, and could not be explained by the presence of either free hemoglobin or ceruloplasmin. The products of NO consumption were shifted in postprandial plasma, with 55% more nitrite (n = 12, p = 0.002) but 50% less SNO (n = 12, p = 0.03) production compared to matched fasted plasma. Modeling calculations indicated that NO autoxidation was accelerated by about 48-fold in the presence of plasma lipids. We conclude that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert a significant influence on NO metabolism in plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generous sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    I define "generous sustainability" as a combination of two conditions: neither instantaneous maximin utility nor attainable maximin utility should decrease over time. I provide a formal definition and study applications to a Climate Economy with bounded and with unbounded growth. Generosity is shown

  7. Effect of light-load resistance exercise on postprandial amino acid transporter expression in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h...... and 12 g at 7 h) (BOLUS, N = 10), or hourly isocaloric maltodextrin drinks (placebo, N = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from both the resting and exercised leg, from which the membrane protein and mRNA expression of select AATs were analyzed by Western Blot...... decrease in SNAT2 mRNA expression was observed. LL-RE increased membrane-associated AAT protein expression and mRNA expression. Altered AAT protein expression was only seen in groups that ingested whey protein, with the greatest effect observed after hourly feeding. This points toward an importance of AATs...

  8. Postprandial regulation of hepatic microRNAs predicted to target the insulin pathway in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A Mennigen

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout are carnivorous fish and poor metabolizers of carbohydrates, which established this species as a model organism to study the comparative physiology of insulin. Following the recent characterisation of key roles of several miRNAs in the insulin action on hepatic intermediary metabolism in mammalian models, we investigated the hypothesis that hepatic miRNA expression is postprandially regulated in the rainbow trout and temporally coordinated in the context of insulin-mediated regulation of metabolic gene expression in the liver. To address this hypothesis, we used a time-course experiment in which rainbow trout were fed a commercial diet after short-term fasting. We investigated hepatic miRNA expression, activation of the insulin pathway, and insulin regulated metabolic target genes at several time points. Several miRNAs which negatively regulate hepatic insulin signaling in mammalian model organisms were transiently increased 4 h after the meal, consistent with a potential role in acute postprandial negative feed-back regulation of the insulin pathway and attenuation of gluconeogenic gene expression. We equally observed a transient increase in omy- miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b 4 h after feeding, whose homologues have potent lipogenic roles in the liver of mammalian model systems. A concurrent increase in the activity of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway and the expression of lipogenic genes (srebp1c, fas, acly was equally observed, while lipolytic gene expression (cpt1a and cpt1b decreased significantly 4 h after the meal. This suggests lipogenic roles of omy-miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b may be conserved between rainbow trout and mammals and that these miRNAs may furthermore contribute to acute postprandial regulation of de novo hepatic lipid synthesis in rainbow trout. These findings provide a framework for future research of miRNA regulation of hepatic metabolism in trout and will help to further elucidate the metabolic

  9. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  10. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...

  11. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared to a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to minimize cardiovascular disease risk, however not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. It is proposed that the effect of SFA on postprandial inflammation is influenced by the specific composition and...

  12. Exaggerated postprandial lipaemia and lower post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Knapper-Francis, Jacky M E; Morgan, Linda M; Webb, Diane H; Zampelas, Antonis; Williams, Christine M

    2003-10-01

    An exaggerated postprandial lipaemic response is thought to play a central role in the development of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, a recognized lipid risk factor for coronary heart disease. A small number of limited studies have compared postprandial lipaemia in subjects of varying age, but have not investigated mechanisms underlying age-associated changes in postprandial lipaemia. In order to test the hypothesis that impaired lipaemia in older subjects is associated with loss of insulin sensitivity, the present study compared the postprandial lipaemic and hormone responses for 9 h following a standard mixed meal in normolipidaemic healthy young and middle-aged men. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities were determined in post-heparin plasma 9 h postprandially and on another occasion under fasting conditions. Postprandial plasma glucose (Ppostprandial LPL and HL activities were also significantly lower in the middle-aged men compared with the young men (Ppostprandial TAG response in middle-aged men than young men was attributed to the accumulation of dietary-derived TAG-rich lipoproteins (densitypostprandial LPL and HL activities were markedly lower in middle-aged men, but lack of statistical associations between measures of insulin response and post-heparin lipase activities, as well as between insulin and measures of postprandial lipaemia, suggest that this lower activity cannot be attributed to lack of sensitivity of lipases to activation by insulin. Alternatively, post-heparin lipase activities may not be good markers for the insulin-sensitive component of lipase that is activated postprandially.

  13. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Serroyen, Jan; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of

  14. Effect of dietary carbohydrate, fat, and protein on postprandial glycemia and energy intake in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, H A; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A; Sunvold, G D

    2013-01-01

    Reducing carbohydrate intake is recommended in diabetic cats and might also be useful in some healthy cats to decrease diabetes risk. To compare postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and energy intakes between cats fed diets high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. Twenty-four lean cats with normal glucose tolerance. In a prospective randomized study, each of 3 matched groups (n = 8) received a different test diet for 5 weeks. Diets were high in either protein (46% of metabolizable energy [ME]), fat (47% ME), or carbohydrate (47% ME). Glucose and insulin were measured during glucose tolerance, ad libitum, and meal-feeding tests. During ad libitum feeding, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet consumed 25% and 18% more carbohydrate than cats fed diets high in fat and protein, respectively, and energy intake was highest when the high-fat and high-protein diets were fed. Regardless of the feeding pattern, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet had 10-31% higher peak and mean glucose compared with both other diets; peak glucose in some cats reached 10.4 mmol/L (188 mg/dL) in cats fed 47% ME carbohydrate and 9.0 mmol/L (162 mg/dL) in cats fed 23% ME. High-carbohydrate diets increase postprandial glycemia in healthy cats compared with diets high in fat or protein, although energy intake is lower. Avoidance of high- and moderate-carbohydrate diets can be advantageous in cats at risk of diabetes. Maintenance energy requirements should be fed to prevent weight gain when switching to lower carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Effects of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in people with type 2 diabetes treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment primarily focuses on reducing hyperglycemia, including postprandial glucose excursions. Hypoglycemic agents are used clinically to lower fasting and postprandial glucose. Metformin is the first-line therapy; however, if metformin is inadequate then 'add-on' hypoglycemic agents are implemented. Postmeal exercise has been shown to lower postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to assess if postmeal exercise provides additional glucose-lowering benefit, beyond medication alone, in those on add-on hypoglycemic agents. Postprandial glucose excursions in eight participants with type 2 diabetes (Age: 60±10.7, HbA 1C : 7.9±2.3) being treated with add-on hypoglycemic agents were assessed during both drug-treated sedentary and drug-treated postmeal exercise conditions. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess peak and area under the glucose curve (AUC) during exercise, as well as peak within a 2-h time window, 2-h total and 2-h incremental AUC after a standardized breakfast meal. Postmeal exercise consisted of 3×10-min intervals of treadmill walking at 50% maximal oxygen uptake. Glucose peak (drug only: 13.8±3.7, drug/exercise: 9.9±2.7mmol/L; p=0.02) and AUC (drug only: 500±136, drug/exercise: 357±89mmol/L×40min; p=0.03) were reduced during postmeal exercise. Breakfast 2-h incremental AUC was also reduced (drug only: 585±291, drug/exercise: 330±294; p=0.047). Post-breakfast exercise lowered glucose during the exercise bout, although this effect was not sustained on later meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  17. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  18. Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Improves Overall Efficacy of Postprandial Reverse Cholesterol Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Petra; Waldmann, Elisa; Huby, Thierry; Gall, Julie; Couvert, Philippe; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chapman, John; Frisdal, Eric; Lesnik, Philippe; Parhofer, Klaus G; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial atherogenic lipoproteins, characterizing high-risk patients, correlate positively with cardiovascular events. Although the effect of niacin on fasting lipids is well established, its impact on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway and on functional features of circulating lipoproteins during the postprandial state remains indeterminate. We evaluated RCT pathway during postprandial phase in dyslipidemic patients displaying a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol phenotype. Ten subjects on stable statin therapy received 1 g/20 mg extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT) for 4 weeks followed by 2 g/40 mg ERN/LRPT for additional 8 weeks. At each experimental period, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and major steps of RCT, including cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer, and hepatic HDL-cholesteryl ester selective uptake were evaluated. Equally, the capacity of postprandial HDL particles isolated from patients before and after ERN/LRPT treatment to mediate RCT to feces was evaluated in vivo in human apolipoprotein B/cholesteryl ester transfer protein double transgenic mouse model. Compared with baseline, ERN/LRPT significantly reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (incremental area under the curve-triglyceride: -53%; P=0.02). Postprandial increase in endogenous plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity was completely abolished after ERN/LRPT treatment. Despite a slight reduction in plasma cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages, evaluation of global RCT efficacy by combining both ex vivo and in vivo approaches indicate that postprandial HDL particles formed under ERN/LRPT therapy displayed a greater capacity for HDL-mediated RCT to feces. ERN/LRPT treatment efficiently attenuates atherogenic postprandial lipemia and stimulates HDL-mediated cholesterol return to the liver and elimination into feces during

  19. The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Pinar; Blythe, Jackson C; Greenfield, Jerry R; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2017-08-11

    Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants ( n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO₃ or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1-4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C -peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15-30 min intervals for 3 h post meal. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. Venous blood pH declined in the first 15 min post meal with the placebo ( p = 0.001), but not with NaHCO₃ ( p = 0.86) and remained decreased with the placebo for 3 h ( p interaction = 0.04). On average over the 3 h blood pH iAUC was greater with NaHCO₃ compared with placebo ( p = 0.02). However, postprandial glucose, insulin, C -peptide, NEFA and GLP-1 were not different between treatments ( p interaction ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: An alkalizing medication administered pre-meal has no acute effect on glycaemia and insulin response in healthy individuals. Long-term interventions in at-risk populations are necessary to investigate the effect of sustained alkalization on glucose metabolism.

  20. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Brinkløv Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory markers YKL-40 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 are elevated in morbidly obese patients and decline after weight loss. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible changes of YKL-40 and MCP-1, in both the fasting and the postprandial states, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year RYGB. Results. Fasting state MCP-1 levels decreased after RYGB in both groups (P values < 0.0001 whereas fasting YKL-40 levels were unchanged (P values ≥ 0.120. Postprandial MCP-1 levels showed a tendency towards a decrease on most study days; however, the changes were only significant at 1 week (P=0.001 and 1 yr (P<0.0001 in the T2D group and at 3 mo after RYGB in the NGT group (P=0.009. YKL-40 levels showed a slight, postprandial suppression on all study days in the T2D group (all P values ≤ 0.021. Conclusions. Fasting MCP-1 levels, but not YKL-40 levels, decrease after RYGB in subjects with T2D and NGT. Postprandial changes of inflammatory markers are discrete and inconsistent.

  1. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2013-12-11

    Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than α-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake.

  2. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effect of Incorporating Stevia and Moringa in Cookies on Postprandial Glycemia, Appetite, Palatability, and Gastrointestinal Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamil; Khan, Imran; Johnson, Stuart K; Alam, Iftikhar; Din, Zia Ud

    2018-02-01

    Medicinal plants including stevia and moringa constitute an important source of health-beneficial bioactive components, and hence their intake may beneficially modulate biomarkers of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of incorporating stevia and moringa leaf powder in cookies on postprandial glycemia, appetite, palatability, and gastrointestinal well-being in humans. In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy subjects consumed 3 isocaloric test foods (each providing 50 g available carbohydrates) of control cookies (CC) made from 100% wheat flour, cookies containing stevia leaf powder (SC, 3% w/w), and cookies containing moringa leaf powder (MC, 5% w/w) as breakfast. Blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured at fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the consumption of the cookies. Palatability and gastrointestinal well-being were measured using standard questionnaires. Compared to CC, MC resulted in a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentration at 30 and 45 min (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) and showed a tendency (p = 0.077) for lower blood glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Subjects were significantly less hungry after SC and MC intake (p = 0.035 and p = 0.041, respectively) compared to CC. All the cookies were liked by the subjects without any reported gastrointestinal discomfort. The results showed that compared to CC, MC improved postprandial glycemia and reduced hunger, while SC reduced hunger only. Future studies are now warranted to explore the mechanisms responsible for these observed effects.

  4. Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takahiro; Tsubata, Hideo; Hashimoto, Naoko; Takabe, Michinori; Miyata, Taishi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yamashita, Soichiro; Oishi, Shogo; Osue, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Kiminobu; Tsukishiro, Yasue; Onishi, Tetsuari; Shimane, Akira; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Ohara, Takeshi; Kawai, Hiroya; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-26

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) regulate postprandial insulin secretion, and correct postprandial glucose and lipid abnormalities. However, the effects of 6-month EPA treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction remain unknown in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomized 107 newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD to receive either 1800 mg/day of EPA (EPA group, n = 53) or no EPA (n = 54). Cookie meal testing (carbohydrates: 75 g, fat: 28.5 g) and endothelial function testing using fasting-state flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was changes in postprandial glycemic and triglyceridemic control and secondary outcomes were improvement of insulin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. After 6 months, the EPA group exhibited significant improvements in EPA/arachidonic acid, fasting triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The EPA group also exhibited significant decreases in the incremental TG peak, area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial TG, incremental glucose peak, AUC for postprandial glucose, and improvements in glycometabolism categorization. No significant changes were observed for hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels. The EPA group exhibited a significant increase in AUC-immune reactive insulin/AUC-plasma glucose ratio (which indicates postprandial insulin secretory ability) and significant improvements in FMD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that decreases in the TG/HDL-C ratio and incremental TG peak were independent predictors of FMD improvement in the EPA group. EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by

  5. Insulinoma presenting with post-prandial hypoglycaemia following fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that classically present with fasting hypoglycaemia. This case report discusses an uncommon and challenging case of insulinoma soon after upper gastrointestinal surgery. A 63-year-old man presented with 6 months of post-prandial hypoglycaemia beginning after a laparoscopic revision of Toupet fundoplication. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia was confirmed during a spontaneous episode and in a mixed-meal test. Localisation studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS and gallium dotatate positron emission tomography (68Ga Dotatate PET were consistent with a small insulinoma in the mid-body of the pancreas. The lesion was excised and histopathology was confirmed a localised well-differentiated neuroendocrine pancreatic neoplasm. There have been no significant episodes of hypoglycaemia since. This case highlights several key points. Insulinoma should be sought in proven post-prandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia – even in the absence of fasting hypoglycaemia. The use of nuclear imaging targeting somatostatin and GLP1 receptors has improved accuracy of localisation. Despite these advances, accurate surgical resection can remain challenging.

  6. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient...

  8. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice.

  9. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments.

  10. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    ) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg/day...

  11. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  12. The Göttingen minipig as a model for postprandial hyperlipidaemia in man: experimental observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Bladbjerg, E-M; Marckmann, P

    2002-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia is believed to be atherogenic. This study aimed to establish a minipig model to investigate determinants of postprandial lipid metabolism. In a randomized cross-over design seven minipigs were subjected to six different feeding regimens: intragastric fat loads of 1, 2...... on the triglyceride response was observed. We found no significant differences in triglyceride response whether 2 g fat (Intralipid kg(-1) was given in one or two fractions, with or without pre-feeding. We conclude that postprandial hyperlipidaemia in minipigs can be induced by gavaging an emulgated lipid solution (1...

  13. Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Seán; Tejera, Noemi; Awwad, Khader; Vauzour, David; Rigby, Neil; Fleming, Ingrid; Cassidy, Aedin; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35-55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose. Vascular function was assessed using blood pressure, reactive hyperemia index, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index (AIx). The DHA-rich oil significantly reduced AIx by 13% (P = 0.047) with the decrease following EPA-rich oil intervention not reaching statistical significance. Both interventions increased EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins in the acute postprandial state, with an (1.3-fold) increase in 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid evident after DHA intervention (P oxylipins provide a mechanistic insight into the AIx effect. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Characterization and effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diully Mata Balisteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. Some of these compounds are able to inhibit carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes (in vitro, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, delaying carbohydrate digestion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in humans after consumption of 25 g of available carbohydrates (approximately 50 g of white bread and characterize the phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of araçá juice and pulp. The results showed that the clarified juice had a positive effect on postprandial glycemia reducing the total amount of glucose absorbed, lengthening the time to reach maximum blood glucose concentration, reducing glucose incremental velocity, and decreasing glucose incremental percentage. Both frozen pulp and clarified juice had high amounts of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and proanthocyanidins, among which oligomers (monomers to tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, decamers, and polymers were detected, and they are probably associated with in vivo effects.

  15. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Oliver Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange pomace (OP, a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA, a low (35% OP (LOP, or a high (77% (HOP dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1 to the maximum concentration (Cmax1 of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA to 45 (HOP and 47 (LOP min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively. OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05. HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.

  16. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  17. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L. McKnight

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg. Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12 to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11. Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12. MH significantly (p < 0.05 increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1 to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  18. Acute consumption of walnuts and walnut components differentially affect postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cholesterol efflux in humans with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Grieger, Jessica A; West, Sheila G; Chen, Chung-Yen O; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Rothblat, George H; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-06-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.

  19. Insoluble fiber is a major constituent responsible for lowering the post-prandial blood glucose concentration in the pre-germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Taiichiro; Nagase, Ryohei; Torimitsu, Mariko; Yanagi, Megumi; Ito, Yukihiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Mizukuchi, Aya; Fujimura, Naoko; Hayamizu, Kohusuke; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2005-08-01

    The intake of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) instead of white rice (WR) ameliorates the hyperglycemia. To clarify the mechanism(s) to decrease the post-prandial blood glucose concentration, the effect of water-soluble/oil-soluble fraction-depleted PR bran (termed as "DB"; which is destarched and defatted PR bran) on post-prandial blood glucose was compared with that of full-fat PR bran (PB) or WR. The test diets, WR diet, PB diet and DB diet which are containing identical amount of available carbohydrate (1.5 g) were fed to Wistar strain rats. Post-prandial blood glucose concentration and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) for DB diet were lower than those for WR diet, and there was no difference between the DB diet and PB diet. Changes in plasma insulin concentration and the IAUC obtained also revealed the same tendency as those observed in blood glucose concentration. These results indicate that the blood glucose-lowering effect of PB diet may be derived from the properties of PB involving substantially higher content of dietary fiber than WR, and that the potential benefit of intake of PR instead of WR in the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  20. A CHO/fibre diet reduces and a MUFA diet increases postprandial lipaemia in type 2 diabetes: no supplementary effects of low-volume physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Costabile, G; Costagliola, L; Giorgini, M; Alderisio, A; Strazzullo, A; Patti, L; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Vitelli, A; Vigorito, C; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a supervised physical training added to a healthy diet-rich in either carbohydrate and fibre (CHO/fibre) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-on postprandial dyslipidaemia, an independent cardiovascular risk factor particularly relevant in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were forty-five overweight/obese subjects with T2D, of both genders, in good blood glucose control with diet or diet+metformin, with normal fasting plasma lipids. According to a parallel groups 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were randomized to an 8-week isoenergetic intervention with a CHO/fibre or a MUFA diet, with or without a supervised low-volume aerobic training programme. The main outcome of the study was the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of lipid concentrations in the plasma chylomicron+VLDL lipoprotein fraction, isolated by preparative ultracentrifugation (NCT01025856). Body weight remained stable during the trial in all groups. Physical fitness slightly improved with training (VO2 peak, 16 ± 4 vs. 15 ± 3 ml/kg/min, M ± SD, p Postprandial triglyceride and cholesterol iAUCs in plasma and chylomicron+VLDL fraction decreased after the CHO/fibre diet, but increased after the MUFA diet with a significant effect for diet by two-way ANOVA (p postprandial lipid response. A diet rich in carbohydrates and fibre reduced postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins compared with a diet rich in MUFA in patients with T2D. A supervised low-volume physical training did not significantly influence these dietary effects.

