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Sample records for sustained plasma level

  1. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    ). We aimed to study the postprandial levels of LDL-C in T2DM patients. Material and methods. After an overnight fast, 74 T2DM patients, mean age approximately 60 years, were served a standard fat-rich meal of 3,515 kJ containing 54 % fat, 13 % protein and 33 % carbohydrates. Only drinking water...

  2. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  3. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  4. Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 levels are associated with early, but not sustained virological response during treatment of acute or early chronic HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J Feld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 have been shown to be associated with impaired treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Whether IP-10 levels predict treatment in acute HCV infection is unknown. METHODS: Patients with acute or early chronic HCV infection from the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC cohort were evaluated. Baseline and on-treatment plasma IP-10 levels were measured by ELISA. IL28B genotype was determined by sequencing. RESULTS: Overall, 74 HCV mono-infected and 35 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were treated in ATAHC, of whom 89 were adherent to therapy and were included for analysis. IP-10 levels correlated with HCV RNA levels at baseline (r = 0.48, P600 pg/mL achieved RVR. There was no association with IP-10 levels and early virological response (EVR or sustained virological response (SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline IP-10 levels are associated with early viral kinetics but not ultimate treatment outcome in acute HCV infection. Given previous data showing that patients with high baseline IP-10 are unlikely to spontaneously clear acute HCV infection, they should be prioritized for early antiviral therapy.

  5. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  6. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  7. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  8. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  9. Plasma Levels of Total Proteins, Albumin, Globulin and Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated in 25 HIV positive subjects and 25 age and sex-matched controls. Test subjects were recruited from the Haematology day Clinic and Medical wards of the. OAUTHC, lle-Ife. The controls were equally obtained from staff and students within the OAUTHC, ...

  10. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  11. Salivary and plasma insulin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Korec, R; Feketeova, E; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-07-01

    Changes in plasma and salivary immunoreactive insulin were studied in saliva and blood of 9 healthy subjects following either oral glucose or a test meal ingestion at 30 min intervals for up to 3h. The levels of plasma immunoreactive insulin reached maximum at 60 min with a value of 62.77 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the glucose load and 62.62 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the test meal. In the case of salivary immunoreactive insulin levels, the maximum was attained at 90 min with a value of 18.47 +/- 2.68 microU/min after the glucose load and 22.40 +/- 2.01 microU/min after the test meal. Positive linear correlation (r = 0.74) was found between the salivary and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels.

  12. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  13. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The decreased semen ascorbate level may play a significant role in the reduced sperm characteris- ... dans le testicule, les niveaux des lipides 'et des lipoprotéines ont été évaluées dans le plasma de Nigeri~ ... Recently however, the role of ascorbic acid in the maintenance of sperm cell lipid membrane has ...

  14. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu., E-mail: yakimov@lantanlaser.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, A. Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  15. A Predictive Model of Plasma Lamotrigine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, K; Terao, T; Katayama, Y; Hatano, K; Kodama, K; Shirahama, M; Sakai, A; Hirakawa, H; Mizokami, Y; Shiotsuki, I; Ishii, N; Inoue, Y

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of several mood stabilizers and its effects for the treatment and prevention of depressive episodes, particularly in bipolar disorder, are generally accepted. Although the findings about a therapeutic window of lamotrigine are yet to be determined, it seems important to obtain information on individual pharmacokinetic peculiarities. This study was conducted to formulate the predictive model of plasma lamotrigine levels. Methods: Using the data of 47 patients whose lamotrigine levels, liver function, and renal function were measured, predictive models of lamotrigine levels were formulated by stepwise multiple regression analyses. The predictive power of the models was compared using another dataset of 25 patients. Results: Two models were created using stepwise multiple regression. The first model was: plasma lamotrigine level (μg/mL)=2.308+0.019×lamotrigine dose (mg/day). The second model was: plasma lamotrigine level (μg/mL)=0.08+0.024×lamotrigine dose (mg/day)+4.088×valproate combination (no=0, yes=1). The predictive power of the second model was better than that of the first model. Discussion: The present study proposes a prompt and relatively accurate equation to predict lamotrigine levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka; Grassl, Niklas; Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Torekov, Signe S; Mann, Matthias

    2016-12-22

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly affected proteins. The adipocyte-secreted SERPINF1 and apolipoprotein APOF1 were most significantly regulated with fold changes of -16% and +37%, respectively (P plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B; Fenger, M

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... theophylline concentration....

  18. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  19. Characterization of laser-sustained plasma behavior during 10 kW laser thruster tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J.; Krier, H.; Zerkle, D.; Glumb, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes some of the important properties and characteristics of laser-sustained plasmas that were generated as part of the experimental tests of a 10 kW laser-powered rocket engine. The high-temperature laser-sustained plasmas were used to heat flows of argon and hydrogen propellants, which were then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to generate thrust. This paper describes some of the detailed plasma analysis that went into the design of the laser thruster, and then summarizes the key performance data acquired during the thruster tests, particularly that data that gives insight into the characteristics of the plasmas. Key findings include demonstrations of specific impulse values of up to 350 seconds at efficiencies near 40 percent using hydrogen plasmas, and the discovery of a low-velocity stability limit for laser-sustained plasmas that has important implications for the design of future laser propulsion systems.

  20. Plasma Selenium Levels in Chronic Cocaine Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Julia; Manolov, Victor; Kiryakova, Theodora; Vasilev, Vasil; Tzatchev, Kamen; Borislav, Marinov; Radoslava, Emilova

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is a significant health problem worldwide. We aim to evaluate the role of selenium in oxidative stress in patients with cocaine related cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways. We included 26 patients with chronic cocaine abuse separated into two groups according to duration of intake--from six months up to one year and more than a year, with and without only vascular incidents (TIA, stroke, myocardial infarction), or presence of hypertension. All included groups were analyzed for laboratory parameters: CBC, CRP, AST, ALT, γ-GT, serum creatinine, urea, K, Na, and Ca. Main risk factors were evaluated: total cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and selenium. Our result shows that in the first group only 20% have cardiovascular problems. In the group with cocaine abuse more than a year, number of vascular incidents has increased (58.3%). Patients from the group cocaine abuse up to 1 year showed no changes in lipid profile, but cocaine abuse more than a year showed interesting changes in the lipid profile. We found a high positive correlation between the two cocaine groups for plasma selenium concentrations. This means that after the first six months oxidative stress has occured. It increases with duration of cocaine abuse. CRP correlated positively between these two groups, showing an endothelial function disorder. Development of oxidative stress increased with cocaine abuse, which leads to lower plasma selenium levels in patients with different duration of intake--less and more than a year. It is possible to supplement selenium during the early period of cocaine dependence to prevent hard vascular accidents, which are common after more than one year of cocaine abuse.

  1. Tourism and Sustainable Development. Implications at Local Community Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ioan Nechifor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents an economic activity with a special growth potential and rate that, managed in a proper way, can represent an important means for ensuring a sustainable development and to promote and sustain local communities. During the past period, the development of tourism raised awareness among policy makers, local governments, tourists, etc. about the effect of tourism on the environment, this way the development of a sustainable tourism being a necessity. The present paper aims to outline a series of implications at communities' level that the relationship between tourism and sustainable development may generate, focusing on one of the most representative and important components of sustainable tourism, respectively ecotourism and its particular forms of rural and agrotourism.

  2. Plasma adrenomedullin levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábrega, E; Casafont, F; Crespo, J; de la Peña, J; San Miguel, G; de las Heras, G; García-Unzueta, M T; Amado, J A; Pons-Romero, F

    1997-10-01

    The role of adrenomedullin in cirrhosis is at present unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma levels of adrenomedullin in cirrhosis. We measured plasma adrenomedullin concentrations using radioimmunoassay in 43 patients with cirrhosis (17 in Child-Pugh's class A, 13 in Child-Pugh's class B, and 13 in Child-Pugh's class C) and compared these values with those in 24 age-matched healthy subjects. Renal function, plasma cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration, plasma renin activity, and plasma aldosterone concentration were measured in each patient. Plasma adrenomedullin levels were increased significantly in patients with cirrhosis compared with healthy subjects. In addition, plasma adrenomedullin values were higher in patients with cirrhosis and ascites than in those without ascites. Moreover, plasma adrenomedullin levels increased in relation to the severity of cirrhosis. Significant positive correlations also were found between adrenomedullin and cAMP concentrations and plasma renin activity or plasma aldosterone concentrations. Plasma adrenomedullin is increased in patients with cirrhosis compared with healthy subjects. The increase in plasma adrenomedullin levels is related at least in part to the severity of cirrhosis and may contribute to the arteriolar vasodilation in patients with cirrhosis. These effects are related in part to a cAMP-dependent pathway.

  3. Teaching Sustainability from a Scientific Standpoint at the Introductory Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Stone, E.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    In recent decades, humankind has recognized that current levels of resource utilization are seriously impacting our planet's life support systems and threatening the ability of future generations to provide for themselves. The concept of sustainability has been promoted by a variety of national and international organizations as a method to devise ways to adjust humanity's habits and consumption to levels that can be maintained over the long term, i.e. sustained. Courses on sustainability are being offered at many universities and colleges, but most are taught outside of science departments; they are often designed around policy concerns or focus primarily on environmental impacts while neglecting the science of sustainability. Because the three foundations necessary to implement sustainability are sustainability governance, sustainability accounting, and sustainability science, it is imperative that science departments play an active role in preparing citizens and professionals for dealing with sustainability issues. The geosciences are one of the scientific disciplines that offer a logical foundation from which to teach sustainability science. Geoscientists can also offer a unique and relevant geologic perspective on sustainability issues. The authors have developed an introductory, interdisciplinary course entitled 'Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources' that integrates scientific disciplines in the examination of real world sustainability issues. In-depth understanding of physical, Earth and biological science principles are necessary for students to identify the limits and constraints imposed on important issues facing modern society, e.g. water, energy, population growth, etc. This course exposes students to all the scientific principles that apply directly to sustainability. The subject allows the instructors to present open-ended, multifaceted and complex problems relevant to today's industrialized and globalized world, and it encourages

  4. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  5. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2018-02-01

    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m‑3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ∼3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  6. Innovation Level of Sustainable Practices Adopted in Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Sehnem

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the level of innovation of sustainable practices by industrial companies. This is a descriptive study that made use of a questionnaire answered by 50 industrial companies. The results show that environmental practices at full level by 68% of businesses are monitoring the risks and opportunities for the organization's activities due to climate change; 56% of companies surveyed are waste separation; followed by the realization of related health and safety trainin...

  7. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gehan A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Methods Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40 of autistic children. On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Conclusions Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  8. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine spot levels of plasma lipid indicators of CVD in seemingly healthy public service employees in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density ...

  9. Coagulation Factors Level in Fresh Frozen Plasma in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the level of coagulation factors and inherited inhibitors in Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and to evaluate Prothrombin Time and activated partial thrombin time in fresh frozen plasma. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in Medical Laboratory ...

  10. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  11. Experimental Investigation of Laser-sustained Plasma in Supersonic Argon Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, David; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Moessinger, Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2011-11-01

    Laser-induced energy deposition is widely discussed as a flow control technique in supersonic transportation. In case of thermal laser-plasma upstream of a blunt body, a substantial adaptation of shock wave geometry and magnitude of wave drag is predicted. Related to the research on laser supported detonation, the paper describes the implementation of laser-sustained plasma in a supersonic Argon jet. The stable plasma state is generated by the intersection of a Q-switched Nd:YAG-laser and a continuous wave CO2-laser beams, for ignition and maintenance of the plasma respectively. A miniature supersonic Ludwieg tube test facility generates a supersonic jet at velocities of Mach 2.1. Modifications of the flow and plasma conditions are investigated and characterized by Schlieren flow visualisation, laser energy transmission and plasma radiation measurements. The results include the discussions of the flow field as well as the required laser and gas parameters.

  12. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

    A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

  14. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  15. Study of Plasma Ascorbic Acid Levels in Wheezing Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagdeote AN; Paunipagar PV; Muddeshwar MG; Suryawanshi NP

    2011-01-01

    ...: In a cross sectional blood samples of 50 patients attending pediatrics OPD, having wheezing and shortness of breath were analyzed for plasma Ascorbic acid level and compared with healthy controls of same age and sex. Results...

  16. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  17. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  18. Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Arzu; Canbay, Emel; Bugra, Dursun; Zeybek, Umit; Yamaner, Sumer; Bulut, Turker

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kisspeptin-54; KP-54) is a 54-amino acid peptide was originally known as metastin that was implicated in suppression of tumor metastasis and circulating kisspeptin has been proposed as a tumor marker for numerous cancers in humans. However, the plasma level of KP-54 in gastric cancer (GC) remains undetermined. We aimed to investigate the plasma levels of KP-54 in patients with GC. Plasma KP-54 levels were quantified with enzyme-immunoassay from blood samples of 40 patients with GC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched controls. Plasma KP-54 levels were significantly higher in GC patients (63.3±17.9) than in controls (49.0±12.7) (p=0.000). Cut-off value for KP-54 was determined as 44 ng/ml and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, were 60%, 78%, 63%, and 74% respectively. Plasma KP-54 levels were not correlated with any clinicopathological features of GC patients (p>0.05). Result of our preliminary study suggest that plasma KP-54 levels might be a useful parameter in diagnosis of GC. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organization-level predictors of sustained social movement participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric A; Speer, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Long-term sustained participation represents one of the most important resources available to community organizations and social movement organizations (SMOs). The participatory literature on community and SMOs has identified a host of individual-level factors that influence participation beyond initial engagement, and has more recently identified contextual factors that influence participation. This study builds upon current understandings of participation in SMOs by examining how sustained participation in movement activities is affected by two qualities of SMO settings: repertoire of organizational activity, and equality of staff contact with organization members to cultivate and facilitate individual participation. To this end, we employ multi-level regression techniques to examine longitudinal data on participation within 50 local chapters of a national congregation-based community organizing federation. We find that the conduct of organizational activities previously shown to increase levels of participation among individual persons does not necessarily lead to increases in aggregate or organization-level participation. Further, we find that conditions of unequal staff contact among organization members represent a notable drag on organization-level participation over time. Our findings suggest that organizers and organizational leaders may well see greater levels of participation in their organizations by simply re-distributing resources and opportunities more equitably within their organizations.

  20. Three parameters, plasma thrombopoietin levels, plasma glycocalicin levels and megakaryocyte culture, distinguish between different causes of congenital thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oudenrijn, Sonja; Bruin, Marrie; Folman, Claudia C.; Bussel, James; de Haas, Masja; von dem Borne, Albert E. G. Kr

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen children with congenital thrombocytopenia were analysed in order to unravel the mechanisms underlying their thrombocytopenia and to evaluate the value of new laboratory tests, namely measurement of plasma thrombopoietin (Tpo) and glycocalicin (GC) levels and analysis of megakaryocytopoiesis

  1. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  2. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  3. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Level crossings, excess times and transient plasma-wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma-wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  5. Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and in dusty plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2013-01-01

    An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in DC glow discharges. It is found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with electric field. The presented mechanism also describes the self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, demonstrating that oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow disc...

  6. Plasma melatonin levels do not differ in SLE patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Li, H-M; Zou, Y-F; Tao, J-H; Pan, H-F

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to investigate the plasma melatonin levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and its relationship with clinical and laboratory features. A total of 90 patients with SLE (82 females, 8 males; mean age 37.86 ± 13.98 years, range 19-77 years) and 90 healthy controls (82 females, 8 male; mean age 36.54 ± 10.89 years, range 22-60 years) were recruited for the current study. Plasma melatonin levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melatonin levels were not significantly different in the plasma of patients with SLE compared with controls (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference regarding plasma melatonin level between SLE patients with nephritis and those without nephritis (P = 0.714); no significant difference was found between less active SLE and more active SLE (P = 0.791). The presence of IgM was associated with melatonin levels (P = 0.031) in SLE patients. There is no significant difference in plasma melatonin levels between SLE patients and controls. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of melatonin in SLE.

  7. Retinal light input is required to sustain plasma melatonin rhythms in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chavez, C C; Migaud, H

    2009-05-07

    The aim of this work was to confirm previous findings suggesting that the eyes are required for night-time melatonin production in Nile tilapia and further characterise this divergent circadian organisation. To do so, melatonin levels were firstly measured in eyecups and plasma to determine circadian patterns of melatonin production. Secondly, the effect of partial ophthalmectomy on the suppression of melatonin production was determined in vivo as well as ex vivo pineal light/dark sensitivity. Finally, to investigate whether such findings could be related to post-surgery stress, melatonin analyses were performed in the subsequent 24 h and 7 days post-ophthalmectomy with cortisol levels assessed as an indicator of stress. Our results showed an inverse pattern of melatonin production in the eye cups of tilapia compared to blood circulating levels, suggesting different roles played by melatonin in these two tissues. Results then demonstrated that total or partial ophthalmectomy resulted in the suppression of night-time melatonin production. Furthermore, although pineals in culture were shown to be photosensitive, night-time melatonin levels were much lower than seen in other species. Finally, when performing sampling immediately or one week post-surgery, no difference in the melatonin profiles were observed. It is therefore unlikely that post-surgery stress would explain such suppression in melatonin production although all fish displayed high cortisol levels most probably due to social and handling stress. Taken together, these results provide further evidence of a new type of circadian organisation in a teleost species where the eyes are required to sustain night-time melatonin levels.

  8. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  9. Goji berry effects on macular characteristics and plasma antioxidant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, Peter; Vidal, Karine; Shen, Lisong; Gu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Charlie; Miller, Larry E; Wang, Junkuan

    2011-02-01

    Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) is purported to benefit vision because of its high antioxidant (especially zeaxanthin) content, although this effect has not been demonstrated in high-quality human studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily supplementation with a proprietary milk-based formulation of goji berry, Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), on macular characteristics and plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity levels in elderly subjects. This was a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy elderly subjects (range, 65 to 70 years) receiving 13.7 g/d of LWB (n = 75) or placebo (n = 75) for 90 days. Subjects underwent direct ophthalmic examination to assess pigmentation and soft drusen count in the macula and a blood draw to measure plasma zeaxanthin level and total antioxidant capacity. The placebo group demonstrated hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation in the macula, whereas the LWB group remained stable. Both plasma zeaxanthin level and antioxidant capacity increased significantly in the LWB group, by 26% and 57%, respectively, but did not change in the placebo group. No product-related adverse events were reported in either group. Overall, daily dietary supplementation with goji berry for 90 days increases plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant levels as well as protects from hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation in the macula of elderly subjects. However, the mechanism of action is unclear, given the lack of relationship between change in plasma zeaxanthin and change in macular characteristics.

  10. Raised plasma endostatin levels correlate inversely with breast cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swee H; Hill, Arnold D K; Lee, Adriana W S; Foley, Deirdre; Kennedy, Susan; Young, Leonie; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall

    2004-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumors, such as breast cancer, to grow. The effect of surgical removal of breast tumors on plasma endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels was evaluated. Tumor tissues were analyzed for expression of Intratumoral microvessel density (IMVD) and endostatin. The effect of VEGF and endostatin in inducing apoptosis on human liver microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) was investigated. Plasma from healthy volunteers, patients with fibroadenomas and breast cancer patients were assayed for endostatin and VEGF via immunoassay, pre-operatively and four weeks post-operatively. Expression of endostatin in tumor tissue was determined by Western blotting. IMVD was assessed following immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. Plasma endostatin levels, in breast cancer patients, were significantly elevated (P = 0.015) in the post-operative (60.59 +/- 7.70 etag/ml) compared with the pre-operative group (30.62 +/- 4.54 etag/ml) and with normal age-matched controls (34.97 +/- 3.76 etag/ml). In patients with high pre-operative plasma endostatin value, IMVD was decreased to 20.1 +/- 3.2 counts compared with 41.9 +/- 5.4 counts in those with low pre-operative endostatin value (P = 0.006). Neither plasma endostatin nor VEGF levels correlated with routine clinico-pathological parameters. Endostatin induced endothelial cell apoptosis and modulated the cytoprotective effect of VEGF in HLMVEC survival. Plasma endostatin levels are increased in patients following surgical removal of the primary tumor. The decreased IMVD seen in patients with higher endostatin levels may be due to the apoptosis-inducing effect of endostatin on microvascular endothelial cells.

  11. Suppression of high-energy electrons generated in both disrupting and sustained MST tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Munaretto, S.; Cornille, B. S.; McCollam, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Goetz, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy electrons appearing during MST tokamak plasma disruptions are rapidly lost from the plasma due apparently to internal MHD activity. Work has just recently begun on generating and diagnosing disruptions in MST tokamak plasmas. Initial measurements show the characteristic drop in central temperature and density preceding a quench of the plasma current. This corresponds to a burst of dominantly n=1 MHD activity, which is accompanied by a short-lived burst of high-energy electrons. The short-lived nature of these electrons is suspected to be due to stochastic transport associated with the increased MHD. Earlier work shows that runaway electrons generated in low density, sustained plasmas are suppressed by a sufficiently large m=3 RMP in plasmas with q(a) MST's thick conducting shell. With an m=3 RMP, the degree of runaway suppression increases with RMP amplitude, while an m=1 RMP has little effect on the runaways. Nonlinear MHD modeling with NIMROD of these MST plasmas indicates increased stochasticity with an m=3 RMP, while no such increase in stochasticity is observed with an m=1 RMP. Work supported by US DOE.

  12. Thyroid hormones affect plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowicz, J; Baumann-Antczak, A; Ruchała, M; Gryczyñska, M; Gurgul, E; Sowiñski, J

    2011-02-01

    Using radioimmunoassay, the effects of thyroid hormones on plasma total ghrelin (Gh) and obestatin (Ob) concentrations were evaluated in thyrotoxic patients with an excess of thyroid hormones and in hypothyroid patients lacking endogenous thyroid hormones. 24 patients with thyrotoxicosis, 25 hypothyroid patents after total thyreoidectomy performed due to thyroid cancer, and 17 control subjects were examined. Compared with the controls, the ghrelin and obestatin were elevated in hypothyroidism, while they were decreased in thyrotoxicosis. The plasma Gh and Ob levels differ depending on the thyroid function. In thyroid hormones deficiency, plasma Gh and Ob are increased, while in patients with excess of thyroid hormones, the levels of both Gh and Ob are definitely lower. Gh/Ob ratio is higher in hypothyroidism than in control subjects and thyrotoxic patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Study of Plasma Ascorbic Acid Levels in Wheezing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeote AN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive Oxygen species induced bronchial abnormalities may have important consequences in asthma, the main symptom being wheezing specially in children. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant known to quench the reactive oxygen species. A beneficial effect of fresh fruit consumption on lung function has been observed in several studies. Plasma levels Vitamin C was determined in relation to wheezing symptoms in cross sectional study. Methods: In a cross sectional blood samples of 50 patients attending pediatrics OPD, having wheezing and shortness of breath were analyzed for plasma Ascorbic acid level and compared with healthy controls of same age and sex. Results: The total number of 50 wheezing children were in the age group of 2 to 12 years with similar age matched controls. It was observed that the plasma ascorbic acid concentration in the wheezing children (0.43 – 0.12 mg/dl was significantly decreased as compared to the normal controls ( 0.75 – 0.18 mg/dl P< 0.001. The highly significant low levels of plasma ascorbic acid level in wheezing children was irrespective of sex and severity of symptoms. However the ascorbic acid levels were at the lower side in female and with severe symptoms. Conclusions: Plasma Ascorbic acid levels were significantly, decreased in the process of scavenging the reactive oxygen species. Ascorbic acid directly neutralizes free radical and protects the bronchial tissue from oxidative injury, so it can be concluded that the consumption of fruit rich in vitamin C may reduce wheezing symptoms in children.

  14. Plasma uric acid levels in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayasri; Mikhail, Magdy S; Ahn, Chul W; Furguiele, Joseph; Ho, Gloria Y; Burk, Robert D; Palan, Prabhudas R; Romney, Seymour L

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of uric acid, an endogenous antioxidant, in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), while controlling for the confounding effects of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, age, smoking, and use of oral contraception. Plasma-reduced and oxidized uric acid levels were determined in 650 women by high-performance liquid chromatography, employing electrochemical technique. The findings demonstrated that 1) plasma-reduced uric acid (PRUA) levels in women with CIN (n = 311) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with women in a control group (n = 339); 2) according to multiple logistic regression analysis, PRUA levels were negatively (P = 0.0113) and HPV infection were positively associated (P < 0.0001) with CIN, after controlling for the confounding effects of the studied factors; 3) according to multiple regression analysis, there was a 31% decrease in CIN risk for each incremental increase of 1mg/dl of PRUA; and 4) according to polychotomous logistic regression analysis, independent of HPV infection, PRUA level was inversely associated with the histopathological graded severity of CIN. We have previously reported decreased plasma levels of exogenous antioxidants, for example, vitamins C and E, in women with CIN independent of HPV infection. The data suggest that plasma deficiencies of several antioxidants in HPV-infected uterine cervical tissue may create an oxidative environment that renders the tissue susceptible to free radical damage. It may be speculated that chronic free radical-induced tissue damage in the context of persistent HPV infection may be involved in the pathogenesis of CIN.

  15. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an aqueous ethanol ...

  16. Relationship between soil contents and plasma levels of selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South - South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and ...

  17. Changes in plasma lipid peroxide and ascorbic acid levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and method: This study was conducted on the relationship between plasma lipid peroxides, ascorbic acid levels and diabetes mellitus. Forty two diabetic patients (24 males and 18 females) age grouped between 40 - 60 years were studied in the diabetic clinic of Federal Medical Centre Owerri. Controls were ...

  18. Plasma TGF beta level in rats after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    Changes in TGF-beta plasma levels were observed 18 weeks after hemithoracic irradiation in rats. This coincides with an increase in the breathing frequency, being most pronounced between 22 and 28 weeks after irradiation. The correlation suggests a potential role of the circulating TGF-beta in the

  19. plasma total chloroquine level in relation to plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantification of plasma total chloroquine level was carried out in relation to Plasmodium falciparum density in 80 adult malaria patients in Calabar. The WHO in Vivo seven-day test was used with follow-up on days 1, 2, 3 and 7 after treatment with 25mg chloroquine base per kilogram body weight. Clinical and ...

  20. Association of plasma protein C levels and coronary artery disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have shown the risk factor causes of coronary heart disease. In this study we tested the hypothesis that plasma protein C level might be used as a biomarker for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The study included 60 men that were classified into 3 groups according to clinical examination; ...

  1. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an.

  2. Smoking, COPD and 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels of Plasma Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Peterson, Elena S.; Tan, Ruimin; Bigelow, Diana J.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Hoidal, John R.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a physiologically regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of cigarette smoke, although it is not clear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or oxidation of nitric oxide to reactive, nitrating, species. These processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determine the effects of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, and thereby gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. METHODS: A custom antibody microarray platform was used to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. Plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Nitrotyrosine levels in circulating proteins were uniformly reduced in smokers but increased in COPD patients. We also observed a persistent suppression of nitrotyrosine in former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking broadly suppresses the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins, suggesting that cigarette smoke suppresses endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, the increase in nitrotyrosine levels in COPD patients most likely results from inflammatory processes. This study provides the first evidence that smoking has irreversible effects on endothelial production of nitric oxide, and provides insight into how smoking could induce a loss of elasticity in the vasculature and a long-term increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Innovation Level of Sustainable Practices Adopted in Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the level of innovation of sustainable practices by industrial companies. This is a descriptive study that made use of a questionnaire answered by 50 industrial companies. The results show that environmental practices at full level by 68% of businesses are monitoring the risks and opportunities for the organization's activities due to climate change; 56% of companies surveyed are waste separation; followed by the realization of related health and safety training at work in 52% of cases surveyed; and 48% monitoring and recording of injuries, the injury rate, the rate of occupational diseases, lost days, absenteeism and number of work-related fatalities for all workers. Among the practices adopted not stand out incineration (burning mass (80% of companies surveyed; hiring indigenous and tribal employees (68%; composting (64% and use of surface water in the process. Therefore, the study contributed to the disclosure cleaner called production innovations and also pipe end technologies. Some social practices that signal a commitment of the organizations with human resources and the humanization and also economical focused on continuous improvement.

  4. Optimization of the Magnetic Field Structure for Sustained Plasma Gun Helicity Injection for Magnetic Turbulence Studies at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Schaffner, D. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.

    2017-10-01

    A long-pulsed magnetic coaxial plasma gun is being implemented and characterized at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). A cold cathode discharged between the cylindrical electrodes generates and launches plasma into a 24cm diameter, 2m long chamber. Three separately pulsed magnetic coils are carefully positioned to generate radial magnetic field between the electrodes at the gun edge in order to provide stuffing field. Magnetic helicity is continuously injected into the flux-conserving vacuum chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. The aim of this source, however, is to supply long pulses of turbulent magnetized plasma for measurement rather than for sustained spheromak production. The work shown here details the optimization of the magnetic field structure for this sustained helicity injection.

  5. Fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels in normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicóvíc, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1980-01-01

    Plasma levels of oestradiol were measured in blood samples obtained from 6 normal men every 12 minutes for two 4-hour periods: between 08.00 and 12.00h and between 18.00 and 22.00h. Circulating oestradiol was measured by radioimmunoassay after chromatographic separation on microcolumns of Sephadex LH-20. Mean values of oestradiol concentrations and coefficients of variation for two 4-hour periods were calculated for each subject and for the whole group. Data were statistically evaluated by means of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Rapid fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels were observed in all subjects. The pattern of the fluctuations was found to be irregular and different in each subject. The mean concentration and coefficient of variation were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in the morning, suggesting the possibility of a circadian rhythm in the secretion of oestradiol in men.