  1. Postprandial metabolism and inflammatory markers in overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauren, B C; Portal, V L; Beltrami, F G; dos Santos, T J; Pellanda, L C

    2014-08-01

    Lifestyle changes have an impact on lipid metabolism. The overload of circulating lipids may lead to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory response, which may be further aggravated in the presence of overweight. This study aims to describe the postprandial metabolism and inflammatory response in overweight and normal-weight adolescents. Sixty-two adolescents aged 11-18 years were divided into two groups: overweight (OW; n=38) and normal weight (NW; n=24). Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and leukocytes were collected for fasting and 4 and 6 h after a oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) consisting of a high-fat meal with 1.000 Kcal, 27.4% carbohydrates, 14.7% protein and 57.8% lipids (30.4% saturated, 32.7% monounsaturated, 26.5% polyunsaturated fatty acids and 288 mg TC). Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and Pearson, Spearman and partial correlations. OW adolescents showed significantly higher fasting values of TC (P=0.036), LDL-C (P=0.010), fibrinogen (P=0.036) and hs-CRP (P=0.004). All variables, except for glucose, increased in response to OFTT, but there were no interactions between group and time. body mass index z-score was positively correlated to LDL-C, TG, fibrinogen and hs-CRP, and inversely correlated to HDL-C. In conclusion, adolescents with OW showed higher TC, LDL-C and inflammatory markers levels than NW adolescents. These findings have clinical implications for prevention of chronic diseases, as we spend most of our days in a postprandial state.

  2. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  3. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...

  4. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  5. Improvement of both fasting and postprandial glycemic control by the two-step addition of miglitol and mitiglinide to basal insulin therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihana, Noriko; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Kishimoto, Miyako; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noto, Hiroshi; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy consisting of basal insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) is effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) that cannot be adequately controlled using OHAs alone. Though basal insulin with metformin or sulfonylurea is an effective therapy, it cannot reduce postprandial glycemia without the risk of hypoglycemia. We examined a two-step regimen consisting of the addition of postprandial hypoglycemic agents (an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and a glinide) in patients whose T2DM was poorly controlled using basal insulin therapy. Inpatients between the ages of 30-79 years who had T2DM and an HbA1c level of more than 7.0% were recruited. The patients were treated with once-daily insulin glargine with or without metformin, depending on the patient's age and renal function. Insulin glargine was titrated to achieve a target fasting glucose level of 70-130 mg/dL as a first step (STEP0). If the 2-hour postprandial glucose (PBG) level was higher than the target of 180 mg/dL, miglitol treatment (150 mg/day) was initiated, with dose adjustments (75-225 mg) allowed depending on abdominal symptoms and the PBG (STEP1). If the PBG of the patients remained higher than the target after 3 days of treatment, mitiglinide (30 mg/day, titrated up to 60 mg) was added (STEP2). We then evaluated the proportion of patients who achieved the target PBG before and after the two-step regimen. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) was performed throughout the two-step protocol in most of the patients. Of the 16 patients who were recruited (median age, 67.0 [58.0-71.0] years; body mass index, 25.0 [22.0-27.9] kg/m(2); HbA1c level at admission, 9.1% [8.35-10.4%]), 1 patient (6.25%) achieved the target PBG at STEP 0 and 14 patients (87.5%) had achieved the target PBG at the end of the treatment protocol (P = 0.002). CGM showed a significant decrease in the glucose level at each step of the protocol. The standard deviations in the CGM glucose levels for 24

  6. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottalib, Adham; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Pober, David M; Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2016-07-22

    Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  7. An Update on Accumulating Exercise and Postprandial Lipaemia: Translating Theory Into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical ...

  8. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    OpenAIRE

    Voukali, Maria; Kastrinelli, Irene; Stragalinou, Sapfo; Tasiopoulou, Dimitra; Paraskevopoulou, Pinelopi; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated....

  9. Effects of different amounts of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Tan, C Q; Wei, H K; Zou, Y; Long, G; Ao, J T; Xue, H X; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (P<0.01), swelling capacity (P<0.01) of gestation diets, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (P<0.05) after in vitro fermentation of gestation diets increased linearly with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. During the second reproductive cycle, increasing dietary KF linearly increased plasma concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 4h postprandial (P<0.05) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 2h postprandial (P<0.05), but decreased the plasma concentration of cortisol (linearly, P<0.05) 1h postprandial. In addition, there was a linear decrease of the non-feeding oral behavior of gestating sows (P<0.01) when dietary KF increased. There were linear increases in lactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (P<0.01) with increasing amounts of KF in the gestation diet. In addition, the number of piglets weaned (linearly, P<0.01; quadratic, P=0.01), average piglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, P<0.01) increased with increasing inclusion amounts of KF. In conclusion, inclusion of dietary fiber with great WBC, swelling capacity and fermentation capacity in the gestation diet was beneficial for enhancing postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, increasing lactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  11. Postprandial lipaemia and endothelial adhesion molecules in pre- and postmenopausal Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppen, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Navas-Carretero, S; Vaquero, M P

    2010-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipaemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. To compare postprandial lipaemia and fasting adhesion molecules levels in healthy young premenopausal(PrW) and postmenopausal (PoW) Spanish women. Twenty healthy PrW and 18 healthy PoW participated in a postprandial 7-hour intervention study. All participants were given a fat-rich standard meal (11.8% saturated, 39.7% monounsaturated, and 6.6% polyunsaturated) after a 12 h fast. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after eating. Triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (Chol), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were determined in fasting serum samples and TAG and total Chol postprandial levels were measured. Anthropometric data, serum lipid and sICAM-1 presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW, but sVCAM-1 did not significantly differ between groups. Postprandial TAG and Chol concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (p postprandial response to a fat rich meal and soluble intercellular adhesion molecules concentrations indicate a higher cardiovascular risk pattern in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women. Soluble vascular adhesion molecule levels seem to be influenced not only by age and menopause, but also other factors like usual diet.

  12. Clinical Considerations and Mechanistic Determinants of Postprandial Lipemia in Older Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S.

    2014-01-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. PMID:24829469

  13. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  14. ABCA1 gene variants regulate postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Fuentes, Francisco; Marin, Carmen; Gómez-Luna, Purificación; Camargo, Antonio; Parnell, Laurence D; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Genetic variants of ABCA1, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, have been linked to altered atherosclerosis progression and fasting lipid concentration, mainly high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A1; however, results from different studies have been inconsistent. To further characterize the effects of ABCA1 variants in human postprandial lipid metabolism, we studied the influence of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (i27943 [rs2575875]; i48168 [rs4149272]; R219K [rs2230806]) in the postprandial lipemia of 88 normolipidemic young men who were given a fatty meal. For i27943 and i48168 single nucleotide polymorphisms, fasting and postprandial values of apolipoprotein A1 were higher and postprandial lipemia was much lower in homozygotes for the major alleles, total triglycerides in plasma, and large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein triglycerides. These persons also showed a higher apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B ratio. Major allele homozygotes for i48168 and i27943 showed additionally higher high-density lipoproteins and lower postprandial apolipoprotein B. Our work shows that major allele homozygotes for ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms i27943 and i48168 have a lower postprandial response as compared to minor allele carriers. This finding may further characterize the role of ABCA1 in lipid metabolism.

  15. Clinical considerations and mechanistic determinants of postprandial lipemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Christos S

    2014-05-01

    The typical diet of individuals in Western societies results in metabolic responses associated with fed-state fat metabolism for most of the daily life of the individual. This fat metabolism is characterized specifically by an increase in the concentration of plasma lipids, primarily triglycerides. Increased postprandial lipemia, which is typically observed in older individuals (i.e., >65 y old), has now emerged as an important correlate of cardiovascular disease risk. An understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the increased postprandial lipemia in older individuals becomes, therefore, of particular clinical importance in any effort to explain and address the well-documented increase in cardiovascular disease risk as individuals age. Current evidence points to an increase in the accumulation of ingested lipid in lipoprotein particles of hepatic origin, together with an overall accumulation of lipid in these lipoproteins during the postprandial period, as primary contributors to the postprandial lipemia in older persons. When this evidence is considered together with the evidence suggesting large atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of hepatic origin, this can, at least in part, explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in older individuals. Understanding changes in the metabolism of ingested fat in the immediate postprandial period with advancing age, and how lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical exercise can ameliorate the increase in postprandial lipemia in older individuals, is important in order to address the increased cardiovascular disease risk in this particularly affected and growing segment of the population. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  18. Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds Lowers Postprandial Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyasurya Daniel Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of fenugreek on postprandial plasma glucose (PPG and satiety among overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen subjects were studied in the morning after overnight fasts on four separate occasions. Glycaemic responses elicited by 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread and jam with or without 5.5 g of fenugreek and fried rice with or without 5.5 g fenugreek were determined over 2 h. The primary endpoint was the incremental area under the plasma glucose response curve (IAUC. Adding fenugreek to both foods significantly reduced the IAUC compared to the food alone: white bread and jam, 180 ± 22 versus 271 ± 23 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001; fried rice, 176 ± 20 versus 249 ± 25 mmol × min/L (P = 0.001. Fenugreek also significantly reduced the area under the satiety curve for white bread with jam (134 ± 27 versus 232 ± 33 mm × hr, P = 0.01 and fried rice (280 ± 37 versus 379 ± 36 mm × hr, P = 0.01. It is concluded that fenugreek significantly decreased the PPG response and increased satiety among overweight and obese individuals.

  19. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Tholén; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-11-30

    Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. NCT01086189.

  20. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  1. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  2. Influence of olive oil on carotenoid absorption from tomato juice and effects on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdu-Queralt, Anna; Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Illán, Montse; Sacanella, Emilio; Escribano, Elvira; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Ma

    2015-02-01

    The potential benefits of tomato-rich diets for the cardiovascular system have been related to plasma concentrations of carotenoids. In addition, the bioavailability of carotenoids from foods depends on their chemical structure, processing and the food matrix. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of adding oil to tomato juice (not treated with heat) on the bioavailability of plasma carotenoids and postprandial lipid response. In a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial, eleven healthy volunteers were assigned to receive a single ingestion of 750g of tomato juice (TJ) containing 10% of refined olive oil/70kg body weight (BW) and 750g of TJ without oil/70kg BW on two different days. All lycopene isomers increased significantly in subjects consuming TJ with oil, reaching the maximum concentration at 24h. LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol decreased significantly 6h after the consumption of TJ with oil, which significantly correlated with an increase of trans-lycopene and 5-cis-lycopene, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of omeprazole on interdigestive motility and early postprandial levels of gastrin and secretin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Qvist, N. (and others) (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    10 healthy men participated in a crossover study, and the experiments took place after 10 days of treatment (40 mg omeprazole every morning). Blood samples were drawn at fixed intervals during a complete migrating motor complex cycle. The manometric pressure tube was removed after passage of the second duodenal phase III, and an omelet tagged with {sup 99m}Tc was ingested, followed by 150 ml of water tagged with {sup 111}In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Mean plasma gastrin in phases I, II, and III in the omeprazole group was 18.8, 23.3, 19.9, respectively. The corresponding figures for the placebo group were 9.3, 9.6, 9.5, respectively. It is concluded that 40 mg omeprazole elicits a phase-related increase in fasting plasma gastrin, a decrease in secretin in phases I and III, an augmented meal-stimulated gastrin response, and a secretin response characterized by a significantly lower mean in the immediate postprandial period. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The effects of omeprazole on interdigestive motility and early postprandial levels of gastrin and secretin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1992-01-01

    10 healthy men participated in a crossover study, and the experiments took place after 10 days of treatment (40 mg omeprazole every morning). Blood samples were drawn at fixed intervals during a complete migrating motor complex cycle. The manometric pressure tube was removed after passage of the second duodenal phase III, and an omelet tagged with 99m Tc was ingested, followed by 150 ml of water tagged with 111 In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Mean plasma gastrin in phases I, II, and III in the omeprazole group was 18.8, 23.3, 19.9, respectively. The corresponding figures for the placebo group were 9.3, 9.6, 9.5, respectively. It is concluded that 40 mg omeprazole elicits a phase-related increase in fasting plasma gastrin, a decrease in secretin in phases I and III, an augmented meal-stimulated gastrin response, and a secretin response characterized by a significantly lower mean in the immediate postprandial period. 12 refs., 4 figs

  5. Postprandial dyspnea and malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Donald, K; Carrey, Z; Martin, J G

    1998-06-01

    To compare ventilatory response, oxygen uptake and sense of dyspnea of underweight versus normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after a standard meal, in order to investigate whether an increase in dyspnea due to diet-induced thermogenesis might lead to altered eating habits. Weight loss in patients with COPD leads to adverse health effects, but the reasons for this loss are not well understood. Prospective study. A total of 18 patients (14 men, 4 women) aged 46 to 83 with severe, stable COPD. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), frequency of breathing, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2) and sense of dyspnea (using the Borg scale) were measured 15 minutes before a 2.5-MJ (600-kcal) balanced liquid meal and at four 15-minute intervals after the meal. Increases in VE, VT, VO2 and VCO2 were observed for all subjects. Corrected for body surface area, the maximum postprandial changes in these indicators did not differ between the underweight and the normal-weight subjects with COPD. Work of breathing (measured in 11 subjects) did not differ between the 2 groups, nor did the number of subjects reporting increased dyspnea. Since the increases in VE, VO2, VCO2 and perceived dyspnea did not differ between the normal-weight and underweight patients, this indicates that dyspnea at mealtimes is not likely to lead to decreased food intake.

  6. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  8. Suppression of Postprandial Glycaemia by L-Arabinose in Rats is More Associated with Starch than Sucrose Ingestion - Short Report

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    Jurgoński Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the glycaemia-lowering activity of L-arabinose. The experiment was conducted on 3 individual days, each separated by a week. At the beginning of each week rats were subjected to an oral glucose, sucrose or starch tolerance test. Five minutes prior to each test rats were gavaged with water (a control, an aqueous solution of acarbose (a positive control and L-arabinose. There was no effect of L-arabinose on glycaemia in the glucose tolerance test, whereas it reduced postprandial glycaemia after 15 min of the sucrose tolerance test. In the starch tolerance test, the glycaemia after L-arabinose ingestion was significantly decreased both at time intervals and in total. Inhibition of enzyme activity involved in starch digestion (amylase, maltase may be suggested as the most probable mechanism responsible for the observed effects

  9. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

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    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  10. Effect of ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on apolipoprotein B-48 kinetics in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet: a new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Adams, Leon A; Watts, Gerald F

    2014-08-01

    Dysregulated chylomicron metabolism may account for hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) decreases plasma triglyceride. However, its effect on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet has not yet been investigated. We aimed to examine the effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation on apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet. We carried out a 12-week, randomized trial of a hypocaloric diet plus 4 g/d ω-3 FAEE supplementation (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 13) compared with a hypocaloric diet alone (n = 12) on postprandial apoB-48 kinetics in obese subjects after ingestion of an oral load. The apoB-48 kinetics were determined using stable isotope tracer kinetics and multicompartmental modeling. We evaluated plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0- to 10-hour area under the curves (AUCs) as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. Weight loss with or without ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass, homeostasis model assessment score, fasting triglyceride concentration, postprandial triglyceride AUC, and increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (P < .05 in all). Compared with weight loss alone, weight loss plus ω-3 FAEE significantly (all P < .05) decreased fasting triglyceride (-11%), apoB-48 (-36%) concentrations, postprandial triglyceride (-21%), and apoB-48 (-22%) total AUCs, as well as incremental postprandial triglyceride AUCs (-32%). The ω-3 FAEE also significantly decreased apoB-48 secretion in the basal state, without a significant effect during the postprandial period (3-6 hours). The fractional catabolic rate of apoB-48 increased with both interventions with no significant independent effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation. Addition of ω-3 FAEE supplementation to a moderate weight

  11. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  12. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  13. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  14. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Patrick S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01. No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05, although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1, HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%, and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2. AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05. However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35 for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo

  15. Postprandial lipaemia suppresses endothelium-dependent arterial dilation in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Guang Da; Xiang, Ling Wei; He, Hong Lin; Zhao, Lin Shuang

    2012-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction represents an early step in the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between postprandial lipaemia and endothelial dysfunction in patients with overt hypothyroidism (oHT) and subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Female subjects with oHT and sHT, as well as female healthy subjects with euthyroid state were enrolled (10 cases in each group). The examination of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before and after an oral fat-loading by high resolution ultrasound. Endothelial dysfunction after an oral fat challenge was related to the extent of hypertriglyceridemia and free radicals. FMD decreased significantly at 4-h point in 3 groups, (p < 0.05) and then FMD in control and sHT restored to baseline at 8-h point, it was lower than baseline in sHT group at 6-h point (p = 0.042). However, FMD continued to decrease at 6-h point (p < 0.001), and then increased toward to baseline at 8-h point, which was still lower than baseline (p = 0.039) in oHT. Spearman's analysis showed a negative correlation between FMD and triglyceride, a negative correlation between FMD and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and a positive correlation between triglyceride and TBARS levels during oral lipid-loading test in hypothyroid patients (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.05). In hypothyroid subjects including oHT and sHT, even in healthy individuals, FMD was impaired after an oral fat challenge. The endothelial dysfunction observed after an oral fat challenge was related to the extent of hypertriglyceridemia and oxygen-derived free radicals.

  16. Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-11-14

    A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (Pmeal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

  17. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  18. Effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Martin; Chan Moy Fat, Rachel; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m²; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.

  19. Post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia and diarrhea caused by idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying: a case report

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    Balan Kottekkattu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of cases of post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia are considered idiopathic. Abnormalities of B-cell function and glucose regulation by insulin and glucagon have been postulated as causes but associated gastrointestinal dysfunction has not been reported. We report the first case of accelerated gastric emptying associated with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia, abdominal bloating and diarrhea. We consider that gastric dysmotility is an important cause of this condition as treatment of the underlying abnormal gastric emptying allows effective control of symptoms. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-prandial fatigue, sweating, nausea, faintness and intermittent confusion, which had led to pre-syncope and syncope on occasions. She also experienced marked abdominal bloating and diarrhea over the same period. These episodes responded to oral administration of sweet drinks. Her symptoms were ameliorated by modification of her diet. Conclusion This is an original case report of the association of idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia and diarrhea. Family physicians, endocrinologists and gastroenterologists often consult patients with a constellation of post-prandial symptoms, which are considered to be idiopathic in most cases. This case indicates that gastric dysmotility might be the primary cause of these symptoms in some patients and, if found, offers a therapeutic target which in our case was successful.

  20. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

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    Adham Mottalib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC versus oatmeal (OM on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG. After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both. Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02. GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both. FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  1. Comparison of the amino acid and peptide composition and postprandial response of beef, hydrolyzed chicken, and whey protein nutritional preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Detzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing dietary protein intake synergistically improves the effect of exercise to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma amino acid response of two novel protein nutritional preparations, beef protein isolate (BeefISO™ and hydrolyzed chicken protein isolate (MyoCHX™. Methods: The postprandial plasma amino acid response over 3 hours was monitored in young adults (n=6 following consumption of 23 grams of WPC, BeefISO™, or MyoCHX™. Amino acid compositional analysis and molecular weight distributions of each protein were performed by HPLC. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way or two-way ANOVA where appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons to account for the cross-over design. Results: Compositional evaluations revealed similar levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids for WPC and MyoCHX™. While the results of this study predictably demonstrated plasma amino acids levels increased following consumption of the different proteins, the kinetics of the postprandial response was unique to each protein source. WPC and MyoCHX™ were rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma amino acid concentrations observed at 30 and 15 min, respectively. The slightly faster absorption of MyoCHX™ was associated with the increased peptide content of MyoCHX™ (greater than 76% of protein is <2kDa. BeefISO™ exhibited sustained release characteristics as evidenced by increased post prandial amino acid concentrations after 3 hours. Conclusions: The protein preparations studied each had different amino acid profiles and absorption kinetics. WPC and MyoCHX™ contained a higher essential amino acid content and were rapidly absorbed with plasma amino acid concentrations peaking within 30 minutes following consumption. BeefISO™ contained a higher proportion of conditionally essential amino acids that steadily increased in plasma over 3 hours, indicating a sustained release

  2. Comparison of the amino acid and peptide composition and postprandial response of beef, hydrolyzed chicken, and whey proteinnutritional preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Detzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing dietary protein intake synergistically improves the effect of exercise to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma amino acid response of two novel protein nutritional preparations, beef protein isolate (BeefISO™ and hydrolyzed chicken protein isolate (MyoCHX™.Methods: The postprandial plasma amino acid response over 3 hours was monitored in young adults (n=6 following consumption of 23 grams of WPC, BeefISO™, or MyoCHX™. Amino acid compositional analysis and molecular weight distributions of each protein were performed by HPLC. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way or two-way ANOVAwhere appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons to account for the cross-over design. Results: Compositional evaluations revealed similar levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids for WPC and MyoCHX™. While the results of this study predictably demonstrated plasma amino acids levels increased following consumption of the different proteins, the kinetics of the postprandial response wasunique to each protein source. WPC and MyoCHX™ were rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma amino acid concentrations observed at 30 and 15 min, respectively. The slightly faster absorption of MyoCHX™ was associated with the increased peptide content of MyoCHX™ (greater than 76% of protein is <2kDa. BeefISO™ exhibited sustained release characteristics as evidenced by increased post prandial amino acid concentrations after 3 hours. Conclusions: The protein preparations studied each had different amino acid profiles and absorption kinetics. WPC and MyoCHX™ contained a higher essential amino acid content and were rapidly absorbed with plasma amino acid concentrations peaking within 30 minutes following consumption. BeefISO™ contained a higher proportion of conditionally essential amino acids that steadily increased in plasma over 3 hours, indicating a sustained release

  3. Postprandial lipaemia, metabolic syndrome and LDL particle size in urbanised South African blacks with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyintyane, L M; Panz, V R; Raal, F J; Gill, G V

    2008-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia, characterised by a rise in triglycerides (TG) after eating, is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are implicated in atherogenesis. Little is known about postprandial lipaemia or small, dense LDL particles in urbanised black South Africans. Assess postprandial lipaemia in black CAD patients with and without MetS and measure their fasting and postprandial lipid profiles and LDL particles. Anthropometric data, biochemical variables and LDL particles were measured in 40 patients and 20 control subjects. Twenty three patients met International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS and were subdivided according to fasting TG concentration either or = 1.7 mmol/l. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and area under the curve (AUC). CAD patients with and without MetS had similar fasting lipid profiles, postprandial responses during OFTT and AUCs. MetS patients with fasting TG > or = 1.7 mmol/l had greater postprandial responses (P Postprandial lipaemia was common in black CAD patients, including patients with MetS. Fasting TG concentration was the strongest determinant. Small, dense LDL particles were highly associated with CAD.

  4. Alteration in lipoprotein lipase activity bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the postprandial state in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruneta-Deloche, Valérie; Sassolas, Agnès; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Berthezène, François; Ponsin, Gabriel; Moulin, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent upon lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses triglycerides (TGs). The time course of LPL activity in the postprandial state following a single meal has never been studied, because its determination required heparin injection. Recently, we have

  5. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Hee; Lee, Byung-Wan; Won, Hee Kwan; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG) had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100) after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein). Fasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, PHOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide) in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D. Postprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  6. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  7. Hepatic lipogenesis and a marker of hepatic lipid oxidation, predict postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Niina; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Stennabb, Sanna; Ahola, Tytti; Hakkarainen, Antti; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms are still unclear. Here it was tested if hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and lipid oxidation influence the postprandial responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in humans. The contribution of hepatic DNL to hepatic TRL production was analyzed in 67 men and women with a moderate range of BMI after a fat-rich meal. Also, lipase activities, liver fat, and 3-OH-butyrate were quantitated as an indicator of β-oxidation. Lipoproteins and metabolic markers were measured in fasting and postprandial blood samples. Postprandial DNL correlates with postprandial TG and apolipoprotein (apo) C-III responses in plasma and with TG, apoB48 and apoB100 responses in TRLs and their larger remnant particles. Fasting and 8-h postprandial DNL was inversely related to 3-OH-butyrate but not to liver fat content. Fasting apoC-III and 3-OH-butyrate, but not liver fat, independently predicted fasting DNL. The fasting and 8-h postprandial rate of DNL was inversely associated with the hepatic lipid oxidation in humans. DNL contributes significantly to the TG content in TRLs but not to the amount of liver fat, suggesting that an imbalance between DNL and fat oxidation contributes to postprandial atherogenic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Influence of clinical and lipid variables on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eugenia Pérez G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The postprandial lipemia is characterized by some prolonged increase in circulation of triglycerides rich lipoproteins that can produce atherosclerosis, which is an important cause of death in our population. Objective. To evaluate the effect of lipidic and clinical variables on the values of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia. Materials and methods. Forty-eight subjects of both sexes were studied, half of them, with basal triglycerides above 200mg/dl, who ingested a standardized lipidic load (breakfast with 30g of fat and then they were followed during seven hours gathering total blood every hour to determine the level of postprandial triglycerides and the postprandial lipemia values. The later data was correlated with clinical variables as age, body mass index, waist circumference, among other; and with lipidic variable as total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and basal triglycerides. Results. There was alteration in the clearence of postprandial triglycerides in those subjects with a basal concentration of triglycerides above 186 mg/dl. The clinical variables most related tothe magnitude of postprandial lipemia were age (p=0.009 and waist perimeter, while the lipidic variables that were strongly related with the postprandial lipemia were the basal triglycerides concentration (p=<0.001, the VLDL cholesterol (p=<0.001 and the HDL cholesterol(p=0.041. Conclusion. The variables that could predict the behavior of postprandial triglycerides in the individuals of this study are age, waist perimeter, VLDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the basal triglycerides concentration.

  9. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    compared to D diet (P = 0.009).Postprandial samples were taken at two different occasions (i) at day 21, after breakfast and lunch and (ii) on the last day of the study 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after afat load. Postprandial plasma triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol showed higher peak values after D...

  10. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia (∼4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia (∼15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05 during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of ∼15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  11. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; Marcotte, George R; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Breen, Leigh; von Allmen, Mark; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown. We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis. Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis. Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P whey group, which was less (P whey. We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effect of gluteus medius muscle sample collection depth on postprandial mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in mature Thoroughbred mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ashley L.; Urschel, Kristine L.; Lefta, Mellani; Esser, Karyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of biopsy collection depth on the postprandial activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling factors, particularly protein kinase B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, ribosomal protein S6, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 in middle-aged horses. Animals 6 healthy Thoroughbred mares (mean ± SD age, 13.4 ± 3.4 years). Procedures Horses were fed a high-protein feed at 3 g/kg. Sixty minutes after horses were fed, the percutaneous needle biopsy technique was used to collect biopsy specimens from the gluteus medius muscle at 6, 8, and 10 cm below the surface of the skin. Muscle specimens were analyzed for the activation of upstream and downstream mTOR signaling factors, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition, and amino acid concentrations. Results A 21% increase in MHC IIA isoform expression and a 21% decrease in MHC IIX isoform expression were identified as biopsy depth increased from 8 to 10 cm below the surface of the skin; however, no significant change was evident in the degree of MHC I expression with muscle depth. Biopsy depth had no significant effect on the phosphorylation of any of the mTOR signaling factors evaluated. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Postprandial mTOR signaling could be compared between middle-aged horses when biopsy specimens were collected between 6 and 10 cm below the surface of the skin. Optimization of muscle biopsy techniques for evaluating mTOR signaling in horses will facilitate the design of future investigations into the factors that regulate muscle mass in horses. PMID:23718660

  13. Is testing for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Michèle; Meier, Claudia; Herren, Sylvia; Aubry, Emilie; Steffen, Rudolf; Stanga, Zeno

    2017-11-23

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (pHH) is an increasingly reported complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). As pHH can cause life-threatening emergencies if occurring without warning symptoms, challenge testing may detect patients at risk. The study objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of pHH with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia after RYGB. We undertook an observational cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients approximately one year after uncomplicated RYGB. To simulate normal habits, all patients received a standardized carbohydrate-rich solid mixed meal. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min thereafter. Symptoms were classified as autonomous or neuroglycopenic. Patients with hypoglycemia (plasma glucose meal. 113 patients were included. Total weight loss at the first follow-up check (14 ± 0.4 months) was 33.97 ± 9.3%. After the carbohydrate-rich meal, glucose dropped to meal. The pHH occurred in 11.5% (n = 13) of patients. Asymptomatic patients (5.3%, n = 6) carried an increased risk (p = 0.008) for pHH. One patient needed emergency treatment after sudden loss of consciousness after the carbohydrate-rich meal. The occurrence of pHH was quite high in our study population with 11.5% thereof 5.3% asymptomatic. We therefore suggest that detection of these patients warrants a screening of patients after RYGB. At-risk patients should than be adequately advised to avoid carbohydrate-rich meals in order to optimize risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Agave tequilana Weber Inulin on Postprandial Ghrelin Concentration in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Haro, Betsabe; Robles-Cervantes, Jose A; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Manuel; Martinez-Abundis, Esperanza; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P; Morgado-Castillo, Karina C

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Agave tequilana Weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. A total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 mL lemon water, 24 g of A. tequilana Weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 mL lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. After a 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed. The primary outcome measure was postprandial ghrelin levels between minute 240 and minute 270. A. tequilana Weber inulin did not change postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.

  15. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  16. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  17. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....

  18. Relationship of gastric emptying or accommodation with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Houssam; Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n = 285, 73% women, mean BMI 33.5 kg/m 2 ): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, and satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) by using Ensure nutrient drink test (30 ml/min) and symptoms 30 min after MTV. Relationships between GE or GA with satiety, satiation, and symptoms were analyzed using Spearman rank ( r s ) and Pearson ( R ) linear correlation coefficients. We found a higher VTF during satiation test correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal ( r s = 0.535, P symptom score ( R = 0.132, P = 0.026). There was no significant correlation between GA and satiation, satiety, postprandial symptoms, or GE. We concluded that GE of solids, rather than GA, is associated with postprandial symptoms, satiation, and satiety in healthy participants. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A higher volume to comfortable fullness postprandially correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying of solids is correlated to satiation (volume to fullness and maximum tolerated volume) and satiety (the calorie intake at buffet meal) and symptoms of nausea, pain, and aggregate symptom score after a fully satiating meal. There was no significant correlation between gastric accommodation and either satiation or satiety indices, postprandial symptoms, or gastric emptying. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The influence of 30 minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martina; Wenk, Caspar; Colombani, Paolo C

    2006-06-01

    Elevated postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and bouts of moderate intensity exercise of 60 min or more are often reported to lower postprandial lipemia. Information on moderate intensity exercise bouts of shorter duration corresponding to the current recommendations of health-maintaining exercise (i.e. 30 min or energy expenditure of approximately 630 kJ), however, is scarce. Therefore, we searched for the lowest exercise intensity during 30 min of light to moderate intensity cycling that still reduced postprandial lipemia. We employed a repeated measures cross-over design. Twelve healthy, not endurance trained, young men performed three activity trials (30 min cycling with a target energy expenditure of 420, 630 and 840 kJ) before ingestion of two mixed meals with a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations and a control trial (no physical activity before meal ingestion). Capillary triacylglycerol was measured in the fasting state and hourly for 6 h after the first meal. Respiratory gases were analyzed in the fasting state, and 3 and 6 h after the first meal. Triacylglycerol and respiratory responses between the trials were compared with analyses of variance. Postprandial lipemia and the incremental area under the triacylglycerol curve were not significantly different with the activity trials compared with the control trial. The postprandial respiratory exchange ratio was also not significantly affected by activity. Thirty minutes of light to moderate intensity cycling did not reduce postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with a moderate fat content in healthy, not endurance trained, young men.

  20. Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting Alters the Postprandial Plasma Lipidomic Profile of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Megan S; Dempsey, Paddy C; Sethi, Parneet; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Mellett, Natalie A; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Meikle, Peter J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2017-06-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared with prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Randomized crossover experimental trial. Participants underwent three 7-hour conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); light-intensity walking interruptions (LW); and simple resistance activity interruptions (SRA). Baseline (fasting) and 7-hour (postprandial) plasma samples from 21 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D were analyzed for 338 lipid species using mass spectrometry. Using mixed model analysis (controlling for baseline outcome variable, gender, body mass index, and condition order), the percentage change in lipid species (baseline to 7 hours) was compared between conditions with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Thirty-seven lipids were different between conditions (P postprandial elevations in diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phosphatidylethanolamines were attenuated in LW and SRA. Plasmalogens and lysoalkylphosphatidylcholines were reduced in SIT, compared with attenuated reductions or elevations in LW and SRA. Phosphatidylserines were elevated with LW, compared with reductions in SIT and SRA. Compared with SIT, LW and SRA were associated with reductions in lipids associated with inflammation; increased concentrations of lipids associated with antioxidant capacity; and differential changes in species associated with platelet activation. Acutely interrupting prolonged sitting time may impart beneficial effects on the postprandial plasma lipidome of adults with T2D. Evidence on longer-term intervention is needed. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  1. Fasting and postprandial levels of a novel anorexigenic peptide nesfatin in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Küme, Tuncay; Bober, Ece

    2014-07-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide, is expressed in several tissues, including pancreatic islet cells and central nervous system. However, its pathophysiological role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate the possible involvement of nesfatin-1 in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity, we examined the relationship between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 concentrations and metabolic/antropometric parameters in obese children. The study included obese children with a body mass index >95th percentile. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, fasting and postprandial (120th min) nesfatin-1 levels were measured to evaluate the metabolic parameters. Different cutoff values for prepubertal and pubertal stages were used to determine the status of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (prepubertal >2.5, pubertal >4). The percentage of body fat was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Seventy-one obese children were included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 levels in obese subjects (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.69 ± 0.14 ng/mL, p>0.05, respectively). Insulin resistance was observed in 58% (41/71) of the cases. There was no significant difference in either fasting or postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels between the insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups (p>0.05). There was no correlation between fasting and postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups. In this study, there was no significant increase in the postprandial level of nesfatin-1. This observation suggested that oral glucose load in obese children may not be sufficient for nesfatin-1 response and that nesfatin-1 may not have an effect as a short-term regulator of food intake.

  2. The effects of a weakly acidic meal on gastric buffering and postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Francis, D L; See, J A; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2011-09-01

    Exclusion of the meal during ambulatory pH monitoring presumes that a meal completely buffers gastric acid and reflux of acidic food content cannot be distinguished from gastric acid. However, the ability of a meal to completely buffer gastric acid remains unclear. To determine the effect of a weakly acid meal on gastric buffering and oesophageal acid exposure. Patients undergoing multichannel intraluminal impedance pH studies were given a standard weakly acidic meal (pH = 5.9). Gastric and oesophageal pH was measured during the meal and in 15 min intervals for 2 h postprandially. The study included 30 patients, with pathological acid reflux detected in 18 patients. Complete gastric buffering occurred in seven patients (23%) and was lost in all patients within 75 min of the meal. Oesophageal acid was detected in 33% of patients within 30 min of the meal and 81% of patients during the 2 h postprandial period. Postprandial oesophageal acid exposure was greater in patients with pathological acid reflux (9 ± 2.7% vs. 1.7 ± 0.8% P = 0.05) with a trend towards more incomplete gastric acid buffering and significant differences when measuring weak acid reflux (pH 4-5). Acid reflux rarely occurred in the absence of gastric acid, with gastric acid present in 74 of 79 (94%) fifteen minute postprandial intervals with acid reflux. The ability of a meal to buffer gastric acid is poor. Early postprandial oesophageal acid reflux occurs in a substantial proportion of patients. Addition of a weakly acidic or pH neutral meal to ambulatory pH monitoring may unmask early postprandial acid reflux and provide data on gastric acid buffering. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Bone resorption is decreased postprandially by intestinal factors and glucagon-like peptide-2 is a possible candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Gottschalck, Ida B

    2007-01-01

    -CTX) and compared with the plasma concentrations of GLP-2. Bone formation was assessed from serum osteocalcin concentrations. Seven SBS patients with a preserved colon and 7 with SBS and colectomy and 7 healthy controls were given a breakfast test meal (936 kcal). Eight patients who had undergone total gastrectomy...

  4. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PRE-PRANDIAL AND POSTPRANDIAL EXERCISE IN ACTIVE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rabelo Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pre-prandial exercise promotes greater mobilization of fat metabolism due to the increased release of catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon. However, this response affects how the cardiovascular system responds to exercise. Objective: To evaluate the response of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, heart rate (HR and rate-pressure product (RPP to pre- and postprandial exercise. Methods: Ten physically active male subjects (25.50 ± 2.22 years underwent two treadmill protocols (pre- and postprandial performed for 36 minutes at 65% of VO2max on different days. On both days, subjects attended the laboratory on a 10-hour fasting state. For the postprandial session, volunteers ingested a pre-exercise meal of 349.17 kcal containing 59.3 g of carbohydrates (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, and 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%. Blood pressure, HR and RPP were measured before and after exercise. The 2x2 factorial Anova with the multiple comparisons test of Bonferroni was applied to analyze cardiovascular variables in both moments (pre- vs. postprandial. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Systolic (121.70 ± 7.80 vs. 139.78 ± 12.91 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (66.40 ± 9.81 vs. 80.22 ± 8.68 mmHg increased significantly after exercise only in the postprandial session (p<0.05. HR increased significantly (p<0.05 after both protocols (64.20 ± 15.87 vs. 141.20 ± 10.33 bpm pre-prandial and 63.60 ± 8.82 vs. 139.20 ± 10.82 bpm postprandial. RPP had a similar result (8052.10 ± 1790.68 vs. 18382.60 ± 2341.66 mmHg.bpm in the pre-prandial session and 7772.60 ± 1413.76 vs. 19564.60 ± 3128.99 mmHg.bpm in the postprandial session. Conclusion: These data suggest that fasted exercise does not significantly alter the blood pressure. Furthermore, the meal provided before the postprandial exercise may promote a greater blood pressure responsiveness during exercise.

  5. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Miriam E.; McClean, Conor; Davison, Gareth W.; Murphy, H. Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, Jim; Fogarty, Mark; Shafat, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD) participated...

  6. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  7. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  8. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  9. Effect of rosuvastatin on fasting and postprandial endothelial biomarker levels and microvascular reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Yun, Han Mi; Lee, Seo Young; Oh, Tae Jung; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2017-11-09

    The cardiovascular benefits of statins have been proven, but their effect on circulation in small vessels has not been examined fully. We investigated the effect of 20 mg rosuvastatin on biomarkers, including paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and on microvascular reactivity. We enrolled 20 dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes and 20 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) was given to the patient group for 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters, including PON-1 and ADMA, were compared between the patient and control groups, and before and after rosuvastatin treatment in the patient group. Fasting and 2 h postprandial levels of PON-1 and ADMA after mixed-meal challenge were also compared. Microvascular reactivity in a peripheral artery was examined using laser Doppler flowmetry. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age and BMI were 50.1 ± 3.8 year and 25.8 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 in the patients and 50.2 ± 3.2 year and 25.4 ± 3.4 kg/m 2 in the controls. The patient group had worse profiles of cardiometabolic biomarkers, including PON-1 and ADMA, than the controls. In the patients treated with 20 mg rosuvastatin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased from 147.2 ± 26.5 to 68.3 ± 24.5 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol increased from 42.4 ± 5.2 to 44.7 ± 6.2 mg/dL (both P fasting and 2 h postprandial levels of PON-1 increased and those of ADMA decreased after treatment with rosuvastatin for 12 weeks. The changes in postprandial levels of both biomarkers were greater than those after fasting. Microcirculation assessed as reactive hyperemia in the patients after an ischemic challenge increased significantly from 335.3 ± 123.4 to 402.7 ± 133.4% after rosuvastatin treatment. The postprandial changes in the biomarkers were significantly associated with improvement of microvascular reactivity. Rosuvastatin treatment for 12

  10. Coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone improves postprandial endothelial dysfunction in patients with borderline and stage 1 hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masato; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakano, Yukiko; Kurisu, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Aibara, Yoshiki; Yusoff, Farina Mohamad; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Watanabe, Takuya; Tone, Hiroshi; Hibi, Masanobu; Osaki, Noriko; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Higashi, Yukihito

    2018-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute effects of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and different hydroxyhydroquinone contents on postprandial endothelial dysfunction. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-within-subject clinical trial. A total of 37 patients with borderline or stage 1 hypertension were randomized to two study groups. The participants consumed a test meal with a single intake of the test coffee. Subjects in the Study 1 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and a high content of hydroxyhydroquinone with crossover. Subjects in the Study 2 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee with crossover. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma concentration of 8-isoprostanes were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 h after coffee intake. Compared with baseline values, single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone, but not coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and high content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee, significantly improved postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation and decreased circulating 8-isoprostane levels. These findings suggest that a single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone is effective for improving postprandial endothelial dysfunction. URL for Clinical Trial: https://upload.umin.ac.jp ; Registration Number for Clinical Trial: UMIN000013283.