  6. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  8. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  9. Study of Plasma Ascorbic Acid Levels in Wheezing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nagdeote AN,; Paunipagar PV,; Muddeshwar MG,; Suryawanshi NP,

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reactive Oxygen species induced bronchial abnormalities may have important consequences in asthma, the main symptom being wheezing specially in children. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant known to quench the reactive oxygen species. A beneficial effect of fresh fruit consumption on lung function has been observed in several studies. Plasma levels Vitamin C was determined in relation to wheezing symptoms in cross sectional study. Methods: In a cross sectional blood samples of 5...

  10. Decreased Plasma BDNF Levels of Patients with Somatization Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jong-Chul

    2016-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an abnormality of plasma BDNF levels in patients with somatization disorder, and to analyze the nature of the alteration after pharmacotherapy using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma BDNF levels of the patients with a somatization disorder were significantly lower compared with those of the control volunteers (83.61±89.97 pg/mL vs. 771.36±562.14 pg/mL); moreover, the plasma BDNF levels of those patients who received an antidepressant were significantly increased after the treatment (118.13±91.45 pg/mL vs. 72.92±88.21 pg/mL). These results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of somatization disorder.

  11. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  12. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  13. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzaja, Andrea; Dalal, Mira A; Himmerich, Hubertus; Uhr, Manfred; Pollmächer, Thomas; Schuld, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to promote slow-wave sleep (SWS, non-REM sleep stages 3 and 4). Plasma levels of ghrelin are dependent on food intake and increase in sleeping subjects during the early part of the night. It is unknown whether sleep itself affects ghrelin levels or whether circadian networks are involved. Therefore, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on nocturnal ghrelin secretion. In healthy male volunteers, plasma levels of ghrelin, cortisol, and human growth hormone (hGH) were measured during two experimental sessions of 24 h each: once when the subjects were allowed to sleep between 2300 and 0700 and once when they were kept awake throughout the night. During sleep, ghrelin levels increased during the early part of the night and decreased in the morning. This nocturnal increase was blunted during sleep deprivation, and ghrelin levels increased only slightly until the early morning. Ghrelin secretion during the first hours of sleep correlated positively with peak hGH concentrations. We conclude that the nocturnal increase in ghrelin levels is more likely to be caused by sleep-associated processes than by circadian influences. During the first hours of sleep, ghrelin might promote sleep-associated hGH secretion and contribute to the promotion of SWS.

  14. Plasma Osteoprotegerin Levels Before and After Treatment of Thyroid Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Özdemir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteoprotegerin (OPG is a soluble decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, thereby inhibiting bone resorption. In this study, we aimed to evaluate plasma OPG levels in patients with thyroid dysfunctions and determine whether its levels change after restoration of euthyroidism. Material and Method: OPG levels were studied at the time of diagnosis and after the restoration of euthyroidism at least for 8 weeks in patients diagnosed with overt thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. Results: Seventeen hypothyroid, 17 thyrotoxic patients and 17 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were analyzed. Mean basal plasma OPG levels were 5.42±2.66, 5.04±1.62 and 5.24±0.93 pmol/l in thyrotoxic, hypothyroid and healthy controls, respectively (p=0.844. After restoration of euthyroidism, OPG was 5.52±2.37 pmol/l in thyrotoxic and 4.33±1.37 pmol/l in hypothyroid patients, indicating no significant difference compared to baseline values (p=0.846 and p=0.109, respectively. We also did not observe any correlation between basal OPG levels and basal thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels. Discussion: Thyroid dysfunctions seem to affect bone functions by mechanisms other than OPG, however, more clinical studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of thyroid dysfunction-related changes in bone metabolism. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 102-7

  15. Plasma copeptin levels in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu Tuac, S; Ozben, S; Koseoglu Bitnel, M; Koksal, A; Kucuksayan, E; Hanikoğlu, A; Ozben, T

    2018-03-01

    Copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of antidiuretic hormone, is a new biomarker that has been found to be elevated in several disorders and could be related with prognosis. This study aimed to compare plasma copeptin levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) with healthy individuals and to investigate whether plasma copeptin levels were associated with the severity of disease. 41 patients with primary RLS, who were followed in Bakirkoy Psychiatry and Neurology Research and Training Hospital and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included into the study. RLS patients were divided into subgroups as mild-moderate, severe, and very severe according to the severity of symptoms. Sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness were determined according to Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively, and sleep quality scores were analyzed statistically among the groups divided according to disease severity. Copeptin levels in all the patients were compared to the controls. RLS subgroups were compared with each other to evaluate association between copeptin levels and disease severity. Plasma copeptin levels in RLS patients were significantly higher than controls (P copeptin levels and disease severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness was found as 14.63% and low sleep quality as 68.29% in patients. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and sympathetic hyperactivity in RLS might be responsible for increased Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and copeptin release. We think that copeptin might have a potential role in the pathogenesis of RLS and be a biomarker for this disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Plasma haptoglobin levels and radiation chimeras in mice. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, J.; Tsuchiya, T.; Dei, T.

    1976-05-01

    When irradiated mice were grafted with allogeneic bone marrow, their plasma haptoglobin(Hp) significantly increased 2 weeks after grafting. To elucidate the generation of the increase of Hp in allogeneic bone marrow recipients, the relationship between the Hp levels and allograft reactions was assessed. The Hp levels of irradiated recipients, which were inoculated with allogeneic spleen cells, increased with the increase of alloantigen-sensitive units in donor cells. The positive correlation between the Hp levels and graft-versus-host reactions evaluated by spleen weight assay was also observed in unirradiated F/sub 1/ hybrid mice which received parental spleen cells. It is, therefore, suspected that the elevated Hp levels found in allogeneic-bone-marrow recipients are associated with lymphoid cell proliferation initiated by alloantigenic stimulations, and it was concluded that Hp levels in allogeneic-bone-marrow recipients provide an indicator of the degree of allograft reactions.

  17. Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Keith L.; Dorsey, Judy A.

    2000-04-19

    Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.

  18. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  19. Dietary fat intake and plasma lipid levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E K; Lee-Finglas, W E; Southon, S; Gee, J M; Johnson, I T; Finglas, P M; Wright, A J

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fat intake and fasting plasma lipid levels was assessed in 35 female and 19 male adolescents recruited from two local education authority schools in Norwich, UK. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7-day weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Fat and energy intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with values obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Fasting plasma lipid levels (total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured and compared with total dietary lipids and fatty acid intakes. The average proportion of energy consumed as fat was higher than is currently considered desirable but lower than previous studies have reported for adults. Mean serum total cholesterol values were 4.2 (SEM 0.1) mmol for females and 4.5 (SEM 0.2) mmol for males; this difference was not statistically significant. In male subjects the dietary fatty acid profiles were significantly correlated with several parameters of plasma lipid status which are thought to be risk factors for coronary heart disease, and in particular with the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol.

  20. COAGULATION FACTORS LEVEL IN FRESH FROZEN PLASMA IN RWANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamungu, S; Nyamache, A K; Masaisa, F; Njoki, S K; Abdalah, F; Saibu, K; Ndahiriwe, O; Agwata, D

    2014-02-01

    Objectives: To determine the level of coagulation factors and inherited inhibitors in Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and to evaluate Prothrombin Time and activated partial thrombin time in fresh frozen plasma. Cross-sectional study. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in Medical Laboratory Sciences. Eighteen blood bags collected from voluntary blood donors. Coagulation factors and inhibitors levels, Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial thrombin Time (APTT) remained within the reference range requested by quality assurance regulations after three months of storage. APTT and PT show an increase from baseline to one month then remain constant up to three months, while, Fibrinogen, Factor II, Factor V, Factor VII, Factor X, Von Willbrand Factor, Protein C and Antithrombin decreased from baseline up to three months and then Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor XI, Factor XII and Protein S, remained constant from baseline up to one month and decreased up to three months. There is good retention of all coagulation factors and inhibitors in plasma produced from whole blood within eight hours of collection, stored at minus 18 degrees C for three months.

  1. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  2. Non-self-sustained discharge with hollow anode for plasma-based surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misiruk Ivan O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses plasma methods for surface modification using the non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow anode. This discharge is characterised by low voltage and high values of electron and ion currents. It can be easily excited in vacuum-arc installations that are widely used for coatings deposition. It is shown that such type of discharge may be effectively used for ion pumping, film deposition, ion etching, diffusion saturation of metallic materials, fusion and brazing of metals, and for combined application of above mentioned technologies in a single vacuum cycle.

  3. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Mean buprenorphine concentration was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 192 h post-injection for group 1 and it was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 72 h post-injection for group 2. In conclusion, a long lasting potential analgesic plasma level of buprenorphine is attained following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg BW of SR buprenorphine in sheep. However the effective analgesic plasma threshold still needs to be determined in sheep.

  4. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  5. Chitooligosaccharides decreases plasma lipid levels in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Cheong-Rak; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Je, Jae-Young; An, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae Dong; Wang, Joon Ho; Ki, Seung Seog; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Moon, Sang-Ho; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2012-02-01

    Chitosan, which is derived from chitin, has drawn much attention due to its low toxicity and potential use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The biological activities of chitosan have been shown to depend on its molecular weight (MW) and degree of deacetylation. In this study, we investigated whether oral chitooligosaccharides, which are easily absorbed into the body, can reduce the plasma level of lipid in smokers and non-smokers because smoking is a high-risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. All healthy men (11 smokers and 8 non-smokers) consumed 500 mg of chitooligosaccharides in water twice daily before a meal (breakfast and dinner) over a 6-week period. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in both the smoker group and non-smoker group when compared with baseline. These results suggest that low MW chitooligosaccharides would be an effective dietary supplement for lowering cholesterol level.

  6. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... line of the form leptin = a*e(b*BMI) and stratifying ranges according to gender and pubertal stage. In conclusion, these data suggest that 1) plasma leptin levels increase in girls and decrease in boys after Tanner stage 2 as the pubertal development proceeds; 2) they show a significant gender...

  7. Heritability of plasma neopterin levels in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, Uttam K; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lowry, Christopher A; Stephens, Sarah H; Pavlovich, Mary A; Mohyuddin, Hira; Yousufi, Hassaan; Ryan, Kathleen A; O'Connell, Jeff; Brenner, Lisa A; Punzalan, Cecile; Hoisington, Andrew J; Nijjar, Gursharon K; Groer, Maureen; Shuldiner, Alan R; Pollin, Toni I; Stiller, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-06-15

    We examined the heritability of neopterin, a biomarker for cell-mediated immunity and oxidative stress, and potentially for psychiatric disorders, in the Old Order Amish. Plasma neopterin levels were determined in 2015 Old Order Amish adults. Quantitative genetic procedures were used to estimate heritability of neopterin. Heritability of log-neopterin was estimated at 0.07 after adjusting for age, gender, and household (p=0.03). The shared household effect was 0.06 (pAmish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  9. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  10. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  11. Plasma copeptin levels in the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Ömer; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, S; Saraymen, R; Sen, A; Yurci, M A

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, it constitutes an important part of health expenditures. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between plasma copeptin levels and the etiology, location and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed prospectively in 104 consecutive patients who were admitted to an emergency department with complaints of bloody vomiting or bloody or black stool. To evaluate the level of biochemical parameters such as Full Blood Count (FBC), serum biochemistry, bleeding parameters and copeptin, blood samples were obtained at admission. For the copeptin levels, 2 more blood samples were obtained at the 12th and 24th hours after admission. The values obtained were compared using statistical methods. In terms of the etiology of bleeding, the copeptin levels in the patients with peptic ulcer were higher than the levels in patients with other gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences among all groups' 0th, 12th and 24th hour levels of copeptin. We conclude that copeptin cannot be effectively used as a biochemical parameter in an emergency department to determine the etiology and location of gastrointestinal bleeding. It can, however, be used to make decisions on endoscopy and the hospitalization of patients with suspected gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    outcomes for urban transport that cities and citizens can identify with, and which can easily be monitored. It must be hoped that the Commission’s upcoming Urban Mobility Package will not only provide a clearer definition of the existing urban transport goal but also help widen and balance the scope...... sustainable urban development will not occur by itself but will require regulations. The White Paper defined rather narrow urban goals - to reduce and eliminate the use of ‘conventionally fuelled vehicles’ and to obtain near- CO2 free city logistics. There is a need to formulate a broader set of desired...... to help cities implement comprehensive, ambitious Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. A crucial point is the need to pay more attention to the political aspects of urban mobility. Game changing results can hardly be obtained by better planning procedures alone. Courage and will on the side of policy makers...

  13. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  14. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M B; Davis, H N; Williams, M T; Mellott, C; Douglas, C W

    1997-09-01

    Plasmacortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had higher cortisol levels than did a group maintained in the shelter for more than 9 days. Dogs in the shelter for an intermediate period (Day 4-9) had intermediate levels of cortisol. The cortisol concentrations of dogs during their first day in the shelter were greater than either those of the same dogs on Day 4/5 in the shelter or those of a group of pet dogs sampled in their own homes. There was no overall effect of 20 min of social interaction with a human (e.g., petting) on the plasma cortisol levels of dogs in the shelter on Day 1-3. However, the gender of the petter did affect cortisol levels. Those dogs interacting with a female had lower cortisol concentrations at the end of the session than did dogs interacting with a male. The results suggest that confinement in a public animal shelter produces a prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Further, it appears that some subtle aspect of interaction with a human may be capable of moderating this response. Possible implications for the welfare of confined dogs, and for the development of behavior problems in dogs obtained from shelters, are discussed.

  15. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  16. Plasma cytokines levels in aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattuella, Letícia Grando; Campagnaro, Milene Borges; Vargas, Andréia Escosteguy; Xavier, Léder Leal; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Chies, José Artur Bogo; Miranda, Letícia Algarves

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in plasma from healthy controls and different types of periodontitis patients. The concentration of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ was determined in healthy controls (n = 18) and patients with chronic (n = 19) and aggressive periodontitis (n = 19) using a flow cytometric multiplex immunoassay. Means and standard deviations were calculated and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman rho coefficient was used to correlate cytokines in the studied groups. Although there was no significant difference in the concentration of cytokines between groups, there was a tendency to lower levels of IL-5 and IL-10 in the aggressive periodontitis group. Stronger correlations were observed between IL-2/IL-4 and IL-2/IL-10 in healthy controls (0.938 and 0.669, respectively) compared with chronic (0.746 and 0.532) and aggressive periodontitis groups (0.395 and 0.266). When compared to healthy (0.812) and chronic periodontitis (0.845) groups, the correlation of IL-4/IL-5 was weaker in the aggressive group (0.459). No difference between systemic levels of Th1/Th2 was observed. In aggressive periodontitis patients, nevertheless, a trend towards low levels of Th2 cytokines could suggest a contribution to the development of such an exacerbated manifestation of this disease.

  17. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  18. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Bjørndal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  19. Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Le, Aurora B; Jelden, Katelyn C; Hewlett, Angela L; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury Level Influences Acute Plasma Caffeine Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Paulson, Terri Susan; Paulson, Thomas Andrew William; Perret, Claudio; Tolfrey, Keith; Cordery, Philip; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria Louise

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the absorption curve and acute effects of caffeine at rest in individuals with no spinal cord injury (SCI), paraplegia (PARA), and tetraplegia (TETRA). Twenty-four healthy males (eight able-bodied [AB], eight PARA, and eight TETRA) consumed 3 mg·kg caffeine anhydrous (CAF) in a fasted state. Plasma caffeine [CAF], glucose, lactate, free fatty acid, and catecholamine concentrations were measured during a 150-min rest period. Peak [CAF] was greater in TETRA (21.5 μM) compared with AB (12.2 μM) and PARA (15.1 μM), and mean peak [CAF] occurred at 70, 80, and 80 min, respectively. Moderate and large effect sizes were revealed for TETRA compared with PARA and AB (-0.55 and -1.14, respectively) for the total area under the [CAF] versus time curve. Large interindividual responses were apparent in SCI groups. The change in plasma catecholamine concentrations after CAF did not reach significance (P > 0.05); however, both adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were lowest in TETRA. Significant increases in free fatty acid were seen over time (P 0.05). The level of SCI influenced the caffeine absorption curve, and there was large interindividual variation within and between groups. Individual curves should be considered when using caffeine as an ergogenic aid in athletes with an SCI. The results indicate TETRA should trial low doses in training and PARA may consider consuming caffeine greater than 60 min before exercise performance. The study also supports caffeine's direct effect on adipose tissue, which is not secondary to catecholamine release.

  1. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  2. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  3. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  4. Integrative Approaches to Sustainable Development at University Level: Making the Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana; Kuznetsova, Olga; Paço, Arminda Maria Finisterra do

    2015-01-01

    ... researchers and practitioners. By showcasing how integrative approaches to sustainable development at the university level can be successfully employed to bridge the gaps between disciplines, the book provides a timely...

  5. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  6. Plasma levels of immunosuppressive mediators during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borrelli

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of two mediators with immunosuppressive properties, complement fraction C3a (C3a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, during extracorporeal circulation. The proliferation index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also investigated. Sixteen patients undergoing hypothermic (n = 8, group 1 and normothermic (n = 8, group 2 cardiopulmormry bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. As a control, we evaluated four patients undergoing thoracovascular operations without CPB. Blood samples were collected before CPB but after anaesthesia, every 30 min during CPB, at the end of CPB and 10 min after protamine administration. Both C3a and TGF-β1 increased significantly during CPB and after protamine administration in the hypothermic as well as the normothermic group. In the latter case the increase of C3a and TGF-β1, although more prominent, was not significantl higher than in the former group. Conversely, the proliferation, index of peripheral mononuclear cells had already decreased 30 min after CPB was started and remained depressed throughout the CPB time. These results suggest a possible role of C3a and TGF-β1 in the immunological changes occurring during extracorporeal circulation.

  7. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  8. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  9. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  10. Plasma NOV/CCN3 Levels Are Closely Associated with Obesity in Patients with Metabolic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pakradouni, Jihane; Le Goff, Wilfried; Calmel, Claire; Antoine, B?n?dicte; Villard, Elise; Frisdal, Eric; Abifadel, Marianne; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Bruckert, Eric; Cl?ment, Karine; F?ve, Bruno; Martinerie, C?cile

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. METHODS: NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlip...

  11. Risk of acute coronary artery disease associated with functional thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor plasma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Amparo; Martínez-Rubio, Antonio; Borrell, Montserrat; Mateo, José; Ortín, Rosa; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2004-07-01

    To our knowledge, there is little information about functional thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) levels and the risk of acute coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the risk of acute CAD related to plasma levels of functional TAFI. We found that functional TAFI levels in plasma (above 126%), increased the risk of acute CAD almost 4-fold.

  12. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Radioimmunoassay of plasma lisuride in man following intravenous and oral administration of lisuride hydrogen maleate: effect on plasma prolactin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümpel, M; Nieuweboer, B; Hasan, S H; Wendt, H

    1981-01-01

    The development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for the determination of lisuride in plasma is described. The antiserum against lisuride-4-hemisuccinate-BSA was raised in rabbits. Using this method the plasma levels of lisuride were monitored following one intravenous (25 microgram) and two oral (100 microgram and 300 microgram) doses of lisuride hydrogen maleate in three female and three male volunteers (intra-individual comparison). The plasma prolactin was also determined by radioimmunoassay. Following i. v. injection, the concentration of lisuride declined in three phases, with half-lives of 5 min, 25 min and 2 h. The total plasma clearance of 800 +/- 250 ml X min-1 was in the range of "plasma flow" through the liver. In agreement with the high rate of biotransformation, the bioavailability of lisuride administered orally was 10% +/- 7% of the 100-microgram dose, and 22% +/- 7% of the 300-microgram dose. The plasma prolactin was lowered to 3%-18% of its pretreatment value depending on the route of administration and the dose. The reduction appeared to be short-lived and to be directly dependent on the plasma concentration of lisuride. Following intravenous injection, the prolactin level declined after a so far unexplained lag-time of 0.5 h.

  14. Men Sustain Higher Dysregulation Levels Than Women Without Becoming Frail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Legault, Véronique; Li, Qing; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-07-23

    The aging process differs in important ways between the sexes, with women living longer but at higher risk for frailty (the male-female health-survival paradox). The underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood, but may relate to sex differences in physiological dysregulation patterns. Here, using biomarkers from two longitudinal cohort studies (InCHIANTI and BLSA) and one cross-sectional survey (NHANES), we assess sex differences in trajectories of dysregulation globally and for five physiological systems: oxygen transport, electrolytes, hematopoiesis, lipids, and liver/kidney function. We found higher dysregulation levels in men, both globally and in the oxygen transport and hematopoietic systems (p change in dysregulation with age. Although risk of frailty and mortality increase with dysregulation, there was no evidence for differences in these effects between sexes. These findings imply that the greater susceptibility of women to frailty is not simply due to a tolerance for higher dysregulation; rather, it may actually be men that have a greater tolerance for dysregulation, creating a male-female dysregulation-frailty paradox. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying the sex differences appear to be diffuse and hard to pin down. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Classification of EU Countries in Terms of the Level of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stec Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has classified the EU countries in terms of the level of sustainable development. The study was based on main sustainability indicators developed by Eurostat. In empirical research, one of the methods used was Cluster Analysis - Ward's method. Grouping methods make it possible to distinguish countries with a similar level of sustainability which is particularly useful for monitoring the progress of individual EU countries in implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy. For specific groups of countries, appropriate control instruments and strategies can be proposed. The research period is 2016. As a result of the research, 6 clusters of countries were obtained. For specific groups of countries, their characteristics were defined.

  16. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  17. Plasma ghrelin level and plasma ghrelin/obestatin ratio are related to intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Ji Won; Byun, Junsu; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae

    2017-01-01

    Whether plasma ghrelin/obestatin levels are associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, subtypes of functional dyspepsia (FD), and gastric mucosal histology has not yet been established in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are related to gastric mucosal histology, H. pylori infection, and FD subtypes in elderly patients with FD. Ninety-two patients diagnosed with FD and older than 60 years (median age 69.4; range 60-88) were included. Clinical symptoms investigated included postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, epigastric soreness, nausea, and vomiting. According to the Rome III criteria, patients diagnosed with FD were divided into two subtypes: epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay, and histological examination of gastric mucosa was performed. H. pylori infection was determined by histopathological examination of gastric mucosal biopsy and/or Campylobacter-like organism test. In our study, plasma ghrelin levels and plasma ghrelin/obestatin (G/O) ratio were significantly lower in subjects with intestinal metaplasia compared with those without intestinal metaplasia (ghrelin, p = 0.010; G/O ratio, p = 0.012). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. (ghrelin, p = 0.130; obestatin, p = 0.888). Similarly, no significant differences were detected between the EPS and PDS groups (ghrelin, p = 0.238; obestatin, p = 0.710). Patients with intestinal metaplasia, a known precursor of gastric cancer, had significantly less plasma ghrelin levels and G/O ratio than those without intestinal metaplasia.

  18. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  19. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP......-1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1...... to preoperative levels 30 days after surgery. Patients undergoing laparoscopically assisted or open resection had similar TIMP-1 levels at each time point. CONCLUSIONS: Major surgery has considerable impact on plasma TIMP-1 levels. Intra- and post-operative changes of plasma TIMP-1 levels are independent...

  20. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  1. Program (Re)design Model: A Sustainable, System-Level Approach to Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria L.; Sandoval, Carolyn L.; Bakenhus, Chelsea; MacWillie, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Traditional professional development related to teaching is offered on a short-term basis and at the individual level. Recent experiences and research studies have led to an organizational level model in which the educational developer forms a sustained partnership with administrators, faculty, staff, and students in a department, offering…

  2. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of stroke in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P. van; Mooijaart, S.P.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Rensen, P.C.N.; Heemst, D. van; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, high plasma apoE levels have been shown to be related to increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of APOE genotype. Here we studied the association of plasma apoE levels with risk of stroke. Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 561 subjects aged

  3. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  4. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  5. Parental history of Alzheimer disease associated with lower plasma apolipoprotein E levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, P.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Eikelenboom, P.; Comijs, H. C.; Frölich, M.; Bakker, E.; van der Flier, W.; van Exel, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Variation in APOE genotype is a determinant of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the risk associated with variation in plasma apoE levels has yet to be determined. Here, we studied offspring with and without a parental history of AD to identify the effect of plasma apoE levels at middle age on

  6. Influence of sublingual captopril on plasma catecholamine levels during hypertensive emergencies and cold immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonia, J J; Monteiro, A; Esteves, A; Cunha, M E; Santos, M L; Coutinho, J; Coelho, J L; Brandao, F A; Cerqueira-Gomes, M

    1988-03-11

    Experimental evidence of captopril-induced inhibition of sympathetic activity, mediated by decrease in angiotensin II production, is presented. The blood pressure, plasma catecholamine, plasma renin activity, and plasma aldosterone responses to a single dose of sublingual captopril in 23 patients with hypertensive emergencies were evaluated. The major correlation found was between the captopril-induced decrease in blood pressure and the decrease in plasma norepinephrine levels (r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). In another 11 hypertensive patients with normal or high renin levels, captopril lowered by 65 percent the increase in plasma norepinephrine induced by cold immersion of the forearm. In both circumstances, plasma renin and aldosterone levels changed in accordance with the expected inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity. These data suggest that, in selected circumstances in hypertensive patients, captopril exhibits a depressive influence on sympathetic activity along with the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system.

  7. Increased plasma levels of soluble IL-2R are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S; Theander, T G

    1994-01-01

    . Children with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher plasma levels of soluble IL-2R than children with mild malaria. Plasma levels of IL-2R and levels of parasitaemia were significantly correlated. Neither parasitaemia nor plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6...... antigen. We conclude that soluble IL-2R is a useful marker of disease severity independently of the association with levels of parasitaemia, and that functional regulation of different lymphocyte subsets occurs during acute malaria episodes....

  8. Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these ...

  9. High plasma levels of adrenomedullin in collagen diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    unlike plasma ADM that was higher in subjects suffering from lupus arthritis or cardiovascular manifestations. .... swelling, the pain on motion/joint tenderness and limitation of motion), the total articular activity for each patient ... second portion for estimation of kidney function test and the third one was stored at -20°C until.

  10. Ochratoxin A levels in human plasma and foods in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Hind; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Creppy, Edmond E; Pallardy, Marc; Azouri, Hayat

    2004-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin which contaminates food such as cereals, beer, coffee, wine and products of animal origin. OTA is known for its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The prevalence of OTA in human blood and foodstuffs has been investigated in many countries. In this study, exposure of the Lebanese population to OTA was evaluated and the contamination of the most commonly consumed foods in Lebanon by OTA was assessed. Plasma samples from healthy individuals and also cereals and beer samples obtained from markets were collected from the different regions of Lebanon. OTA was detectable in 33% of tested plasma samples (n =250) with a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 0.87 ng/mL and a mean of 0.17+/-0.01ng/mL. No sex and age differences were found. The frequency of OTA-positive plasma samples obtained in the South of Lebanon and in the Bekaa valley (50 and 47%, respectively) was significantly higher compared to plasma samples obtained in the Beirut/Mount Lebanon region (19%). Food analyses showed that wheat, burghul and beer were contaminated with a mean value of 0.15+/-0.03 microg/kg, 0.21+/-0.04 microg/kg and 0.19+/-0.12 ng/mL, respectively. These data suggest that the Lebanese population is exposed to OTA through food ingestion at concentrations lower than the tolerable daily intake.