  11. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  12. Influences of Breakfast on Clock Gene Expression and Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Individuals and Individuals With Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Daniela; Wainstein, Julio; Landau, Zohar; Raz, Itamar; Ahren, Bo; Chapnik, Nava; Ganz, Tali; Menaged, Miriam; Barnea, Maayan; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Froy, Oren

    2017-11-01

    The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism by mediating the activity of metabolic enzymes, hormones, and transport systems. Breakfast skipping and night eating have been associated with high HbA 1c and postprandial hyperglycemia after lunch and dinner. Our aim was to explore the acute effect of breakfast consumption or omission on glucose homeostasis and clock gene expression in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. In a crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with 14.5 ± 1.5 years diabetes, BMI 30.7 ± 1.1 kg/m 2 , and HbA 1c 7.6 ± 0.1% (59.6 ± 0.8 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to a test day with breakfast and lunch (YesB) and a test day with only lunch (NoB). Postprandial clock and clock-controlled gene expression, plasma glucose, insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (iGLP-1), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) plasma activity were assessed after breakfast and lunch. In healthy individuals, the expression level of Per1 , Cry1 , Rorα , and Sirt1 was lower ( P breakfast. In contrast, in individuals with type 2 diabetes, Per1 , Per2 , and Sirt1 only slightly, but significantly, decreased and Rorα increased ( P breakfast. In healthy individuals, the expression level of Bmal1 , Rorα , and Sirt1 was higher ( P breakfast altered clock and metabolic gene expression in both healthy and individuals with type 2 diabetes. Breakfast consumption acutely affects clock and clock-controlled gene expression leading to normal oscillation. Breakfast skipping adversely affects clock and clock-controlled gene expression and is correlated with increased postprandial glycemic response in both healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Pilot study: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of pancrealipase for the treatment of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Mary E; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Virgilio, Chris; Talley, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pancrealipase (PEZ) compared with placebo in the reduction of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea (IBS-D). DESIGN: An intention to treat, double blind, randomised, crossover trial comparing PEZ to placebo for reduction of postprandial IBS-D. Patients had to recognise at least two different triggering foods, be willing to consume six baseline 'trigger meals' and again blinded with PEZ and placebo. Patients then chose which drug they preferred for another 25 meals. SETTING: Outpatient internal medicine practice clinic. PATIENTS: 255 patients were screened; 83 met the criteria, including 5 years of symptoms, recognised 'food triggers', no other identifiable cause for the symptoms, either a normal colonoscopy or barium enema while symptomatic and able to discontinue all anticholinergic medications. 69 patients were enrolled, 20 withdrew before randomisation, leaving 49 patients: 14 men, 35 women, mean age 52 years (SD 15.3). Over 60% had experienced symptoms for 11-30 years and 16% for more than 40 years. INTERVENTIONS: After completing six baseline meals, patients were randomised in blocks of four to receive either identical PEZ or a placebo for another six meals, and after a washout period of time received the alternative drug. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary analysis was number of patients who chose PEZ over placebo for the extended use. RESULTS: Overall, 30/49 (61%) would have chosen PEZ (p=0.078), with first drug preference for PEZ at 0.002. Among the PEZ subgroup, PEZ use compared with placebo, demonstrated improvement in all symptoms (p≤0.001) for cramping, bloating, borborygami, urge to defecate, global pain and decrease stooling with increase in stool firmness. CONCLUSIONS: PEZ was found in a small group of patients to reduce postprandial IBS-D symptoms and deserves further evaluation.

  14. Anorexigenic postprandial responses of PYY and GLP1 to slow ice cream consumption: preservation in obese adolescents, but not in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, A E; Agosti, F; Compri, E; Giunta, M; Marazzi, N; Muller, E E; Cella, S G; Sartorio, A

    2013-03-01

    Eating slowly increases the postprandial responses of some anorexigenic gut hormones in healthy lean subjects. As the rate of food intake is positively associated with obesity, the aim of the study was to determine whether eating the same meal at different rates evokes different postprandial anorexigenic responses in obese adolescent and adult subjects. Eighteen obese adolescents and adults were enrolled. A test meal was consumed on two different sessions by each subject, meal duration taking either 5  min (fast feeding) or 30  min (slow feeding). Circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured over 210  min. Visual analog scales were used to evaluate the subjective feelings of hunger and satiety. fast feeding did not stimulate GLP1 release in obese adolescent and adults, whereas slow feeding increased circulating levels of GLP1 only in obese adolescents. Plasma PYY concentrations increased both in obese adolescents and in adults, irrespective of the eating rate, but slow feeding was more effective in stimulating PYY release in obese adolescents than in adults. simultaneously, slow feeding evoked a higher satiety only in obese adolescents compared with fast feeding but not in obese adults. in obese adolescents, slow feeding decreased hunger (only at 210 min). irrespective of the eating rate, postprandial responses of insulin and triglycerides were higher in obese adults than in obese adolescents. Slow feeding leads to higher concentrations of anorexigenic gut peptides and favors satiety in obese adolescents, but this physiological control of food intake is lost in obese adults.

  15. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  16. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  17. Subclinical exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from decreased cholecystokinin secretion in the presence of intestinal villous atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Fotoulaki, Maria; Tendzidou, Kyriaki; Vassilaki, Constantina; Agguridaki, Christina; Karamouzis, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concept that pancreatic dysfunction in patients having gluten sensitivity (celiac disease [CD]) or cow's milk protein enteropathy (CMPE) may result from the lack of pancreatic enzyme stimulation in the absence or decrease of cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion caused by villous atrophy. The following parameters were measured: plasma CCK in response to a fatty meal and human pancreatic fecal elastase in 24 patients with CD while on gluten-free diet and after gluten provocation and in 12 patients with CMPE at diagnosis and after a 6-month period of cow's milk-free diet. Intestinal mucosa morphology was examined by small bowel biopsy. Sixty-three controls having no organic gastrointestinal problems were investigated once at the time of diagnostic evaluation. Fasting CCK, obtained at a time when patients with CD or CMPE had normal intestinal mucosa, was significantly different from postprandial and comparable to that of the control group. Fasting CCK obtained from patients with villous atrophy was also statistically different, but not significantly, from the postprandial. Fasting and postprandial plasma CCK and fecal pancreatic elastase values from patients having normal intestinal mucosa were significantly higher than those obtained from patients with villous atrophy. Significant correlation of intestinal mucosa morphology and CCK with fecal elastase concentration was documented. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction in individuals having villous atrophy may be the consequence of decreased CCK secretion. Cholecystokinin and pancreatic secretion is restored to normal, with intestinal mucosa regeneration.

  18. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  19. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  20. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared to

  1. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  2. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  3. An update on accumulating exercise and postprandial lipaemia: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Masashi; Burns, Stephen F; Stensel, David J

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant research attention has been given to the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial lipaemia. A large body of evidence supports the notion that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, this effect is short-lived emphasising the important role of regular physical activity for lowering TAG concentrations through an active lifestyle. In 1995, the concept of accumulating physical activity was introduced in expert recommendations with the advice that activity can be performed in several short bouts throughout the day with a minimum duration of 10 minutes per activity bout. Although the concept of accumulation has been widely publicised, there is still limited scientific evidence to support it but several studies have investigated the effects of accumulated activity on health-related outcomes to support the recommendations in physical activity guidelines. One area, which is the focus of this review, is the effect of accumulating exercise on postprandial lipaemia. We propose that accumulating exercise will provide additional physical activity options for lowering postprandial TAG concentrations relevant to individuals with limited time or exercise capacity to engage in more structured forms of exercise, or longer bouts of physical activity. The benefits of accumulated physical activity might translate to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the long-term.

  4. Study of postprandial lipaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: exenatide versus liraglutide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voukali, Maria; Kastrinelli, Irene; Stragalinou, Sapfo; Tasiopoulou, Dimitra; Paraskevopoulou, Pinelopi; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment) and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2). Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  5. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  6. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  7. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than...

  10. Early improvement of postprandial lipemia after bariatric surgery in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffo, E; Nosso, G; Lupoli, R; Cotugno, M; Saldalamacchia, G; Vitolo, G; Angrisani, L; Cutolo, P P; Rivellese, A A; Capaldo, B

    2014-05-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is able to positively influence fasting lipid profile in obese type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), but no data is available on the impact of BS on postprandial lipid metabolism neither on its relation with incretin hormones. We evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) effects of BS on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism in obese T2DM patients and the contribution of changes in active GLP-1. We studied 25 obese T2DM patients (age = 46 ± 8 years, BMI = 44 ± 7 kg/m2), of which 15 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and 10 underwent gastric bypass. Lipid and incretin hormone concentrations were evaluated for 3 h after ingestion of a liquid meal before and 2 weeks after BS. After BS, there was a significant reduction in body weight (p lipids (p postprandial lipemia. The fall in fasting triglycerides is associated with an improvement of insulin resistance, while the reduction of postprandial lipemia is likely related to reduced intestinal lipid absorption consequent to bariatric surgery.

  11. Postprandial triglyceride response in young adult men and familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Stiphout, W.A.H.J. van; Krauss, X.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Bruijn, A.M. de; Tol, A. van; Hofman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Setting: Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Measurements: Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl

  12. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Ppostprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Ppostprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voukali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2. Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  14. Ext1 heterozygosity causes a modest effect on postprandial lipid clearance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Hans L.; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J.; Gordts, Philip L. S. M.; Stanford, Kristin I.; Foley, Erin M.; van den Boogert, Marjolein A. W.; Witjes, Julia J.; Hassing, H. Carlijne; Tanck, Michael W.; van de Sande, Michiel A. J.; Levels, J. Han; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Esko, Jeff D.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting TG-rich lipoprotein levels are a risk factor for CVD. To further evaluate the relevance of LDL-receptor (LDLr) pathway and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in TG homeostasis, we analyzed fasting and postprandial TG levels in mice bearing combined heterozygous mutations in

  15. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery, the portal and hepatic vein, and a flowprobe around the portal vein and included in a double 3x3 crossover design with three daily feedings (at 9.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours). Fasting and 5 hours postprandial blood samples were collected after 7 days...

  16. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  17. Postprandial triglyceridemia after single dose of alcohol in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudráková, E; Poledne, R; Kovář, J

    2013-03-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against cardiovascular disease primarily due to increase of HDL-cholesterol. However, it also has some adverse effects on metabolism of triglycerides (TG). Therefore, we addressed the question how a single dose of alcohol affects postprandial lipemia and activities of two enzymes playing a critical role in regulation of triglyceridemia, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Eight healthy volunteers were given a single dose of alcohol (vodka; 0.6 g of ethanol/kg of body weight) together with a fat load (0.7 g of fat/kg of body weight) in an experimental breakfast or together with dinner 12 h before the experimental breakfast. In comparison to control experiment, alcohol given with breakfast induced increased and prolonged postprandial response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL; d Alcohol given in the evening before the experiment increased fasting TG concentration but did not affect changes in TRL and IDL concentrations. LPL activity measured both in vivo using intravenous fat tolerance test and in vitro and HTGL activity were determined at the end of experiments (after 7.5 h of postprandial lipemia study). Neither was affected by a single dose of alcohol. Single dose of alcohol induces immediate and profound changes in metabolism of TRL and IDL. The same dose of alcohol given 12 h before meal does affect baseline TG concentration but not the postprandial changes of triglyceridemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    -fasting TGs as a risk factor for CVD and provide a suggested classification of non-fasting TG concentration. Secondly, we sought to describe methodologies to evaluate postprandial TG using a fat tolerance test (FTT) in the clinic. Thirdly, we discuss the role of non-fasting lipids in the treatment...

  19. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bohl; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V

    2015-01-01

    (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin...

  20. Effect of L-NMMA on postprandial transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M.; Tytgat, G. N.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) triggered by gastric balloon distention. The role of NO in postprandial TLESRs and gastroesophageal reflux,

  1. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Gudmundsdottir, F D; Thorsdottir, I

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects. Twenty-five healthy normal (n = 12) and overweight (n = 13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with 1 week between test days. The conventional fast-food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink, calculated glycemic load = 48.7), the unconventional fast food was a salmonburger meal (fiber-rich sourdough rye bread, salad with vinegar, orange juice, glycemic load = 46.0). Blood samples were taken before and after the meal and analyzed for glucose (before 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) and insulin (before 1, 2 and 3 h). Postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were 44% lower after the unconventional meal (Pfast food can have less effect on blood insulin and glucose postprandially compared with conventional fast food matched in energy and energy giving nutrients. The difference between meals in insulin response is associated with higher BMI. Thus, improvement in food quality might help to control postprandial increases in blood glucose and blood insulin.

  2. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  3. The influence of glucagon on postprandial hyperglycaemia in children 5 years after onset of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, Siri; Andersen, Marie-Louise M; Pörksen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    comprised 129 children (66 boys) with type 1 diabetes whose mean (SD) age at onset was 10.0 (3.9) years. Liquid mixed-meal tests were performed prospectively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and a subset of 40 patients completed follow-up at 60 months. Postprandial (90 min) plasma levels of glucagon, glucose (PG...... associated negatively with postprandial C-peptide (p = 0.017). A doubling in postprandial glucagon corresponded to a 3% relative increase in HbA1c levels (p = 0.0045). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Postprandial glucagon levels were associated with deterioration of glycaemic control and declining beta cell...... levels increased 160% from 1 to 60 months after diagnosis (p 0.0001). A doubling in postprandial PG corresponded to a 21% increase in postprandial glucagon levels (p = 0.0079), whereas a doubling in total GLP-1 levels corresponded to a 33% increase in glucagon levels (p 0.0001). Postprandial glucagon...

  4. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fianne L P Sips

    Full Text Available In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30-45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease.

  5. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  6. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  7. Postprandial Endotoxemia Linked With Chylomicrons and Lipopolysaccharides Handling in Obese Versus Lean Men: A Lipid Dose-Effect Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, Cécile; Pineau, Gaëlle; Drai, Jocelyne; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Pesenti, Sandra; Laville, Martine; Laugerette, Fabienne; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial endotoxemia is a metabolic risk factor, which has been shown to originate from the intestinal absorption of gut lipopolysaccharides (LPS) using nonphysiological high-fat tests. This study aimed to determine whether different realistic fat amounts can modulate postprandial dynamics and handling of LPS by varying postprandial lipidemia in humans of different body mass indices. In a randomized, controlled, cross-over study in nutrition research center, eight normal-weight (NW) and eight obese age-matched men, without diabetes nor dyslipidemia, ingested breakfasts containing 10 vs 40 g fat. Blood samples, leukocytes, and chylomicron-rich fractions were obtained during 8 h. Plasma and chylomicron-endotoxemia, plasma LPS transporters (LBP, sCD14) and IL-6, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation, and IL-6 gene expression of immune cells were measured. The postprandial fatty acid handling after ingesting 40 g fat was previously published as primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were inflammatory ones including postprandial endotoxemia, LPS handling, and plasma markers of inflammation after ingesting 10 or 40 g fat. Chylomicronemia increased in all subjects according to ingested fat amount (P postprandial endotoxemia after 40 g (P postprandial response of plasma IL-6. However, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-6 in obese was higher than in NW (P Postprandial endotoxemia is modulated by ingested fat amount in obese men. LPS handling in plasma through chylomicrons and LBP seems critical in driving the acute inflammatory response. The pathophysiological importance of repeated postprandial endotoxemia excursions and their contribution to a vicious cycle of LBP-driven low-grade inflammation deserve further investigation in the nutritional management of cardio-metabolic risk prevention.

  8. Hepatic insulin resistance both in prediabetic and diabetic patients determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: from the CORDIOPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Acuña, A; Alcala-Diaz, J F; Delgado-Lista, J; Torres-Peña, J D; Lopez-Moreno, J; Camargo, A; Garcia-Rios, A; Marin, C; Gomez-Delgado, F; Caballero, J; Van-Ommen, B; Malagon, M M; Perez-Martinez, P; Lopez-Miranda, J

    2016-04-19

    Previous evidences have shown the presence of a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation with an increase of cardiovascular risk. However, the response in prediabetes population has not been established. The objective was to analyze the degree of postprandial lipemia response in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937) according to the diabetic status. 1002 patients were submitted to an oral fat load test meal (OFTT) with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight [12 % saturated fatty acids (SFA), 10 % polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 43 % monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 10 % protein and 25 % carbohydrates]. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h during postprandial state. Postprandial triglycerides (TG) concentration at any point >2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL) has been established as undesirable response. We explored the dynamic response in 57 non-diabetic, 364 prediabetic and 581 type 2 diabetic patients. Additionally, the postprandial response was evaluated according to basal insulin resistance subgroups in patients non-diabetic and diabetic without pharmacological treatment (N = 642). Prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG was 35 % in non-diabetic, 48 % in prediabetic and 59 % in diabetic subgroup, respectively (p postprandial response compared with those non-diabetic patients (p postprandial response of TG compared with those patients with muscle-IR or without any insulin-resistance respectively (p postprandial response increases progressively according to non-diabetic, prediabetic and type 2 diabetic state and it is higher in patients with liver insulin-resistance. To identify this subgroup of patients is important to treat more intensively in order to avoid future cardiometabolic complications.

  9. Postprandial lipaemia does not affect resting haemodynamic responses but does influence cardiovascular reactivity to dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2010-09-01

    Postprandial lipaemia impairs endothelial function, possibly by changes in oxidative stress, but whether this affects cardiac output and/or systemic vascular resistance (SVR) at rest and in response to dynamic exercise remains uncertain. The present study set out to investigate the effects of a high-fat meal (HFM) v. a low-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HCM) on cardiac output and SVR. A HFM (50 g fat) and an isoenergetic HCM (5 g fat) were randomly fed to thirty healthy adults using a crossover design. Cardiac output, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and stroke volume and SVR were calculated over a 3 h rest following the meal, during exercise 3 h postprandially and for 45 min post-exercise. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 3 h postprandially and immediately post-exercise. Plasma TAG increased by 63.8 % 3 h following the HFM, and NEFA fell by 94.1% 3 h after the HCM. There was a 9.8% rise in plasma 8-isoprostane-F2alpha concentration following the HFM, and a 6.2% fall following the HCM. Cardiac output increased postprandially, but the difference between meals at rest or exercise was not statistically significant. The HFM resulted in a 3.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.7, 5.7) smaller increase in exercise mean arterial BP compared with the HCM due to a greater fall in exercise SVR. Postprandial lipaemia induced by a HFM does not affect cardiac output and/or SVR at rest, but it blunts the increase in BP during exercise.

  10. Elevated fasting and postprandial C-terminal telopeptide after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Negar; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Cross, Gemma F; Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Docherty, Neil G; Olbers, Torsten; Dew, Tracy; Sherwood, Roy A; Vincent, Royce P; le Roux, Carel W

    2017-07-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases circulating bile acid concentrations, known mediators of postprandial suppression of markers of bone resorption. Long-term data, however, indicate that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass confers an increased risk of bone loss on recipients. Methods Thirty-six obese individuals, median age 44 (26-64) with median body mass index at baseline of 42.5 (40.4-46) were studied before and 15 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. After an overnight fast, patients received a 400 kcal mixed meal. Blood samples were collected premeal then at 30-min periods for 120 min. Pre and postmeal samples were analysed for total bile acids, parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide. Results Body weight loss post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was associated with a median 4.9-fold increase in peak postprandial total bile acid concentration, and a median 2.4-fold increase in cumulative food evoked bile acid response. Median fasting parathyroid hormone, postprandial reduction in parathyroid hormone and total parathyroid hormone release over 120 min remained unchanged after surgery. After surgery, median fasting C-terminal telopeptide increased 2.3-fold, peak postprandial concentrations increased 3.8-fold and total release was increased 1.9-fold. Conclusions Fasting and postprandial total bile acids and C-terminal telopeptide are increased above reference range after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These changes occur in spite of improved vitamin D status with supplementation. These results suggest that post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases in total bile acids do not effectively oppose an ongoing resorptive signal operative along the gut-bone axis. Serial measurement of C-terminal telopeptide may be of value as a risk marker for long-term skeletal pathology in patients post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  11. TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant affects postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Cipolla, Ugo; Cassader, Maurizio; Pinach, Silvia; Saba, Francesca; De Michieli, Franco; Paschetta, Elena; Bongiovanni, Daria; Framarin, Luciana; Leone, Nicola; Berrutti, Mara; Rosina, Floriano; Corvisieri, Stefania; Molinaro, Federica; Sircana, Antonio; Gambino, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926 C>T polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. We assessed the impact of this polymorphism on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and nutrient oxidation in NAFLD. Sixty nonobese nondiabetic normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 60 matched controls genotyped for TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism underwent: indirect calorimetry; an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis. The TM6SF2 T-allele was associated with higher hepatic and adipose insulin resistance, impaired pancreatic β-cell function and incretin effect, and higher muscle insulin sensitivity and whole-body fat oxidation rate. Compared with the TM6SF2 C-allele, the T-allele entailed lower postprandial lipemia and nefaemia, a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and a postprandial cholesterol (Chol) redistribution from smaller atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions to larger intestinal and hepatic VLDL1 subfractions. Postprandial plasma VLDL1-Chol response independently predicted the severity of liver histology. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism affects nutrient oxidation, glucose homeostasis, and postprandial lipoprotein, adipokine, and GIP responses to fat ingestion independently of fasting values. These differences may contribute to the dual and opposite effect of this polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gabbia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05 in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC. In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  14. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbia, Daniela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Bogialli, Sara; Caputi, Valentina; Albertoni, Laura; Marsilio, Ilaria; Paccagnella, Nicola; Carrara, Maria; Giron, Maria Cecilia; De Martin, Sara

    2017-02-15

    Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose ( p NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  15. Comparative effects of glucose and water drinks on blood pressure and cardiac function in older subjects with and without postprandial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahair, Laurence G; Rajendran, Sharmalar; Visvanathan, Renuka; Chapman, Matthew; Stadler, Daniel; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2017-07-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently and is thought to reflect an inadequate increase in cardiac output to compensate for the rise in splanchnic blood flow after a meal. Gastric distension by water attenuates the postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP). Cardiac hemodynamics (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and global longitudinal strain (GLS)) have hitherto not been measured in PPH We sought to determine the comparative effects of water and glucose drinks on cardiac hemodynamics in healthy older subjects and individuals with PPH Eight healthy older subjects (age 71.0 ± 1.7 years) and eight subjects with PPH (age 75.5 ± 1.0 years) consumed a 300 mL drink of either water or 75 g glucose (including 150 mg 13 C-acetate) in randomized order. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using an automatic device, SV, CO, and GLS by transthoracic echocardiography and gastric emptying by measurement of 13 CO 2 In both groups, glucose decreased systolic BP ( P  glucose and the pressor response to water were related ( R  = -0.75, P  glucose is associated with inadequate compensatory increases in CO and HR, whereas the pressor response to water ingestion is maintained and, possibly, exaggerated. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Extraction optimization and in vitro and in vivo anti-postprandial hyperglycemia effects of inhibitor from Phoenix dactylifera L. parthenocarpic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Fendri, Imen; Makni, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Khemakhem, Bassem

    2017-04-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates demonstrated a potent inhibition of the enzymes related to type II diabetes. In this work, extraction optimization of amylase inhibitors was carried out using Box-Behnken Design. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract was performed to identify the active compounds. The physicochemical results by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed the presence of 13 phenolic compounds. The in vitro study showed that the extract exhibited a more specific inhibitor of α-glucosidase than α-amylase with an IC 50 value of 0.6 and 2.5mg/mL, respectively. The in vivo study of this extract effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia activity showed a decrease in plasma glucose levels after 30min stronger than the Acarbose effect. These results confirmed the anti-postprandial hyperglycemia activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates, which could lend support for its pharmaceutical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  18. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  19. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  20. Meal size can be decreased in obese subjects through pharmacological acceleration of gastric emptying (The OBERYTH trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra, S; Ilzarbe, L; Malagelada, J R; Negre, M; Mestre-Fusco, A; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Florensa, E; Suñé, P; Gras, B; Hernandez, J J; Casamitjana, R; Garcia, M Andreu; Ros, F Bory; Delgado-Aros, S

    2011-06-01

    Entry of nutrients into the small intestine activates neuro-hormonal signals that regulate food intake through induction of satiation. To evaluate whether caloric intake can be decreased by pharmacologically accelerating gastric emptying (GE) of nutrients into the small intestine. Subjects were tested in 2 days, at baseline (day1) and after randomly receiving, in a double-blind manner, a 1 h infusion of erythromycin (3 mg Kg(-1), to accelerate GE) or placebo (day 2). Ad libitum caloric intake and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using a validated nutrient drink test, simultaneously measuring gastric emptying [corrected] by scintigraphy. Plasma levels of satiation factors were also measured to evaluate their role in the modification of caloric intake and postprandial symptoms. Acceleration of GE was assessed as the difference in percentage emptied between day 2 and day 1 (DGE). The effects of DGE on caloric intake and symptoms were evaluated using multiple (lineal) regression. Among 30 overweight/obese subjects (24F and 6 M), 15 received erythromycin and 15 placebo. The overall median age was 36 years (IQR: 30-42) and body mass index was 30 Kg m(-2) (IQR: 27-36). Subjects receiving erythromycin on day 2 presented accelerated GE as compared with placebo (P = 0.0002). DGE at 15 min after initiating eating had a significant effect on prospective caloric intake (P = 0.004). From the best-fitted regression model (R (2) = 81%, P Acceleration of GE at 60 min after initiating eating increased postprandial symptom scores measured 30 min after the completion of food consumption (P = 0.01). Postprandial increase in CCK (P = 0.002) and PP (P = 0.02) was associated with postprandial symptoms. Meal size can be reduced in overweight/obese subjects by pharmacologically accelerating GE. This may be a reasonable target in obesity management.

  1. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  2. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions...... in the incremental area under the curve over the 480-min period.Conclusions:A supplement of four different whey protein fractions to a fat-rich meal had similar effects on postprandial triglyceride responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whey isolate and whey hydrolysate caused a higher insulin response...... on postprandial lipid and hormone responses added to a high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic subjects.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four isocaloric test meals in randomized order. The test meals contained 100¿g of butter and 45¿g of carbohydrate in combination with 45¿g of whey...

  3. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  4. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... postprandially. Results: Dairy calcium significantly diminished the postprandial lipid response. The baseline adjusted area under the curve for chylomicron triacylglycerol was approximate to 17% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.02) and approximate to 19% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.007) than after the LC meal...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  5. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  6. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  7. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  8. Hiking strap force decreases during sustained upwind sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, R; Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis, that sailing upwind in wind speeds above 12 knots causes fatigue, which manifests as a reduction in exerted hiking strap force and/or maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) of the knee extensors, was evaluated. Additionally, it was investigated if a relationship exists...... between maximal exerted hiking force (hMVC) and sailing performance. In part 1 of the study, 12 national level athletes sailed upwind for 2 × 10 min while hiking strap forces were continuously acquired. Before, in between and after sailing periods, the MVC of the knee extensors was measured. In part 2...... causes sailing-specific fatigue as evidenced by a marked reduction in exerted hiking strap force. However, MVC of the knee extensors was not compromised ∼45 s after hiking was terminated. Additionally, sailing performance is related to maximal hiking force....

  9. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    , has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...

  10. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  11. Impact of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, S447X, on Postprandial Triacylglycerol and Glucose Response to Sequential Meal Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatwan, Israa M; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Williams, Christine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Jackson, Kim G; Vimaleswaran, Karani S

    2016-03-18

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X) on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge. S447 homozygotes had lower fasting HDL-C (p = 0.015) and a trend for higher fasting TAG (p = 0.057) concentrations relative to the 447X allele carriers. In the postprandial state, there was an association of the S447X polymorphism with postprandial TAG and glucose, where S447 homozygotes had 12% higher TAG area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.037), 8.4% higher glucose-AUC (p = 0.006) and 22% higher glucose-incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (p = 0.042). A significant gene-gender interaction was observed for fasting TAG (p = 0.004), TAG-AUC (Pinteraction = 0.004) and TAG-IAUC (Pinteraction = 0.016), where associations were only evident in men. In conclusion, our study provides novel findings of an effect of LPL S447X polymorphism on the postprandial glucose and gender-specific impact of the polymorphism on fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations in response to sequential meal challenge in healthy participants.

  12. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S; Astrup, A; de Vrese, M; Holst, J J; Thomsen, C; Hermansen, K

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-blinded clinical intervention study with crossover design. A total of 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 44-74, BMI: 30-41.4 kg m(-2)) were included. On 4 different days the subjects ingested a high-fat meal with the following energy distribution: 66% energy from fat (100 g of butter), 15% of energy from carbohydrate (90 g of white wheat bread) and 19% of energy from protein (45 g of pure protein). Our primary variable was plasma triglyceride measured in the 8-h postprandial period. Secondarily, retinyl palmitate, non-esterified free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and GIP, active and total grehlin and cholecystokinin were measured. We observed no statistically significant (P=0.8) differences between meals on our primary variable that is, triglycerides. Whey hydrolysate was associated with a significantly (P=0.02) smaller postprandial suppression of non-esterified free fatty acids compared with the other dietary proteins. We did not observe significant differences in postprandial lipaemia to the four milk-derived dietary proteins. Whey hydrolysate caused less postprandial suppression of free fatty acids.

  13. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  14. Association of genetic variants with isolated fasting hyperglycaemia and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Kong

    Full Text Available Though multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes have been identified, the genetic bases of isolated fasting hyperglycaemia (IFH and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia (IPH were still unclear. In present study, we aimed to investigate the association of genome-wide association study-validated genetic variants and IFH or IPH in Han Chinese.We genotyped 27 validated SNPs in 6,663 unrelated individuals comprising 341 IFH, 865 IPH, 1,203 combined fasting hyperglycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia, and 4,254 normal glycaemic subjects of Han ancestry. The distributions of genotype frequencies of FTO, CDKAL1 and GCKR were significant different between individuals with IFH and those with IPH (SNP(ptrend : rs8050136(0.0024, rs9939609(0.0049, rs7756992(0.0122, rs780094(0.0037. Risk allele of FTO specifically increased the risk of IFH (rs8050136: OR 1.403 [95% CI 1.125-1.750], p = 0.0027; rs9939609: 1.398 [1.120-1.744], p = 0.0030. G allele of CDKAL1 specifically increased the risk of IPH (1.217 [1.092-1.355], p = 0.0004. G allele of GCKR increased the risk of IFH (1.167 [0.999-1.362], p = 0.0513, but decreased the risk of IPH (0.891 [0.801-0.991], p = 0.0331. In addition, TCF7L2 and KCNQ1 increased the risk of both IFH and IPH. When combined, each additional risk allele associated with IFH increased the risk for IFH by 1.246-fold (p<0.0001, while each additional risk allele associated with IPH increased the risk for IPH by 1.190-fold (p<0.0001.Our results indicate that genotype distributions of variants from FTO, GCKR, CDKAL1 were different between IPH and IFH in Han Chinese. Variants of genes modulating insulin sensitivity (FTO, GCKR contributed to the risk of IFH, while variants of genes related to beta cell function (CDKAL1 increase the risk of IPH.

  15. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  16. Recreational football practice attenuates postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Darren J; Bangsbo, Jens; Nassis, George P

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing football on postprandial lipaemia in normal and overweight individuals. METHODS: Fifteen (7 normal weight, age = 32.3 ± 6.0 years, BMI = 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and 8 overweight, age = 33.3 ± 5.5 years, BMI = 29.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2.......14 to - 0.88; ES = 0.68) groups in the FOOT compared to the CON. The postprandial incremental area under the curve for triglycerides was 31% lower in the normal weight group (ES = 0.79) for the FOOT compared to CON trial and a discernible trend was shown for the overweight group (22%; ES = 0.51). Two...

  17. Effect of β-Glucan Supplementation on Acute Postprandial Changes in Fatty Acid Profile of Lymph and Serum in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Mikkelsen, Lasse Sommer; Jørgensen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Triglycerides are absorbed by the lymphatic system and have various functions in the body. It has been shown that some types of β-glucans have a positive effect on the systemic concentrations of cholesterol and lipid, presumably through interference with the absorption of lipid and/or reabsorption...... of bile acids. In the current study we investigated the acute effects of ingesting 2 g of β-glucan concentrates derived from barley β-(1→3)(1→4)-d-glucan or yeast β-(1→3)(1→6)-d-glucan on fatty acid content and composition in lymph and serum of 10 female pigs (initial weight 34.7 ± 1.1 kg) fitted...... effect of β-glucan was only observed for 14:0 (p = 0.049) and 22:6ω3 (p = 0.048) in lymph and 18:0 (p = 0.019) in serum. While the concentration of dietary fatty acids increased postprandially in lymph, the concentration of arachidonic and docahexanoic acid tended to decrease. Furthermore...

  18. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  19. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian V; Bak, Nikolaj; Madsen, Anna; Mortensen, Henrik B; Søgaard, Birgitte; Szecsi, Pal B; Knop, Filip K; Lublin, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2015-10-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing. In a case-control design, 49 antipsychotic-treated, clinically stable, non-diabetic, schizophrenia spectrum male patients were compared with 93 healthy male controls by age (33.1, SD 7.4 vs. 32.9, SD 6.6 years), body mass index (26.2, SD 4.6 vs. 26.1, SD 3.9 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (96.4, SD 13.0 vs. 96.7, SD 11.9 cm). Serum-prolactin was measured in the morning and 90 min after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2268 kJ). Fasting prolactin levels varied considerably, and mean fasting prolactin levels did not significantly differ between patients and controls (12.33, SD 11.58 vs. 10.06, SD 8.67 ng/ml, p = 0.623). In the controls, postprandial serum prolactin was significantly reduced (Δ -2.53, SD 9.75 ng/ml, p = 0.016). In antipsychotic-treated patients postprandial serum prolactin tended to increase (Δ 2.62, SD 10.96 ng/ml, p = 0.081). Analyses of subgroups based on the prolactinogenic liability of their antipsychotic treatment indicated 22 to 65% higher postprandial prolactin levels with high and intermediate prolactinogenic antipsychotics. A physiological postprandial suppression of serum prolactin appears absent in antipsychotic-treated males. Marked variability in fasting prolactin levels may reflect individual variations in the diurnal cycle. Uniform acquisition procedures accounting for diurnal variation and food intake may enhance reliability of prolactin levels in antipsychotic-treated male patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Heden, Tim; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min ...

  1. Postprandial lipaemia and its relation to premature atherosclerosis in middle-aged men

    OpenAIRE

    Boquist, Susanna

    2000-01-01

    The present research programme was set up to investigate whether pertubations of the metabolism of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are related to premature atherosclerosis and to determine if treatment with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (atorvastatin) improves deranged alimentary lipaemia in postinfarction patients with combined hyperlipidaemia. The relation between plasma insulin and alimentary lipaemia was investigated as we...

  2. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; McClean, Conor; Davison, W Gareth; Murphy, H Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, Jim; Fogarty, Mark; Shafat, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD) participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i) subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control), and (ii) ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec) at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec) and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec) post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P postprandially (pooled exercise and control data, P < 0.05). There were no changes in gastric emptying, cholesterol, or C-reactive protein levels. These data suggest that acute exercise prior to the consumption of a high-fat meal has the potential to reduce vascular impairments. PMID:17973988

  3. The APOB insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs17240441) influences postprandial lipaemia in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan; Minihane, Anne M; Li, Yue; Gill, Rosalyn; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M; Jackson, Kim G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud Apolipoprotein (apo)B is the structural apoprotein of intestinally- and liver- derived lipoproteins and plays an important role in the transport of triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol. Previous studies have examined the association between the APOB insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs17240441) and postprandial lipaemia in response to a single meal; however the findings have been inconsistent with studies often underpowered to detect genotype-lipaemia associations, f...

  4. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lignot, J.H.; Helmstetter, C.; Secor, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% ...

  5. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  6. Effect of macronutrients, age, and obesity on 6- and 24-h postprandial glucose metabolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe; Jordan, Erin T; Glushka, John; Kley, Saskia; Patil, Avinash; Waldron, Mark; Prestegard, James H; Ferguson, Duncan C; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E

    2011-12-01

    Obesity and age are risk factors for feline diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that age, long-term obesity, and dietary composition would lead to peripheral and hepatorenal insulin resistance, indicated by higher endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the fasted and postprandial state, higher blood glucose and insulin, and higher leptin, free thyroxine, and lower adiponectin concentrations. Using triple tracer-(2)H(2)O, [U-(13)C(3)] propionate, and [3,4-(13)C(2)] glucose infusion, and indirect calorimetry-we investigated carbohydrate and fat metabolic pathways in overnight-fasted neutered cats (13 young lean, 12 old lean, and 12 old obese), each fed three different diets (high protein with and without polyunsaturated fatty acids, and high carbohydrate) in a crossover design. EGP was lowest in fasted and postprandial obese cats despite peripheral insulin resistance, indicated by hyperinsulinemia. Gluconeogenesis was the most important pathway for EGP in all groups, but glycogen contributed significantly. Insulin and leptin concentrations were higher in old than in young lean cats; adiponectin was lowest in obese cats but surprisingly highest in lean old cats. Diet had little effect on metabolic parameters. We conclude that hepatorenal insulin resistance does not develop in the fasted or postprandial state, even in long-term obese cats, allowing the maintenance of euglycemia through lowering EGP. Glycogen plays a major role in EGP, especially in lean fasted cats, and in the postprandial state. Aging may predispose to insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for diabetes in cats. Mechanisms underlying the high adiponectin of healthy old lean cats need to be further explored.

  7. Effect of macronutrients, age, and obesity on 6- and 24-h postprandial glucose metabolism in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Erin T.; Glushka, John; Kley, Saskia; Patil, Avinash; Waldron, Mark; Prestegard, James H.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and age are risk factors for feline diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that age, long-term obesity, and dietary composition would lead to peripheral and hepatorenal insulin resistance, indicated by higher endogenous glucose production (EGP) in the fasted and postprandial state, higher blood glucose and insulin, and higher leptin, free thyroxine, and lower adiponectin concentrations. Using triple tracer—2H2O, [U-13C3] propionate, and [3,4-13C2] glucose infusion, and indirect calorimetry—we investigated carbohydrate and fat metabolic pathways in overnight-fasted neutered cats (13 young lean, 12 old lean, and 12 old obese), each fed three different diets (high protein with and without polyunsaturated fatty acids, and high carbohydrate) in a crossover design. EGP was lowest in fasted and postprandial obese cats despite peripheral insulin resistance, indicated by hyperinsulinemia. Gluconeogenesis was the most important pathway for EGP in all groups, but glycogen contributed significantly. Insulin and leptin concentrations were higher in old than in young lean cats; adiponectin was lowest in obese cats but surprisingly highest in lean old cats. Diet had little effect on metabolic parameters. We conclude that hepatorenal insulin resistance does not develop in the fasted or postprandial state, even in long-term obese cats, allowing the maintenance of euglycemia through lowering EGP. Glycogen plays a major role in EGP, especially in lean fasted cats, and in the postprandial state. Aging may predispose to insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for diabetes in cats. Mechanisms underlying the high adiponectin of healthy old lean cats need to be further explored. PMID:21940405

  8. Experimental dog model for assessment of fasting and postprandial fatty acid metabolism: pitfalls and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, S; Benrezzak, O; Battista, M C; Naimi, F; Labbé, S M; Frisch, F; Normand-Lauzière, F; Gallo-Payet, N; Carpentier, A C; Baillargeon, J P

    2015-07-01

    The dog is a widely-used model for conducting metabolic studies. This is mainly due to its large size and its physiology which is relatively similar to that of humans. Here, we attempted to optimize a postprandial metabolic study protocol used in dogs. Following acclimatization, female mongrel dogs underwent 9 h profiling for time-course baseline plasma data on triglyceride, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. One week later, carotid and jugular catheters were surgically inserted for sampling and infusions. Initial post-operative care, based on the literature (Protocol 1), consisted of analgesia (buprenorphine every 8-12 h and 2-3 doses/day of acepromazine), restriction by Pavlov harness within cages, and a two- to three-day recovery period. Throughout the experiment, dogs received a lipid tracer diluted in 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with baseline, animals vomited (n = 6/6) and exhibited high ACTH + cortisol levels (stress biomarkers), resulting in blunted triglyceride peak levels. To avoid these undesirable effects, post-operative care was modified (Protocol 2) as follows: animals (n = 19) were given a single dose of buprenorphine and no acepromazine, were unrestrained and free to move within cages, the recovery period was extended to seven days, and the lipid tracer was diluted in 0.002% versus 5% BSA. Using this modified protocol, postprandial plasma-triglyceride and ACTH/cortisol patterns were similar to baseline values. Controlling for stressors, as well as for factors which may alter proper digestion, is critical for all postprandial metabolic studies. Our results show that an optimized postprandial metabolic protocol used in dogs reduces experimental variability, while improving animal care and comfort. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effect of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and to be a potent risk factor for cardiovascular event. To examine effects of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a total of 112 consecutive male pati ents with angiographically confirmed CAD were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal. CAD patients were divided into three groups as "non-diabetic", "prediabetic", and "diabetic" CAD groups. The serum triglyceride (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) levels at the 6th hour in diabetic CAD group showed significantly higher than non-diabetic CAD group, and the incremental area under the curves (iAUCs) of these levels in diabetic CAD group were significantly greater than non-diabetic CAD group (TG, P = 0.0194; RLP-C, P = 0.0219). There were no significant differences in the iAUCs of TG or RLP-C between prediabetic and non-diabetic CAD group. The AUCs of plasma insulin levels or insulin resistance index (IRI): (AUCs of insulin) × (AUCs of glucose) as the insulin resistance marker were greater in diabetic CAD group than non-diabetic CAD group (insulin, P = 0.0373; IRI, P = 0.0228). The AUCs of serum TG or RLP-C levels showed a correlation with the AUCs of plasma insulin (AUC-TG, r = 0.5437, P postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD patients. Diabetic, but not prediabetic state, may be a risk for postprandial impaired lipid metabolism in CAD patients.