  11. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  12. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis : Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Kuipers, Johanna; Assa, Solmaz; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Groen, Henk; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli

  13. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  14. The LXR–Idol axis differentially regulates plasma LDL levels in primates and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Graham, Mark; Layne, Joseph D.; Cai, Lei; Scotti, Elena; Boyadjian, Rima; Kim, Jason; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.; Jung, Michael E.; Fong, Loren; Lee, Richard; Young, Stephen G.; Temel, Ryan E.; Tontonoz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary The LXR-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL controls LDLR receptor stability independent of SREBP and PCSK9, but its relevance to plasma lipid levels is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effects of the LXR–IDOL axis are both tissue- and species-specific. In mice, LXR agonist induces Idol transcript levels in peripheral tissues but not in liver, and does not change plasma LDL levels. Accordingly, Idol-deficient mice exhibit elevated LDLR protein levels in peripheral tissues but not in the liver. By contrast, LXR activation in cynomolgus monkeys induces hepatic IDOL expression, reduces LDLR protein levels, and raises plasma LDL levels. Knockdown of IDOL in monkeys with an antisense oligonucleotide blunts the effect of LXR agonist on LDL levels. These results implicate IDOL as a modulator of plasma lipid levels in primates and support further investigation into IDOL inhibition as a potential strategy for LDL lowering in humans. PMID:25440061

  15. The LXR-Idol axis differentially regulates plasma LDL levels in primates and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Marshall, Stephanie M; McDaniel, Allison L; Graham, Mark; Layne, Joseph D; Cai, Lei; Scotti, Elena; Boyadjian, Rima; Kim, Jason; Chamberlain, Brian T; Tangirala, Rajendra K; Jung, Michael E; Fong, Loren; Lee, Richard; Young, Stephen G; Temel, Ryan E; Tontonoz, Peter

    2014-11-04

    The LXR-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL controls LDLR receptor stability independent of SREBP and PCSK9, but its relevance to plasma lipid levels is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effects of the LXR-IDOL axis are both tissue and species specific. In mice, LXR agonist induces Idol transcript levels in peripheral tissues but not in liver, and does not change plasma LDL levels. Accordingly, Idol-deficient mice exhibit elevated LDLR protein levels in peripheral tissues, but not in the liver. By contrast, LXR activation in cynomolgus monkeys induces hepatic IDOL expression, reduces LDLR protein levels, and raises plasma LDL levels. Knockdown of IDOL in monkeys with an antisense oligonucleotide blunts the effect of LXR agonist on LDL levels. These results implicate IDOL as a modulator of plasma lipid levels in primates and support further investigation into IDOL inhibition as a potential strategy for LDL lowering in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of smoking and oral contraception on plasma beta-carotene levels in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Romney, S L; Vermund, S H; Mikhail, M G; Basu, J

    1989-10-01

    Oral contraceptive use and smoking have been known to affect plasma vitamin levels. Total carotenoids have been studied with spectrophotometry, a relatively insensitive technique. In this study plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and retinol were measured in coded samples by sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatography in a cross-sectional study of 149 normal healthy women attending a family planning clinic. At the time of recruitment in the morning, a general health questionnaire was administered for patient age, methods of contraception, smoking habits, and food intake at breakfast. Of the 149 enrolled volunteers, 88 were oral contraceptive users and 61 were not users. Among users, 21 smoked cigarettes, and there were 18 smokers among nonusers. Oral contraceptive users had significantly lower plasma concentrations of beta-carotene (p less than 0.001) and higher retinol levels (p less than 0.0001). Plasma beta-carotene or retinol levels did not differ among users of intrauterine contraceptive devices or barrier methods of contraception. No association was noted between the plasma levels of these two micronutrients and age greater than or less than 30 years. Cigarette smoking alone was associated with significantly reduced plasma beta-carotene levels in nonusers (p less than 0.001). Combined cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive usage were associated with low plasma beta-carotene levels; the results appear to be additive. These findings suggest a possible synergistic effect on plasma beta-carotene levels from the use of both cigarette smoking and oral contraception.

  17. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Cheng, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown.......Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown....

  18. Plasma NOV/CCN3 levels are closely associated with obesity in patients with metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakradouni, Jihane; Le Goff, Wilfried; Calmel, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Villard, Elise; Frisdal, Eric; Abifadel, Marianne; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Bruckert, Eric; Clément, Karine; Fève, Bruno; Martinerie, Cécile; Guérin, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlipidemia history and/or with lipid-lowering therapy and/or a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2). Correlations were measured between NOV plasma levels and various parameters, including BMI, fat mass, and plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein. NOV expression was also evaluated in adipose tissue from obese patients and rodents and in primary cultures of adipocytes and macrophages. After full multivariate adjustment, we detected a strong positive correlation between plasma NOV and BMI (r = 0.36 pobese patients, and in human primary cultures NOV protein was detected in adipocytes and macrophages. In mice fed a high fat diet NOV plasma levels and its expression in adipose tissue were also significantly increased compared to controls fed a standard diet. Our results strongly suggest that in obese humans and mice plasma NOV levels positively correlated with NOV expression in adipose tissue, and support a possible contribution of NOV to obesity-related inflammation.

  19. Effect of craniotomy on oxidative stress and its effect on plasma L-carnitine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-ting; Zhao, Zhen-huan; Ding, Hai-yan; Wang, Le-xin; Cao, Yu

    2014-11-01

    to investigate the impact of craniotomy on oxidative stress and its effect on levels of plasma L-carnitine (LC). plasma levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in 34 patients (26 males and 8 females, mean age 47.7 ± 6.7 years) before and after craniotomy. Plasma levels of LC, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) were also measured before and after the craniotomy. the plasma concentrations of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and T-AOC within the first 4 h after craniotomy were lower than their baseline values (P 0.05). Plasma levels of LC, ALC, and PLC were lower after the craniotomy (P L-carnitine.

  20. Maternal plasma homocysteine levels in intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeter, Ali; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-04-01

    To investigate a possible correlation between maternal plasma homocysteine (HC) concentrations and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The patients were divided into the IUGR group and controls. The IUGR group consisted of 40 women and their newborns with birth weight IUGR group and 4.6 ± 1.2 µmol/L in controls (p = 0.01). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and HC concentrations were discriminative markers in IUGR group. According to Pearson correlation analysis there was a possible association between HC concentrations and PI, RI and middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry (MCA). Higher maternal HC concentration and lower birth weight were observed in the IUGR group as compared to the control group. We are of the opinion that maternal plasma homocysteine concentration may be a prognostic marker in intrauterine growth retardation.

  1. Effect of cilantro on plasma lead levels and some hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead toxicity poses a big risk to animal and human health worldwide, yet its therapy remains difficult. We investigated the effect of cilantro on lead concentration in rat plasma. Rats received 0.25 ml of lead acetate intraperitoneally at 1.6 mg/ml daily for 16 days followed by or without treatment with 0.6 g of cilantro/rat/day ...

  2. Plasma Zinc Levels of Pregnant Women Visiting Irrua Specialist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their plasma samples were analyzed using the Walsh method with alpha 4-type model of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results of the analyses were 17.113±1.600, 11.750±3.289, 9.246±4.739 and 17.350±0.504 μmol/L for the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester and control subjects respectively. There were ...

  3. A combination of plasma DAO and citrulline levels as a potential marker for acute mesenteric ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Çakmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no valid and reliable diagnostic test for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and citrulline in AMI to gain insight into its early diagnosis. Material and methods: A total of 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups, that is, control group, short-term ischemia group, and prolonged ischemia group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 15 min in the short-term ischemia group and for 12 h in the prolonged ischemia group. Twelve hours later, the experiment was terminated and plasma DAO and citrulline levels were measured. Intestinal tissue was evaluated for the histopathological changes. Results: Compared to the control group, the short-term and prolonged ischemia groups showed significant increases in the plasma levels of DAO, whereas the plasma citrulline levels decreased significantly. Prolonged ischemia caused a larger increase in the plasma DAO levels and a larger decrease in the plasma citrulline levels compared to the short-term ischemia (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively. Intestinal damage was shown to develop more in the prolonged ischemia group (p=0.001. Conclusion: In the early period of AMI, the plasma DAO levels increase while citrulline levels decrease, and the extent of these changes depends on the duration of ischemia.

  4. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Nilsson; Lars Gustafson; Björn Hultberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy...

  6. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Solmaz; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Groen, Henk; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP), are operational in hemodialysis patients. Methods One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable) and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment. Results Patients were 63±15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7–4.0). Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0–244.8 pmol/L). Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (pcopeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels. Conclusions Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic stimuli, are associated with change in copeptin levels during hemodialysis. PMID

  7. Community Vitality: The Role of Community-Level Resilience Adaptation and Innovation in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Community level action towards sustainable development has emerged as a key scale of intervention in the effort to address our many serious environmental issues. This is hindered by the large-scale destruction of both urban neighbourhoods and rural villages in the second half of the twentieth century. Communities, whether they are small or large, hubs of experimentation or loci of traditional techniques and methods, can be said to have a level of community vitality that acts as a site of resilience, adaptation and innovation in the face of environmental challenges. This paper outlines how community vitality acts as a cornerstone of sustainable development and suggests some courses for future research. A meta-case analysis of thirty-five Canadian communities reveals the characteristics of community vitality emerging from sustainable development experiments and its relationship to resilience, applied specifically to community development.

  8. What Is a Sustainable Level of Timber Consumption in the EU: Toward Global and EU Benchmarks for Sustainable Forest Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan O’Brien; Stefan Bringezu

    2017-01-01

    .... The question is, how much timber is available for the EU to sustainably harvest and import, in particular considering sustainable forest management practices, a safe operating space for land-system...

  9. Adult growth hormone deficiency treatment with a combination of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 resulting in elevated sustainable insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 plasma levels: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madigan Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adult Growth hormone Deficiency is a well known phenomenon effecting both males and females. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency is marked by a number of neuropsychiatric, cognitive performance, cardiac, metabolic, muscular, and bone symptoms and clinical features. There is no known standardized acceptable therapeutic modality to treat this condition. A recent meta-analysis found that after 16 years of Growth Hormone replacement therapy a large proportion of the patients still had Growth Hormone associated symptoms especially related to executive functioning. A major goal is to increase plasma levels of both insulin-like growth factor (insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Case Presentation We report a case of a 45-year-old caucasian woman with early ovarian failure for 2 years and amenorrhea since the age of 43, who presented with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency and an IGF-1 of 126 ng/mL. Since her insulin-like growth factor-1 was lowest at 81 ng/mL, she was started on insulin-like growth factor-1 Increlex at 0.2 mg at bedtime, which immediately raised her insulin-like growth factor-1 levels to 130 ng/mL within 1 month, and 193 ng/mL, 249 ng/mL, and 357 ng/mL, after 3, 4, and 5 months, respectively, thereafter. Her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 continued to decrease. It was at this point when we added back the Growth Hormone and increased her Increlex dosage to 1.3 - 1.5 mg that her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 began to increase. Conclusion It appears that in some patients with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency, insulin-like growth factor-1 elevation is resistant to direct Growth Hormone treatment. Furthermore, the binding protein may not rise with insulin-like growth factor-1. However, a combination of Growth Hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment may be a solution.

  10. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl levels in plasma from 42-month-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidler, [No Value; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    We report on the PCB levels in plasma from 42-month-old children and the factors that determine these levels. We measured the levels of the PCB congeners 118 (2,4,5-3'4' pentachlorobiphenyl (CB)), 138 (2,3,4-2'4'5'hexaCB), 153 (2,4,5-2'4'5'hexaCB), and 180 (2,3,4,5-2'4'5'heptaCB) in cord plasma,

  11. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  13. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  14. Hyperglycemia prevents the suppressive effect of hyperinsulinemia on plasma adiponectin levels in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blümer, Regje M. E.; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Stegenga, Michiel E.; Tanck, Michael W.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Endert, Erik; van der Poll, Tom; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone with insulin-sensitizing properties. In patients with type 2 diabetes plasma adiponectin levels are decreased. Since these patients are characterized by high plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia could be responsible for

  15. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define

  16. The plasma levels of fibronectin in patients with ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fedorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main element of heart failure progression is extracellular matrix condition, where the fibronectin is an important component. Aim.To investigate the plasma levels of fibronectinin patients with ischemic heart failure. Methods and results. The identification of the plasma levels of fibronectin’s concentration was made by ELISA method. Conclusion. The fibronectin plasma levels are higher in patients with II-III HF (NYHA and at presence of atrial fibrillation. The main important factors, which have influence for fibronectin concentration, are endogenous intoxication, left atrium size and end-systolic volume of left ventricle.

  17. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein-E in residents of the European North of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneva, Anastasiya M; Bojko, Evgeny R; Potolitsyna, Natalya N; Odland, Jon O

    2013-03-27

    Apolipoprotein-E (apoE) is one of the metabolically active apoproteins and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. However, there are no data on levels of apoE in residents of the North in spite of the fact that specific features of lipid metabolism in the northerners are described. The present work was designed to study plasma levels of apoE in residents of the European North of Russia. A total of 937 native residents of the European North of Russia (463 men and 474 women) aged 13-60 years were included in the study. ApoE concentrations in the blood plasma were measured by immunoturbidimetric method. Plasma levels of apoE in residents of the European North of Russia were low. ApoE concentrations below the defined normal values were detected in 57.0% of the men and in 59.2% of the women. The mean plasma levels of apoE did not significantly differ in men and women (2.80 mg/dl vs 2.87 mg/dl). Plasma apoE concentrations in residents of the European North of Russia changed with age. Plasma levels of apoE decreased from 13 to 21 years in men and from 13 to 35 years in women and then increased in both sexes (p Russia shift towards lower values. Plasma levels of apoE below normal values were observed in approximately half of investigation subjects.

  18. Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein plasma level decrease correlates with age in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majek, Pavel; Pecankova, Klara; Cermak, Jaroslav; Gasova, Zdenka; Prochazka, Bohumir; Dyr, Jan E

    2017-12-06

    It has been indicated in plasma proteomic studies on different myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cohorts that alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein could be a promising MDS biomarker candidate. The goal of this work was to estimate alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) plasma levels and its biomarker value in the low- and high-risk subgroups of MDS patients. The level of AHSG was estimated for 115 plasma samples using ELISA. The AHSG plasma level was found to be decreased significantly (p= 2.59 × 10-7) in MDS patients (515 ± 58 μg/ml) when compared to healthy controls (579 ± 64 μg/ml). Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses showed that age is the principal factor affecting the AHSG plasma level, rather than risk/diagnosis in MDS. In this work we demonstrate that although the total plasma level of AHSG is decreased in myelodysplastic syndrome patients, in particular in advanced MDS, that decrease correlates more strongly with age than with diagnosis within our studied cohort. Thus, according to the AHSG data gathered so far, AHSG total plasma level does not seem to be a suitable MDS biomarker, but its particular proteoforms should be considered for the next steps in MDS research.

  19. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of prostaglandins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, O; Seppalä, E; Nissilä, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1983-12-01

    No significant differences were found in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. However, urinary excretion of PGEe and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha tended to be greater and plasma levels of TxB2 lower in rheumatoid arthritis. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion showed no marked circadian variation, although night or morning values were slightly lower. Plasma and urine prostaglandins do not correlate with clinical symptomatology in rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. A new HPLC method for pidotimod plasma levels determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bo, L; Broccali, G P; Silingardi, S; Coppi, G

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes a HPLC method for the determination of Pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; PGT/1A), a new biological response modifier, in plasma. The column was an Aminex Ion Exclusion HPX 874 with a PRP precolumn, the mobile phase was 0.05% sulfuric acid-acetonitrile (88:12, v/v), the flow rate was 0.6 ml/min, the detection wavelength was 210 nm. Plasma (1 ml) was added with internal standard (Oxiracetam, concentration 400 micrograms/ml) (50 microliters) and 35% perchloric acid (100 microliters). The supernatant (0.5 ml) was added with mobile phase (0.5 ml) and, after centrifugation, injected into the column. The retention times of Pidotimod and Oxiracetam were 16.5 and 13.8 min. respectively. The method was validated for recovery, accuracy and reproducibility. The results after oral administration of 800 mg of Pidotimod in male volunteers were also given. This method is better than that previously described because it utilizes an internal standard and reaches a lower detection limit.

  1. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  2. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  3. The Potentials of Normative Sustainability. An Analysis of Sustainable Development Strategies on Global, Supranational and National Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Uršič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the degree of normative sustainability achieved by selected regimes according to their sustainable development strategies. Focussing on Agenda 21, the Mediterranean Strategy of Sustainable Development, the European Union’s renewed Sustainable Development Strategy and Slovenia’s Development Strategy, the paper draws on Becker et al.’s cross-disciplinary concept of sustainability and the operationalization of normative sustainability. On the basis of the analysis of objectives and rationales behind the investigated strategies as well as examination of the general context, the paper puts forward the differences between the examined regimes and explores the possible factors inducing them. The paper concludes with a general observation that the analysed regimes reflect a fair degree of normative sustainability.

  4. Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten B Holven

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms for the possible atheroprotective effects of HDL cholesterol have still not been fully clarified, in particular in relation to clinical studies.To examine the inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic phenotype of subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Fifteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol levels (eleven males and four females and 19 subjects with high HDL (three males and 16 females were recruited. Low HDL cholesterol was defined as ≤10th age/sex specific percentile and high HDL-C was defined as ≥90 age/sex specific percentile. Inflammatory markers in circulation and PBMC gene expression of cholesterol efflux mediators were measured. Our main findings were: (i subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels were characterized by increased plasma levels of CRP, MMP-9, neopterin, CXCL16 and ICAM-1 as well as low plasma levels of adiponectin, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype; (ii these individuals also had reduced paraoxonase (PON1 activity in plasma and PON2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC accompanied by increased plasma levels of oxidized LDL suggesting decreased anti-oxidative capacity; and (iii PBMC from low HDL subjects also had decreased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, suggesting impaired reverse cholesterol transport.Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype that could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders in these subjects with low HDL levels.

  5. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels in G-6-PD-deficient and normal male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikcioglu, Süreyya Bilmen; Gümüslü, Saadet; Uysal, Nimet; Aksu, T Aslan

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy in the world. Trace elements are important for normal hematopoiesis and can play a role in acute hemolytic anemia induced by G-6-PD deficiency. For this purpose, we studied two groups consisting of 10 male children who are G-6-PD-deficient and 12 age-matched normal male children to compare plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, manganese, zinc, and plasma calcium levels between G-6-PD-deficient and normal children. All assays were performed under normal conditions free of any oxidative attack that may result in hemolytic crisis in G-6-PD-deficient subjects. All parameters in each group did not differ significantly except for erythrocyte G-6-PD activities. These data show that plasma and erythrocyte trace element contents of G-6-PD-deficient subjects do not differ in normal conditions.

  6. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p plasma levels (p Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  7. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  8. The Potential of Cold Plasma for Safe and Sustainable Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Paula; Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Cullen, Patrick J; Keener, Kevin

    2017-11-30

    Cold plasma science and technology is increasingly investigated for translation to a plethora of issues in the agriculture and food sectors. The diversity of the mechanisms of action of cold plasma, and the flexibility as a standalone technology or one that can integrate with other technologies, provide a rich resource for driving innovative solutions. The emerging understanding of the longer-term role of cold plasma reactive species and follow-on effects across a range of systems will suggest how cold plasma may be optimally applied to biological systems in the agricultural and food sectors. Here we present the current status, emerging issues, regulatory context, and opportunities of cold plasma with respect to the broad stages of primary and secondary food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkaynak, Timur; Balcioglu, Serhat; Arslan, Ugur; Kocaman, Sinan A; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the plasma homocysteine level and the relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50 +/- 8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test, and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6 +/- 8.3 years) with 2 cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with the AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSX group compared to the control group (16.5 +/- 4.9 micromol/L, n=79, versus 12.4 +/- 4.1 micromol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7 +/- 5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r= -0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level inversely correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia.

  10. Plasma Level Formaldehyde in Children Receiving Pulpotomy Treatment under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrizan, Majid; Pourgolshani, Pouya; Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Jalalpour, Golnoush; Shahrestani, Mostafa Zahmatkesh

    Formocresol has long been used by dentists for pulpotomy of primary teeth. Due to some concerns regarding its possible carcinogenicity, formocresol has been the topic of numerous studies. This study sought to assess the changes in plasma level of formaldehyde of children after receiving pulpotomy under general anesthesia. Twenty-five children between 2-6 years requiring dental treatments under general anesthesia were studied. Blood samples were taken of children before and after the procedure. Plasma level of formaldehyde was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 106 pulpotomy treatments were performed in 25 children using 126 cotton pellets dipped in formocresol. An increase and a decrease in plasma level of formaldehyde were noted in 5 (20%) and 20 (80%) children, respectively post-operatively compared to baseline. The t-test showed no significant difference in plasma level of formaldehyde pre- and postoperatively (P=0.12). the plasma level of formaldehyde in children who had higher levels of formaldehyde prior to the operation was also higher than that of others after the operation and this association was statistically significant (P=0.001, r=0.64). The results showed no significant change in the mean plasma level of formaldehyde in children who received pulpotomy under general anesthesia compared to its baseline value.

  11. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  12. The association between plasma gelsolin level and prognosis of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianhui, Li; Pinglian, Li; Xiaojuan, Wang; Wei, Chen; Yong, Yang; Feng, Ran; Peng, Sun; Gang, Xue

    2014-12-01

    To observe the change in plasma gelsolin levels among burn patients, and explore its impact on patient prognosis. This prospective cohort study includes 98 burn patients with burns ≥30% TBSA, who were admitted to our institution between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients were grouped according to burn sizes, development and severity of sepsis, and survival from sepsis. The plasma gelsolin levels among different groups were compared by repeated measure ANOVA. The relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and the presence of sepsis and prognosis was examined by logistic regression. The plasma gelsolin levels decreased with increasing burn sizes and increasing sepsis severity, with the lowest gelsolin level observed at 7 days after the burn. The plasma gelsolin concentrations were significantly lower among patients with sepsis than those without (Pburn. The level is significantly lower among those with large burns and those with combined sepsis. Plasma gelsolin levels can be used to predict the prognosis of burn patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  14. Quantitative analysis of DNA levels in maternal plasma in normal and Down syndrome pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Stejskal David; Doucha Jindrich; Kofer Josef; Nekolarova Katerina; Calda Pavel; Voslarova Sona; Hridelova Dana; Houbova Bela; Hromadnikova Ilona; Cinek Ondrej; Vavrirec Jan

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background We investigated fetal and total DNA levels in maternal plasma in patients bearing fetuses affected with Down syndrome in comparison to controls carrying fetuses with normal karyotype. Methods DNA levels in maternal plasma were measured using real-time quantitative PCR using SRY and β-globin genes as markers. Twenty-one pregnant women with a singleton fetus at a gestational age ranging from 15 to 19 weeks recruited before amniocentesis (carried out for reasons including mat...

  15. Low dose aspirin is associated with plasma chemerin levels and may reduce adipose tissue inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Herová Magdalena; Schmid Mattia; Gemperle Claudio; Loretz Christa; Hersberger Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chemerin is a peptide chemoattractant for macrophages and an adipokine regulating adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. Plasma chemerin is increased in chronic inflammatory diseases and in obesity. As inflammation and obesity are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) we investigated possible associations of plasma chemerin with inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis in a CAD case control study (n=470). Chemerin levels were associated with C reactive protein BMI and LDL levels a...

  16. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bershad, Anya K.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”), appears to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of two other “social” drugs on plasma oxytocin levels: methamphetam...

  17. The Alteration of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Levels Induced by Postural Changes in Archery Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; AKTOZ, Meryem; Karakuşoğlu, Özgül; KUNDURACILAR, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate plasma atrial natriuretic peptid levels in sitting and supine positions and cardiac functions in young male archery athletes. Materials and Methods: Six archery athletes and 10 sedentary males volunteered to participate in the study. Venous blood samples were taken after 10 minutes sitting and after 10 minutes in supine position. Plasma ANP levels were measured by the ELISA method. Cardiac parameters were assessed by echocardiography. ...

  18. The Alteration of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Levels Induced by Postural Changes in Archery Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; AKTOZ, Meryem; Karakuşoğlu, Özgül; KUNDURACILAR, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate plasma atrial natriuretic peptid levels in sitting and supine positions and cardiac functions in young male archery athletes. Materials and Methods: Six archery athletes and 10 sedentary males volunteered to participate in the study. Venous blood samples were taken after 10 minutes sitting and after 10 minutes in supine position. Plasma ANP levels were measured by the ELISA method. Cardiac parameters were assessed by echocardiography. ...

  19. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and apolipoprotein E (apoE) has a central role in their plasma clearance. While both quantitative and qualitative changes of apoE are established causes of rare dyslipidemia...... syndromes, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE are associated with risk of IHD in the general population. METHODS: We tested whether plasma levels of apoE at enrollment were associated with future risk of IHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in 91,695 individuals from the general population...

  20. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  1. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on plasma levels of selenium in hemodialysis patients: 12 months of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Lobo, Julie; Moraes, Cristiane; Leal, Viviane O; Farage, Najla E; Rocha, Ariana V; Boaventura, Gilson T; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Malm, Olaf; Mafra, Denise

    2012-07-01

    Large amounts of reactive oxygen species are produced in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and, at higher concentrations, reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of Se is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region. The objective of this work was to determine if Se plasma levels in HD patients submitted to a program of supplementation during 3 months with 1 Brazil nut by day could be sustained after 12 months. A total of 21 HD patients (54.2 ± 15.2 years old; average time on dialysis, 82.3 ± 51.6 months; body mass index, 24.4 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) from the RenalCor Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were followed up 12 months after the supplementation study ended. The Se plasma levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. The Se Plasma levels (17.3 ± 19.9 μg/L) were below the normal range (60 to 120 μg/L) before nut supplementation, and after 3 months of supplementation, the levels increased to 106.8 ± 50.3 μg/L (P nutritional status. Se levels 12 months after the supplementation period were not as low as presupplementation levels but yet significantly lower, and we needed to motivate patients to adopt different dietary intake patterns. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower plasma levels of selenium and glutathione in smear- positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate selenium and glutathione levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and controls in Malawi. Methods: The case-control study included 19 patients and 15 apparently healthy controls for whom, levels of selenium and glutathione were measured. Results: The ...

  3. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  4. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels....... The group with gestational diabetes had lower mean serum chemerin levels during the third trimester compared with the group with normal glucose tolerance (28 ± 1.3 vs. 88 ± 3.5 ng/ml, P glucose tolerance, mean serum chemerin levels decreased significantly post partum...

  5. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. [Plasma vitamin A levels in deprived children with pneumonia during the acute phase and after recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosangela; Lopes, Emílio; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma retinol of children in the acute phase of pneumonia and after recovery and to investigate the association between plasma levels of retinol after recovery with socioeconomic variables, nutritional status and severity of pneumonia. A prospective cohort study which included 40 low-income hospitalized children with pneumonia, aged 6 months to 5 years. We evaluated: plasma retinol level during the acute phase and after recovery, years of schooling of the head of the family, per capita income, birth weight, nutritional status, hemoglobin levels and severity of pneumonia. Mean plasma retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery than during the acute phase of infection (1.4+/-0.6 vs. 1.7+/-0.6 micromol/l, p = 0.03). The frequency of inadequate plasma retinol levels (pneumonia was observed in 30/40 (75%) of the patients. There was no statistically significant association between plasma retinol inadequacy after recovery and severity of pneumonia (4/30 - 13.3% vs. 3/10 - 30.0%, p = 0.34). Serum retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery than during the acute phase of pneumonia. There was no statistically significant association between the deficiency of serum retinol and the clinical and epidemiological variables studied.

  7. Effect of hemodialysis on pulmonary function tests and plasma endothelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Javid; Noshad, Hamid; Ansarin, Khalil; Nikzad, Alireza; Saleh, Parviz; Ranjbar, Abdolmohammad

    2014-07-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a complex illness that involves different organs including the lungs. We studied the pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABG) and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels to check whether there is any change in their levels after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with ESRD. In this cross-sectional study (from July 2009 to April 2010), 20 patients with ESRD were evaluated. ABG, spirometric parameters and plasma ET-1 were measured before and after HD in these patients. Student's t-test was performed to clarify the differences and Pearson's test was used for correlations. P forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) after HD. Plasma ET-1 levels decreased significantly after HD. Mean ET-1 before HD was 6.88 + 5.81 pg/mL while it was 3.91 + 2.76 pg/mL after HD (P = 0.009). Based on the plasma levels of ET-1, the patients were divided into two groups. The mean level of ET-1 was higher in the first group. Significant increase was seen in spirometric parameters in the second group. Our study suggests that, in patients with ESRD, plasma ET-1 level is higher than in the normal population, and this is closely related to deterioration of pulmonary function tests. Significant reduction of plasma ET-1 may be an important factor in the improvement of spiro-metry parameters after HD.

  8. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał R Starzyński

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning, following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  9. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  10. 3-fold initiative for energy planning and sustainable development at local level (3-NITY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mydske, Hans Jacob [New Energy Performance AS - NEPAS (Norway); Aamodt Espegren, Kari [Inst. for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The project demonstrates how the concept of 'Sustainable Energy Communities' can become a reality without much additional efforts in terms of costs and human resources. 3-NITY includes 28 communities in nine European countries.The 3-fold initiative engages local stakeholders such as politicians, planners, citizens and local energy actors to take part in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures, as well as adopting a working methodology for continuous improvement. This is achieved through the development, testing and demonstration of a comprehensive set of tools, quality systems and sustainable best practices that cover the following three main areas: Sustainable Planning; Sustainable Measures and Activities; Sustainable Excellence. 'Sustainable Planning' aims to develop a modern planning and investment decision tool for local energy planning which is prepared to engage several levels in the local community i.e. politicians, planners, energy market actors as well as the citizens. The new model is based on the existing KRAM model. The KRAM model is a simulation tool suited for sustainable energy planning in a municipality, a part of a city or in a region. Both energy for heating purposes and electricity for light and equipment can be analysed with the KRAM model. In addition, the model can be used to analyse the implementation of energy efficiency measures.'Sustainable Measures and Activities' aims to engage local politicians, planners and energy actors as well as the citizens to actively participate in local energy planning and implementation of sustainable energy measures. 'Sustainable Excellence' will make use of the existing tool for monitoring and measuring qualitative results achieved by an organisation, i.e. the EFQM-excellence model for local governments and municipalities. The Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) is based on the premise that excellent

  11. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buter, Hanneke; Koopmans, Matty; Kemperman, Ramses; Jekel, Lilian; Boerma, Christiaan

    2016-11-25

    A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015). Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001). There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04). Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels and the presence of a positive culture after cardiac surgery

  12. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Buter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015. Results Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001. There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04. Conclusion Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels

  13. Exploring genetic determinants of plasma total cholesterol levels and their predictive value in a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Imholz, S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Wijmenga, C.; Vaarhorst, A.; Slagboom, E.; Müller, M.R.; Dollé, M.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels are highly genetically determined. Although ample evidence of genetic determination of separate lipoprotein cholesterol levels has been reported, using TC level directly as a phenotype in a relatively large broad-gene based association study has not

  14. Exploring genetic determinants of plasma total cholesterol levels and their predictive value in a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Imholz, Sandra; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Vaarhorst, Anika; Slagboom, Eline; Muller, Michael; Dolle, Martijn E. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels are highly genetically determined. Although ample evidence of genetic determination of separate lipoprotein cholesterol levels has been reported, using TC level directly as a phenotype in a relatively large broad-gene based association study has not

  15. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-02-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  16. Effects of infection on plasma levels of copper and zinc in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamand, M; Levieux, D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma copper and zinc in 20 ewes, healthy or infected with chronic postpartum metritis or mastitis, have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma protein profile was measured by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate plates, and albumin and ceruloplasmin were determined colorimetrically. For the ten initial days, plasma copper and ceruloplasmin increased in plasma zinc decreased in spite of a daily drenching of 200 mg Zn/ewe (as sulfate). Fibrinogen and IgG2 increased and albumin decreased slightly indicating an infectious process. After a five day period of intramuscular injection with chloramphenicol, tetracycline and prednisolone, plasma zinc increased but copper remained unchanged. It may be concluded that hypozincemia should not be attributed to a zinc deficiency without any information on biochemical parameters specific for inflammation of infection. An inflammatory hypozincemia is not affected by a zinc treatment even at a high level.