  10. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  11. Sleeve gastrectomy in rats improves postprandial lipid clearance by reducing intestinal triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, Margaret A; Sandoval, Darleen A; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Hofmann, Susanna M; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2011-09-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease and is associated with the consumption of high-fat diets and obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in superior and more durable weight loss than dieting. These surgeries are also associated with multiple metabolic improvements, including reduced plasma lipid levels. We investigated whether the beneficial effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on plasma lipid levels are weight independent. VSG was performed on Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Controls were sham-operated animals who were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed. We measured fasting and postprandial levels of plasma lipid. To determine hepatic and intestinal triglyceride secretion, we injected the lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 alone or before oral lipid gavage. (13)C-Triolein was used to estimate postprandial uptake of lipid in the intestine. Rats that received VSG and high-fat diets had markedly lower fasting levels of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid than obese and lean (pair-fed) controls that were fed high-fat diets. Rats that received VSG had a marked, weight-independent reduction in secretion of intestinal triglycerides. VSG did not alter total intestinal triglyceride levels or size of the cholesterol storage pool nor did it affect the expression of genes in the intestine that control triglyceride metabolism and synthesis. VSG did not affect fasting secretion of triglyceride, liver weight, hepatic lipid storage, or transcription of genes that regulate hepatic lipid processing. VSG reduced postprandial levels of plasma lipid, independently of body weight. This resulted from reduced intestinal secretion of triglycerides following ingestion of a lipid meal and indicates that VSG has important effects on metabolism. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of acute interval sprinting exercise on postprandial lipemia of sedentary young men

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Aaron; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postprandial lipemia (PPL) contributesto the development of atherosclerosis. In females, repeated 8-second bouts of interval sprinting exercise reduced PPL, however, the effect of 8-second bouts of interval sprinting on PPL of overweight males is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-secondsof interval sprinting for 20 min, the night before ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM), on plasma triacylglycerol(TG) levelswas examined. [Methods] Ten overweight males acted as participants (BMI = ...

  13. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  14. Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M H; Olde Damink, Steven W; Schols, Annemie M W J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-08-16

    Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%-2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various

  15. Postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket and gastric pressure in patients after gastric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Herbella, F. A. M. [UNIFESP; Vicentine, F. P. P. [UNIFESP; Del Grande, J. C. [UNIFESP; Patti, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAn unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). the role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric pressure after gastric surgery.MethodsA total of 26 individuals were studied: eight patients after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morb...

  16. Upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and the suppression of hepatic triglyceride lipase as a direct cause of hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Naoki; Ito, Tsunekata; Ohwada, Kazuo; Fujii, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits with hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemia exhibit central obesity and are regarded as a reliable model for metabolic syndrome. This study was performed to gain insight into the affected process of lipid metabolism and into the causative genes of the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia rabbits. Eleven genes that play key roles in lipid metabolism were selected, their mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative PCR, and their expressions were compared among postprandial hypertriglyc...

  17. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren J; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl · 12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl · 12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l · 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-05-20

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 red rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  19. Postprandial lipaemia: effects of sitting, standing and walking in healthy normolipidaemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, M; Park, J-H; Takahashi, M; Suzuki, K; Stensel, D; Nakamura, Y

    2013-01-01

    Long periods of sedentary behaviour may adversely affect health irrespective of overall physical activity levels. This study compared the effects of sitting, standing and walking on postprandial lipaemia in healthy normolipidaemic Japanese men. 15 participants, aged 26.8±2.0 years (mean±SD), completed 3, 2-day trials in a random order: 1) sitting (control), 2) standing, and 3) walking. On day 1 of the sitting trial, participants rested. On day 1 of the standing trial, participants stood for six, 45-min periods. On day 1 of the walking trial, participants walked briskly for 30 min at approximately 60% of maximum heart rate. On day 2 of each trial, participants rested and consumed test meals for breakfast and lunch. Venous blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day 1, and in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially on day 2. On day 2 area under the serum triacylglycerol concentration vs. time curve was 18% lower on the walking trial than the sitting and standing trials (1-factor ANOVA, P=0.015). Hence postprandial lipaemia was not reduced after standing but was reduced after low-volume walking compared with sitting in healthy normolipidaemic Japanese men. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Jim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control, and (ii ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P

  1. Sex-associated effect of CETP and LPL polymorphisms on postprandial lipids in familial hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvaki Christina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the gender-specific influence of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (TaqIB, I405V and lipoprotein lipase (S447X polymorphisms on the response to an oral fat tolerance test in heterozygotes for familial hypercholesterolaemia. Methods We selected and genotyped 80 men and postmenopausal women heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia (main group as well as 11 healthy control subjects. Patients were subgrouped based on their response to oral fat tolerance test. The oral fat tolerance test was defined as pathological when postprandial triglyceride concentration was higher than the highest triglyceride concentration observed in healthy subjects (220 mg/dl at any time (2, 4, 6 or 8 h. Results In the pathological subgroup, men had significantly higher incremental area under the curve after oral fat tolerance test than postmenopausal women. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed a gender association of TaqIB and I405V influence on postprandial lipaemia in this subgroup. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that gender and TaqIB polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene were both associated with the distribution of triglyceride values after oral fat tolerance test, only in subjects with a pathological response to oral fat tolerance test. Specifically, men carrying the B2 allele of the TaqIB polymorphism showed a higher postprandial triglyceride peak and a delayed return to basal values compared with women carrying B2. However, further investigations in larger populations are required to replicate and confirm these findings.

  2. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular diseases: the beneficial role of strength exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  3. Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL. Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg, sucrose (4 g/kg and starch (3 g/kg loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  4. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  5. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Thorsby, P; Kjems, L

    2000-01-01

    The effect on postprandial blood glucose control of an immediately pre-meal injection of the rapid acting insulin analogue Aspart (IAsp) was compared with that of human insulin Actrapid injected immediately or 30 minutes before a test meal in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with residual....../kg) immediately (Act0) or 30 minutes before (Act-30) a test meal. We studied 25 insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients, including 14 males and 11 females, with a mean age of 59.7 years (range, 43-71), body mass index 28.3 kg/m2 (range, 21.9-35.0), HbA1c 8.5% (range, 6.8-10.0), glucagon-stimulated C-peptide 1.......0 nmol/l (range, 0.3-2.5) and diabetes duration 12.5 years (range, 3.0-26.0). Twenty-two patients completed the study. A significantly improved postprandial glucose control was demonstrated with IAsp as compared to Act0, based on a significantly smaller postprandial blood glucose excursion (IAsp, 899...

  6. Exercise effects on postprandial glycemia, mood, and sympathovagal balance in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Sheri R; Grieco, Carmine R; Somma, C Thomas

    2014-04-01

    To compare the impact of walking with a recreational activity on postprandial glycemia, heart rate variability, and mood state following the dinner meal. Participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in 3 trials on different days in random order after ingestion of a standardized dinner meal (300 ± 6 kcals). University clinical testing laboratory. Twelve participants (9 female, 3 male; 58.7 ± 2.4 years) with uncomplicated T2D not taking insulin or beta-blocker medications. Thirty minutes of self-paced walking on a treadmill (TM), 30 minutes of table tennis played continuously against the iPong robot (TT), and 30 minutes of rest (CON) undertaken 30 minutes after the start of ingestion of the same dinner meal on three occasions within a week. Blood glucose was measured at 30-minute intervals through 180 minutes starting immediately prior to the dinner meal. Profile of Mood States was completed before and immediately following exercise or rest. Sympathovagal balance (heart rate variability) was measured prior to eating and 30 minutes after trial completion. Compared with TT or CON, TM resulted in significantly lower postprandial blood glucose (P mood state nor HRV were significantly different among trials. Thirty minutes of self-paced walking following the dinner meal may be more effective at lowering postprandial glycemia in T2D than a similar duration of table tennis played continuously against a robot. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk Polar Lipids Affect In Vitro Digestive Lipolysis and Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Bourlieu, Claire; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Penhoat, Armelle; Cheillan, David; Pineau, Gaëlle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Trauchessec, Michèle; Claude, Mathilde; Ménard, Olivia; Géloën, Alain; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Polar lipid (PL) emulsifiers such as milk PLs (MPLs) may affect digestion and subsequent lipid metabolism, but focused studies on postprandial lipemia are lacking. We evaluated the impact of MPLs on postprandial lipemia in mice and on lipid digestion in vitro. Female Swiss mice were gavaged with 150 μL of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with 5.7 mg of either MPLs or soybean PLs (SPLs) and killed after 1, 2, or 4 h. Plasma lipids were quantified and in the small intestine, gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Emulsions were lipolyzed in vitro using a static human digestion model; triglyceride (TG) disappearance was followed by thin-layer chromatography. In mice, after 1 h, plasma TGs tended to be higher in the MPL group than in the SPL group (141 μg/mL vs. 90 μg/mL; P = 0.07) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were significantly higher (64 μg/mL vs. 44 μg/mL; P lipid intestinal hydrolysis and promote more rapid intestinal lipid absorption and sharper kinetics of lipemia. Postprandial lipemia in mice can be modulated by emulsifying with MPLs compared with SPLs, partly through differences in chylomicron assembly, and TG hydrolysis rate as observed in vitro. MPLs may thereby contribute to the long-term regulation of lipid metabolism. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after...... and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose...... and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. CONCLUSIONS: In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion...

  9. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  11. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  12. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  13. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  14. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  15. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  16. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  17. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  18. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  19. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  20. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P < 0.002) and significantly increased triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P < 0.001) relative to baseline. The strawberry intervention did not alter vascular function or attenuate postprandial metabolic derangements in triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered

  1. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Increased postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon responses and reduced postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses have been observed in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The causality of these pathophysiological traits...... postprandial GLP-1 responses as observed in some individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...

  2. [The effect of muscle load on the post-prandial content of blood serum hydrolytic enzymes in men with different levels and specificity of daily physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznykh, A V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data on the effect of the combined action of food and muscular load on the level of hydrolytic enzymes in blood serum of healthy young people 18-22 years old, with various levels of adaptation to the effects of physical activity. The first group (n = 8) of the examined persons were high-qualified athletes developing their speed and power qualities in anaerobic energetic regime (Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, judo). The second group (n = 8) were athletes developing endurance in aerobic energetic regime (skiers, track and field athletes--stayers, biathletes). The control group (n = 8) consists of non-athletes. The content of hydrolytic enzymes: pepsinogen-1, pepsinogen-2, the activity of pancreatic alpha-amylase, lipase were defined by ELISA. The content and activity of ferments were defined in blood serum, taken in the morning fasting and post-prandial period in dynamics after 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after administration of the test breakfast (100 g of ground boiled beef and 200 ml of unsweetened tea) in a state of relative physiological rest and after the veloergometric exercise muscular load (at the level of 60-70% of maximal oxygen consumption) during an hour (in 7-14 days). Multidirectional changes of concentration of investigated enzymes in the postprandial period among examined were defined in the conditions of relative physiological rest and under the action of the muscular tension. For groups of athletes higher alpha-amylase and lipase blood activity were characteristic both in a state of physiological rest and under the action of muscular load. It was also determined that after the muscular tension there was an increase in activity of alpha-amylase at 75 min and lipases at 15 min relative to background indicators at non-athletes. For the athletes from the second group the increase (p athletes unidirectionally, it decreased (p athletes of the first group at 45 min. and in athletes from the second group at 15-105 min (p athletes of the

  3. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  4. Calbindins decreased after space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I N; Rhoten, W B; Carney, M D

    1996-12-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  5. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  6. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  7. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Samira; Cooney, Josephine; Packard, Christopher J; Caslake, Muriel; Deighan, Christopher J

    2009-07-01

    Patients with nephrotic range proteinuria have a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and lipoproteins contribute to this increased risk with an abundance of atherogenic triglyceride (TG) rich apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. TG rich lipoproteins predominate postprandially and are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oils have been shown to have beneficial effects on lipids and lipoproteins in patients without proteinuria. 17 patients with nephrotic range proteinuria and 17 age and sex matched controls were studied. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed in patients and controls, before and after 8 weeks treatment with 4 g daily of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor). A standard fat load (90 g) was administered and blood sampling was performed in the fasting state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8h after the fat load. Chylomicrons and VLDL(1) density fraction was isolated from plasma by density ultracentrifugation. Postprandial chylomicron and VLDL(1) triglyceride concentrations were measured and quantified using the incremental area under the curve (AUC) method. Baseline postprandial chylomicron TG AUC was greater in patients compared with controls: median 18.5 mmol/lh (interquartile range 8.9-32.6) vs 9.3 mmol/lh (4.8-14.4) p=0.05. Following treatment patient chylomicron AUC fell [mean reduction 6.8 mmol/lh (95% CI 0.1-13.6) p=0.05]. No significant reduction in chylomicron AUC was observed in the controls [mean reduction 3.9 mmol/lh (95% CI -3.6 to 11.5)]. As a result, following 8 weeks treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, patient and control chylomicron AUC were no longer significantly different [patients 13.5 mmol/lh (7.4-22.9), controls 7.2 mmol/lh (4.6-14.5) both median and IQR, p=nsd]. VLDL(1) TG AUC did not differ at baseline between patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on VLDL(1) AUC following treatment in either

  9. A green tea-containing starch confection increases plasma catechins without protecting against postprandial impairments in vascular function in normoglycemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapper, Teryn N; Mah, Eunice; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; McDonald, Joshua D; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Reverri, Elizabeth J; Vodovotz, Yael; Bruno, Richard S

    2016-09-14

    Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) increases cardiovascular disease risk regardless of glucose intolerance by transiently impairing vascular endothelial function (VEF) by limiting nitric oxide bioavailability in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Preclinical studies show that green tea catechins attenuate PPH by inhibiting starch digestion. We hypothesized that a starch-based confection containing catechin-rich green tea extract (GTE) would limit PPH-mediated impairments in VEF in normoglycemic adults. We formulated a unique GTE confection and then conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study in healthy men (n = 15; 25.3 ± 1.0 years; 22.4 ± 1.8 kg m(-2)) in which they ingested starch confections (50 g carbohydrate) formulated with or without GTE (1 g) prior to evaluating sensory characteristics of confections and plasma glucose, biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide homeostasis, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at 30 min intervals for 3 h. Sensory evaluation of confections indicated acceptable consumer appeal and an inability to distinguish between confections regardless of GTE. Plasma catechins concentrations increased following ingestion of the GTE confection. However, plasma glucose peaked at 60 min (P confection ingestion and was unaffected throughout the postprandial period by the GTE confection (P > 0.05). FMD was significantly decreased only at 60 min regardless of confections containing GTE. Also at 60 min, both confections similarly increased plasma malondialdehyde while decreasing arginine and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. The successfully formulated GTE-containing confection effectively delivered catechins, but without mitigating PPH-mediated impairments in VEF in association with oxidative stress that likely limits nitric oxide bioavailability.

  10. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  11. Impact of meal fatty acid composition on postprandial lipaemia, vascular function and blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Weech, Michelle; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2018-03-16

    CVD are the leading cause of death in women globally, with ageing associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction and increased CVD risk. Natural menopause is characterised by raised non-fasting TAG concentrations and impairment of vascular function compared with premenopausal women. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased CVD risk after women have transitioned through the menopause are unclear. Dietary fat is an important modifiable risk factor relating to both postprandial lipaemia and vascular reactivity. Meals rich in SFA and MUFA are often associated with greater postprandial TAG responses compared with those containing n-6 PUFA, but studies comparing their effects on vascular function during the postprandial phase are limited, particularly in postmenopausal women. The present review aimed to evaluate the acute effects of test meals rich in SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA on postprandial lipaemia, vascular reactivity and other CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. The systematic search of the literature identified 778 publications. The impact of fat-rich meals on postprandial lipaemia was reported in seven relevant studies, of which meal fat composition was compared in one study described in three papers. An additional study determined the impact of a high-fat meal on vascular reactivity. Although moderately consistent evidence suggests detrimental effects of high-fat meals on postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal (than premenopausal) women, there is insufficient evidence to establish the impact of meals of differing fat composition. Furthermore, there is no robust evidence to conclude the effect of meal fatty acids on vascular function or blood pressure. In conclusion, there is an urgent requirement for suitably powered robust randomised controlled trials to investigate the impact of meal fat composition on postprandial novel and established CVD risk markers in postmenopausal women, an understudied population at increased cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Acute effects of plant stanol esters on postprandial metabolism and its relation with changes in serum lipids after chronic intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, E; Mensink, R P; Lütjohann, D; Plat, J

    2015-01-01

    Plant stanol esters lower serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), but responses between individuals vary widely. As the ability of subjects to respond to acute dietary challenges may reflect the flexibility to adapt to changes on the longer term, we related subjects' acute postprandial metabolic changes to changes in serum lipoproteins after chronic intake of plant stanol esters. In a double-blind crossover design, 20 healthy subjects received in random order a high-fat shake enriched with or without plant stanol esters (4 g). Blood samples were taken during 4 h to examine lipid, glucose and lipoprotein profiles. Two subjects dropped out. For the 3 weeks after this postprandial test, the subjects who received the shake with plant stanol esters continued the consumption of plant stanol-enriched (3g/day) margarine and subjects receiving the control shake in the postprandial test consumed for the next 3 weeks a control margarine. After the washout period, subjects received the other shake and margarines. The margarine enriched with plant stanol esters lowered concentrations of total cholesterol by 7.3% (Plipid and glucose metabolism during the postprandial phase. However, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the postprandial glucose concentration after consuming the control shake correlated positively with changes in fasting concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, apoB100, total VLDL, small VLDL and intermediate-density lipoprotein after 3 weeks. A single dose of plant stanol esters does not change postprandial lipid and lipoprotein profiles. However, postprandial glucose responses may predict the effects of chronic plant stanol ester consumption.

  13. Indispensable amino acid concentrations decrease in tissues of stomachless fish, common carp in response to free amino acid- or peptide-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K; Hliwa, P; Gomulka, P

    2006-09-01

    The premise that free amino acid or dipeptide based diets will resolve the nutritional inadequacy of formulated feeds for larval and juvenile fish and improve utilization of nitrogen in comparison to protein-based diets was tested in stomachless fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. We examined the postprandial whole body free amino acid (FAA) pool in fish that were offered a FAA mixture based diet for the duration of 2 or 4 weeks. We found that the total amount and all indispensable amino acids concentrations in the whole body decreased after a meal. We then fed juvenile carp with dietary amino acids provided in the FAA, dipeptide (PP), or protein (live feed organisms; brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii, AS) forms. Histidine concentrations in the whole fish body increased in all dietary groups after feeding whereas all other indispensable amino acids decreased in FAA and PP groups in comparison to the AS group. Taurine appears to be the major osmotic pressure balancing free amino acid in larval freshwater fish which may indicate a conditional requirement. We present the first evidence in larval fish that in response to synthetic FAA and PP diets, the whole body indispensable free AA concentrations decreased after feeding. This study shows that amino acids given entirely as FAA or PP cannot sustain stomachless larval fish growth, and may result in depletion of body indispensable AA and most of dispensable AA. The understanding of these responses will determine necessary changes in diet formulations that prevent accelerated excretion of amino acids without protein synthesis.