  17. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma zinc α2-glycoprotein levels are elevated in smokers and correlated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Su-Chiu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lue, Bee-Horng; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is a strong risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a protein involved in metabolic syndrome. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoking on plasma ZAG levels and its relations to metabolic syndrome. A group of 41 cigarette smokers and 47 non-smokers were enrolled. ZAG levels were measured to correlate to participants' demographic and metabolic parameters. Plasma ZAG levels of smokers were higher than those of controls (P ZAG levels were positively correlated with male gender (P = 0.0002), number of cigarettes smoked per day (P ZAG levels (P = 0.0034). Plasma ZAG levels elevated progressively with the number of metabolic syndrome components (P = 0.0143). In the multiple regression analysis, plasma ZAG was an independent factor for metabolic syndrome. Plasma ZAG levels are high in smokers and correlate with metabolic syndrome. Our results indicate ZAG is an independent risk factor, but also interacted with smoking, for the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Micronutrient levels in the plasma of Nigerian females with breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... The levels of heavy and essential metals in the serum of breast cancer patients were determined, in order to find out which of them could be of importance in the treatment and prognosis of the cancer. Serum copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, lead and selenium were.

  20. Micronutrient levels in the plasma of Nigerian females with breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of heavy and essential metals in the serum of breast cancer patients were determined, in order to find out which of them could be of importance in the treatment and prognosis of the cancer. Serum copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, lead and selenium were measured using atomic ...

  1. Plasma thrombopoietin levels in patients with chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, Gabor E.; Folman, Claudia C.; van Olden, Rudolf W.; von dem Borne, Albert E. G. Kr

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thrombopoietin (Tpo) is the most important regulator of thrombocytopoiesis. The main sites of Tpo production are the liver and the kidney produce Tpo. In the current study, the influence of renal failure on overall Tpo production was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tpo levels were

  2. coagulation factors level in fresh frozen plasma in rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... compared with the calculated value to get the effect of storage conditions (time and ... month up to three months of storage had been stable. Plot of coagulation factors levels in fresh frozen based on time point and sex .... reversal of therapy with vitamin K antagonists(8). Especially in emergency situations, ...

  3. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between levels of DNA damage and homocysteine (Hcy) in persistent diarrheic (PD) patients and correlates them with serum biochemical metabolites and mineral components. PD patients (n = 36) age 4 - 6 years from Faisalabad hospitals were examined for anthropometric factors, ...

  4. Plasma MicroRNA Levels Following Resection of Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Latchana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma remains the leading cause of skin cancer–related deaths. Surgical resection and adjuvant therapies can result in disease-free intervals for stage III and stage IV disease; however, recurrence is common. Understanding microRNA (miR dynamics following surgical resection of melanomas is critical to accurately interpret miR changes suggestive of melanoma recurrence. Plasma of 6 patients with stage III (n = 2 and stage IV (n = 4 melanoma was evaluated using the NanoString platform to determine pre- and postsurgical miR expression profiles, enabling analysis of more than 800 miRs simultaneously in 12 samples. Principal component analysis detected underlying patterns of miR expression between pre- vs postsurgical patients. Group A contained 3 of 4 patients with stage IV disease (pre- and postsurgical samples and 2 patients with stage III disease (postsurgical samples only. The corresponding preoperative samples to both individuals with stage III disease were contained in group B along with 1 individual with stage IV disease (pre- and postsurgical samples. Group A was distinguished from group B by statistically significant analysis of variance changes in miR expression ( P < .0001. This analysis revealed that group A vs group B had downregulation of let-7b-5p, miR-520f, miR-720, miR-4454, miR-21-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-151a-3p, miR-378e, and miR-1283 and upregulation of miR-126-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-451a, let-7a-5p, let-7g-5p, miR-15b-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-106a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-142-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-199b-3p, and miR-1976. Changes in miR expression were not readily evident in individuals with distant metastatic disease (stage IV as these individuals may have prolonged inflammatory responses. Thus, inflammatory-driven miRs coinciding with tumor-derived miRs can blunt anticipated changes in expression profiles following surgical resection.

  5. Association between plasma interleukin-17 levels and risk of psoriasis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X Y; Bao, J; Huang, B; Jin, Y

    2017-03-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that plasma interleukin (IL)-17 levels may be associated with increased risk of psoriasis, but the individual published results are inconclusive. To evaluate IL-17 levels in patients with psoriasis using a meta-analysis of studies comparing IL-17 levels in controls and in patients with psoriasis. All relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and MEDLINE databases before 1 November 2015. Pooled risk estimates were calculated by random-effects models. Crude OR and standardized mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% CI were also calculated. In total, eight cross-sectional study studies were included in the final analysis. The mean plasma levels of IL-17 were higher in patients with psoriasis than in healthy controls (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.07-0.86, P IL-17 plasma levels and psoriasis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Freidig, Andreas P; van Ommen, Ben; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2010-06-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define the scope of this model, it is essential to discriminate between important and less important processes influencing plasma cholesterol levels. To this end, we performed a systematic review of mouse knockout strains and used the resulting dataset, named KOMDIP, for the identification of key genes that determine plasma cholesterol levels. Based on the described phenotype of mouse knockout models, 36 of the 120 evaluated genes were marked as key genes that have a pronounced effect on the plasma cholesterol concentration. The key genes include well-known genes, e.g., Apoe and Ldlr, as well as genes hardly linked to cholesterol metabolism so far, e.g., Plagl2 and Slc37a4. Based on the catalytic function of the genes, a minimal conceptual model was defined. A comparison with nine conceptual models from literature revealed that each of the individual published models is less complete than our model. Concluding, we have developed a conceptual model that can be used to develop a physiologically based kinetic model to quantitatively predict plasma cholesterol levels. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of multi-level social learning for sustainable landscapes: perspective of a development initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederic; Drotz, Marcus K; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F Henry; McTaggart, Johanna; Olsson, Anders; Pautov, Yurij; Svensson, Lennart; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.

  8. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  9. Plasma thyroid hormones in cyclostomes: do they have a role in regulation of glycemic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E; Dickhoff, W W; Gorbman, A

    1983-01-01

    Plasma levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in intact Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) undergoing the period of natural fasting and in Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) maintained unfed in the laboratory. Plasma T3 levels in both lamprey and hagfish were always severalfold lower than T4 levels. The influence of thyroid hormones on glycemic level was studied following intraperitoneal injection of T4 or T3 (13-20 micrograms/100 g body wt), as well as after implantation of sealed Silastic capsules containing the goitrogen, 6-propylthiouracil (6-PTU), or after intraperitoneal injections of an antithyroglobulin serum (ATgS) exhibiting both anti-T4 and anti-T3 activities. Measured plasma T4 and T3 levels after hormonal injection were extremely high and could be considered pharmacological. The 6-PTU treatment decreased plasma levels of both T4 and T3 within several weeks. The glycemic levels in lampreys and hagfish after thyroid hormone treatment were lower than in control animals, whereas in animals treated with either 6-PTU or ATgS, hyperglycemic levels prevailed. It is concluded that thyroid hormones, possibly acting with other hormones, may participate in the maintenance of glycemic levels in cyclostomes and that their action is to reduce glycemic levels.

  10. Achievement of Sustained Net Plasma Heating in a Fusion Experiment with the Optometrist Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, E A; Trask, E; Binderbauer, M; Dikovsky, M; Gota, H; Mendoza, R; Platt, J C; Riley, P F

    2017-07-25

    Many fields of basic and applied science require efficiently exploring complex systems with high dimensionality. An example of such a challenge is optimising the performance of plasma fusion experiments. The highly-nonlinear and temporally-varying interaction between the plasma, its environment and external controls presents a considerable complexity in these experiments. A further difficulty arises from the fact that there is no single objective metric that fully captures both plasma quality and equipment constraints. To efficiently optimise the system, we develop the Optometrist Algorithm, a stochastic perturbation method combined with human choice. Analogous to getting an eyeglass prescription, the Optometrist Algorithm confronts a human operator with two alternative experimental settings and associated outcomes. A human operator then chooses which experiment produces subjectively better results. This innovative technique led to the discovery of an unexpected record confinement regime with positive net heating power in a field-reversed configuration plasma, characterised by a >50% reduction in the energy loss rate and concomitant increase in ion temperature and total plasma energy.

  11. Relationships among plasma granzyme B level, pruritus and dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yayoi; Kimura, Utako; Matsuda, Hironori; Tengara, Suhandy; Kamo, Atsuko; Umehara, Yoshie; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H 1 -antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients. Plasma was collected from 46 patients with AD, 24 patients with psoriasis, and 30 healthy controls. AD severity was assessed with the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, psoriasis severity with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and degree of pruritus by visual analogue scale (VAS) score. GzmA, GzmB and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma GzmB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AD and psoriasis than in healthy controls. Correlation analyses showed that plasma GzmB concentrations positively correlated with SCORAD and serum levels of severity markers such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and lactate dehydrogenase in AD patients. Moreover, plasma levels of GRP, an itch-related peptide, were higher in patients with AD, positively correlating with VAS score and plasma GzmB level. In addition, plasma GzmB concentration was significantly lower in the treatment group than the untreated group with AD. Meanwhile, there were no correlations among GzmB levels, VAS score and PASI score in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to the results of plasma GzmB, plasma GzmA levels were unchanged among AD, psoriasis and healthy groups, and showed no correlations with VAS score and SCORAD index in patients with AD. Plasma GzmB levels may reflect the degree of pruritus and dermatitis in

  12. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  13. Comparison between plasma and serum osteopontin levels: usefulness in diagnosis of epithelial malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, Alfonso; Foddis, Rudy; Bonotti, Alessandra; Simonini, Silvia; Vivaldi, Agnese; Guglielmi, Giovanni; Ambrosino, Nicolino; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Chella, Antonio; Lucchi, Marco; Mussi, Alfredo; Mutti, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    A potential role of serum osteopontin (OPN) and serum mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been recently reported. Although the most important data regarding the role of OPN in MPMs derive from the marker's measurement in serum samples, most commercial laboratory kits for OPN assay are suitable only for measuring plasma levels, as indicated by the manufacturers. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of preanalytic variables on serum and plasma OPN, to compare serum and plasma OPN in the same population, and to assess whether OPN levels can aid in the diagnostic distinction of patients with MPM versus benign respiratory disease (BRD) and healthy subjects exposed to asbestos. The influence of preanalytic variables such as the length of storage at different temperatures and the number of thawings of samples on serum and plasma OPN measurements were evaluated. We measured OPN in 239 plasma samples from 207 asbestos-exposed subjects including 94 healthy controls and 113 subjects with BRD, and 32 patients with epithelial MPM, employing a commercially available ELISA. Serum OPN was measured in 196 of the same 239 samples from 80 healthy subjects, 92 BRD patients and 24 MPM patients. We found that both serum and plasma OPN levels were influenced by storage at -80°C and by the number of thawings, while serum OPN was influenced also by storage at room temperature. Plasma and serum OPN levels were significantly higher (p<0.0001) in patients with epithelial MPM than in the healthy control group and the BRD group. The application of a ROC curve for plasma OPN resulted in an AUC value of 0.780 with a best cutoff of 878.65 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 68.8% and a specificity of 84.5%. The AUC for sOPN was 0.725 with a best cutoff of 16.06 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 87.3%. Within the control group no significant correlation was observed between age, duration of asbestos exposure, pack

  14. Analysis of levels disclosure of sustainability reports of brazilian companies A + the Global Reporting Initiative GRI 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geraldo Alemandro Leite Filho; Lorene Alexandre Prates; Thiago Neiva Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    ... without compromising resources for future generations. Thus, this study aims to analyze the level of disclosure of information of social and environmental sustainability reports in 2007 of the companies concerned with application level...

  15. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  16. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  17. Gender Differences in Plasma Biomarker Levels in a Cohort of COPD Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, Juan P.; Casanova, Ciro; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Varo, Nerea; Restituto, Patricia; Cordoba-Lanus, Elizabeth; Baz-Dávila, Rebeca; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Celli, Bartolome R.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about gender differences in plasma biomarker levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypothesis There are differences in serum biomarker levels between women and men with COPD. Objective Explore gender differences in plasma biomarker levels in patients with COPD and smokers without COPD. Methods We measured plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, MCP-1, MMP-9, PARC and VEGF in 80 smokers without COPD (40 males, 40 females) and 152 stable COPD patients (76 males, 76 females) with similar airflow obstruction. We determined anthropometrics, smoking history, lung function, exercise tolerance, body composition, BODE index, co-morbidities and quality of life. We then explored associations between plasma biomarkers levels and the clinical characteristics of the patients and also with the clinical and physiological variables known to predict outcome in COPD. Results The plasma biomarkers level explored were similar in men and women without COPD. In contrast, in patients with COPD the median value in pg/mL of IL-6 (6.26 vs 8.0, p = 0.03), IL-16 (390 vs 321, p = 0.009) and VEGF (50 vs 87, p = 0.02) differed between women and men. Adjusted for smoking history, gender was independently associated with IL-16, PARC and VEGF levels. There were also gender differences in the associations between IL-6, IL-16 and VEGF and physiologic variables that predict outcomes. Conclusions In stable COPD patients with similar airflow obstruction, there are gender differences in plasma biomarker levels and in the association between biomarker levels and important clinical or physiological variables. Further studies should confirm our findings. PMID:21267454

  18. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...... were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had...

  19. Sustainable Methods for Decontamination of Microcystin in Water Using Cold Plasma and UV with Reusable TiO₂ Nanoparticle Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuewen; Lee, Seungjun; Mok, Chulkyoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-05-05

    Microcystins (MCs) are a family of cyanotoxins and pose detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecological health. Conventional water treatment processes have limited success in removing MCs without producing harmful byproducts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective and environmentally-friendly methods for treating MCs. The objective of this study was to develop sustainable and non-chemical-based methods for controlling MCs, such as using cold plasma and ultra violet (UV) light with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coating, which can be applied for diverse scale and settings. MCs, extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa, were treated with cold plasma or UV at irradiance of 1470 μW/cm² (high) or 180 μW/cm² (low). To assess synergistic effects, the outside of the UV treatment chamber was coated with nanoparticles (TiO₂) prior to irradiation, which can be reused for a long time. The degradation efficiency of UV was enhanced by the reusable TiO₂ coating at lower irradiance (70.41% [UV] vs. 79.61% [UV+TiO₂], 120 min), but no significant difference was observed at higher irradiance. Cold plasma removed MCs rapidly under experimental conditions (92%, 120 min), indicating that it is a promising candidate for controlling MCs in water without generating harmful disinfection byproducts. It can be also easily and practically used in household settings during emergency situations.

  20. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  1. Plasma FGF23 levels and heart rate variability in patients with stage 5 CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-N; Yang, G; Cheng, C; Shen, C; Cui, Y-Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J-J; Shen, Z-X; Zeng, M; Ge, Y-F; Sun, B; Yu, X-B; Ouyang, C; Zhang, B; Mao, H-J; Liu, J; Xing, C-Y; Zha, X-M; Wang, N-N

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone which regulates mineral homeostasis but may also have a role in cardiovascular disease. Here, we found that higher plasma FGF23 was independently associated with decreased heart rate variability in stage 5 CKD patients and parathyroidectomy may reverse these abnormal indicators. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with healthy controls is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Higher levels of plasma FGF23 also predict higher risk of CVD. Here, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between plasma FGF23 levels and HRV in patients with stage 5 CKD and to investigate longitudinal changes of them together with the correlation between their changes in two severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) subgroups with successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) and persistent SHPT. This cross-sectional study included 100 stage 5 CKD patients, 78 controls, and a prospective study in two PTX subgroups classified as successful PTX (n = 24) and persistent SHPT (n = 4) follow-up. Blood examination and 24-h Holter monitoring for HRV were measured. Most HRV indices were lower in stage 5 CKD patients than in healthy controls, and plasma FGF23 levels were higher. In multivariate stepwise regression models, levels of plasma FGF23 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) were correlated with HRV. The successful PTX subgroup had significant improvements over baseline in HRV indices. Persistent SHPT subgroup had numerically similar changes in HRV indices. However, plasma FGF23 levels decreased in both subgroups. Plasma FGF23 levels were higher in CKD patients than in controls, much higher in patients with severe SHPT. FGF23 was independently associated with decreased HRV in stage 5 CKD. Successful PTX may reverse these abnormal indicators and contribute to decreases in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  3. Genomewide linkage analysis of soluble transferrin receptor plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Angel F; Souto, Joan C; Soria, José Manuel; Buil, Alfonso; Sardà, M Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    Genetic control of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels was demonstrated using family-based studies (GAIT, Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project); moreover, a genetic relationship was observed between sTfR and the risk for thrombosis, suggesting that these phenotypes shared genetic determinants. We studied the regions that control sTfR. To assess such regions, a full genome scan was carried out using 604 highly polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid markers (resolution 7.3 cM) in 21 extended pedigrees (358 individuals). Then, a quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed using variance components methods. The genomewide scan linkage analysis showed two regions (quantitative trait locus or QTL) with significant limit of detection (LOD) scores (2q23.14, LOD score = 2.64, nominal p = 0.00024; 3q21.2, LOD score = 1.94, nominal p = 0.0014). There were no obvious candidate genes in these regions. In conclusion, this linkage analysis suggested the existence of a QTL in 2q23.14 that probably harbored a gene (or genes) controlling sTfR levels. Moreover, a second linkage signal was observed in 3q21.2; albeit the evidence for this second locus was lower. The next step will be to identify the gene(s) and its possible involvement in thrombosis and iron homeostasis.

  4. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  5. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  6. Circadian plasma level profile of lisuride in rats and mice after continuous administration via the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Reissmann, F; Kühne, G; Schöbel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lisuride (Dopergin, CAS 18016-80-3), a dopamine D2 agonist, was administered to male and female rats and mice continuously via the diet for 14 days. The doses were 0.2 mg/kg/d in mice and 1 mg/kg/d in mice and rats. Plasma level profiles (0-22 or 24 h) were determined by measuring lisuride concentrations by radioimmunoassay. At all doses a plateau-like plasma level of lisuride was observed. A clear circadian rhythm of lisuride concentrations (highs during night, low levels during day) was found for male rats (1 mg/kg/d) and for male mice (0.2 mg/kg/d). Female animals did not show this phenomenon as pronounced. At the same dose of 1 mg/kg/d rats showed higher plasma levels than mice. For males the ratio of total AUCs was 1.9 and for female animals 8.6.

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and BDNF plasma levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Oliviero, Antonio; Pilato, Fabio; Saturno, Eleonora; Dileone, Michele; Versace, Viviana; Musumeci, Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna P; Tonali, Pietro A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2004-03-22

    Low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex results in lasting changes of excitatory neurotransmission. We investigated the effects of suprathreshold 1 Hz rTMS on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in 10 healthy subjects and effects of either 1 Hz or 20 Hz rTMS in four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. BDNF levels were progressively decreased by 1 Hz rTMS in healthy subjects; there was no effect of 1 Hz rTMS on BDNF plasma levels in ALS patients, an effect probably due to the loss of motor cortex pyramidal cells. High frequency rTMS determined a transitory decrease in BDNF plasma levels. Cumulatively these findings suggest that rTMS might influence the BDNF production by interfering with neuronal activity.

  8. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  9. Formalin attenuates the stress-induced increase in plasma epinephrine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, B; Bodnar, I; Uhereczky, G; Nagy, G M; Kvetnansky, R; Palkovits, M

    2005-11-01

    Subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of formalin into rats is frequently used as a painful stressor that produces a three-phase nociceptive response. We have shown previously that s.c. administered formalin (0.2 ml of 4% solution per 100 g body weight) unexpectedly attenuated the increase of plasma epinephrine levels in rats exposed to exteroceptive stressors (handling, immobilisation). To clarify the mechanism(s) responsible for this phenomenon, the effect of formalin applications on epinephrine plasma levels was investigated in various experimental conditions. Subcutaneous application of formalin combined with exposures of animals to an interoceptive stressor, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma epinephrine levels, whereas plasma norepinephrine levels remained highly elevated. Moreover, administration of formalin to unstressed animals also manifested signs of an attenuated epinephrine secretion. Interestingly, intraperitoneal administration of formalin did not reduce the elevated levels of plasma epinephrine. We suggest that formalin attenuates epinephrine secretion from the adrenal medulla most probably via irritation of s.c. somatosensory receptors. We hypothesise that the irritation of the primary sensory afferents fibres might reduce the activity of the sympathetic preganglionic neurones innervating adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Further investigations are required to establish whether the observed reduction of epinephrine secretion from the adrenal medulla is controlled by either spinal or supraspinal neuronal circuits.

  10. Creatinine and nonprotein nitrogen plasma levels: possible etiopathogenetic factors in rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Leonardi, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    To determine the plasma levels of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and creatinine in healthy patients with rotator cuff tears. The study included 400 subjects. The study group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 56.8 years; range, 23-81 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear from 2004 to 2007. The control group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 20-81 years) who underwent arthroscopy for management of a meniscal tear, with or without articular cartilage damage, in the same period. The 2 groups were frequency-matched by age and sex. Measurement of plasma levels of NPN and creatinine were performed in all patients. Patients with rotator cuff tears showed higher plasma NPN levels within the normal range (P = 0.035) than patients with knee disorders (control group). Creatinine levels were comparable (P = 0.66) in both groups. There appears to be an association between plasma NPN levels and rotator cuff tears. On the basis of our findings, plasma NPN could be involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears, although we advocate further research to draw more definitive conclusions.

  11. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryke Nandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know the sensitive attributes of sustainability, while Monte Carlo analysis and goodness of fit was used to find the accuracy of MDS analysis. The result shows that HKm was in moderate sustainability level (sustainability index 54.08% and private forest was in less sustainability level (sustainability index 48.53%. Furthermore, the ecology and technology in HKm were classified as less sustainable, while the institution and technology in private forest were considered less sustainable. There were 11 sensitive attributes of HKm and 19 sensitive attributes of private forest. The priorities of attribute improvement in HKm include land recovering (the dimension of ecology and cooperative development (the dimension of technology. In private forest, the priorities of attribute improvement include leadership capacity building (the institutional dimension and also the use of silviculture intensive and soil conservation (the dimension of technology.

  12. Assessment of the effect of plasma total protein and albumin levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty adult malaria patients were involved in the study. Plasma total protein and albumin levels of the patients were determined before and after treatment with 25mg Choroquine base per kilogram body weight (C25). Clinical and parasitological evaluations were performed. The pretreatment as well as post treatment levels ...

  13. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol, -tocopherol and selenium in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-09

    Aug 9, 2014 ... plasma levels of selenium, α-tocopherol and -tocopherol were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and High Performance. Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Results: -tocopherol levels were significantly higher in BPH patients (control) when compared with PCa patients.

  14. Mothers of autistic children: lower plasma levels of oxytocin and Arg-vasopressin and a higher level of testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder,thought to be caused by a combination of genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. Some autistic-like traits have been reported in mothers of autistic children. We hypothesized that dysregulation of oxytocin (OXT, Arg-vasopressin (AVP and sex hormones, found in autistic children, may also exist in their mothers. METHODS: We determined plasma levels of OXT (40 in autism vs. 26 in control group, AVP (40 vs. 17 and sex hormones (61 vs. 47 in mothers of autistic and normal children by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively and investigated their relationships with the children's autistic behavior scores (Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. RESULTS: Significantly lower plasma concentrations of OXT (p<0.001 and AVP (p<0.001, as well as a higher level of plasma testosterone (p<0.05, were found in mothers of autistic children vs. those of control. The children's autistic behavior scores were negatively associated with maternal plasma levels of OXT and AVP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dysregulation of OXT, AVP and/or testosterone systems exist in mothers of autistic children, which may impact children's susceptibility to autism.

  15. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  16. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    ), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross......-sectional AAA area after adjustment. IL10 correlated positively with AAA growth rate before and after adjustment. The risk of death doubled in AAA patients with CRP levels above the median. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced IFN-γ, IL10, and IL17A in AAA patients, positive correlations of IFN-γ and IL17A with cross...

  17. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  18. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  19. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  20. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P < 0.05 however there were no significant changes in the plasma levels of beta-endorphin in all the exercise groups (P > 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  1. Plasma S100A12 Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Shiotsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: S100A12 is an endogenous ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE. Plasma S100A12 levels are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in HD patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates in this population. To date, however, no study has specifically assessed the relationship between plasma S100A12 and PAD in HD patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 152 HD patients in our affiliated hospital. We investigated PAD history and patient characteristics and quantified plasma S100A12 levels in all participants. Results: HD patients with PAD (n = 26; 21.9 [13.6–33.4] ng/ml showed significantly higher plasma S100A12 levels than HD patients without PAD (n = 126; 11.8 [7.5–17.6]ng/ml; p Conclusion: These results suggest that plasma S100A12 levels are strongly associated with PAD prevalence in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  2. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  3. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2016-11-01

    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  5. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  6. Assessing Plasma Levels of Selenium, Copper, Iron and Zinc in Patients of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression. PMID:24340079

  7. Plasma salicylate level and aspirin resistance in survivors of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nabeel; Meek, John; Davies, Graham J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of aspirin on the platelets of survivors of myocardial infarction we correlated plasma salicylate level with platelet reactivity in ten patients and ten normal controls. The patients and controls were tested at the end of 2 week periods on 75, 150 and 300 mg aspirin daily by mouth. Platelet reactivity was measured, under high shear stress conditions, using cartridges containing adrenaline and adenosine diphosphate in a PFA-100 platelet function analyser. The time taken by the developing platelet aggregate to close an aperture in the collagen membrane of the cartridge, the closure time, was taken as an index of platelet reactivity. There was no difference in baseline haematocrit, platelet count or plasma vWF antigen level between the groups. There was a dose-dependent increase in closure time of the adrenaline containing cartridge in the controls (P aspirin in the patients. Furthermore, plasma salicylate level was higher in the patient group (P < 0.05).

  8. Elevated Levels of Plasma Superoxide Dismutases 1 and 2 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To measure plasma levels of superoxide dismutases 1, 2, and 3 (SOD1, 2, 3 and determine whether SODs can function as biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients & Methods. Patient groups were as follows: patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP, n=33, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=49, and controls (n=42. Protein quantification was done using ELISA. Results. The concentrations of plasma SOD1 and SOD2 were higher in CAD than in healthy controls. No difference in SOD3 levels between CAD and control groups was found. Limited correlations were found between SODs and gender, age, and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Conclusions. Plasma levels of SOD1 and SOD2 were elevated in patients with CAD and might serve as surrogate biomarkers for CAD.

  9. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of plasma miR-155 and VCAM-1 levels with coronary collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junnan; Yan, Youyou; Song, Dandan; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in development of coronary collateral circulation (CCC). The aim of this study is to determine whether the inflammation-related miRNA miR-155 and the inflammation marker VCAM-1 could be a biomarker for CCC. We measured levels of plasma VCAM-1 and miR-155 in patients with CCC according to Rentrop grade by ELISA or real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (n = 112). Plasma miR-155 was negatively correlated with VCAM-1 in the poor CCC group and with Rentrop grade in all patients with CCC. In addition, plasma VCAM-1 was significantly decreased in CAD patients with CCC. Plasma miR-155 might be a potent independent predictor of collateral formation.

  11. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise.

  12. Effect of hemodialysis on pulmonary function tests and plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Safa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is a complex illness that involves different organs including the lungs. We studied the pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABG and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels to check whether there is any change in their levels after hemodialysis (HD in patients with ESRD. In this cross-sectional study (from July 2009 to April 2010, 20 patients with ESRD were evaluated. ABG, spirometric parameters and plasma ET-1 were measured before and after HD in these patients. Student′s t-test was performed to clarify the differences and Pearson′s test was used for correlations. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant reduction was seen in oxygen saturation (O 2 sat, partial pressure of carbon-dioxide (PaCO 2 and oxygen (PaO 2 after a HD session (P <0.001. Also, improvement was seen in all spirometric parameters except forced expiratory volume (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC after HD. Plasma ET-1 levels decreased signi-ficantly after HD. Mean ET-1 before HD was 6.88 + 5.81 pg/mL while it was 3.91 + 2.76 pg/mL after HD (P = 0.009. Based on the plasma levels of ET-1, the patients were divided into two groups. The mean level of ET-1 was higher in the first group. Significant increase was seen in spirometric parameters in the second group. Our study suggests that, in patients with ESRD, plasma ET-1 level is higher than in the normal population, and this is closely related to deterioration of pulmonary function tests. Significant reduction of plasma ET-1 may be an important factor in the improvement of spiro-metry parameters after HD.