  14. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  15. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  16. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284 PMID:21899741

  17. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces postprandial and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid levels in Japanese hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Kato, Ken; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao

    2014-02-19

    Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) inhibits dietary fat absorption in rats and exerts preventive effects on abdominal adiposity in rats and humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LG2055 on postprandial serum lipid responses in Japanese subjects with hypertriacylglycerolemia after the intake of oral fat-loading test (OFLT) meals. We conducted a single-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, repeated-measure intervention trial. Twenty subjects initially ingested the fermented milk (FM) without LG2055 for 4 weeks (control FM period), followed by a 4-week washout period, and then consumed FM containing LG2055 for 4 weeks (active FM period). The subjects were asked to consume FM at 200 g/day. At the end of each 4-week period, an 8-h OFLT was conducted. Blood samples were collected at fasting and every hour for 8 h after OFLT meal intake. Thereafter, postprandial serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and fasting blood parameters were measured. The OFLT showed that the postprandial serum NEFA levels from 120 to 480 min and the postprandial serum TAG level at 120 min in the active FM period were significantly (P fasting serum NEFA level in the active FM period significantly (P probiotic LG2055 reduced postprandial and fasting serum NEFA levels, suggesting its possible contribution to the reduction of the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. UMIN000011605.

  18. Risks of Misinterpretation in the Evaluation of the Effect of Fruit-Based Drinks in Postprandial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that some fruit-based drinks (FBD may delay the onset of postprandial stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The majority of the studies, which have investigated the effects of FBD on postprandial stress, involved a placebo that was a drink with the same content in sugars or carbohydrates of the FBD, but without the bioactive antioxidant compounds. These studies were aimed more at evaluating the effect of the antioxidants rather than the effect of the FBD as a whole. Only 4 studies compared the effect of FBD with water as control and did not support the hypothesis that FBD could inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism, as well as the studies that compared the effect of orange juice and cola. Overall, the results suggest a complex relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers need further analytical validation and normal ranges should be established in order to reach a firm conclusion. Finally, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the effect of FBD in postprandial studies and the reviewed results suggest that dietary recommendations should aim to limit rather than increase sugar-sweetened beverages consumption.

  19. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  20. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...

  1. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... extent these expectations are being met through the comparative case study of two sustainability certifications in the biofuel industry – in the context of a wider set of experiences in the agro-food and forestry sectors. I show that ‘roundtabling’ entails an ever more complex web of governance systems...

  2. Replacing carbohydrate during a glucose challenge with the egg white portion or whole eggs protects against postprandial impairments in vascular endothelial function in prediabetic men by limiting increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joshua D; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Li, Jinhui; Mah, Eunice; Labyk, Allison N; Reverri, Elizabeth J; Ballard, Kevin D; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2018-02-01

    Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), lipids (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol; TAG), F2-isoprostanes normalised to arachidonic acid (F2-IsoPs/AA), and methylglyoxal were assessed. In GLU, FMD decreased at 30-60 min and returned to baseline levels by 90 min. GLU-mediated decreases in FMD were attenuated at 30-60 min in EGG and WHITE. Compared with GLU, FMDAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE only. Relative to baseline, glucose increased at 30-120 min in GLU and YOLK but only at 30-90 min in EGG and WHITE. GlucoseAUC and insulinAUC were also lower in EGG and WHITE only. However, CCKAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE compared with GLU. Compared with GLU, F2-IsoPs/AAAUC was lower in EGG and WHITE but unaffected by YOLK. Postprandial lipids and methylglyoxal did not differ between treatments. Thus, replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs or egg whites, but not yolks, limits postprandial impairments in VEF by attenuating increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.

  3. Postprandial Insulin and Triglycerides after Different Breakfast Meal Challenges: Use of Finger Stick Capillary Dried Blood Spots to Study Postprandial Dysmetabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Sonia; Groves, Margaret N.; Zava, David T.; Kapur, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Background High levels of insulin and lipids following a meal are recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis. Monitoring such risk factors in the general population is hampered by the inconvenience of venipuncture blood collection, particularly for both premeal and postmeal analyses. This study examined insulin and triglyceride levels in dried blood spots (DBSs) collected after different breakfast meal challenges to assess the potential of this method for risk assessment. Methods Glucose levels were measured using a glucose meter, and insulin and triglycerides were determined in DBS samples collected from 19 healthy volunteers before and at four time points up to 2.5 h after consuming each of five typical breakfast meals varying in nutritional composition. Results At 2 h, glucose was within normal postprandial values (<140 mg/dl) for all meals; significantly lower glucose was seen after meal 2 (the lowest carbohydrate content) compared to the other meals. Insulin returned to normal fasting levels (<15 μIU/ml) in significantly more subjects (90%) after meal 2 and significantly fewer subjects (31%) after meal 4 (highest carbohydrate content) than the other meals. Triglycerides were elevated to a similar extent in all subjects, with no significant differences between meals; levels were still rising at 2.5 h. Conclusions Subjects were able to collect blood spots with minimum disruption to their normal daily activities. Relative ease of collection, analyte stability in dried blood, and the close correlation with serum levels that we have previously demonstrated makes DBS a convenient and simple tool for assessing the individual impact of different diets on postprandial dysmetabolism. PMID:20307382

  4. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  5. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  6. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  7. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  8. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  9. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  10. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  11. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  12. The Effect of Tofogliflozin Treatment on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Japanese Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Junji; Sakurai, Masaru; Kakuda, Masahiro; Takekoshi, Noboru

    2017-05-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are highly related to the development of atherosclerosis. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have attracted attention as a new class of anti-diabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of tofogliflozin on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes. Ten Japanese men with type 2 diabetes (average age 66.3 years) were orally administered tofogliflozin (20 mg per day) for 8 weeks followed by a subsequent 8 weeks of washout of the agent. At 0, 8 and 16 weeks, postprandial metabolic parameters were measured at 0, 60 and 120 min after cookie ingestion. There were significant reductions in body weight and body mass index at 8 weeks. There was a reduction in HbA1c at 8 weeks, which returned to pretreatment levels at 16 weeks. Serum insulin levels did not change during the entire study period under either fasting or postprandial state. The area under the curve of plasma glucagon significantly increased at 8 weeks. There were no changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels either in fasting or postprandial state except for tendency toward reduction in postprandial triglycerides at 8 weeks and increase in HDL-C at 16 weeks. Tofogliflozin treatment causes an improvement of postprandial glucose metabolism but not considerable postprandial lipid metabolism.

  13. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  14. Postprandial blood glucose response to a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated with insulin lispro mix 50 or human insulin mix 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Li, G; Li, Y; Guo, X; Yuan, G; Gong, Q; Yan, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion following a standard test meal in insulin-requiring patients with diabetes treated twice daily with human insulin mix 50 vs. insulin lispro mix 50 (LM50). Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, crossover comparison of two insulin treatments for two 12-week treatment periods in 120 Chinese patients. One- and 2-h PPBG and excursion values were obtained following a standardised test meal. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dose, rate of hypoglycaemia and safety data were obtained. A crossover analysis using SAS Proc MIXED was employed. Results Mean 2-h PPBG excursion decreased from 6.32 ± 3.07 mmol/l at baseline to 3.47 ± 2.97 mmol/l at end-point in the LM50 group, and from 6.31 ± 2.88 at baseline to 5.02 ± 3.32 mmol/l at end-point in the human insulin mix 50 group (p < 0.001). Two-hour PPBG (p = 0.004) and 1-h PPBG excursion (p < 0.001) were significantly lower with LM50 as compared with human insulin mix 50. Both treatment groups were equivalent for HbA1c control, 1-h PPBG and insulin dose requirements. Mean FBG was higher with LM50 than with human insulin mix 50 (p = 0.023). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and hypoglycaemia rate per 30 days were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions Insulin lispro mix 50 provided better postprandial glycaemic control compared with human insulin mix 50 while providing the convenience of injecting immediately before meals. Both treatments were generally well tolerated by all randomly assigned patients. PMID:18657196

  15. Differential postprandial lipoprotein responses in type 2 diabetic men with and without clinical evidence of a former myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Marius; Thomsen, Claus; Gotzsche, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Postprandial lipemia plays an important role in the development of coronary heart disease through an elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In type 2 diabetic male subjects, our aim was to compare postprandial lipemia in a high-risk population with former myocardial infarction (MI......, insulin, or lipid lowering pharmacological treatment were exclusion criteria. After a maximal exercise tolerance test and echocardiography, the subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp and a vitamin A fat loading test. Plasma triglyceride levels in the case group were significantly higher...... responses in the chylomicron-fraction from the case group were significantly higher (iAUC 311,502 +/- 194,933 vs. 187,004 +/- 102,928 ng x 480 min./ml; p = 0.035). Type 2 diabetic males with prior MI had higher postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein responses than those without MI, indicating that high...

  16. Digesting or swimming? Integration of the postprandial metabolism, behavior and locomotion in a frequently foraging fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Juan; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Fish that are active foragers usually perform routine activities while digesting their food; thus, their postprandial swimming capacity and related behavior adjustments might be ecologically important. To test whether digestion affect swimming performance and the relationships of digestion with metabolism and behavior in an active forager, we investigated the postprandial metabolic response, spontaneous swimming activities, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), and fast-start escape performance of both fasted and digesting (3h after feeding to satiation) juvenile rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Feeding to satiation elicited a 50% increase in the oxygen consumption rate, which peaked at 3h after feeding and returned to the prefeeding state after another 3h. However, approximately 50% and 90% of individuals resumed feeding behavior at 2 and 3h postfeeding, respectively, although the meal size varied substantially. Digestion showed no effect on either steady swimming performance as suggested by the Ucrit or unsteady swimming performance indicated by the maximum linear velocity in fast-start escape movement. However, digesting fish showed more spontaneous activity as indicated by the longer total distance traveled, mainly through an increased percentage of time spent moving (PTM). A further analysis found that fasting individuals with high swimming speed were more inclined to increase their PTM during digestive processes. The present study suggests that as an active forager With a small meal size and hence limited postprandial physiological and morphological changes, the swimming performance of rose bitterling is maintained during digestion, which might be crucial for its active foraging mode and anti-predation strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignot, Jean-Hervé; Helmstetter, Cécile; Secor, Stephen M

    2005-07-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% increase. Contributing to enterocyte hypertrophy is the cellular accumulation of lipid droplets at the tips and edges of the villi of the proximal and middle small intestine, but which were absent in the distal small intestine. At 3 days postfeeding, conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks and lipid extrusion along the narrow edges of the villi and at the villus tips. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the rapid postprandial lengthening of enterocyte microvilli, increasing 4.8-fold in length within 24 h, and the maintaining of that length through digestion. Beginning at 24 h postfeeding, spherical particles were found embedded apically within enterocytes of the proximal and middle small intestine. These particles possessed an annular-like construction and were stained with the calcium-stain Alizarine red S suggesting that they were bone in origin. Following the completion of digestion, many of the postprandial responses were reversed, as observed by the atrophy of enterocytes, the shortening of villi, and the retraction of the microvilli. Further exploration of the python intestine will reveal the underlying mechanisms of these trophic responses and the origin and fate of the engulfed particles.

  18. Absence of exendin-4 effects on postprandial glucose and lipids in the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Carolyn M; Denardo, Dale F

    2007-01-01

    Circulating nutrients serve as energy resources for functioning tissues throughout the body. While the tight regulation of plasma nutrients has been extensively studied in mammals, investigations into specific metabolic regulators in reptiles have been limited and have revealed conflicting results. The peptide exendin-4, which was isolated from the saliva of Gila monsters, Heloderma suspectum, has demonstrated prolonged plasma glucose-lowering properties in mammals. Although exendin-4 has often been labeled a venom protein, circulating plasma levels of exendin-4 have been shown to increase in response to feeding. Because exendin-4 has glucose-regulating effects in mammals, we hypothesized that post-prandial elevation in circulating exendin-4 levels in Gila monsters reduces plasma glucose and triglycerides. To examine the effect of exendin-4 on circulating nutrients, we measured plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels of Gila monsters in response to one of four treatments: fed live mice (a natural post-prandial increase in exendin-4), force-fed dead mice while anesthetized (no post-prandial exendin-4 increase), force-fed dead mice while anesthetized and injected with exendin-4 immediately after feeding (exogenous increase in exendin-4), and force-fed dead mice while anesthetized and injected with exendin-4 24 h after feeding (delayed exogenous increase in exendin-4). After prey ingestion, glucose and triglyceride levels increased significantly over time in all treatment groups, but there was no significant treatment effect. Plasma exendin-4 levels showed significant time and treatment effects, but did not correspond to glucose and triglyceride levels. Our results demonstrate that plasma nutrient levels in Gila monsters respond relatively slowly to feeding and that exendin-4 does not have the same effect on circulating glucose in Gila monsters as it does in mammals. Further studies are necessary to determine whether circulating exendin-4 has an alternate

  19. Effectiveness of acarbose in treating elderly patients with diabetes with postprandial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Lixin

    2017-04-01

    : Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose. After an overnight fast, patients received a single dose of acarbose (100 mg) or placebo and then consumed a standardized 450 kcal meal. Blood pressure, glucose levels, heart rate (HR), and catecholamine levels were evaluated. Acarbose ameliorated PPH as determined by significant improvements in the duration and maximal fall in blood pressure (both p<0.001); however, no differences in HR and blood glucose levels were observed. In patients with PPH, blood pressure was correlated with blood glucose and HR variability values (p<0.05). Correlations between epinephrine and glucagon-like peptide-1 with blood pressure in groups A and C were largely lost in group B. Acarbose reduced postprandial blood pressure fluctuations in elderly patients with diabetes. PPH may be related to impaired autonomic nervous system function, reduced catecholamine secretion, and postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IPR-15006177. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  20. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  1. Differential impact of the cheese matrix on the postprandial lipid response: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Charest, Amélie; Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Lamarche, Benoît; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Couture, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a simulated gastrointestinal environment, the cheese matrix modulates dairy fat digestion. However, to our knowledge, the impact of the cheese matrix on postprandial lipemia in humans has not yet been evaluated. Objective: In healthy subjects, we compared the impact of dairy fat provided from firm cheese, soft cream cheese, and butter on the postprandial response at 4 h and on the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma triglycerides. Design: Forty-three healthy subjects were recruited to this randomized, crossover, controlled trial. In random order at intervals of 14 d and after a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 33 g fat from a firm cheese (young cheddar), a soft cream cheese (cream cheese), or butter (control) incorporated into standardized meals that were matched for macronutrient content. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were measured immediately before the meal and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the meal. Results: Cheddar cheese, cream cheese, and butter induced similar increases in triglyceride concentrations at 4 h (change from baseline: +59%, +59%, and +62%, respectively; P = 0.9). No difference in the triglyceride iAUC 0-8 h ( P -meal = 0.9) was observed between the 3 meals. However, at 2 h, the triglyceride response caused by the cream cheese (change from baseline: +44%) was significantly greater than that induced by butter (change from baseline: +24%; P = 0.002) and cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +16%; P = 0.0004). At 6 h, the triglyceride response induced by cream cheese was significantly attenuated compared with that induced by cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +14% compared with +42%; P = 0.0004). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the cheese matrix modulates the impact of dairy fat on postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02623790. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Regional postprandial differences in pH within the stomach and gastroesophageal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Hrair P; Vo, Lien; Doma, Siva; Fisher, Robert S; Parkman, Henry P

    2005-12-01

    Our objective was to determine regional differences in intragastric pH after different types of meals. Ten normal subjects underwent 27-hr esophagogastric pH monitoring using a four-probe pH catheter. Meals were a spicy lunch, a high-fat dinner, and a typical bland breakfast. The fatty dinner had the highest postprandial buffering effect, elevating proximal and mid/distal gastric pH to 4.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.0 +/- 0.4, respectively, significantly (P meal to pH > 4 was also longer (150 min) compared to that of the spicy lunch (45 min) and the bland breakfast, which did not increase gastric pH to > 4 at any time. Proximal gastric acid pockets were seen between 15 and 90 min postprandially. These were located 3.4 +/- 0.8 cm below the proximal LES border, extending for a length of 2.3 +/- 0.8 cm, with a drop in mean pH from 4.7 +/- 0.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9. Acid pockets were seen equally after the spicy lunch and fatty dinner but less frequently after the bland breakfast. We conclude that a high-volume fatty meal has the highest buffering effect on gastric pH compared to a spicy lunch or a bland breakfast. Buffering effects of meals are significantly higher in the proximal than in the mid/distal stomach. Despite the intragastric buffering effect of meals, focal areas of acidity were observed in the region of the cardia-gastroesophageal junction during the postprandial period.

  3. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  4. Hypercapnia adversely affects postprandial metabolism in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2013-01-01

    significantly increased the duration of the SDA response by 22% and 29%, respectively.Hypercapnia had no effect on standard metabolic rate,while constant or oscillating hypercapnia significantly lowered the maximum metabolic rate compared to controls, causing a significant reduction of the aerobic scope during...... ammonia excretion were observed at high pCO2 or low Ph/normocapnia. The results demonstrate that despite an exceptional tolerance towards elevated pCO2 and acidosis, postprandial metabolic processes of the European eel are adversely affected by hypercapnia and low pH...

  5. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results.......01) and fullness (p Z 0.03) was seen following the HM meal compared to meal C. AUC for ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 and ad libitum energy intake did not differ between meals, but ghrelin response exhibited a different response pattern after the mucilage-containing meals. Conclusion: These findings suggest that flaxseed...

  6. Energy replacement diminishes the effect of exercise on postprandial lipemia in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alice E; Barrett, Laura A; Tolfrey, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Acute bouts of exercise reduce postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations ([TAG]) in healthy boys and girls; however, it is not known whether this effect is mediated by the energy deficit. This study examined whether the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial [TAG] persists after immediate dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure (EE). Eighteen healthy 11- to 13-year-old boys (mean (SD): body mass 41.3 (8.4)kg; peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) 55 (5)mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three, 2-day conditions in a within-measures, crossover design separated by 14days. On day 1, participants rested (CON), exercised at 60% peak V̇O2 inducing a net EE of 32kJ·kg(-1) body mass (EX-DEF) or completed the same exercise with the net EE replaced immediately (EX-REP). On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken in the fasted state and at pre-determined intervals throughout the 6.5h postprandial period. A standardised breakfast and lunch meal were consumed immediately and 4h, respectively, after the fasting sample. Based on ratios of the geometric means (95% confidence intervals (CI) for ratios), EX-DEF fasting [TAG] was 19% and 15% lower than CON (-32 to -4%, ES=1.15, P=0.02) and EX-REP (-29 to 0%, ES=0.91, P=0.05) respectively; CON and EX-REP were similar (-4%; P=0.59). The EX-DEF total area under the [TAG] versus time curve was 15% and 16% lower than CON (-27 to 0%, ES=0.55, P=0.05) and EX-REP (-29 to -2%, ES=0.62, P=0.03) respectively; CON and EX-REP were not different (2%; -13 to 20%, P=0.80). Immediate replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit negates the reduction in postprandial [TAG] in boys; this highlights the importance of maintaining a negative energy balance immediately post-exercise to maximise the metabolic health benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    , palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat......, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil...

  8. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  9. Intermittent Standing but not a Moderate Exercise Bout Reduces Postprandial Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Larsen, Sidsel A; Kofoed, Katja

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether minimum recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 30-min bout of continuous moderate-intensity walking) is sufficient to counteract the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on postprandial metabolism and if there are any effects...... of breaking up sitting with intermittent standing when achieving minimum recommended MVPA. METHODS: Fourteen (n = 14) physically inactive healthy adult males underwent four intrahospital 27-h interventions: 9-h continuous sitting (SIT), 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during the 9-h sitting (STAND), 30-min...... of insulin levels, whereas a 30-min MVPA bout did not....

  10. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Matikainen

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified.To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL response to a fat-rich meal.Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m(2 male subjects. Triglycerides (TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2 were measured after the fat-rich meal.Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins.The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively. Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest.In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor.

  11. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in which the blood glucose level is higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes, is also a major public health problem. People with IGT have a higher risk of developing T2D and CVD, and especially the magnitude and duration of the postprandial blood glucose concentration (PPG) seems of crucial importance. In Norway, immigrants from...

  12. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on total antioxidant capacity of fasting and postprandial plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.; Pedersen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are known to protect against cancer and heart disease. This is often ascribed to their high content of antioxidants. We have therefore tested whether a daily intake of fruits and vegetables corresponding to the recommended 600 g had any effect on the antioxidant activity...... of fasting and postprandial plasma samples. Antioxidant activity was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay, which have been reported to be affected by the presence of dietary antioxidants....

  13. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Impact of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, S447X, on Postprandial Triacylglycerol and Glucose Response to Sequential Meal Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Shatwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge. S447 homozygotes had lower fasting HDL-C (p = 0.015 and a trend for higher fasting TAG (p = 0.057 concentrations relative to the 447X allele carriers. In the postprandial state, there was an association of the S447X polymorphism with postprandial TAG and glucose, where S447 homozygotes had 12% higher TAG area under the curve (AUC (p = 0.037, 8.4% higher glucose-AUC (p = 0.006 and 22% higher glucose-incremental area under the curve (IAUC (p = 0.042. A significant gene–gender interaction was observed for fasting TAG (p = 0.004, TAG-AUC (Pinteraction = 0.004 and TAG-IAUC (Pinteraction = 0.016, where associations were only evident in men. In conclusion, our study provides novel findings of an effect of LPL S447X polymorphism on the postprandial glucose and gender-specific impact of the polymorphism on fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations in response to sequential meal challenge in healthy participants.

  15. The Effect of PCSK9 Loss-of-Function Variants on the Postprandial Lipid and ApoB-Lipoprotein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Krysa, Jacqueline A; Chaker, Seham; Abujrad, Hussein; Mayne, Janice; Henry, Kathy; Cousins, Marion; Raymond, Angela; Favreau, Colette; Taljaard, Monica; Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) mediates degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thereby increasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations in the PCSK9 gene associated with loss of function (LOF) of PCSK9 result in greater expression of hepatic LDLR, lower concentrations of LDL-C, and protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apolipoprotein-B (apoB) remnants also contribute to CVD risk and are similarly cleared by the LDLR. We hypothesized that PCSK9-LOF carriers would have lower fasting and postprandial remnant lipoproteins on top of lower LDL-C. To compare fasting and postprandial concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), total apoB, and apoB48 as indicators of remnant lipoprotein metabolism in PCSK9-LOF carriers with those with no PCSK9 variants. Case-control, metabolic study. Clinical Research Center of The Ottawa Hospital. Persons with one or more copies of the L10ins/A53V and/or I474V and/or R46L PCSK9 variant and persons with no PCSK9 variants. Oral fat tolerance test. Fasting and postprandial plasma TG, apoB48, total apoB, total cholesterol, and PCSK9 were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after an oral fat load. Participants with PCSK9-LOF variants (n = 22) had reduced fasting LDL-C (-14%) as well as lower fasting TG (-21%) compared with noncarrier controls (n = 23). LOF variants also had reduced postprandial total apoB (-17%), apoB48 (-23%), and TG (-18%). Postprandial PCSK9 declined in both groups (-24% vs -16%, respectively). Participants carrying PCSK9-LOF variants had attenuated levels of fasting and postprandial TG, apoB48, and total apoB. This may confer protection from CVD and further validate the use of PCSK9 inhibitors to lower CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Postprandial Carbohydrate and Lipoprotein Metabolism Following Cookie Ingestion in Healthy Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuki; Mizutani, Erika; Suzuki, Maiko; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka

    2015-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of postprandial aerobic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism following cookie ingestion. Fifteen healthy young women with a sedentary lifestyle, normal weight and apolipoprotein E3/3 participated. After a 12-h overnight fast, each subject ingested a cookie (1.53 g/kg, Meal Test C) and then performed two trials, one with postprandial exercise (E trial) and one without exercise (C trial), in a randomized crossover design. A single 30-min bout of walking exercise was performed 20 min after the cookie intake. Venous blood samples were drawn before (0 h) and 20 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after cookie ingestion. The Δglucose concentration was not significantly different between the two trials, but the Δinsulin concentration at 1 h and the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) (0-2 h)-insulin in the E trial were significantly lower than in the C trial. The ratio of glucose/insulin at 1 h was significantly higher in the E trial than in the C trial. The ΔTG, ΔRLP-TG, ΔapoB48 and ΔRemL-C concentrations at 1 h in the E trial were significantly higher than in the C trial. The IAUC (0-2 h)-apoB48 in the E trial was significantly larger than in the C trial. Postprandial exercise showed an insulin-sparing effect following the cookie ingestion by increasing insulin sensitivity. However, postprandial exercise transiently stimulated the secretion of exogenous apoB48-containing lipoprotein during the early period, and no further effects were observed. These results suggest that postprandial aerobic exercise is effective for the promotion of postprandial carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipidemia.

  17. Effects of a Plant Sterol or Stanol Enriched Mixed Meal on Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that plant sterols and stanols not only lower fasting serum low-density lipoprotein concentrations, but also those of triglycerides (TG). Insight into effects of these components on postprandial TG metabolism, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is missing. Our objective was to examine the 8-hour postprandial response after consuming plant sterol or stanol enriched margarine as part of a mixed meal. This postprandial study was part of a randomized crossover study in which 42 subjects consumed plant sterol enriched (3 g/d plant sterols), plant stanol enriched (3 g/d plant stanols), and control margarines for 4 weeks. After each period, subjects consumed a shake enriched with 3g plant sterols (sterol period), 3g plant stanols (stanol period) or no addition (control period). Subjects received a second shake with no addition after 4 hours. TG and apoB48 incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) of the total (0-8h) and 1st meal response (0-4h) were comparable between the meals and in all age categories (I:18-35y, II:36-52y, III:53-69y). In subjects aged 53-69y, TG iAUC after the 2nd meal (4-8h) was higher in the stanol period as compared with the sterol (63.1±53.0 mmol/L/min; P postprandial responses may be due to reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, since postprandial apoCIII/II ratios were increased after stanol consumption compared with the control meal. Postprandial TG and apoB48 responses are age-dependently increased after plant stanol consumption, which might be related to a changed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559428.

  18. Basal and postprandial change in serum fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration in type 1 diabetic mellitus and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibar, Karin; Blaslov, Kristina; Bulum, Tomislav; Ćuća, Jadranka Knežević; Smirčić-Duvnjak, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) appears to have an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF-21 secretion is mainly determined by nutritional status. The aim of this study was to measure basal and postprandial FGF-21 and postprandial change of FGF-21 concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls, and to investigate the differences between the groups. The cross-sectional study included 30 C-peptide negative T1DM patients, median age 37 years (20-59), disease duration 22 years (3-45), and nine healthy controls, median age 30 years (27-47). Basal and postprandial FGF-21 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The associations of FGF-21 with glucose, lipids, and insulin were analyzed. Individuals with T1DM showed significantly lower basal FGF-21 concentration (P=0.046) when compared with healthy controls (median value 28.2 vs 104 pg/mL) and had significantly different postprandial change (∆ 30'-0') of FGF-21 (P=0.006) in comparison with healthy controls (median value -1.1 vs -20.5 pg/mL). The glucose and lipid status did not correlate with FGF-21. In healthy controls, postprandial insulin level correlated with basal FGF-21 (ρ=0.7, P=0.036). Multiple regression analysis showed that they are independently associated after adjustment for confounding factors (β=1.824, P=0.04). We describe the pathological pattern of basal and postprandial change of FGF-21 secretion not associated with glucose, lipid levels, or insulin therapy in patients with T1DM. Since FGF-21 has numerous protective metabolic effects in the experimental model, the lower basal FGF-21 concentration in T1DM patients opens the question about the potential role of recombinant FGF-21 therapy.

  19. Monosodium glutamate stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and reduces postprandial glucose after a lipid-containing meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, H; Kusano, M; Zai, H; Kawada, A; Kuribayashi, S; Shimoyama, Y; Nagoshi, A; Maeda, M; Kawamura, O; Mori, M

    2012-11-01

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is known to influence the endocrine system and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The mechanism of postprandial glycemic control by food in the GI tract is mostly unknown and of great interest. To investigate the effect of MSG on glucose homeostasis, incretin secretion and gastric emptying in humans after a lipid-containing meal. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.5 years) and with no Helicobcter pylori infection were enrolled. A 400 mL (520 kcal) liquid meal with MSG (2 g, 0.5% wt:vol) or NaCl (control) was ingested in a single-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. Gastric emptying was monitored by a 13C acetate breath test. Postprandial symptoms were assessed on a visual analogue scale. The 30-min postprandial glucose concentration was significantly reduced by adding MSG to the test meal. The area under the glucose concentration vs. time curve (0-60 min) was also significantly reduced by adding MSG (40.6 ± 3.51 mg·1 hr/dL with MSG vs. 49.2 ± 3.86 mg·1 hr/dL with NaCl, P = 0.047), whereas, the 30-min postprandial plasma GLP-1 level was significantly increased (58.1 ± 15.8 pmol/L with MSG vs. 13.4 ± 15.8 pmol/L with NaCl, P = 0.035). MSG did not affect the half gastric emptying time or postprandial symptoms. Monosodium l-glutamate improved early postprandial glycaemia after a lipid-containing liquid meal. This effect was not associated with a change in gastric emptying, but was possibly related to stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

  20. Fast food increases postprandial cardiac workload in type 2 diabetes independent of pre-exercise: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Malmo, Vegard; Follestad, Turid; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Bj?rk

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes aggravates the postprandial metabolic effects of food, which increase cardiovascular risk. We investigated the acute effects of fast food on postprandial left ventricular (LV) function and the potential effects of pre-exercise in type 2 diabetes individuals. Methods We used a cross-over study including 10 type 2 diabetes individuals (7 male?and 3 females; 53.4???8.1?years; 28.3???3.8?kg/m2; type 2 diabetes duration 3.1???1.8?years) and 10 controls (7 male and 3 fema...

  1. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  2. Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Wong, Olivia; Synnott, Emma-Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion or response may contribute to ineffective insulin release in type 2 diabetes. The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine stimulates GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo. In a randomized, crossover study, we evaluated the effect of oral...... glutamine, with or without sitagliptin (SIT), on postprandial glycemia and GLP-1 concentration in 15 type 2 diabetes patients (glycated hemoglobin 6.5 ± 0.6%). Participants ingested a low-fat meal (5% fat) after receiving either water (control), 30 g l-glutamine (Gln-30), 15 g L-glutamine (Gln-15), 100 mg...... concentration and limiting postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes....

  3. Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nur Syamsina; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Kong, Kin Weng; Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Hamzah, Sareena Hanim

    2017-12-01

    Tualang honey (TH) contains antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids that may be protective against oxidative stress of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial antioxidant activity and oxidative stress after ingestion of high and low dosages of TH in female athletes. Twenty female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) were randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10). Blood sample was collected at fasting and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h after TH consumption. Plasma was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]), and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and reactive oxygen species [ROS]). The 3-h area under the curve (AUC) for MDA was significantly lower in the LH group compared with HH group, suggesting less oxidative stress in the LH group. However, the AUCs for TPC, FRAP, and ROS were not affected by the dosages. The concentrations of TPC and FRAP increased from baseline to 2 and 1 h after TH consumption, respectively, and concentrations returned toward baseline at 3 h in both LH and HH groups. MDA concentration significantly decreased (p antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes. The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption.

  4. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  5. Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhorn, Susan J; Tyagi, Vidhi; Smeraglio, Anne; Roth, Christian L; Schur, Ellen A

    2014-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19-24.7 kg/m(2), age 19-29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600-750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 -62 ± 5; placebo -41 ± 9; P=0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  7. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J.; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness. PMID:22822453

  8. Serviceberry [Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem (Rosaceae)] leaf extract inhibits mammalian α-glucosidase activity and suppresses postprandial glycemic response in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Albert J; Rimando, Agnes M; Fish, Wilbert; Mentreddy, Srinivasa R; Mathews, Suresh T

    2012-09-28

    Serviceberry or Saskatoon berry [Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex. M. Roem (Rosaceae)], native to the North Glacier forests of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, has been used by the Blackfeet Indian tribe in alleviation of diabetes. Anecdotally, tea made from twigs and leaves have been used for optimum health and diabetes management. However, such traditional knowledge of the medicinal properties of Amelanchier alnifolia has not been validated by scientific studies. The goal of this study was to identify potential antidiabetic mechanisms of serviceberry. Serviceberry plant samples consisting of leaves, twigs, and leaves with berries were extracted and fractionated. Ethyl acetate and water fractions were tested for inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Diet-induced obese, hyperglycemic C57Bl6 mice were administered serviceberry leaf extract prior to sucrose-, starch-, or glucose-loading to test for α-glucosidase inhibition and decreased post-prandial glycemic response. In the course of screening for potential antidiabetic mechanisms, serviceberry leaf extracts and subfractions demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against mammalian intestinal α-glucosidase activity (EC 3.2.1.20). Further, in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia, serviceberry leaf subfraction demonstrated significant inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase activity, and delayed the absorption of carbohydrates, resulting in significant lowering of post-prandial blood glucose concentrations, similar to the antidiabetic drug Acarbose™. These findings indicating that serviceberry leaf extract may lower post-prandial glycemic response corroborate traditional knowledge of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana, and potentially offer a complementary approach in the treatment of diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Persimmon Tannin Decreased the Glycemic Response through Decreasing the Digestibility of Starch and Inhibiting α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Intestinal Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Yao, Fen; Du, Jing; Deng, Xiangyi; Li, Chunmei

    2018-02-21

    Regulation of postprandial blood glucose levels is an effective therapeutic proposal for type 2 diabetes treatment. In this study, the effect of persimmon tannin on starch digestion with different amylose levels was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of persimmon tannin-starch complexes significantly suppressed the increase of blood glucose levels and the area under the curve (AUC) in a dose-dependent manner compared with starch treatment alone in an in vivo rat model. Further study proved that persimmon tannin could not only interact with starch directly but also inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase strongly, with IC 50 values of 0.35 and 0.24 mg/mL, separately. In addition, 20 μg/mL of persimmon tannin significantly decreased glucose uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells model. Overall, our data suggested that persimmon tannin may alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia through limiting the digestion of starch as well as inhibiting the uptake and transport of glucose.

  10. The macroecology of sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Burger

    Full Text Available The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1 physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2 smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3 global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  11. The Macroecology of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development. PMID:22723741

  12. Alleviating Effects of Baechu Kimchi Added Ecklonia cava on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Song, Yeong-Ok; Jang, Mi-Soon; Han, Ji-Sook

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava on the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase and its alleviating effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Baechu kimchi added Ecklonia cava (BKE, 15%) was fermented at 5°C for 28 days. Optimum ripened BKE was used in this study as it showed the strongest inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase by fermentation time among the BKEs in our previous study. The BKE was extracted with 80% methanol and the extract solution was concentrated, and then used in this study. The BKE extract showed higher inhibitory activities than Baechu kimchi extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of the BKE extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.58 and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively; BKE exhibited a lower α-glucosidase inhibitory activity but a higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than those of acarbose. The BKE extract alleviated postprandial hyperglycemia caused by starch loading in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the BKE extract significantly lowered the incremental area under the curve in both normal and diabetic mice (P<0.05). These results indicated that the BKE extract may delay carbohydrate digestion and thus glucose absorption.

  13. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian V; Bak, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing...... circumference (96.4, SD 13.0 vs. 96.7, SD 11.9 cm). Serum-prolactin was measured in the morning and 90 min after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2268 kJ). RESULTS: Fasting prolactin levels varied considerably, and mean fasting prolactin levels did not significantly differ between patients and controls...... (12.33, SD 11.58 vs. 10.06, SD 8.67 ng/ml, p = 0.623). In the controls, postprandial serum prolactin was significantly reduced (Δ -2.53, SD 9.75 ng/ml, p = 0.016). In antipsychotic-treated patients postprandial serum prolactin tended to increase (Δ 2.62, SD 10.96 ng/ml, p = 0.081). Analyses...

  14. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Ppostprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  15. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  16. Effects of low- and high-volume resistance exercise on postprandial lipaemia.

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    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Goloi, Evagelia; Petridou, Anatoli; Dipla, Konstantina; Mougios, Vassilis; Kellis, Spiros

    2007-03-01

    Postprandial lipaemia (PL) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce PL. Although resistance exercise is recommended for the improvement of the quality of life, management of body weight and prevention of several disorders, its effect on PL has received little attention. The present study examined the effects of low-volume resistance exercise (LVRE) and high-volume resistance exercise (HVRE) on PL. Ten healthy young men performed three trials, each conducted over 2 d. On the afternoon of day 1, they either refrained from exercise (control), performed LVRE (two sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at twelve repetitions maximum (RM) in each set; energy expenditure 0 x 76 MJ), or performed HVRE (four sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at 12 RM in each set; energy expenditure 1 x 40 MJ). On the morning of day 2 they consumed a meal containing 67 kJ/kg body weight, of which 65 % energy was from fat. Blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and for 6 h postprandially. The total area under the TAG curve (AUC; mmol/l x h) was lower (Ppostprandial lipaemic response.

  17. Cr-enriched yeast: beyond fibers for the management of postprandial glycemic response to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Amalia E; Stamataki, Nikoleta; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pateras, Irene; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despoina; T Karathanos, Vaios

    2017-06-01

    Efforts regarding the amelioration of postprandial glycemic response to bread are mainly focused in the addition of soluble dietary fibers. The current study presents another approach which is based on the supplementation of flour with Cr-enriched yeast. Cr is known for its beneficial effects on improvement of glucose tolerance and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Twelve normoglycemic subjects were provided with white bread (WB, reference food) or whole wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WWCrB, rich in insoluble fibers) or white wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WCrB, poor in fibers) or whole wheat-rye-barley bread enriched with oat beta glucans (BGB, rich in soluble fibers) with 1-week intervals in amounts that yielded 50 g of available carbohydrates. Postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses as well as glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Ingestion of WWCrB, WCrB and BGB elicited lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for 120-min glycemic response compared to WB (1033.02 ± 282.32, 701.69 ± 330.86 and 748.95 ± 185.42 vs 2070.87 ± 518.44 mg/dL min, respectively, P bread without the necessity of high fiber amounts, providing with another strategy for the management of glycemic control.

  18. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose (“G”), water and walk (“WW”), glucose and walk (“GW”). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on “G” and “GW” and water on “WW”. The “G” day determined which subjects had PPH. On “WW” and “GW” gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on “WW” and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on “GW”. The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on “WW” (p gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  19. Postprandial ghrelin suppression is exaggerated following major surgery; implications for nutritional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloom Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting patients' nutritional requirements and preventing malnutrition is a challenge following major surgical procedures. The role of ghrelin in nutritional recovery after non-gastrointestinal major surgery is unknown. We used coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG as an example of anticipated good recovery post major surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing CABG (mean ± SEM: 70.1 ± 2.2 yrs, BMI 29.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 15 male underwent fasting and postprandial (45 mins after standard test breakfast blood sampling pre-operatively (day 0, post-operatively (day 6 and at follow-up (day 40. Changes in food intake, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. A comparison was made to 17 matched healthy controls (70.6 ± 2.3 yrs, BMI 28.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. We observed significantly increased post-operative and follow-up fasting ghrelin concentrations compared with pre-operatively (pre-op. 402 ± 42 pmol/L vs post-op. 642 ± 97 pmol/L vs follow-up 603 ± 94 pmol/L (ANOVA p p Our data support the hypothesis that prolonged changes in fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with impaired nutritional recovery after CABG. These findings reinforce the need to investigate ghrelin in other patients groups undergoing major surgery.

  20. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p mucilage-containing meals. These findings suggest that flaxseed DF may suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, Maria E; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-12-