  13. PIC/MCC analysis of a photoresonance plasma sustained in a sodium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusoglu Sarikaya, C.; Rafatov, I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    A parallel 1d3v Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC/MCC) code was derived and applied for the investigation of the formation of photoplasma in sodium vapor. The effects of particle weighting and the Courant number on the computed plasma properties were examined, and the convergence of the numerical method with respect to these parameters was demonstrated. Simulations were carried out for the stepwise spatial profile of the resonant sodium atoms density. The basic plasma parameters (such as eedf, iedf, atomic and molecular ion and electron densities, and electric field and potential) were computed. The results of the PIC/MCC simulations were compared to those obtained from the fluid model. Simulations revealed a strong spatial non-uniformity in the electron density and the electric potential over the computational domain that provides evidence in favour of photovoltaic conversion of light energy into electrical energy.

  14. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J.

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  15. High plasma interleukin-6 levels associated with poor prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Lin, Hang; Li, Yong-Shi; Lee, Ying-Hui; Chen, Ho-Min; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Chih-Hung

    2017-10-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is crucial for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an inflammatory response mediator that can promote angiogenesis. We explored its prognostic role in patients with advanced HCC. We had two patient cohorts, both comprising patients who received sorafenib-containing therapy as the first-line treatment for advanced HCC. We explored the best cut point for pretreatment plasma IL-6 levels in the exploration cohort and then confirmed it in the validation cohort. In total, 55 and 73 patients constituted the exploration and validation cohorts, respectively. In the exploration cohort, a cut point of 4.28 pg/ml was the best for defining high and low IL-6 levels because it could most effectively differentiate overall survival (OS). On application of this cut point to the validation cohort, patients with high plasma IL-6 levels, compared with patients with low IL-6 levels, exhibited significantly poorer OS (median, 8.0 vs 13.9 months, P = 0.031) but similar progression-free survival or treatment response. After adjusting for patient demographics and tumor characteristics, a high plasma IL-6 level remained an independent predictor of poor OS (hazard ratio 2.594, P = 0.005). High pretreatment plasma IL-6 levels were associated with poor prognosis of patients with advanced HCC.

  16. Plasma D-Lactic Acid Level: A Useful Marker to Distinguish Perforated From Acute Simple Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demircan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of perforated appendicitis is important for reducing morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to determine the value and utility of plasma D-lactic acid levels in identifying the type of appendicitis. In this clinical study, plasma D-lactic acid levels were assessed in 44 consecutive paediatric patients (23 with acute appendicitis, 21 with perforated appendicitis before laparotomy. D-lactic acid levels were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometric technique using a D-lactic acid dehydrogenase kit. Patients with perforated appendicitis had higher D-lactic acid levels (3.970 ± 0.687 mg/dL than patients in the control group (0.478 ± 0.149 mg/dL and patients with acute appendicitis (1.409 ± 0.324 mg/dL; p < 0.05. For a plasma D-lactic acid level greater than 2.5 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity of the D-lactic acid assay were 96% and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the diagnostic value was 91%. These results suggest that the measurement of plasma D-lactic acid levels may be a useful adjunct to clinical and radiological findings in distinguishing perforated from acute non-perforated appendicitis in children.

  17. Plasma levels of cathepsins L, K, and V and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes S; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown.......Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown....

  18. Effect of hemodialysis on pulmonary function tests and plasma endothelin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Javid Safa; Hamid Noshad; Khalil Ansarin; Alireza Nikzad; Parviz Saleh; Abdolmohammad Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a complex illness that involves different organs including the lungs. We studied the pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABG) and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels to check whether there is any change in their levels after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with ESRD. In this cross-sectional study (from July 2009 to April 2010), 20 patients with ESRD were evaluated. ABG, spirometric parameters and plasma ET-1 were measured before and after HD in these ...

  19. Plasma NOV/CCN3 levels are closely associated with obesity in patients with metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Pakradouni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. METHODS: NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlipidemia history and/or with lipid-lowering therapy and/or a body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m(2. Correlations were measured between NOV plasma levels and various parameters, including BMI, fat mass, and plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein. NOV expression was also evaluated in adipose tissue from obese patients and rodents and in primary cultures of adipocytes and macrophages. RESULTS: After full multivariate adjustment, we detected a strong positive correlation between plasma NOV and BMI (r = 0.36 p<0.0001 and fat mass (r = 0.33 p<0.0005. According to quintiles, this relationship appeared to be linear. NOV levels were also positively correlated with C-reactive protein but not with total cholesterol, LDL-C or blood glucose. In patients with drastic weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery, circulating NOV levels decreased by 28% (p<0.02 and 48% (p<0.0001 after 3 and 6 months, respectively, following surgery. In adipose tissue from obese patients, and in human primary cultures NOV protein was detected in adipocytes and macrophages. In mice fed a high fat diet NOV plasma levels and its expression in adipose tissue were also significantly increased compared to controls fed a standard diet. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that in obese humans and mice plasma NOV levels positively correlated with NOV expression in adipose tissue, and support a possible contribution of NOV to obesity-related inflammation.

  20. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    Adaptation of the residual small bowel following resection is dependent on luminal and humoral factors. We aimed to establish if circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2) change under different dietary regimens following resection and to determine if there is a relationship between plasma......) or supplemented either with fiber (n = 6) or with bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC; n = 10) for 8 weeks until sacrifice. Plasma GLP-2 levels were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8 postoperatively. In addition, end-stage parameters were studied at week 8 including weight gain, ileal villus height, crypt...

  1. Plasma, tissue and urinary levels of aloin in rats after the administration of pure aloin

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Aloin is a physiologically active anthraquinone present in aloe. There are two isomers of aloin, aloin A and aloin B, occurring as a mixture of diastereomers. The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and tissue distribution of aloin. Rats were gavaged with 11.8g/kg aloin, and the levels of aloin and its conjugates were measured in plasma, tissues, and urine. Plasma aloin level showed a peak at 1hr after the administration and the concentration was 59.07±10.5 ng/ml. The...

  2. Urban stormwater – greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Amarpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water, urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water, and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  3. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  4. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected

  5. MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Chen Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We observe MHz-level periodic self-sustained pulsation (SSP in the transmission spectrum of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS spherical microcavity on a silicon chip, under a fixed-frequency continuous laser excitation. The SSP results from the strong competition between the thermo-optic and thermal expansion effects of PDMS within the cavity mode volume. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical prediction by considering the modification of the thermal expansion coefficient and the temperature distribution within the mode volume.

  6. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  7. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Nitric Oxide Plasma Level as a Barometer of Endothelial Dysfunction in Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Seiko; Noda, Akiko; Hara, Yuki; Ueyama, Jun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Koike, Yasuo

    2017-11-01

    Objective Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and is known as one of the key markers of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between NO and risk factors of lifestyle-related disease in factory workers. Methods Our study included 877 factory workers presenting hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Oxidated forms of NO, NO2-/NO3- (NOx) plasma concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Results NOx plasma levels in patients with lifestyle-related disease were significantly lower than those in the controls. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured in those patients was significantly greater than that of the controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LDL cholesterol was an independent risk factor for reducing NOx plasma concentrations. Interestingly, individuals with low NOx plasma concentrations were more likely to present type 2 diabetes compared to those with the highest plasma levels of NOx (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval; CI]=3.65 [1.61-8.28], P=0.002, 2.67 [1.15-6.20], P=0.022, and 3.27 [1.43-7.48], P=0.005). Subjects with the lowest levels of plasma NOx were more likely to present dyslipidemia (OR [95% CI]=1.69 [1.13-2.53], P=0.01). Conclusion Endothelial function evaluated with plasma NOx may be indicative of lifestyle-related diseases independently from the vascular function assessed using baPWV. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, AA; Lai, J.F.; Morrison, C.M.; Pagano, I.; Li, X; Halm, B.M.; Soon, R.; Custer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10), carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol are the major circulating lipid-phase micronutrients (LPM) known to help mitigate oxidative damage and prevent chronic diseases. However, the functions of these compounds in newborns are little understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of studies reporting their concentrations in this population. We measured Q10, carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in cord plasma from 100 multiethnic subjects living in Hawaii using HPLC with diode array and electrochemical detection. Appropriate internal standards were used including, for the first time, custom designed oxidized (UN10) and reduced (UL10) Q10 analogues. These compounds reflected the oxidation of UL10 to UN10 that occurred during sample processing and analysis and thus permitted accurate adjustments of natively circulating Q10 levels. All LPM measured were much lower in cord than in peripheral plasma. Cord plasma levels of total carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol were approximately 10-fold, 3- to 5-fold and 1.5- to 3-fold lower than those in children or women. Cord plasma levels of total Q10 (TQ10; median, 113 ng/mL) were approximately 2-fold or 7- to 9-fold lower than peripheral plasma levels of neonates or children and adults, respectively. In contrast, the UN10/TQ10 ratio was substantially higher in cord (24%) than in peripheral plasma of children (3 – 4%) or adults (9%). Among the 5 ethnic groups in our cohort, no differences were observed in the levels of UN10, UL10, or TQ10. However, significant differences in many of the LPM were observed between ethnicities. More research is needed to explain these phenomena. PMID:23829202

  10. Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A A; Lai, J F; Morrison, C M; Pagano, I; Li, X; Halm, B M; Soon, R; Custer, L J

    2013-09-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10), carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol are the major circulating lipid-phase micronutrients (LPM) known to help mitigate oxidative damage and prevent chronic diseases. However, the functions of these compounds in newborns are little understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of studies reporting their concentrations in this population. We measured Q10, carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in cord plasma from 100 multiethnic subjects living in Hawaii using HPLC with diode array and electrochemical detection. Appropriate internal standards were used including, for the first time, custom designed oxidized (UN10) and reduced (UL10) Q10 analogues. These compounds reflected the oxidation of UL10 to UN10 that occurred during sample processing and analysis and thus permitted accurate adjustments of natively circulating Q10 levels. All LPM measured were much lower in cord than in peripheral plasma. Cord plasma levels of total carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol were approximately 10-fold, 3- to 5-fold and 1.5- to 3-fold lower than those in children or women. Cord plasma levels of total Q10 (TQ10; median, 113 ng/mL) were approximately 2-fold or 7- to 9-fold lower than peripheral plasma levels of neonates or children and adults, respectively. In contrast, the UN10/TQ10 ratio was substantially higher in cord (24%) than in peripheral plasma of children (3-4%) or adults (9%). Among the 5 ethnic groups in our cohort, no differences were observed in the levels of UN10, UL10, or TQ10. However, significant differences in many of the LPM were observed between ethnicities. More research is needed to explain these phenomena.

  11. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  12. Changes in various antioxidant levels in human seminal plasma related to immunoinfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P; Naz, R

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed (1) to determine levels of antioxidant micronutrients in human seminal plasma, and (2) to evaluate the association between the concentrations of these antioxidants and the antisperm antibody titers in immunoinfertile men. To investigate this, the seminal plasma concentrations of antioxidant beta-carotene, lycopene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in 37 men (22 fertile and 15 immunoinfertile), aged 27 to 35 years. The SIT (sperm-immobilization technique), TAT (tray-agglutination technique), and IBT (indirect immunobead test) were used to evaluate the antisperm antibody titers. The levels of three antioxidants, namely, beta-carotene, lycopene, and retinol, were significantly (p = .01) decreased and the concentration of alpha-tocopherol was significantly (p = .002) increased in seminal plasma of immunoinfertile men as compared to the levels in fertile men. There was a significant linear correlation between the antisperm antibody titer and beta-carotene level measured by IBT (r = .561, p = .002), whereas no significant correlation was found with the other three seminal plasma antioxidants, namely, lycopene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels. These results indicate, for perhaps the first time, the presence of antioxidants in local genital tract secretions of men. Modulation of their concentrations in immunoinfertile men and their correlation with the antisperm antibody titers strongly suggest the involvement of dietary antioxidants in male infertility, especially mediated through immunologic factors.

  13. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  14. Plasma levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 in patients with silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P-R; Cao, Z; Qiu, Z-L; Pan, J-W; Zhang, N; Wu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is usually recognized at later stages of the disease, and early biomarkers for silicosis will be useful for timely diagnosis. We aimed at examining plasma levels of TNF-α and MMP-9, and correlation between these, in patients with different stages of silicosis in order to test suitability of these inflammatory factors as early biomarkers for silicosis. TNF-α and MMP-9 were quantified by ELISA in plasma specimens from 30 healthy individuals (control group), 28 individuals exposed to silica dust but without clinical disease, and 30 patients with silicosis. Plasma levels of TNF-α and MMP-9 were increased in individuals exposed to silica dust (p silicosis (p silicosis (r = 0.768, p silicosis, suggesting that these biomarkers are involved in the onset and development of silicosis. Combined detection of TNF-α and MMP-9 may be useful for early diagnosis of silicosis.

  15. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    .35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention.......BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment...

  16. Using the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART for the Systematic Analysis of Trade-Offs and Synergies between Sustainability Dimensions and Themes at Farm Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When trying to optimize the sustainability performance of farms and farming systems, a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between different themes and dimensions is required. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic analysis of trade-offs and synergies across all dimensions and themes. To achieve this aim we used the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART-Farm Tool which operationalizes the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines by defining science-based indicator sets and assessment procedures. It identifies the degree of goal achievement with respect to the 58 themes defined in the SAFA Guidelines using an impact matrix that defines 327 indicators and 1769 relations between sustainability themes and indicators. We illustrate how the SMART-Farm Tool can be successfully applied to assess the sustainability performance of farms of different types and in different geographic regions. Our analysis revealed important synergies between themes within a sustainability dimension and across dimensions. We found major trade-offs within the environmental dimension and between the environmental and economic dimension. The trade-offs within the environmental dimension were even larger than the trade-offs with other dimensions. The study also underlines the importance of the governance dimension with regard to achieving a good level of performance in the other dimensions.

  17. Catalyst-Free Plasma Enhanced Growth of Graphene from Sustainable Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mohan V; Rawat, Rajdeep S; Ouyang, Bo; Bazaka, Kateryna; Kumar, D Sakthi; Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Neupane, Ram; Varghese, Oomman K

    2015-09-09

    Details of a fast and sustainable bottom-up process to grow large area high quality graphene films without the aid of any catalyst are reported in this paper. We used Melaleuca alternifolia, a volatile natural extract from tea tree plant as the precursor. The as-fabricated graphene films yielded a stable contact angle of 135°, indicating their potential application in very high hydrophobic coatings. The electronic devices formed by sandwiching pentacene between graphene and aluminum films demonstrated memristive behavior, and hence, these graphene films could find use in nonvolatile memory devices also.

  18. Plasma TIMP-1 levels and treatment outcome in patients treated with XELOX for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C; Qvortrup, C; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2011-01-01

    and oxaliplatin) as first-line treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients were included. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 weeks later before the next treatment cycle. Plasma TIMP-1 and serum CEA levels were correlated to treatment outcome. RESULTS: No significant...... associations between baseline TIMP-1 or CEA levels and best response to treatment or progression-free survival (PFS) could be demonstrated. In contrast, high baseline plasma TIMP-1 levels were associated with poor overall survival (OS), P = 0.008, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.......03). Conclusions: Both high baseline and subsequent increase in TIMP-1 levels were associated with shorter OS in patients with mCRC receiving XELOX as first-line treatment, whereas baseline TIMP-1 levels were not associated with response or PFS following XELOX treatment....

  19. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  20. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  1. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  2. Soluble urokinase receptor levels in plasma during 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Piironen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Plasma suPAR decreased after introducing HAART, most pronounced during the first treatment year. The change in plasma suPAR was independent of changes in viral replication and CD4+ cells but it was strongly correlated with plasma levels of the soluble TNF receptor...

  3. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  4. Chronic administration of ghrelin regulates plasma glucose and normalizes insulin levels following fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Kazerouni, Faranak; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Bahman

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. The majority of the previous studies have shown that the short-term ghrelin treatment induces hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in healthy humans and rodents. However, the results obtained from long-term treatment with ghrelin are not clear enough. In this study, we assessed acute (1 day) and chronic (21 days) effects of intraperitoneally administered ghrelin (at different doses of 1, 10 and 20 μg/kg) during a 12-h fasting period in rats using glucose oxidase method and direct sandwich ELISA (the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and then compared the effects of exogenous ghrelin on blood glucose and insulin levels on day 21 with those on day 1. The results showed that acute ghrelin administration markedly increased fasting plasma glucose at doses of 1 and 10 μg/kg as well as insulin levels at 1 μg/kg in comparison to control values. Ghrelin (at 1 μg/kg) altered plasma glucose but not insulin levels on the 21st day compared to control values. In addition, the comparison of the influence of ghrelin administration on plasma glucose and insulin levels on day 21 with those on the first day revealed that the chronic administration of ghrelin notably decreased plasma glucose and insulin levels relative to the acute ghrelin treatment. These findings indicate that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia caused by the exogenous ghrelin during acute treatment are temporary and prolonged treatment with ghrelin regulates plasma glucose and restores insulin to normal levels, suggesting a possible role for ghrelin in improving insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trimethylamine N-oxide Plasma Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrova, M; Latkovskis, G; Kuka, J; Strele, I; Konrade, I; Grinberga, S; Hartmane, D; Pugovics, O; Erglis, A; Liepinsh, E

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong associations between systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In addition, plasma L-carnitine levels in patients with high TMAO concentrations predicted an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and incident major adverse cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between TMAO and L-carnitine plasma levels and diabetes. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 and 20 weeks old db/db mice and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Diabetic compared to non-diabetic db/L mice presented 10-fold higher TMAO, but lower L-carnitine plasma concentrations at 12 weeks of age. After 8 weeks of observation, diabetic db/db mice had significantly increased body weight, insulin resistance and TMAO concentration in comparison to non-diabetic control. In 191 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention the median (interquartile range) plasma concentration of TMAO was 1.8 (1.2-2.6) µmol/L. Analysis of the samples showed a bivariate association of TMAO level with age, total cholesterol and L-carnitine. The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, in addition to L-carnitine as the strongest predictor of log transformed TMAO (p<0.001), the parameters of age, diabetes status and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with increased log transformed TMAO levels (p<0.01).Our data provide evidence that age, diabetes and BMI are associated with higher TMAO levels independently of L-carnitine. These data support the hypothesis of TMAO as a cardiovascular risk marker and warrant further investigation of TMAO for diabetes research applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Therapeutic plasma exchange decreases levels of routinely used cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Tutarel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE plays a key role in the management of various diseases, from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and Goodpasture's syndrome to cardiac allograft rejection. In many of these disease states cardiac and inflammatory involvement is common and biomarkers are routinely used for diagnosis or assessment of therapeutic success. The effect of TPE on biomarkers used in the clinical routine has not been investigated. METHODS: TPE was initiated for established clinical conditions in 21 patients. Troponin T, NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and routine chemistry were drawn before and after TPE, as well as before and after the 2(nd TPE. The total amount of these markers in the waste bag was also analyzed. RESULTS: In 21 patients 42 TPEs were performed. The procedure reduced plasma levels of the examined biomarkers: 23% for NT-proBNP (pre vs. post: 4637±10234 ng/l to 3565±8295 ng/l, p<0.001, 64% for CRP (21.9±47.0 mg/l vs. 7.8±15.8 mg/l, p<0.001 and 31% for procalcitonin (0.39±1.1 µg/l vs. 0.27±0.72 µg/l, p=0.004. TPE also tended to reduce plasma levels of troponin T by about 14% (60.7±175.5 ng/l vs. 52.2±141.3 ng/l, however this difference was not statistical significant (p=0.95. There was a significant correlation between the difference of pre TPE levels to post TPE levels of all examined biomarkers and the total amount of the removed biomarker in the collected removed plasma. CONCLUSIONS: TPE significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Therefore, post TPE levels of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers should be viewed with caution.

  7. A combination of plasma DAO and citrulline levels as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Introduction: There is no valid and reliable diagnostic test for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia. (AMI). The aim of this study was to measure the plasma levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) and citrulline in. AMI to gain insight into its early diagnosis. Material and methods: A total of 21 Wistar albino ...

  8. Plasma vitamins C and E levels inversely correlate with the risk of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Plasma vitamins C and E levels inversely correlate with the risk of ischaemic heart diseases in patients from Imo state, Nigeria ... Keywords: Vitamins C and E, ischaemic heart disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction. *To whom correspondence may be ... marker of oxidative stress 3,5. Since these vitamins and other ...

  9. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  10. The association between plasma homocysteine levels, methylation capacity and incident osteoporotic fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A. W.; van der Velde, N.; de Jonge, R.; Heil, S. G.; Stolk, L.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Zillikens, M. C.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van Meurs, J. B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An elevated level of plasma homocysteine (Hey) is a known risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. In addition, Hey is related to DNA-methylation metabolism. To determine whether the association between Hey and fractures is explained by an altered methylation capacity, we investigated the

  11. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide plasma levels as a marker for cardiac damage after radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondergem, J.; Strootman, E.G.; Frolich, M.; Leer, J.W.H.; Noordijk, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) could be used to identify patients with radiation mediated cardiac dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Circulating levels of ANP were measured in patients who have been irradiated on a large part of the heart

  12. Increased thrombin generation and fibrinogen level after therapeutic plasma transfusion: relation to bleeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, S.E.; Meijden, PE van der; Oerle, R. van; Curvers, J.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Pampus, EC van

    2008-01-01

    In a clinical setting, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is transfused to diluted patients with complicated surgery or trauma, as guided by prolonged conventional coagulation times or low fibrinogen levels. However, the limited sensitivity of these coagulation tests may restrict their use in measuring the

  13. Effects of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on plasma levels of cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate effects of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on plasma levels of cortisol and vital signs during and after laparotomy in dogs. Eight clinically healthy, adult male dogs, weighing 20 kg were used. All dogs were initially sedated by acepromazine. Thirty minutes later, ketamine plus xylazine was ...

  14. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... Abstract Background: The aetiology of autism is unclear and autistic symptoms had been attrib- uted to an abnormal functional imbalance in neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine, noradren- aline and serotonin. Objective: To study plasma essential and non-essential amino acid levels, protein ...

  15. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aetiology of autism is unclear and autistic symptoms had been attributed to an abnormal functional imbalance in neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Objective: To study plasma essential and non-essential amino acid levels, protein electrophoresis, serum ammonia, ...

  16. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  17. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of physical and flexibility exercise on plasma levels of some liver enzymes and biomolecules of young Nigerian adults. Methods: Participants were subjected to a 2-h daily continuous physical and flexibility exercise for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were obtained and the ...

  18. The Impact of Smoking and Drinking on Plasma Levels of Norharman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, R.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; van de Mheen, D.; Bongers, I.M.B.; Fekkes, D.

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesized role of the beta-carboline norharman in processes of drug dependence forms the basis for several studies on plasma levels of norharman among substance-using populations, particularly among alcoholics and smokers. However, it is not clear whether norharman is implicated in processes

  19. Effect of food and rosuvastatin on plasma mevalonic acid levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determines the effect of food and rosuvastatin on plasma mevalonic acid (MVA) levels in rats. Single sample was taken under 12 h fasted and fed condition from 20 rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=5). Rosuvastatin was dosed at 0, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg p.o prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxy ...

  20. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment...

  1. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Wang, Y.; Sluis, R.J. van der; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hoekstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that

  2. Determinants of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Lips, P. T. A. M.; Heijboer, A. C.; Smit, J. H.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a key role in maintaining skeletal health, but is also related to various non-skeletal health issues. Several determinants have been identified that influence blood plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D), often in specific patients or elderly populations. This paper aims to

  3. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  4. An increase of VEGF plasma levels is associated with restenosis of drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, Katharina M; Kastl, Stefan P; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Hutter, Randolph; Zorn, Gerlinde; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Wojta, Johann; Christ, Günter; Speidl, Walter S

    2014-06-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce late lumen loss compared to bare metal stents but were not able to eradicate in-stent restenosis (ISR) fully. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may inhibit late lumen loss through accelerated reendothelialisation, but may also promote neointima formation by proinflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endogenous plasma levels of VEGF are associated with development of ISR after implantation of DES. We studied 85 patients who were treated with 159 DES. VEGF plasma levels were determined before and 24 hours after PCI. During the eight-month follow-up period, two patients (2.4%) died of cardiovascular causes and 12 patients (14.5% of patients, 7.6% of stents) developed angiographic ISR. Basal VEGF plasma levels were not different in patients with and without ISR at follow-up. In contrast to patients without ISR, VEGF increased significantly upon PCI in patients with ISR (p<0.005). Patients with a decrease of VEGF after PCI had a restenosis rate of 2.4% compared to a restenosis rate of 26.2% in patients with an increase of VEGF after the procedure (p<0.05). This was independent from clinical and angiographic risk factors. Basal plasma levels of VEGF are not associated with the development of ISR. However, an increase of VEGF after PCI is associated with a dramatically increased ISR rate after implantation of DES.

  5. FXR agonist GW4064 increases plasma glucocorticoid levels in C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Menno; van der Sluis, Ronald J.; Li, Zhaosha; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Groen, Albert K.; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Since high expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been detected in glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cells, we evaluated the potential role of FXR in adrenal glucocorticoid production. FXR agonist GW4064 increased fasting plasma corticosterone levels (+45%; P <0.01) in C57BL/6 mice,

  6. Plasma level of transforming growth factor β 1 in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Mohamed El Gohary

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: There may be an important role for the immune system in autism spectrum disorders that may have profound implications for diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. A negative correlation was found between severities of ASD and TGFβ1 plasma level.

  7. A combination of plasma DAO and citrulline levels as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: There is no valid and reliable diagnostic test for early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). The aim of this study was to measure the plasma levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) and citrulline in. AMI to gain insight into its early diagnosis. Material and methods: A total of 21 Wistar albino rats were divided ...

  8. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to understand the amount of gold in semen of normal and different infertile conditions. Gold was estimated in normal (n38) and pathological conditions (n86) by employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gold level observed in seminal plasma was as follows: in normozoospermia (n38) ...

  9. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  10. Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Plasma Fibrinogen Levels in Patients with Operable Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in different cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic value of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with operable breast cancer.Two hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Plasma fibrinogen levels were examined before treatment and analyzed along with patient clinicopathological parameters, disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the clinicopathological parameters associated with DFS and OS.Elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were directly associated with age of diagnose (≤47 vs. >47, p<0.001, menopause (yes vs. no, p<0.001, tumor size (T1&T2 vs. T3&T4, p = 0.033, tumor stage (I vs. II vs. III, p = 0.034 and lymph node involvement (N = 0 vs. 1≤N≤3 vs. N≥4, p<0.001, but not with histological grade, molecular type and other Immunohistochemical parameters (ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67. In a univariate survival analysis, tumor stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement (p<0.001/p<0.001 and plasma fibrinogen (p<0.001/p<0.001 levels were associated with disease-free and overall survival, but just lymph nodes involvement (p<0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-5.3/p = 0.006, HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.3 and plasma fibrinogen levels (p = 0.006, HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.3/p = 0.002, HR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.3-44.6 were associated with disease-free and overall survival in a multivariate survival analysis, respectively.This study demonstrates that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with breast cancer progression and are independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with operable breast cancer.

  11. The alteration of NTproCNP plasma levels following anaerobic exercise in physically active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseki Temür, Hilal; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Demir, Muzaffer; Palabıyık, Orkide; Karaca, Aziz; Guksu, Zuhal; Ortanca, Arif; Süt, Necdet

    2015-02-01

    Amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP) is a synthesis product of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In this study, plasma levels of NTproCNP were compared before and after exercise in healthy young subjects who are physically active (PA) or not physically active (NPA). The study was carried on PA group (n=10) who defined the exercise duration more than 2.5 hours per week for at least one year and NPA group (n = 10) whose exercise duration was lower than 1.5 hours per week. The level of maximal oxygen consumption was determined. Wingate exercise test was applied on the following day. Plasma NTproCNP levels were measured before the exercise and at the 1st, 5th and 30th minute after the exercise. Exercise duration of physically active group was reported as 11.3 ± 5.0 hours per week. Basal NTproCNP levels of the groups were found to be comparable. NTproCNP levels in the 5th minute (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L; pexercise were higher than the levels before exercise (0.64 ± 0.29 pmol/L) in PA group. Additionally, the plasma levels of NTproCNP after 5th minute of exercise were higher in PA group (0.93 ± 0.23 pmol/L) than NPA group (0.74 ± 0.16 pmol/L, pexercise.

  12. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Ryke Nandini; Ambar Kusumandari; Totok Gunawan; Ronggo Sadono

    2017-01-01

    Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm) and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know t...

  13. Characterization of changes in plasma and tissue oxylipin levels in LPS and CLP induced murine sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ina; Rund, Katharina; Rong, Song; Shushakova, Nelli; Gueler, Faikah; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively investigate the changes in oxylipins during murine sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Twenty-four hours after induction of sepsis in male C57BL/6 mice by LPS or CLP, plasma and liver, lung, kidney and heart tissues were sampled. Oxylipin levels in plasma and tissue were quantified by means of LC-MS. Moreover, clinical chemistry parameters were determined in plasma and interleukin levels (MCP-1 and IL-6) were determined in kidney and liver. Elevation of liver function plasma parameters at 24 h revealed that both models were successful in the induction of sepsis. LPS induced sepsis resulted in a dramatic increase of plasma PGE2 (2,100% change in comparison to control) and other cyclooxygenase metabolites, whereas this effect was less pronounced in CLP induced sepsis (97% increase of PGE2). Plasma epoxy-fatty acids (FAs) and hydroxy-FAs and most of the dihydroxy-FAs were elevated in both models of sepsis. Changes of tissue oxylipin concentrations were organ dependent. Only few changes were detected in the lung and liver tissue, epoxy-FAs were elevated in the kidney. In the heart tissue a trend towards lower levels of hydroxy-FAs and epoxy-FAs was observed. Both murine models of sepsis are characterized by changes of oxylipins formed in all branches of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. The more pronounced effects in the LPS model make this model more suitable for the investigation of the AA cascade and its pharmacological modulation in sepsis.

  14. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  15. Effect of non-hypotensive haemorrhage on plasma catecholamine levels and cardiovascular variability in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberthür, Christoph; Schächinger, Hartmut; Seeberger, Manfred; Gysi, Christine Stebler

    2003-05-01

    It is well known from animal research that non-hypotensive haemorrhage produces sympathoexcitatory responses assessable by both the rise in plasma catecholamine levels and the shift of autonomic influences on the heart to more sympathetic and less parasympathetic control. Data in humans are restricted. Heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure (FINAPRES) variability (BPV), and catecholamine plasma levels were measured before and after haemorrhage in 30 healthy blood donors and compared with those from 10 control subjects without blood loss. Spectral power of HRV and BPV in very low (0.02-0.06 Hz), low (0.07-0.14 Hz), and high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency bands were calculated by Fourier analysis. Catecholamine plasma levels were assayed by dual column reverse-phased high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Haemorrhage of 5.6 +/- 1.2 ml kg-1 body weight increased plasma norepinephrine levels (215 +/- 92 pg ml-1 versus 254 +/- 95 pg ml-1; P = 0.002), increased BPV in the low frequency band (Mayer waves; 1.8 +/- 1.0 ln [mmHg(2)] versus 2.0 +/- 0.9 ln [mmHg(2)]; P = 0.021), and decreased the vagally transmitted high frequency HRV (6.9 +/- 1.1 ln [MI(2)] versus 6.5+/-1.2 ln [MI(2)]; P<0.0001), but did not induce significant changes in heart rate (66 +/- 11 bpm versus 67 +/- 11 bpm; P = 0.79) and arterial blood pressure (mean values: 84 +/- 13 mmHg versus 87 +/- 13 mmHg; P = 0.12). As suggested by plasma norepinephrine levels, systolic BPV and HRV, non-hypotensive haemorrhage produces sympathoexcitatory responses as well as vagal withdrawal of heart rate control in humans.

  16. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Associates with Adult Cytokine Levels in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720

  17. Childhood chronic physical aggression associates with adult cytokine levels in plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Provençal

    Full Text Available An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood.Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7 and a control group from the same background (n = 25. Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7 = 3.48, P = 0.002 and IL-6 (T(26.9 = 3.76, P = 0.001, lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1 = 4.91, P = 0.00004 and IL-10 (T(29.8 = 2.84, P = 0.008 and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26 = 3.69, P = 0.001. The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects.Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression.

  18. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of levodropropizine plasma levels in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaratin, P; De Angelis, L; Cattabeni, F

    1988-08-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526) in plasma is described. The method proved to be highly selective and sensitive. Drug concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml could be measured. Levodropropizine plasma levels were measured in 6 healthy volunteers after administration of an acute 60 mg dose. Peak concentrations were reached between 40 and 60 min and measurable amounts of drug were present till 8 h after administration.

  19. Plasma osteopontin levels in prediction of prognosis in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Kaan; Tavil, Yusuf; Sahinarslan, Asife; Tacoy, Gulten; Turfan, Murat; Sen, Nihat; Gurbahar, Ozlem; Boyaci, Bulent; Yalcin, Ridvan; Demirkan, Deniz; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-04-01

    We sought to explain the clinical importance of the osteopontin (OPN) in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty consecutive patients (55 = 11 years, 12 women and 68 men) and sixty healthy control subjects were included in the study. In all patients, plasma OPN levels were assessed on admission and on the third day (peak value). Creatinine kinase (CK)/CK-myocardial band (MB), troponin I and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor levels and echocardiographic findings were also recorded. Patients were classified into high and low OPN groups according to the median OPN value, and monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients with STEMI had higher OPN levels (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml) on admission than the control subjects (18.0 [11.3-31.5] ng/ml, P = 0.004).The third day value of OPN was significantly higher (39.2 [27.2-56.0] ng/ml) than the OPN level on admission (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml, P < 0.001). Admission and peak OPN levels were not correlated with CK/CK-MB, white blood cell counts, troponin I and the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor. The plasma OPN levels were not correlated with left ventricular wall motion score index either. In the subgroups of infarct localization and reperfusion strategy, plasma OPN levels were similar. When the patients were compared according to the median OPN values, there were no differences in the occurrence of MACE between the high and low OPN groups. This study suggests, for the first time, that the plasma OPN level increases in the first hours of the acute STEMI; however, it could not be used as a prognostic biomarker of STEMI.

  20. Association between plasma ghrelin and motilin levels during MMC cycle in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Aaron; Nakajima, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2010-09-24

    Migrating motor complex (MMC) is well characterized by the appearance of gastrointestinal contractions in the interdigestive state. Gastric phase III contractions of MMC are regulated by motilin, but not ghrelin, in dogs. Ghrelin regulates feeding activity in dogs and rodents. It remains unclear how motilin and ghrelin interact during the MMC cycle in dogs. Four strain gauge transducers were implanted on stomach and intestine in 6 female dogs. To investigate the correlation between ghrelin and motilin, plasma motilin and acyl ghrelin (active type) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) during MMC cycle. The peak of plasma motilin levels was always observed at the period of gastric phase III contractions. The peak of ghrelin levels were followed 20-25 min after the peak of plasma motilin levels in 13 cases of 18 observations (72.2%). These were frequently observed at the early stage of gastric phase I contractions. In 3 of 16 observations (18.8%), the ghrelin peak was not associated with the motilin peaks. Immediately after the feeding, the interdigestive GI motor pattern was changed to the postprandial pattern. No significant increases of the plasma motilin levels and ghrelin levels were observed after the feeding. This is the first demonstration showing the correlation between ghrelin and motilin levels during gastric MMC cycle in conscious dogs. As it is rather difficult to evaluate the hunger score in dogs, it remains unclear whether increased ghrelin levels after finishing gastric phase III contractions may mediate hunger sensation in dogs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Level crossings, excess times, and transient plasma–wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsen, A., E-mail: audun.theodorsen@uit.no; Garcia, O. E., E-mail: odd.erik.garcia@uit.no [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2016-04-15

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with a radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  2. Virus inhibition assay for measurement of acyclovir levels in human plasma and urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.F.; Taylor, S. C.; Bryson, Y J

    1981-01-01

    A simple microplate virus inhibition assay which measures the levels of acyclovir in plasma and urine samples from patients was developed. The assay is based upon the inhibition of the cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 on human fibroblast cells. The extent of inhibition of virus cytopathic effect, caused by dilutions of samples from patients, allowed determination of acyclovir concentrations to be made. The assay, which measured biological activity, could detect acyclovir level...

  3. Information provided for ecological quality management of production on microeconomic level under conditions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamula I.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.

  4. Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels during acute hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebely, Jason; Feld, Jordan J.; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail V.; Hellard, Margaret; Sherker, Alana; Petoumenos, Kathy; Zang, Geng; Shaw, Ineke; Yeung, Barbara; George, Jacob; Teutsch, Suzy; Kaldor, John M.; Cherepanov, Vera; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Dore, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) are predictive of treatment-induced clearance in chronic HCV. In the present study, factors associated with plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection and the association between IP-10 levels and spontaneous clearance were assessed in three cohorts of acute HCV infection. Among 300 individuals, 245 (181 male, 47 HIV+) were HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection. In adjusted analysis, factors independently associated with IP-10 levels ≥150 pg/mL (median level) included HCV RNA levels >6 log IU/mL, HIV co-infection and non-Aboriginal ethnicity. Among 245 HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection, 214 were untreated (n=137) or had persistent infection (infection duration ≥26 weeks) at treatment initiation (n=77). Spontaneous clearance occurred in 14% (29 of 214). Individuals without spontaneous clearance had significantly higher mean plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection than those with clearance (248±32 vs. 142±22 pg/mL, P=0.008). The proportion of individuals with spontaneous clearance was 0% (0 of 22, P=0.048) and 16% (27 of 165) and in those in those with and without plasma IP-10 levels ≥380 pg/mL. In adjusted analyses, favourable IL28B genotype was associated with spontaneous clearance, while higher HCV RNA level was independently associated with lower odds of spontaneous clearance. Conclusion High IP-10 levels at acute HCV detection were associated with failure to spontaneously clear HCV. Patients with acute HCV and high baseline IP-10 levels, particularly >380 pg/mL, should be considered for early therapeutic intervention, and those with low levels should defer therapy for potential spontaneous clearance. PMID:23325615

  5. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  6. Abnormal expression of fibrinogen gamma (FGG) and plasma level of fibrinogen in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wu-Ling; Fan, Bing-Lin; Liu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Wen-Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Abnormal expression of genes has been related to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the mRNA expression of fibrinogen gamma (FGG) in HCC and levels of plasma fibrinogen of patients with HCC. Northern blot and semiquantitative RT-PCR were performed to determine the mRNA transcription of FGG. The plasma fibrinogen was measured quantitatively by the von Clauss method. FGG was significantly up-regulated at the mRNA level in the SMMC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cell lines. FGG mRNA transcript was also up-regulated in HCC tissues when compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues as control. The laboratory investigation of blood samples from 114 HCC patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma fibrinogen compared to healthy persons as control (3.75+/-1.41 vs. 2.90+/-0.46 g l(-1)) (pFGG mRNA was expressed abnormally in HCC and elevated plasma fibrinogen may serve as a useful predictor of clinical progression of HCC patients.

  7. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  8. Elevated plasma levels of endostatin are associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of albuminuria (≥30 mg/24 h). After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3-357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7-134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of -26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (≥131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2-45.5; p < 0.0001). These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparison of plasma and urinary levels of 2-hydroxyestrogen and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrogen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, H Leon; Jernström, Helena; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Klug, Thomas L; Narod, Steven A

    2006-02-01

    A modified ELISA assay for measurement of the two estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE1) in plasma and serum has been developed. Previously, these have only been measured in urine. It is not known how well the measurements of these metabolites in urine and plasma are correlated. The goal of this study was to compare urinary and plasma levels of 2OHE1 and 16alphaOHE1 and their ratios and to explore how they were affected by ethnicity, dietary and genetic factors, and medication use. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 511 nulliparous women, aged 17-35, from four ethnic groups during the same visit at the study center, on a random day of the menstrual cycle. The overall correlation between the 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratio in plasma and urine was fair (rs = 0.52; p menstrual cycle while there was an increase in the plasma 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratio. The strongest factors predicting discordance between the urinary and plasma 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratios among non-OC users were a baseline urinary 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratio in the three upper quartiles (p menstrual cycle phase (p = 0.001), and the number of cups of coffee consumed per day (p = 0.006). Among current OC users, the strongest predictors of discordance between the urinary and plasma 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratios were a baseline urinary 2OHE1/16alphaOHE1 ratio in the three lower quartiles (p menstrual cycle when the samples were obtained.

  10. Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichini, Maria; Fonzi, Michele; Giannerini, Fabiola; Mencarelli, Marzia; Gasparoni, Alberto; Rocchi, Giovannino; Kaitsas, Vasilios; Fonzi, Luciano

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of specific factors on mercury (P-Hg) levels and antioxidant power (P-FRAP) in human plasma, 26 healthy donors were examined by a dentist, their plasma analyzed for Hg by atomic absorption spectrometry and for total antioxidant activity by FRAP method. Hg plasma concentration was found to be correlated with the number of amalgam fillings, suggesting that Hg released from fillings is a source of Hg in non-occupational exposed subjects. P-FRAP correlated negatively with P-Hg suggesting a pro-oxidant role of the Hg released from amalgam fillings. Though age by itself was not significantly correlated with P-FRAP, when considered together with P-Hg in multivariate analysis, it was found to be a major related cofactor. Multivariate analysis showed no influence of fish consumption or cigarette smoking on P-FRAP. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Influence of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions in highly charged ions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Chen, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Fu, Nian; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Considering the quantum effects of diffraction and the collective screening effects, the potential of test charge in semiclassical plasmas is derived. It is generalized exponential screened Coulomb potential. Using the Ritz variational method incorporating this potential, the effects of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions are investigated systematically, taking highly charged H-like ion as an example. The Debye plasma model is also employed for comparison purposes. Comparisons and analysis are made between these two sets of results and the differences are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  12. The effect of oral Isotretinoin on plasma level of folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir majdein amir javanbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders and Isotretinoin has widely been used as a treatment for its severe and resistant cases in recent years. Considering the controversy over the effect of systemic Isotretinoin on reducing the plasma level of folic acid and the negative effect of this reduction on health, this study was conducted to assess the influence of systemic Isotretinoin on the plasma level of folic acid during the years 2008 and 2009 in Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: 61 patients including 38 women and 23 men with severe or moderate acne (age mean 23.6+6 y/o who were resistant to conventional treatments were supplemented with 0.5mg/kg/day of oral Isotretinoin for 30 days. They were instructed not to use any other drugs with an effect on folic acid level or change their diet. The serum levels of folic acid were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The statistical analyses were carried out using the paired T-test. Results: The mean levels of folic acid were 26.75+9.42 nmol/lit and 23.6+8.42 nmol/lit at the baseline and after 30 days of Isotretinoin supplementation respectively. This showed a significant decrease in plasma folic acid level (p=0.008. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant reduction in plasma level of folic acid following a 30 day use of oral Isotretinoin in acne patients. Concerning the important role of folic acid in metabolic functions, we recommend further studies to assess the effect of longer periods of Isotretinoin treatment as well as other relevant factors on folic acid metabolism. Moreover, folic acid supplementation and simultaneous use of Isotretinoin is recommended in patients with acne.

  13. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  14. Plasma levels of haemostatic factors in patients with pulmonary embolism on admission and seven months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, M; Granér, M; Laukkanen, J A; Harjola, V-P; Mustonen, P

    2018-02-01

    With the exception of D-dimer, not much is known about the plasma levels of haemostatic factors during acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to their basic levels in a stable phase. The goal of this study was to examine how plasma levels of factor V, VIII, XIIIa, von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), fibrinogen, thrombomodulin evolve from the point of diagnosis of acute VTE to the end of standard treatment period. Sixty-three consecutive patients (mean 57, range 18-86 years, 33 females) with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) were included. Laboratory samples were collected upon arrival (acute phase) and seven months later (stable phase). Fifteen similar aged individuals served as controls. Plasma levels of factor XIIIa (87.5% vs 117.7%, P < .001) and soluble thrombomodulin (36.6 vs 47.5 ng/L, P < .001) were lower, whereas plasma levels of vWF:Ag (2.66 vs 2.01 IU/mL, P < .001) and fibrinogen (4.3 vs 3.9 g/L, P < .05) were higher on admission compared to the stable phase. In the stable phase, vWF:Ag (2.01 vs 1.43 IU/mL, P < .01) and soluble thrombomodulin (47.5 vs 38.0 ng/mL, P < .05), but not FXIIIa levels, were higher in PE patients compared to healthy controls. This study confirms the concept of FXIIIa consumption during acute phase of VTE by showing its intraindividual normalization during the follow-up. vWF:Ag, known to be associated with the risk of VTE, was constantly elevated in the majority of the patients. Soluble thrombomodulin levels were lower in acute phase compared to stable phase, a finding which significance needs to be evaluated in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F

    2014-09-01

    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma levels of retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Regina M.; Matus, Ismael A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Qin, Jian; Park, Ah-Mee; Jain, Vivek; Kuru, Tunay; Tang, Guangwen

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective OSA is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Pathogenic mechanisms of vascular diseases include thickened vascular walls due to the increased number of smooth muscle cells (SMC). Retinoic acid (RA) suppresses the growth of SMC, and reduced retinoid levels are associated with vascular diseases. Oxidant signalling promotes SMC growth, thus antioxidant levels may also influence the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that plasmas from OSA patients contain altered levels of retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Methods Plasma samples were taken before and after sleep from patients with OSA (mostly mild) without known cardiovascular diseases and from control subjects. Levels of retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols were measured using sensitive gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography methods and total antioxidant capacity was assessed fluorometrically. Results Results showed that plasmas from patients with OSA had significantly lower retinyl palmitate and 9-cis RA compared with control subjects, while levels of retinol, all-trans RA and 13-cis RA were indifferent. All-trans β-carotene and 9-cis β-carotene were also lower in OSA patients. Levels of all-trans RA and 13-cis RA in OSA patients were reduced after sleep compared with before sleep. OSA patients showed significantly higher δ-tocopherol compared with controls. Treatment of cultured human vascular SMC with post-sleep OSA patient plasmas promoted cell growth, but not in controls. Conclusions Mild OSA exhibits altered levels of specific retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols, which may be markers and/or mediators for the increased susceptibility of patients to vascular diseases. PMID:19761534

  17. The association of plasma vitamin A and E levels with coronary collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söğüt, Erkan; Kadı, Hasan; Karayakalı, Metin; Mertoğlu, Cuma

    2015-04-01

    To investigate if plasma levels of vitamin A and E have an association with coronary collateral development. A total of 189 patients who underwent coronary angiography and had total occlusion in at least one major epicardial coronary artery were enrolled in the study. To classify coronary collateral circulation (CCC), the Rentrop scoring system was used. Patients were classified as having poor CCC (Rentrop grades 0-1) or good CCC (Rentrop grades 2-3), and all patients were also screened for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and smoking history. There were no differences in plasma vitamin A and E levels between the two groups (vitamin A: 2.37 ± 0.65 vs. 2.35 ± 0.78, p = 0.253; vitamin E: 47.1 ± 12.8 vs. 44.6 ± 15.1, p = 0.082), and plasma vitamin A and E levels were not associated with CCC. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with poor CCC (4.68 ± 2.52 vs. 3.89 ± 1.78, p = 0.001). The higher frequency of diabetes and higher serum hs-CRP levels were found to be an independent predictor for poor CCC (odds ratio = 2.44, p = 0.006; odds ratio = 1.24, p = 0.007, respectively). And a higher frequency of total occluded RCA was found to be a positive predictor for good CCC (odds ratio = 2.36, p = 0.06) in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found that serum hs-CRP levels, presence of diabetes, and total occlusion of RCA have an effect on coronary collateral development. We found no correlation between plasma vitamin A and E levels and CCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjaer Susanne K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1 is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC, and investigate prognostic value of this marker. Methods YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. Results YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor cell expression was higher in OC than in borderline tumors (p = 0.001, and associated with FIGO stage (p Conclusion YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with OC.

  19. [Association of IL-10 promoter polymorphism and plasma levels with susceptibility to vocal cords leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Tao, Lei; Zhang, Duo; Chen, Bin; Tang, Wei-jing; Lu, Li-ming

    2013-12-01

    To investigated the association between interleukin-10(IL-10)-1082/-819/-592 promoter polymorphism, plasma IL-10 levels and risk of vocal leukoplakia. A case-control study of 61 patients with vocal cords leukoplakia and 119 healthy subjects were performed. Genotypes for the IL-10 gene (IL-10 -1082 G/A, -819 C/T and -592 C/A) were determined using pyrosequencing and plasma IL-10 levels were analyzed by ELISA. Smoking and alcohol consumption increased the risk of vocal leukoplakia (OR = 4.73, 95%CI:2.4-9.1;OR = 5.70, 95%CI:2.9-11.2, P leukoplakia had significantly higher frequencies of AC at -592 and -819 (OR = 1.93, 95%CI:0.97-3.81, P = 0.05) and AG at -1082(OR = 2.14, 95%CI:0.87-5.27, P = 0.092) than control. Vocal leukoplakia patients had higher concentration of plasma IL-10 (21.6 ± 0.5) pg/ml (X(-) ± s) than controls (19.0 ± 1.1)pg/ml(t = 2.08, P = 0.043) and the haplotype containing the G allele was associated with higher plasma IL-10 concentrations (24.3 ± 5.7) pg/ml compared with the ATA haplotype(19.9 ± 4.7) pg/ml (t = -2.64, P = 0.008). IL-10-1082/-819/-592 promoter polymorphism and high concentration of plasma IL-10 are associated with vocal cord leukoplakia, and the concentration of plasma IL-10 is associated with the genotypes of IL-10 promoter polymorphism.

  20. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  1. Ascorbic acid levels in various tissues, plasma and urine of mice during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Mizuki; Amano, Akiko; Shimokado, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito

    2012-01-01

    Here we quantified ascorbic acid (AA) levels in 14 tissues, plasma and urine of C57BL/6 male mice to track its turnover during 3 to 30 mo of aging. The AA content of adrenal glands and testes decreased somewhat with age, and eventually rose, but increased in the spleen, lungs, eyes and heart. AA levels rose in the liver, skin and skeletal muscles from 6 to 12 mo of age, but declined from 12 to 24 mo. In the cerebellum, cerebrum, small intestine, kidney and plasma, amounts of AA remained almost constant as the animals aged. Most notably, urinary AA decreased markedly until becoming almost undetectable at 24 and 30 mo of age. Collectively, these results, which compare changes in AA levels in specific physiologic targets throughout the aging process, strongly suggest that the AA synthesizing capacity declines over time to become a major factor in senescence-related diseases.

  2. Genetic Influences on Plasma Homocysteine Levels in African Americans and Yoruba Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Ramanan, Vijay K; Lai, Dongbing; Foroud, Tatiana M; Lane, Katie; Murrell, Jill R; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Kling, Mitchel A; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Hendrie, Hugh C; Saykin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine, a metabolite involved in key cellular methylation processes seems to be implicated in cognitive functions and cardiovascular health with its high levels representing a potential modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. A better understanding of the genetic factors regulating homocysteine levels, particularly in non-white populations, may help in risk stratification analyses of existing clinical trials and may point to novel targets for homocysteine-lowering therapy. To identify genetic influences on plasma homocysteine levels in individuals with African ancestry, we performed a targeted gene and pathway-based analysis using a priori biological information and then to identify new association performed a genome-wide association study. All analyses used combined data from the African American and Yoruba cohorts from the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project. Targeted analyses demonstrated significant associations of homocysteine and variants within the CBS (Cystathionine beta-Synthase) gene. We identified a novel genome-wide significant association of the AD risk gene CD2AP (CD2-associated protein) with plasma homocysteine levels in both cohorts. Minor allele (T) carriers of identified CD2AP variant (rs6940729) exhibited decreased homocysteine level. Pathway enrichment analysis identified several interesting pathways including the GABA receptor activation pathway. This is noteworthy given the known antagonistic effect of homocysteine on GABA receptors. These findings identify several new targets warranting further investigation in relation to the role of homocysteine in neurodegeneration.

  3. Plasma nitric oxide level is correlated with microvascular functions in the peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Muzaffer; Usanmaz, Suzan Emel; Koksoy, Cuneyt; Bengisun, Ugur; Demirel-Yilmaz, Emine

    2017-01-01

    At present there is no widely accepted biomarker for monitoring of vascular functions. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the association of some blood biomarkers with vascular reactivity in patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PAD). A prospective evaluation was made of 3 groups comprising a control group of healthy individuals, and patients with PAD caused by either atherosclerosis or Buerger's disease. Microvascular perfusion was examined using laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous erythrocyte flux after iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The correlation of microvascular reactivity with endothelium-related biomarkers was assessed. ACh-induced and SNP-induced vasodilations were significantly diminished in the PAD groups. The plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels of PAD patients were significantly higher than those of the control group, but asymmetric dimethylarginine, total antioxidant capacity and hydrogen sulphide levels were similar. Plasma NO level was negatively correlated with ACh and SNP-stimulated microvascular flow increase, whereas a positive correlation was detected with blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in all groups. These results indicate that a high plasma level of NO in PAD patients is associated with diminished endothelium-dependent and independent flow increase in the microvascular bed. An excessive amount of NO-induced nitrosative stress in an inflammatory condition that might be a reason for vascular dysfunction should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to PAD.

  4. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  5. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Does plasma copeptin level at admission predict final infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Vijai; Beig, Jahangir Rashid; Tramboo, Nisar A; Rasool, Roohi; Choh, Nasir A; Bashir, Shazia; Rather, Hilal A; Lone, Ajaz A

    2016-09-15

    Copeptin is a novel biomarker of potential diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma copeptin levels at admission and final infarct size in STEMI patients. This observational study was conducted in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical sciences, Srinagar, for a period of 1year. 60 patients with STEMI admitted within 24h of symptom onset were included in the study. Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined by ELISA from blood samples drawn at the time of admission. Infarct size was estimated on cardiac MRI after 5-14days of admission, in successfully reperfused patients. Correlations between plasma copeptin levels, infarct size and various clinico-hemodynamic variables were studied. Plasma copeptin concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with MRI determined infarct size (r=0.957; p≤0.0001). Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with anterior wall infarction (p≤0.0001), longer symptom duration (p=0.018), advanced Killip class (p≤0.0001), higher body mass index (p=0.019) and extensive coronary artery disease (p≤0.0001). On multivariate analysis, copeptin levels at admission independently predicted final infarct size, irrespective of the clinico-hemodynamic profile of patients or mode of reperfusion (p≤0.0001). The only independent predictor of copeptin level was symptom duration (p=0.018). Copeptin level at admission predicts final infarct size in STEMI patients. Further evidence is however needed before implementation of this biomarker into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Sustainable development of agriculture: contribution of farm-level assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, de Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Current environmental, economic and social challenges urge agriculture to change to more sustainable modes of production. Insight in the impact of a system or a potential innovation on sustainability could support decision makers in identifying actions towards sustainable development. Over the past

  9. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia...... adjustment for ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype, plasma apoE tertiles remained associated with Alzheimer disease (p for trend = 0.007) and all dementia (p for trend = 0.04). Plasma apoE tertiles did not interact with ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype on risk of Alzheimer disease (p = 0.53) or all dementia (p = 0...

  10. Low levels of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohguro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ohguro1, Yukihiko Mashima2, Mitsuru Nakazawa31Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the pathophysiology of retinitis pigmentosa (RP.Methods: Plasma ET-1 levels and ophthalmic features in 50 RP patients were compared with those in 20 healthy-eye control subjects. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Mean plasma ET-1 levels of RP patients (1.88 ± 0.56 pg/mL were significantly lower than those of control subjects (2.30 ± 0.30 pg/mL, Mann-Whitney’s U test; P < 0.01. However, ET-1 concentrations varied markedly in each patient. Among RP patients, a significant correlation of ET-1 concentrations was not observed in terms of its hereditary forms or other clinical factors.Conclusion: ET-1 may be important in the pathogenesis of RP, and measurement of its plasma concentrations may also contribute to additional insights into the retinal hemodynamics of RP.Keywords: endothelin-1, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal hemodynamics

  11. Estimation of Nicotine Dose after Low Level Exposure Using Plasma and Urine Nicotine Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Yu, Lisa; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the optimal plasma and urine nicotine metabolites, alone or in combination, to estimate the systemic dose of nicotine after low level exposure. Methods We dosed 36 nonsmokers with 100, 200 or 400 μg deuterium-labeled nicotine (doses similar to exposure to secondhand smoke, SHS) by mouth daily for 5 days and then measured plasma and urine nicotine metabolites at various intervals over 24 hours. Results The strongest correlations with nicotine dose were seen for the sum of four [cotinine + cotinine-glucuronide + trans-3′-hydroxycotinine + 3HC-glucuronide] or six [ including also nicotine + nicotine-glucuronide] of the major nicotine metabolites in 24 hour urine collection (r = 0.96), with lesser correlations for these metabolites using spot urines corrected for creatinine at various times of day (r = 0.72 – 0.80). Plasma [cotinine + trans 3′ hydroxycotine] was more highly correlated with nicotine dose than plasma cotinine alone (r = 0.82 vs 0.75). Conclusions Our results provide guidance for selection of biomarkers to estimate the dose of nicotine taken in low level (SHS) tobacco exposure. Impact This is probably relevant to active smoking as well. PMID:20447913

  12. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  13. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Umbilical cord blood plasma vitamin A levels in low birth weight (LBW) babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, K M; Somani, B L; Kalra, Suprita; Mathai, S S; Arora, M M

    2011-04-01

    Role of vitamin A in reducing the mortality in infants more than six months of age is well known. Supplementing newborn infants with vitamin A within 48 hours of birth reduces infant mortality by almost a quarter, with the greatest benefit to those of low birth weight (LBW). Studies that could highlight deficiency states in neonates, particularly LBW babies by objective measurement of vitamin A levels would help in formulating the recommendations to supplement these babies with vitamin A. Cord blood plasma vitamin A levels of 154 LBW babies with birth weight in the range of 1505-2455 were analysed for plasma vitamin A (retinol) levels by HPLC method. Samples of 55 babies with normal birth weight were also analysed. LBW babies were divided into two subgroups of preterm LBW and LBW-term small for gestational age (SGA). Of the 154 babies with LBW, 92 were preterm LBW and 52 were LBW-term SGA. Mean cord blood plasma vitamin A levels were significantly lower in the preterm LBW group (n = 92) compared to levels observed in babies with normal birth weight (n = 55) and LBW-term SGA subgroups (n = 62). There was no significant difference in the mean vitamin A values between the normal birth weight babies and LBW-term SGA group. There was significant positive correlation of cord blood vitamin A levels with birth weight in the entire set of (n = 154) LBW babies (r=0.37, P cord blood vitamin A levels in the preterm LBW babies. The level of vitamin A in LBW babies also correlated with their birth weight. There are enough evidence to support causative association between vitamin A deficiency state and neonatal morbidity. Simple interventions like vitamin A supplementation during a crucial stage of an infant's life may be beneficial in the long run. There is a need to establish norms for vitamin A levels and seriously examine the role of vitamin A supplementation for LBW babies during the immediate postnatal period.

  15. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  16. Quantitative analysis of DNA levels in maternal plasma in normal and Down syndrome pregnancies

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    Stejskal David

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated fetal and total DNA levels in maternal plasma in patients bearing fetuses affected with Down syndrome in comparison to controls carrying fetuses with normal karyotype. Methods DNA levels in maternal plasma were measured using real-time quantitative PCR using SRY and β-globin genes as markers. Twenty-one pregnant women with a singleton fetus at a gestational age ranging from 15 to 19 weeks recruited before amniocentesis (carried out for reasons including material serum screening and advanced material age, and 16 pregnant women bearing fetuses affected with Down syndrome between 17 to 22 weeks of gestation were involved in the study. Results The specificity of the system reaches 100% (no Y signal was detected in 14 women pregnant with female fetuses and the sensitivity 91.7% (SRY amplification in 22 of 24 examined samples. The median fetal DNA levels in women carrying Down syndrome (n=11 and the controls (n=13 were 23.3 (range 0–58.5 genome-equivalents/ml and 24.5 (range 0–47.5 genome-equivalents/ml of maternal plasma, respectively (P = 0.62. The total median DNA levels in pregnancies with Down syndrome and the controls were 10165 (range 615–65000 genome-equivalents/ml and 7330 (range 1300–36750 genome-equivalents/ml, respectively (P = 0.32. The fetal DNA proportion in maternal plasma was 0%-6 % (mean 0.8% in women carrying Down syndrome and 0%-2.6 % (mean 0.7 % in the controls, respectively (P=0.86. Conclusions Our study revealed no difference in fetal DNA levels and fetal DNA: maternal DNA ratio between the patients carrying Down syndrome fetuses and the controls.

  17. Increase in plasma platelet-activating factor levels in enterally fed preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, W; Hill, N; Hsueh, W; Caplan, M

    1993-01-01

    Because platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we designed a prospective study to examine plasma PAF levels during the first 14 days of feeding in a population of neonates of less than 32 weeks gestation. We found that significantly more patients had detectable plasma PAF levels on days 3 and 14 of feeding when compared to their prefeeding levels (7% on day 0 vs. 26% at day 3, p = 0.04; none on day 0 vs. 18.5% at day 14, p = 0.01). This finding could not be explained by decreased plasma activity of acetylhydrolase, the PAF breakdown enzyme, spontaneous endotoxinemia or a maturational effect. None of the infants who developed detectable PAF levels after feedings were begun went on to develop NEC. We conclude that our findings may reflect increased intestinal PAF production with the provision of feedings to some premature infants. However, this phenomenon by itself does not appear to be a sufficient condition for the subsequent development of NEC.

  18. Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth rates: A field test of model predictive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-09-01

    Bird growth rates are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth rates. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth rates in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth rates, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth rate. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth rates. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted growth rates between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth rates, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth rates when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma, tissue and urinary levels of aloin in rats after the administration of pure aloin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Aloin is a physiologically active anthraquinone present in aloe. There are two isomers of aloin, aloin A and aloin B, occurring as a mixture of diastereomers. The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and tissue distribution of aloin. Rats were gavaged with 11.8g/kg aloin, and the levels of aloin and its conjugates were measured in plasma, tissues, and urine. Plasma aloin level showed a peak at 1hr after the administration and the concentration was 59.07+/-10.5 ng/ml. The 24 h cumulated urinary aloin was 0.03% of the initial dose. These results suggest that aloin is absorbed and reaches a peak plasma level within 1-1.5 h after the administration and a significant portion is possibly metabolized or is excreted in feces. These results can apply to the determination of the adequate intake level of aloe and aloe products to achieve the desired biological effect, and to interprete in vitro study results.

  20. Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Patients with both Retinitis Pigmentosa and Flammer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, M G; Josifova, T; Konieczka, K

    2015-04-01

    Endothelin-1 is a strong endogenous vasoconstrictor and is also an agent reducing the ocular blood flow. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are known to have reduced ocular blood flow. This can be secondary to retinal atrophy, but may also partially result from an additional condition, such as a Flammer syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the endothelin-1 plasma levels in retinitis pigmentosa patients with and without Flammer syndrome are different. In the study we included patients with clinical signs and symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa, confirmed by electrophysiological findings. Blood samples were obtained from 6 retinitis pigmentosa patients with and 4 without Flammer syndrome. The results were related to 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Endothelin-1 plasma levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassay. The endothelin-1 plasma levels in retinitis pigmentosa patients with Flammer syndrome were significantly higher than those without Flammer syndrome. The mean (±SD) endothelin-1 levels (pg/mL) in retinitis pigmentosa patients with Flammer syndrome were 4.95 (±1.74), range: (2.37-6.76), whereas in patients without Flammer syndrome they were 1.10 (±0.08), range: 1.00-1.20. Our own normal values are: 1.56 (±0.30), range: (0.90-2.13). All retinitis pigmentosa patients with increased endothelin-1 plasma levels had signs and symptoms related to a Flammer syndrome, such as cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, increased sensitivity in general, e.g., increased sensitivity to certain drugs, increased pain sensitivity and increased sense of smell. Endothelin-1 plasma levels were increased in retinitis pigmentosa patients with but not in patients without Flammer syndrome. Many questions remain open: Why so many retinitis pigmentosa patients suffer from Flammer syndrome, why is the endothelin-1 level in such patients higher than in healthy subjects with Flammer syndrome, how much of the ocular blood flow

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM LEPTIN AND PLASMA APELIN LEVELS IN MEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is seen as a  cluster of high cardiovascular risk factors. New hormone-like substances, such as adipokines leptin and apelin, produced by fat tissue, are important for the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome.Aim: To evaluate levels of plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: We examined 122 male patients with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy males aged from 25 to 60 years. All patients were assessed accordingly to confirm the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, with additional measurements of serum leptin and plasma apelin.Results: Serum leptin levels were 10-fold higher and plasma apelin levels 3-fold higher in patients with metabolic syndrome (n=122, compared to the controls (n=30: 25.43 vs. 3.99 ng/mL (p<0.05 and 1.13 vs. 0.66 ng/mL (p<0.05, respectively. Serum leptin levels correlated with all parameters of the excess body weight, such as body mass (r=0.79, р<0.05, body mass index (r=0.93, р<0.05, waist circumference (r=0.61, р<0.05, hip circumference (r=0.57, р<0.05, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; r=0.4, р<0.05. Plasma apelin levels correlated with the waist circumference (r=0.27, р<0.05 and WHR (r=0.29, р<0.05. There was a significant increase of serum leptin dependent on the bodyweight category: 19.8 ng/mL in patients with obesity Grade I  (n=49 and 28.7  ng/mL in those with obesity Grade II (n=46 (р<0.05. There was a  non-significant trend towards an increase in plasma apelin depending on bodyweight. As far as abdominal obesity is concerned, in patients with WHR<1 (n=35, plasma apelin level was 0.36  ng/mL, whereas in those with WHR of ≥1 (n=87, it was 3-fold higher (1.09 ng/mL, р<0.05; the increase in serum leptin levels was non-significant. There was no association between plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome (r=0.1, р>0.05.Conclusion: The adipokine levels in men with metabolic syndrome are

  2. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.

  3. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  4. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  5. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results.

  6. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); C. Koopman-Esseboom; W.A. van Staveren (Wija); C.G. van der Paauw (Cornelis); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. METHODS: Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82

  7. Levels of sirolimus in saliva and blood following oral topical sustained-release varnish delivery system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Zakhar; Findler, Mordechai; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Pikovsky, Anna; Kirmayer, David; Basheer, Maamoun; Gutkind, J Silvio; Friedman, Michael; Czerninski, Rakefet

    2015-05-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is a mammalian target of rapamycin pathway blocker. The efficacy of sirolimus is currently studied for its antiproliferative properties in various malignancies and particularly in squamous cell carcinoma and other oral disorders. Topical application at the oral cavity can augment sirolimus availability at the site of action by increasing sirolimus levels in saliva and hence efficacy, along with improved safety (low levels in the blood to avoid side effects) and compliance. Our purpose was to evaluate the release profile and safety of a topical sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system. Sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system containing a total of 0.5 mg of the drug was applied to nine healthy male volunteers. Saliva and blood levels were determined utilizing mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, respectively. The prolonged release profile and safety were evaluated for the oral topical delivery system. After the application of the drug delivery system, a sustained-release profile was observed in the oral cavity. We have measured moderate sirolimus levels for up to 12 h. The safety was confirmed, and systemic sirolimus blood levels were negligible. After an application of sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system, prolonged drug levels can be achieved in the saliva. The oral topical sirolimus concentrations were potentially therapeutic along with minimal systemic exposure. These results broaden the potential clinical use of sustained-release oral topical rapalogs.

  8. Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Frandsen, E; Schifter, S

    2004-01-01

    whether the pain-inducing effects of sildenafil would be reflected in plasma levels of important signalling molecules in migraine: cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men) and 12 patients (12 women) suffering from......Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determine...... migraine without aura were included in two separate double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies in which placebo or sildenafil 100 mg was administered orally. Plasma levels of CGRP, cAMP and cGMP were determined in blood from the antecubital vein. Despite the ability of sildenafil to induce...

  9. Angiopoietin-1 and endostatin levels in cord plasma predict the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Walid Abdel Wahab; Niyazy, Walid H; Mahfouz, Ahmed A

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether angiopoietin-1 and endostatin levels in the cord blood could predict the subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. A total of 102 preterm (gestational age ≤ 32 weeks) infants (28 infants developed BPD and 74 had no BPD) were enrolled in the study. Cord plasma levels of angiopoietin-1 and endostatin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preterm infants who subsequently developed BPD had significantly lower cord plasma levels of angiopoietin-1 than those who did not (p cord plasma levels of endostatin were significantly higher in infants with BPD than in those without (p cord plasma correlated negatively with endostatin (r = -0.48; p = 0.008). In preterm infants, low-angiopoietin-1 and high-endostatin levels in cord plasma at birth predict the subsequent development of BPD.

  10. Comparative analysis of activity of coagulation Factors V and VIII and level of fibrinogen in fresh frozen plasma and frozen plasma

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    Mitu Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the activity of factor V, VIII and fibrinogen level in fresh frozen plasma and frozen plasma frozen after 8 hrs but within 24 hours after phlebotomy. Materials and Methods: Fresh frozen plasma separated from whole blood within 8 hours was compared with plasma separated within 24 hours after phlebotomy in terms of coagulation factors V and VIII and level of fibrinogen by standard methods using semi automated coagulometer sysmex CA50. Results: Longer storage of whole blood before processing resulted in significant decrease (18.4% in activity of factor VIII but the fall in activity of factor V (6.52% or level of fibrinogen (1.81% was not significant. Discussion: These data suggest that there is good retention of coagulation factors in both types of plasma. Although there is significant fall in activity of factor VIII, but it is an acute phase reactant and raised in most of the diseases so it is suggested that frozen plasma would be an acceptable product for most patients requiring fresh frozen plasma.

  11. Maternal plasma noradrenaline levels at 29 weeks and gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jerónima Maria Alves; da Cunha Branco, Jorge; Alfituri, Muniem; Mohinuddin, Syed M; Prendiville, Oonagh; Steer, Philip

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal plasma noradrenaline levels at a mean gestational age of 29 weeks and gestational age and weight at birth. Original research. Seventy-four pregnant women with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Psychological anxiety levels (Spielberger State and Trait questionnaire) and plasma stress hormone levels (noradrenaline and adrenaline) were measured in pregnant women at a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Statistical analysis was applied to investigate links between these variables and gestational age and weight at birth. Self-rating anxiety, State and Trait Spielberger questionnaire, maternal noradrenaline and adrenaline levels, gestational age and weight at birth. There was a significant inverse relationship between maternal noradrenaline levels and the infant gestational age at birth (r = 0.09, p = 0.05). There was no relationship between maternal noradrenaline levels and weight at birth. There was a significant inverse relationship between maternal noradrenaline levels and gestational age at birth, suggesting the possibility of underlying mechanisms linking maternal noradrenaline and timing of delivery.

  12. Plasma endothelin-1 levels in patients with resistant hypertension: effects of renal sympathetic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramala, Luigi; Olmati, Federica; Mancone, Massimo; Concistré, Antonio; Galassi, Matteo; Marinelli, Cristiano; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; Lucia, Piernatale; Costi, Umberto; Iannucci, Gino; Sardella, Gennaro; Letizia, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    Resistant arterial hypertension (RHT) is defined as poor controlled blood pressure (BP) despite optimal doses of three or more antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic. In the development of RHT, hyperactivity of sympathetic (SNS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (SRAA) systems are involved, and SNS is a potent stimulator of vasoactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) peptide. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) through disrupting renal afferent and efferent nerves attenuates SNS activity. We carried out pilot study investigating the effect of RSD on BP and plasma ET-1 levels in consecutive 9 RHT patients (7 male and 2 female, mean age of 56 ± 13.3). After 12 months of the RSD, we observed a significant reduction of BP office, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) (p RSD significantly decreased plasma ET-1 levels in both renal artery (at right from 21.8 ± 4.1 to 16.8 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p = 0.004; at left from 22.1 ± 3.7 to 18.9 ± 3.3 pg/ml; p = 0.02). We observed positive correlations between plasma renal arteries ET-1 levels and systolic BP values at ABPM [Global-SBP (r = 0.58; p RSD on BP values in patients with RHT, and showed a possible physio-pathological role of ET-1. KEY MESSAGES RSD is associated to a significant reduction of plasma ET-1 levels, representing an useful tool into reduction of BP in RHT patients.

  13. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  14. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Hewedi Doaa H; Hamza Rasha T; Ismail Mona A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods...

  15. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Karine M; Alves, André F; Barbaro, Katia C; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering bleeding manifestations in severely-envenomed patients.

  16. Effects of a Stanol-Enriched Yogurt on Plasma Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Furuncuoğlu, Yavuz; Başar, Melih; Alıcı, Süleyman; Şengül, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Plant stanols have been recommended in combination with individualized dietary interventions to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations. Even though yogurt is consumed in high quantities in Turkey, it is unclear whether yogurts with plant stanols will reduce high cholesterol levels in a Turkish population. We designed this study to settle this issue. We investigated the effect of plant stanols in yogurt, combined with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD), in subjects with high lipid leve...

  17. Severe lymphopenia is associated with elevated plasma interleukin-15 levels and increased mortality during severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chang, Hou-Tai; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chang, Lih-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yung; Cheng, Aristine; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Meng-Rui; Chen, Yi-Jung; Hou, Hsin-Han; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Ho, Chao-Chi; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis-related mortality has been found increased in RAG-1 knockout mice. However, in patients admitted to medical intensive care units, it is unknown whether severe lymphocyte depletion at admission is associated with increased interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-15 levels in circulation, and increased mortality. We prospectively enrolled 92 patients who were admitted to medical intensive care units for severe sepsis or septic shock. At admission, 24 patients (26.1%) had severe lymphopenia, defined as lymphocyte counts of less than 0.5 × 10(3)/μL. Severe lymphopenia was associated with significantly higher plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and was also independently associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.532; 95% confidence interval, 1.482-8.416; P = 0.004). The levels of plasma IL-15, but not IL-7, were increased modestly in patients with severe lymphopenia compared with those without (median, 12.2 vs. 6.4 pg/mL; P = 0.005). The elevated plasma IL-15 levels were contrarily associated with significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In conclusion, severe lymphopenia was associated with increased mortality in patients with severe sepsis. We found that patients with sepsis with severe lymphopenia had down-regulated B-cell lymphoma 2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, despite increased plasma IL-15 concentrations. Whether IL-7 and IL-15 are insufficient in patients with severe lymphopenia during severe sepsis warrants further investigations.

  18. Genetic variants in PLG, LPA, and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qianyi; Ozel, Ayse B.; Ramdas, Shweta; McGee, Beth; Khoriaty, Rami; Siemieniak, David; Li, Hong-Dong; Guan, Yuanfang; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.; Molloy, Anne M; Ginsburg, David; Li, Jun Z.; Desch, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association analyses revealed common DNA variants in PLG, LPA, and near SIGLEC14 that contribute to plasma plasminogen level variation.Tobacco smoking and female sex were associated with higher levels of plasminogen.

  19. Reduced Plasma Levels of 25-Hydroxycholesterol and Increased Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Bile Acid Precursors in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Peter J; Griffiths, William J; Zhang, Juan; Beibel, Martin; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Kuhle, Jens; Sailer, Andreas W; Wang, Yuqin

    2017-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). We have measured the levels of over 20 non-esterified sterols in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients suffering from MS, inflammatory CNS disease, neurodegenerative disease and control patients. Analysis was performed following enzyme-assisted derivatisation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) exploiting multistage fragmentation (MS n ). We found increased concentrations of bile acid precursors in CSF from each of the disease states and that patients with inflammatory CNS disease classified as suspected autoimmune disease or of unknown aetiology also showed elevated concentrations of 25-hydroxycholestertol (25-HC, P < 0.05) in CSF. Cholesterol concentrations in CSF were not changed except for patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P < 0.01) or pathogen-based infections of the CNS (P < 0.05) where they were elevated. In plasma, we found that 25-HC (P < 0.01), (25R)26-hydroxycholesterol ((25R)26-HC, P < 0.05) and 7α-hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-enoic acid (7αH,3O-CA, P < 0.05) were reduced in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients compared to controls. The pattern of reduced plasma levels of 25-HC, (25R)26-HC and 7αH,3O-CA was unique to RRMS. In summary, in plasma, we find that the concentration of 25-HC in RRMS patients is significantly lower than in controls. This is consistent with the hypothesis that a lower propensity of macrophages to synthesise 25-HC will result in reduced negative feedback by 25-HC on IL-1 family cytokine production and exacerbated MS. In CSF, we find that the dominating metabolites reflect the acidic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis and the elevated levels of these in CNS disease is likely to reflect cholesterol release as a result of demyelination or neuronal death. 25-HC is elevated in patients with inflammatory CNS disease probably as a consequence of up-regulation of the type 1

  20. Breakfast with glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids suppresses plasma ghrelin levels in individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Erin L; Clayton, Murray K; van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2010-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) requires a lifelong low-phenylalanine (phe) diet where protein needs are met by consumption of a phe-free amino acid (AA) formula; complaints of persistent hunger are common. Foods made with glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein that contains minimal phe and may promote satiety, provide an alternative to AA formula. The objective was to assess the ability of a GMP breakfast to promote satiety and affect plasma concentrations of AAs, insulin, and the appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin in those with PKU, when compared to an AA-based breakfast. Eleven PKU subjects (8 adults and 3 boys ages 11-14) served as their own controls in an inpatient metabolic study with two 4-day treatments: an AA-based diet followed by a diet replacing all AA formula with GMP foods. Plasma concentrations of AAs, insulin and ghrelin were obtained before and/or 180 min after breakfast. Satiety was assessed using a visual analog scale before, immediately after and 150 min after breakfast. Postprandial ghrelin concentration was significantly lower (p=0.03) with GMP compared to an AA-based breakfast, with no difference in fasting ghrelin. Lower postprandial ghrelin concentrations were associated with greater feelings of fullness after breakfast suggesting greater satiety with GMP compared to AAs. Postprandial concentrations of insulin and total plasma AAs were higher after a GMP breakfast compared to an AA-based breakfast consistent with slower absorption and less degradation of AAs from GMP. These results show sustained ghrelin suppression, and suggest greater satiety with ingestion of a meal containing GMP compared with AAs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

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    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  2. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

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    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  3. Plasma hepcidin levels and anemia in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Elzen, Wendy P.J.; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, is suggested to be causally related to anemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the role of plasma hepcidin in anemia among older persons from the general population. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a population-based study of 85-year olds in Leiden, the Netherlands. Eighty-five-year old inhabitants of Leiden were enrolled between September 1997 and September 1999. At the age of 86, plasma hepcidin was determined with time of flight mass spectrometry in 490 participants [160 (32.7%) male, 114 (23.3%) with anemia]. Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization (hemoglobin level PP=0.01), and in participants with unexplained anemia (P=0.01) than in participants without anemia. Participants with iron-deficiency anemia had significantly lower plasma hepcidin levels than participants without anemia (P<0.01). In conclusion, older persons with anemia of inflammation have higher hepcidin levels than their counterparts without anemia. The potential clinical value of hepcidin in future diagnostic algorithms for anemia has to be explored. PMID:23065507

  4. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

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    Zhu Y

    2016-08-01

    .Conclusion: In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy level appears to be a risk factor for OPFs in elderly people. Keywords: elderly patient, osteoporosis, fracture, homocysteine, bone mineral density, bone turnover marker

  5. The behavioral sensitization induced by fencamfamine is not related to plasma drug levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planeta, C S; DeLucia, R; Aizenstein, M L

    1995-06-01

    Fencamfamine (FCF) is a CNS stimulant that facilitates central dopaminergic transmission primarily through blockade of dopamine uptake. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between plasma FCF concentration and behavioral sensitization effect. Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) received FCF (10 mg/kg, ip) or saline once or daily for 10 consecutive days (N = 10 for each group). Blood samples were collected 30 min after injections and plasma FCF was measured by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. FCF treatment enhanced sniffing duration (16.8 +/- 0.8 vs 26.6 +/- 0.9 s) and decreased rearing behavior (8.2 +/- 0.8 vs 3.7 +/- 0.6 s) when days 1 and 10 of drug administration were compared. Comparison of pair of means by the Student t-test did not show significant differences in plasma FCF concentration (390 +/- 40 vs 420 +/- 11 ng/ml) when blood samples were collected 30 min after acute FCF administration or after daily administration of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. In conclusion, the behavioral sensitization to FCF could not be correlated with plasma drug levels, and changes in the activity of dopaminergic systems should be considered to explain the sensitization to the effect of FCF.

  6. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  7. Plasma free tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels and TF-induced thrombin generation ex vivo in men with low testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agledahl, Ingvild; Brodin, Ellen; Svartberg, Johan; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2009-03-01

    Low testosterone levels in men have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some prothrombotic factors, and lately also an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Experimental studies have shown increased synthesis and release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) by physiological levels of testosterone in endothelial cells. Our hypothesis was that elderly men with low testosterone levels would have lower plasma levels of plasma free TFPI with subsequent increased thrombin generation. Elderly men with low (n = 37) and normal (n = 41) testosterone levels were recruited from a general population, and tissue factor (TF)-induced thrombin generation ex vivo and plasma free TFPI Ag were measured. Elderly men with low testosterone levels had lower plasma free TFPI Ag (10.9 +/- 2.3 ng/ml vs. 12.3 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, p = 0.027) and shorter initiation phase of TF-induced coagulation assessed by lag-time (5.1 +/- 1.0 min vs. 5.7 +/- 1.3, p = 0.039). The differences between groups remained significant and were strengthened after adjustment for waist circumference and other cardiovascular risk factors. Lag-time increased linearly across quartiles of plasma free TFPI Ag (ptestosterone were independent predictors of plasma free TFPI Ag. Our findings suggest that low testosterone levels in elderly men is associated with low plasma free TFPI Ag and subsequent shortened initiation phase of TF-induced coagulation.

  8. Comparison of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuroactive steroids with their brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve levels in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Pesaresi, Marzia; Abbiati, Federico; Calabrese, Donato; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2013-10-01

    Physiological changes and pathological alterations in the nervous system of rodents are associated with modifications in the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves. Measures of tissue levels of steroids in the nervous system present serious limitations for human studies and for longitudinal studies in animals. In this study we have explored whether levels of neuroactive steroids in plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid reflect their levels in neural tissues. To this aim, we have evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry the levels of several neuroactive steroids in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of male and female rats. Data indicate that plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of steroids do not fully reflect their tissue levels. However, the interindividual variations in the levels of all the steroids assessed, with the exception of dehydroepiandrosterone, showed a positive correlation in plasma and cerebral cortex. Most steroids also showed a positive correlation in plasma and the cerebellum, the spinal cord and the sciatic nerve. In the hippocampus, the levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, testosterone and testosterone metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with their respective levels in plasma. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of some steroids, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, showed a full correlation with tissue levels. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and 17β-estradiol showed a positive correlation with their corresponding levels in the majority of the neural structures analyzed. These findings suggest that the levels of some neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in plasma may be valuable to predict their levels in the nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

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    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  10. Groundwater Level Changes Due to Extreme Weather—An Evaluation Tool for Sustainable Water Management

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    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extreme and exceptional droughts have significantly impacted many economic sectors in the US, especially in California, Oklahoma, and Texas. The record drought of 2011–2014 affected almost 90% of Texas areas and 95% of Oklahoma state areas. In 2011 alone, around $1.6 billion in agricultural production were lost as a result of drought in Oklahoma, and $7.6 billion in Texas. The agricultural sectors in Oklahoma and Texas rely mainly on groundwater resources from the non-replenishable Ogallala Aquifer in Panhandle and other aquifers around the states. The exceptional droughts of 2011–2014 not only caused meteorologically induced water scarcity (due to low precipitation, but also prompted farmers to overuse groundwater to maintain the imperiled production. Comprehensive studies on groundwater levels, and thus the actual water availability/scarcity across all aquifers in Oklahoma and Texas are still limited. Existing studies are mainly focused on a small number of selected sites or aquifers over a short time span of well monitoring, which does not allow for a holistic geospatial and temporal evaluation of groundwater level variations. This paper aims at addressing those issues with the proposed geospatial groundwater visualization model to assess availability of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses both in Oklahoma and Texas in the time frame of 2003–2014. The model is an evaluation tool that can be used by decision-makers for designing sustainable water management practices and by teachers and researchers for educational purposes.

  11. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

  12. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

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    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  13. Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Preterm Neonatal Infants with Acute Respiratory Failure

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    D. V. Dmitriyev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm infants is associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF and at the same time endothelin-1 (E-1 plays an important role in neonatal pulmonary vascular responsiveness. Methods. Endothelin-1 levels were measured in two blood samples in 12 preterm infants with ARF and in 12 controls (at 32.2±1.3 and 29.8±1.2 weeks of gestation, respectively by enzyme immunoassay. For this, the first and second blood samples were taken at 18 to 40 hours after birth. Results. The plasma level of E-1 in the first sample did not differ between the neonates of both groups. In the second sample, significantly higher E-1 concentrations were observed in the newborns with ARF than in the controls. In the first sample, E-1 concentration were higher than in the second one in both groups (p<0.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the second E-1 sample and the SNAPPE 2 scale rating (r=0.38; p=0.02. The plasma level of E-1 in the first sample did not differ in both groups (11.9 and 12.2 pg/ml, respectively. Conclusion. Neonates with and without ARF had the similar plasma E-1 levels in the first sample, by taking into account the fact that the E-1 levels were higher in ARF than in the controls at 18 to 40 hour after birth. Increased vascular resistance in ARF may be associated with the high level of E-1. Key words: endothe-lin-1, acute respiratory failure.

  14. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

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    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  15. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

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    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  16. Plasma iron levels appraised 15 days after spinal cord injury in a limb movement animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, F M; Esteves, A M; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2011-03-01

    Experimental, controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma iron and transferrin levels in a limb movement animal model with spinal cord injury (SCI). Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Psicobiologia. In all, 72 male Wistar rats aged 90 days were divided into four groups: (1) acute SCI (1 day, SCI1), (2) 3 days post-SCI (SCI3), (3) 7 days post-SCI (SCI7) and (4) 15 days post-SCI (SCI15). Each of these groups had corresponding control (CTRL) and SHAM groups. Plasma iron and transferrin levels of the different groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. We found a significant reduction in iron plasma levels after SCI compared with the CTRL group: SCI1 (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SCI: 108.28±11.7 μg dl(-1)), SCI3 (CTRL: 195.5±11.00 μg dl(-1); SCI: 127.88±12.63 μg dl(-1)), SCI7 (CTRL: 186±2.97 μg dl(-1); SCI: 89.2±15.39 μg dl(-1)) and SCI15 (CTRL: 163±5.48 μg dl(-1); SCI: 124.44±10.30 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). The SHAM1 group demonstrated a reduction in iron plasma after acute SCI (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SHAM: 114.60±7.81 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). Reduced iron metabolism after SCI may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sleep-related movement disorders.

  17. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels......Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...

  19. A Multi Level Multi Domain Method for Particle In Cell Plasma Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Innocenti, M E; Markidis, S; Beck, A; Vapirev, A

    2012-01-01

    A novel adaptive technique for electromagnetic Particle In Cell (PIC) plasma simulations is presented here. Two main issues are identified in designing adaptive techniques for PIC simulation: first, the choice of the size of the particle shape function in progressively refined grids, with the need to avoid the exertion of self-forces on particles, and, second, the necessity to comply with the strict stability constraints of the explicit PIC algorithm. The adaptive implementation presented responds to these demands with the introduction of a Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) system (where a cloud of self-similar domains is fully simulated with both fields and particles) and the use of an Implicit Moment PIC method as baseline algorithm for the adaptive evolution. Information is exchanged between the levels with the projection of the field information from the refined to the coarser levels and the interpolation of the boundary conditions for the refined levels from the coarser level fields. Particles are bound to...

  20. Pre-storage centrifugation conditions have significant impact on measured microRNA levels in biobanked EDTA plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2016-01-01

    to be suitable for miRNA analysis. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers and centrifuged to produce platelet-poor-plasma (PPP) and standard biobank plasma. After one week at -80 °C the biobanked EDTA plasma was re-centrifuged by different steps to remove residual...... was significantly higher in the re-centrifuged biobanked plasma compared to PPP, even when the platelet count was reduced to 0-1×109/L. Conclusion: We found, that pre-storage centrifugation conditions have a significant impact on the measured EDTA plasma level of miRNAs known to be present in platelets. Even...... for the miRNAs found to be less effected, we showed that a 1.5-3 fold change in plasma levels may possible be caused by or easily overseen due to sample preparation and/or storage....

  1. 50 years follow-up on plasma creatinine levels after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund, Marlene; Oturai, P S; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of plasma creatinine (p-creatinine) in monitoring renal deterioration in patients up to 50 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: The Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. METHODS: A total...... regression analyses. RESULTS: When compared with median p-creatinine level in the first 5-year period after injury, the level of p-creatinine was stable throughout the first 30 years and decreased significantly after the 30th until 45th year post injury. Only patients with a functional distribution outside...

  2. Genome-wide linkage analysis of von Willebrand factor plasma levels: results from the GAIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Juan Carlos; Almasy, Laura; Soria, Jose Manuel; Buil, Alfonso; Stone, William; Lathrop, Mark; Blangero, John; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2003-03-01

    High plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been associated with the risk of thromboembolic disease. As a complex trait, this phenotype must be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Among the genetic factors, only the ABO gene located on chromosome 9q34 has been clearly linked to the plasma levels of vWF. This locus explains about 30-40% of the genetic variability. Therefore, the source of the majority of the genetic component remains to be identified. To search for these unknown loci, we conducted a genomewide linkage screen for genes affecting normal variation in vWF levels in 21 Spanish families as part of the GAIT (Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia) Project. The results showed that the strongest linkage signal (LOD =3.46, p = 0.00003) for vWF was found on chromosome 9q34 at the DNA marker D9S290, where the ABO gene is located. Additional suggestive linkage signals were found on chromosomes 2q23.2 (LOD = 1.65, p = 0.003) and 1p36.13 (LOD =1.32, p = 0.007). After refining the linkage analysis, conditional to the ABO genotype, three additional loci on chromosomes 5, 6 and 22 showed LOD scores higher than 1, suggesting the presence of other genes linked to vWF levels. Curiously, no linkage signals were detected in other chromosome regions previously associated with vWF levels (like the structural VWF gene on 12p13.2 or Lewis blood group gene on 19q13). These results indicate that these loci are not important genetic determinants of the normal variation of vWF levels. Our results indicate that the ABO locus is the major genetic determinant of the plasma levels of the vWF in Spanish population. It is possible that there are other potential regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 22 that influence this thrombosis risk factor. However, the structural vWF gene itself has a very low influence (if any) on the plasma levels of vWF.

  3. Influence of D-thyroxine on plasma thyroid hormone levels and TSH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gless, K H; Oster, P; Hüfner, M

    1977-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), basal TSH and TSH after stimulation with TRH were determined in healthy subjects and patients treated with D-thyroxine (DT4). After a dosage of 6 mg DT4 the D/L T4 plasma concentration rose about 4-fold 4 hours after application and was only moderately elevated 14 hours later. To achieve constantly elevated T4 levels 3 mg DT4 were applied in the further experiment every 12 hours. The D/L T4 plasma concentration rose 2.5-4-fold and there was a small but significant increase of the D/L T3 plasma concentration. 74 hours after onset of treatment basal TSH was below detectable limits and the increase of TSH 30 min after injection of 200 mug TRH (TRH test) was only about 15% compared to zero time. The time course of TSH suppression was investigated after treatment with DT4 and LT4 (single dosage of 3 mg). TRH-tests were performed before, 10, 26, 50 and 74 hours after the first dosage of D or LT4. There was no difference in the time course of basal TSH and TSH stimulated by TRH. In 10 patients on DT4 long-term therapy, basal and stimulated TSH were found to be below the detectable limits of 0.4 mug/ml. Our results show that (1) plasma half-life of DT4 is less than 1 day, (2) TSH suppression after D and LT4 treatment is very similar, and (3) in patients on long-term DT4 treatment, TSH plasma concentration is below detectable limits even after stimulation with TRH.

  4. Charge-exchange-induced two-electron satellite transitions from autoionizing levels in dense plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmej, F B; Griem, H R; Elton, R C; Jacobs, V L; Cobble, J A; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Geissel, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Süss, W; Uskov, D B; Shevelko, V P; Mancini, R C

    2002-11-01

    Order-of-magnitude anomalously high intensities for two-electron (dielectronic) satellite transitions, originating from the He-like 2s(2) 1S0 and Li-like 1s2s(2) (2)S(1/2) autoionizing states of silicon, have been observed in dense laser-produced plasmas at different laboratories. Spatially resolved, high-resolution spectra and plasma images show that these effects are correlated with an intense emission of the He-like 1s3p 1P-1s(2) 1S lines, as well as the K(alpha) lines. A time-dependent, collisional-radiative model, allowing for non-Maxwellian electron-energy distributions, has been developed for the determination of the relevant nonequilibrium level populations of the silicon ions, and a detailed analysis of the experimental data has been carried out. Taking into account electron density and temperature variations, plasma optical-depth effects, and hot-electron distributions, the spectral simulations are found to be not in agreement with the observations. We propose that highly stripped target ions (e.g., bare nuclei or H-like 1s ground-state ions) are transported into the dense, cold plasma (predominantly consisting of L- and M-shell ions) near the target surface and undergo single- and double-electron charge-transfer processes. The spectral simulations indicate that, in dense and optically thick plasmas, these charge-transfer processes may lead to an enhancement of the intensities of the two-electron transitions by up to a factor of 10 relative to those of the other emission lines, in agreement with the spectral observations.

  5. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  6. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  7. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffard, John B., E-mail: jboffard@wisc.edu; Lin, Chun C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Culver, Cody [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold [Varian Semiconductor Equipment, Applied Materials Inc., Gloucester, MA 01939 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7 nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p→3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

  8. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Pcoconut and safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Pcoconut diets. These data suggest that cholesterol synthesis is lower during diets rich in coconut fat and safflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  9. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  10. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels in bipolar disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura I

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Itaru Miura,1,2 Soichi Kono,1 Sachie Oshima,1 Keiko Kanno-Nozaki,1 Hirobumi Mashiko,1 Shin-Ichi Niwa,1 Hirooki Yabe11Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; 2Division of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USAAbstract: Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder is a serious, but not unusual problem for patients. Nevertheless, there are few biomarkers for distinguishing unipolar and bipolar disorder. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive and useful method for the measurement of hemoglobin concentration changes in the cortical surface area, which enables the assessment of brain function. We measured NIRS and plasma monoamine metabolite levels in a patient with bipolar disorder. A 22-year-old man was admitted due to major depression. At admission, NIRS findings showed oxygenated hemoglobin reincrease in the posttask period, which is characteristic of schizophrenia. After treatment with paroxetine, he became manic with psychotic symptoms. His plasma level of homovanillic acid just before the manic switch was ten times higher than that just after paroxetine initiation. Treatment with lithium and antipsychotics was successful, and plasma homovanillic acid decreased after treatment. In this case, the NIRS findings may predict a possible risk of a manic switch, which is likely induced by paroxetine. NIRS may be able to help distinguish unipolar and bipolar disorder in clinical settings.Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, bipolar disorder, homovanillic acid, diagnosis, biomarker

  12. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  13. Quantification of plasma and bone marrow VEGF and angiopoietin-2 levels in pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Emilia; Bono, Petri; Andersson, Sture; Kivivuori, Sanna-Maria

    2012-10-01

    Data on angiogenesis in pediatric patients with malignancy are scarce. Our aim was to study angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in pediatric oncological patients at diagnosis and a few months after the beginning of the therapy. Eighty-four consecutive patients with malignancy were included in this study. The levels of plasma and bone marrow VEGF and Ang2 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of VEGF were higher in patients with solid tumors than in patients with leukemias (P=0.003), whereas Ang2 concentrations showed the opposite (P=0.003). Interestingly, the plasma concentrations of both VEGF and Ang2 correlated with concentrations in the bone marrow (Ppatients with lower VEGF level and patients with higher Ang2 level at follow-up had longer event-free survival than other patients (P=0.032 and 0.053, respectively). The results of our study enlighten the behavior of 2 different angiogenic factors in pediatric patients with malignancy. An interesting finding was the connection between survival of pediatric leukemia patients and angiogenic factor levels a few months after the beginning of therapy. Pathophysiology and clinical applications of these findings need further studies.

  14. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  15. Elevated plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 levels decrease after colorectal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombski, G; Gasiorowska, A; Orszulak-Michalak, D; Neneman, B; Kotynia, J; Strzelczyk, J; Janiak, A; Malecka-Panas, E

    2003-03-01

    Gastrin stimulates mucosal growth of much of the gastrointestinal tract and has also been implicated in promoting growth of colonic tumors, but its role in colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. This study determined fasting serum gastrin levels before and after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) and the relationship to the clinical stage of the disease to investigate it possible prognostic role. Fasting radioimmunoassay gastrin, CA 19-9, and CEA levels were measured before and after surgery for CRC. Helicobacter pylori status was also assessed since it causes significant hypergastrinemia. Mean fasting plasma gastrin level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls before surgery but not 59 days after surgery. Mean CEA and CA 19-9 levels were significantly higher in patients with CRC before surgery than after tumor resection. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 levels and the CRC stage (Dukes' classification). The significance of gastrin as a marker for diagnosis or prognostic purposes in colorectal cancer needs to be further examined.

  16. Level of nitrated proteins in the plasma, platelets and liver of patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie-Jeyachristy, Sam; Geetha, Arumugam; Surendran, Rajagopal; Sundaram, Arunachalam; Lavanya, Krishnagopal; Kumar, Subburayan Jeevan; Prakash, Sarangapani Arul

    2009-01-01

    Over-expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation are associated with the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis. NO-related stress alters the functions of biomolecules, especially proteins, probably as a result of nitration. The aim of this study was to assess the level of protein nitration and its correlation with the severity of the disease. Liver cirrhosis patients with different grades of severity (grades A, B, and C according to the Child-Pugh classification) were enrolled in this study. Nitroprotein content, arginine, citrulline, NO in terms of total nitrite, nitrosothiol (RSNO) and protein carbonyls were measured in blood. Immunohistochemical detection of nitroprotein was carried out in liver sections of cirrhosis patients. A significant elevation in the levels of serum and platelet arginine, arginase, citrulline, plasma, and platelet nitroproteins, RSNO, total nitrite, protein carbonyls and also a significant amount of nitrated proteins by immunohistochemical detection in tissue were observed in cirrhosis patients. The alterations were highly significant in grade C patients with bleeding complications when compared to those of grade B and A patients. In platelets, both cytosolic and cytoskeletal proteins were found to be nitrated significantly. The level of nitrite seems to have positive correlation with the level of nitroproteins in different grades of cirrhosis. The level of nitroproteins in plasma, platelets and liver tissue can be correlated with the severity of liver cirrhosis.

  17. Are obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with plasma adropin levels in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Buyukinan, Muammer; Erdem, Said Sami; Ozel, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    Studies performed on mice suggest that adropin is a peptide hormone playing a role in metabolic homeostasis and prevention of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our study was conducted to investigate the role of adropin in children with obesity or metabolic syndrome. The study group consisted of 70 patients, including 42 obese and 28 with metabolic syndrome, and 26 healthy volunteers. After anthropometric variables and blood pressure of all participants were measured, serum lipids were analyzed, liver USG and oral glucose tolerance test were performed, and HOMA-IR values were calculated. Plasma adropin levels were collectively analyzed from collected plasma samples. In patient and control groups, no difference was observed in the levels of adropin (327.7±124.7 vs. 344.6±208.5 ng/L, respectively). The adropin levels of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and control groups also showed no difference (316±142.3, 335.8±112.5, and 344.6±208.5 ng/L, respectively). While the adropin levels of patients with and without hepatic steatosis were 319.6±123.7 and 347.8±128.7 ng/L, respectively, patients with HOMA-IR values of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Small sample size in our study may have prevented our results to reach a more significant level. So, long-term follow-up studies with large population are needed to enlighten the role of adropin in metabolic homeostasis.

  18. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Plasma presepsin level is an early diagnostic marker of severe febrile neutropenia in hematologic malignancy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kaoru; Shigeta, Masayo; Okuno, Takafumi; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Kito, Katsuyuki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yamagishi, Yuka; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-01-05

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common infectious complication in chemotherapy. The mortality of FN is higher in hematologic malignancy patients, and early diagnostic marker is needed. Presepsin is a prompt and specific marker for bacterial sepsis, but its efficacy in severe febrile neutropenia (FN) is not well confirmed. We tried to clarify whether it is a useful maker for early diagnosis of FN in patients during massive chemotherapy. We measured plasma presepsin levels every 2-3 day in FN cases and evaluated its change during the course of massive chemotherapy. The patients had hematologic malignancy or bone marrow failure, and in all cases, neutropenia was severe during the episode. The baseline levels, onset levels, increase rate at FN onset, and onset / baseline ratio were evaluated for their efficacy of early FN diagnosis. Eleven episodes of bacteremia (six gram negatives and five gram positives) in severe neutropenia were analyzed in detail. While plasma presepsin level was strongly associated to the CRP level (r = 0.61, p marker of FN even in massive chemotherapy with very low white blood cell counts. Closer monitoring of this molecule could be a help for early diagnosis in FN. But bacteremia caused by Bacillus species was an exception in our study.

  20. Changes in plasma methionine-enkephalin levels associated with a cluster headache episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Aron D; Maturana, Patricio; Callaghan, Owen H; Wolf, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen male cluster headache (CH) inpatients within a CH series participated in this research. Blood samples were drawn from patients at least 6-hour pain-free after the last acute CH episode and then shortly prior (SP), during, and soon after (SA) a new acute CH attack. Three healthy male, age-comparable drug-free volunteers served as controls; 5 samples were obtained from each of these individual over a 24-hour period. Individual patient's methionine-enkephalin (MET) plasma concentration showed significant changes, and in some subjects, dramatic changes, during the different phases of a single CH episode. Peptide levels followed a general pattern of higher plasma concentration SP to an acute CH attack, followed by decreased levels during the attack itself, and falling even further SA the acute episode. Consistently, 16 of the 18 patients tested showed pre-CH peptide levels significantly higher (arbitrarily the authors considered values 20% or more as "significant") than their own values obtained during the acute CH pain phase, with observed differences reaching 80% or more in 7 of these individuals. For about half of these patients, peptide concentration during the acute CH episode was significantly above the control's range (68.2-87.6 pg MET/mL; control's circulating MET concentration remaining essentially unchanged during a 24-hour period). MET levels were further decreased in essentially all of the post-CH samples, with values falling within (n = 6) or even further below than those in the control's range (n = 11). Neither age, time of CH occurrence, nor patient's use of a number of medications known for failing to influence plasma MET degradation kinetics seemed to significantly influence MET levels. These results might help in the biochemical characterization of the actual phases of a CH episode. Developing drugs modulating MET bioavailability could lead to novel antinociceptive agents useful for the treatment of CH's associated pain.

  1. Increased plasma soluble endoglin levels as an indicator of cardiovascular alterations in hypertensive and diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salgado Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoglin is involved in the regulation of endothelial function, but there are no studies concerning its relation with hypertension- and diabetes-associated pathologies. Thus, we studied the relationship between plasma levels of soluble endoglin and cardiovascular alterations associated with hypertension and diabetes. Methods We analyzed 288 patients: 64 with type 2 diabetes, 159 with hypertension and 65 healthy patients. We assessed the relationship of soluble endoglin plasma levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with basal glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction (assessed by pressure wave velocity, hypertensive retinopathy (by Keith-Wagener classification, left ventricular hypertrophy (by Cornell and Sokolow indexes, cardiovascular risk and target organ (heart, vascular, kidney damage. Results There are significant correlations between endoglin and glycemia, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, pressure wave velocity and electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy. Endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes who had nondipper and extreme dipper circadian blood pressure patterns than in dipper circadian patterns, in patients with hypertension and diabetes who had riser pattern than in the other patients, and in patients with diabetes but not hypertension who had extreme dipper pattern than in dipper, nondipper and riser groups. There was also a significant correlation between plasma-soluble endoglin and lower levels of systolic night-day ratio. Higher endoglin levels were found in patients with diabetes who had retinopathy, in patients with diabetes who had a high probability of 10-year cardiovascular risk, and in patients with diabetes and hypertension who had three or more damaged target organs (heart, vessels, kidney than in those with no organs affected. Conclusions This study shows that endoglin is an indicator of

  2. Esculetin reduces leukotriene B4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzodkiewicz, Przemysław; Gąsińska, Emilia; Gajewski, Michał; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) is a natural coumarin with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity. It acts as a potent inhibitor of lipoxygenases (5-LOX and 12-LOX) and decreases the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9). Because both inhibition of lipoxygenases and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases are effective strategies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated whether esculetin may be effective in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The study was performed on male Lewis rats, in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Rats were divided into two groups: control (treated with 1% methylcellulose) and experimental (treated with esculetin - 10 mg/kg ip.). The tested compound was administered for 5 consecutive days starting on the 21(st) day after induction of arthritis. Each group consisted of 7 animals. After 5 days of treatment, rats were anesthetized. The concentration of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in plasma was determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. The LTB4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis is increased in comparison to rats without inflammation (362 ±34 vs. 274 ±15 pg/ml, p < 0.01, respectively). Five-day treatment with esculetin in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats decreases the LTB4 level to a level comparable with rats without inflammation (284 ±23 pg/ml, p < 0.01). LTB4 is the most potent chemotactic agent influencing neutrophil migration into the joint. It is known that its level in serum of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is increased and correlates with disease severity. Some other lipoxygenase inhibitors have already been tested as potential drug candidates in clinical and preclinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (Zileuton, PF-4191834). Because esculetin decreases the LTB4 level in plasma of rats in adjuvant-induced arthritis, it may also be considered as an attractive drug candidate for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

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    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  4. Effect of Hemodialysis on Plasma Glucose Profile and Plasma Level of Liraglutide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Osonoi; Miyoko Saito; Atsuko Tamasawa; Hidenori Ishida; Daisuke Tsujino; Rimei Nishimura; Kazunori Utsunomiya

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hemodialysis on the plasma glucose profile and liraglutide level after liraglutide injection was investigated in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Either 0.6 mg or 0.9 mg liraglutide was subcutaneously administered daily to 10 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with ESRD. Hemodialysis was conducted on days 1 and 3. Plasma liraglutide and glucose concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a continuous glucose monitoring system, r...

  5. Effects of matrix on plasma levels of EPA and DHA in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Kay; van Maris, Marc; Corbee, Ronald J

    2017-01-01

    EPA and DHA are often used in veterinary medicine due to their beneficial effects for several medical conditions such as osteoarthritis. EPA and DHA are administered to dogs through different matrices. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects on the plasma levels in dogs caused by various matrices for EPA and DHA administration. In this study, three different n-3 PUFA formulations were used: soft chew tablet (CCx); liquid fish oil (LFO); and enriched kibbles (EK). The formulations were administered single-dose and compared in a randomised, cross-over designed study with a 1-week wash-out period. Several variables were observed after the administration of these formulations in thirteen dogs: the NEFA plasma concentration, the AUC for 1 d (AUC0-24 h), and maximum plasma concentration for both EPA and DHA. All plasma fatty acid levels reached baseline levels within 72 h. CCx (median = 2·987) had a significantly lower AUC0-24 h for EPA compared with LFO (median = 5·647, P = 0·043) and EK (median = 5·119, P = 0·032) (F2,22 = 4·637, P = 0·021). CCx (median = 2·471) AUC0-24 h for DHA was significantly lower compared with LFO (median = 4·837, Z = -2·56, P = 0·011) and EK (median = 4·413, Z = -2·59, P = 0·01). EPA and DHA plasma levels were affected by matrix, as with the CCx, the AUC0-24 h of EPA and DHA were both lower compared with LFO and EK. The effect of matrix on bioavailability is important for product development as well as for clinical trials studying effects of EPA and DHA.

  6. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  7. Plasma catecholamine level and portal venous pressure as guides to prognosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tage-Jensen, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, E

    1988-01-01

    predictors of survival. The results suggest that determination of the circulating level of noradrenaline and portal pressure may add to the prognostic information on survival obtained from routine tests. Thus, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system may indicate the severity of cirrhosis with respect......Circulating noradrenaline is increased in patients with cirrhosis, especially in decompensated patients with ascites. Eighty-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were followed for up to 8 years in order to establish a possible relationship between plasma catecholamines, haemodynamics, and routine...... clinical and biochemical variables and survival. Forty-seven (58%) of the patients died during the follow-up period. Univariate analysis showed that plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, portal pressure, indocyanine green clearance, serum sodium, bilirubin, and albumin concentrations...

  8. From Rio to Rio via Johannesburg: integrating institutions across governance levels in sustainable development deliberations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of international deliberations on sustainable development reaches another peak in 2012 during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20. However, with every review of the implementation of the ambitious Agenda 21, it becomes more difficult to reignite the “spirit

  9. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Fan; Meihong Xu; Junbo Wang; Zhaofeng Zhang; Qihe Chen; Ye Li; Jiaojiao Gu; Xiaxia Cai; Qianying Guo; Lei Bao; Yong Li

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages ...

  10. Stress-induced changes in gastric emptying, postprandial motility, and plasma gut hormone levels in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gué, M; Peeters, T; Depoortere, I; Vantrappen, G; Buéno, L

    1989-11-01

    The influence of acoustic stress on postprandial gastrointestinal motility, gastric emptying, and plasma gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin, and somatostatin was evaluated in conscious dogs. Six dogs were equipped with strain-gauge transducers and were exposed from 1-3 h after the meal to prerecorded music (80-90 dB broad frequency noise), which produced a significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) lengthening of the gastric (31.2%) and jejunal (37.0%) postprandial pattern. In 4 other dogs with gastric cannula, a 2-h session of acoustic stress beginning just after eating a radiolabeled standard meal induced a slowing of gastric emptying of both liquid (45.7%) and solid (47.1%) phases of the test meal when measured 0.5 h after feeding. In contrast, when measured 2 h after feeding, similar values of gastric emptying of liquids and solids were observed in stressed and control animals. Compared with controls, the postprandial increases of plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide levels were significantly enhanced in stressed animals and occurred early (15 min after the meal). Although postprandial decrease in plasma motilin was unchanged by acoustic stress, the rise in plasma somatostatin level was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) prolonged in stressed dogs. These results indicate that acoustic stress affects gastric and intestinal postprandial motility in dogs, delaying the recovery of the migrating motor complex pattern, inducing a transient slowing of gastric emptying, and enhancing the feeding-induced release of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. Such hormonal changes might be due to a direct effect of stress rather than being the consequence of acoustic stress-induced slowing of gastric emptying.

  11. System-Level Influences on the Sustainability of a Cognitive Therapy Program in a Community Behavioral Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Matza, Alexis; Gamarra, Jennifer; Toder, Katherine; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew; Beck, Aaron T; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Creed, Torrey

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences on the sustainability of a program to implement an evidence-based psychotherapy in a mental health system. Interviews with program administrators, training consultants, agency administrators, and supervisors (N=24), along with summaries of program evaluation data and program documentation, were analyzed with a directed content-analytic approach. Findings suggested a number of interconnected and interacting influences on sustainability, including alignment with emerging sociopolitical influences and system and organizational priorities; program-level adaptation and evolution; intervention flexibility; strong communication, collaboration, planning, and support; and perceived benefit. These individual factors appeared to mutually influence one another and contribute to the degree of program sustainability achieved at the system level. Although most influences were positive, financial planning and support emerged as potentially both facilitator and barrier, and evaluation of benefits at the patient level remained a challenge. Several factors appeared to contribute to the sustainability of a psychosocial intervention in a large urban mental health system and warrant further investigation. Understanding interconnections between multiple individual facilitators and barriers appears critical to advancing understanding of sustainability in dynamic systems and adds to emerging recommendations for other implementation efforts. In particular, implications of the findings include the importance of implementation strategies, such as long-term planning, coalition building, clarifying roles and expectations, planned adaptation, evaluation, diversification of financing strategies, and incentivizing implementation.

  12. Remote Sensing Techniques for Urban Heating Analysis: A Case Study of Sustainable Construction at District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bonafoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many new districts in urban centres have been planned and constructed to reshape the structure and functions of specific areas. Urban regeneration strategies, planning and design principles have to take into account both socioeconomic perspectives and environmental sustainability. A district located in the historical city centre of Terni (Italy, Corso del Popolo, was analysed to assess the construction effects in terms of surface urban heat island (SUHI mitigation. This district is an example of urban texture modification planned in the framework of the regeneration of the ancient part of the town. The changes were realised starting from 2006; the new area was completed on June 2014. The analysis was carried out by processing Landsat 7 ETM+ images before and after the interventions, retrieving land surface temperature (LST and albedo maps. The map analysis proved the SUHI reduction of the new area after the interventions: as confirmed by the literature, such SUHI mitigation can be ascribed to the presence of green areas, the underground parking, the partial covering of the local roadway and the shadow effect of new multi-storey buildings. Moreover, an analysis of other parameters linked to the impervious surfaces (albedo, heat transfer and air circulation driving LST variations is provided to better understand SUHI behaviour at the district level. The district regeneration shows that wisely planned and developed projects in the construction sector can improve urban areas not only economically and socially, but can also enhance the environmental impact.

  13. Lipid profile in women with preeclampsia: relationship between plasma triglyceride levels and severity of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, M S; Basu, J; Palan, P R; Furgiuele, J; Romney, S L; Anyaegbunam, A

    1995-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that, in preeclampsia, hypertriglyceridemia may lead to increased endothelial triglyceride accumulation that, in turn, may result in endothelial cell damage. The purpose of our study was to determine whether hypertriglyceridemia is associated with the severity of preeclampsia. We studied 29 preeclamptic patients and 46 normal pregnant women, aged 15 to 35 years, with singleton pregnancies, at 28 to 37 weeks' gestation. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured enzymatically. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was determined using a dextran sulfate-magnesium precipitation method. Patients with mild preeclampsia had a significant increase in plasma triglyceride levels (P < .001), while patients with severe preeclampsia had triglyceride levels comparable to controls. Our findings suggest that there is no direct relationship between triglyceride levels and severity of preeclampsia.

  14. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Chun; Jing, Jun; Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  15. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  16. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekine Punduk

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increase in the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  17. Achievement of field-reversed configuration plasma sustainment via 10 MW neutral-beam injection on the C-2U device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S.; Garate, E.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Schmitz, L.; Lin, Z.; Ivanov, A. A.; Asai, T.; Allfrey, I.; Andow, R.; Beall, M.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Cappello, M.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K.; Deng, B. H.; Douglass, J.; Dunaevsky, A.; Feng, P.; Fulton, D.; Galeotti, L.; Granstedt, E.; Griswold, M.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Hubbard, K.; Isakov, I.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Magee, R.; Matvienko, V.; Mendoza, R.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Primavera, S.; Onofri, M.; Osin, D.; Rath, N.; Roche, T.; Romero, J.; Schindler, T.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sevier, L.; Sheftman, D.; Sibley, A.; Song, Y.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Valentine, T.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Waggoner, W.; Yushmanov, P.; Zhai, K.; The TAE Team

    2017-11-01

    Tri Alpha Energy’s experimental program has demonstrated reliable field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment, driven by fast ions via high-power neutral-beam (NB) injection. The world’s largest compact-toroid device, C-2U, was upgraded from C-2 with the following key system upgrades: increased total NB input power from ~4 MW (20 keV hydrogen) to 10+  MW (15 keV hydrogen) with tilted injection angle; enhanced edge-biasing capability inside of each end divertor for boundary/stability control. C-2U experiments with those upgraded systems have successfully demonstrated dramatic improvements in FRC performance and achieved sustainment of advanced beam-driven FRCs with a macroscopically stable and hot plasma state for up to 5+  ms. Plasma diamagnetism in the best discharges has reached record lifetimes of over 11 ms, timescales twice as long as C-2. The C-2U plasma performance, including the sustainment feature, has a strong correlation with NB pulse duration, with the diamagnetism persisting even several milliseconds after NB termination due to the accumulated fast-ion population by NB injection. Power balance analysis shows substantial improvements in equilibrium and transport parameters, whereby electron energy confinement time strongly correlates with electron temperature; i.e. the confinement time in C-2U scales strongly with a positive power of T e.

  18. Low levels of microbial translocation marker LBP are associated with sustained viral response after anti-HCV treatment in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nyström

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP and soluble CD14 (sCD14 could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome.Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART treatment were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21 or non-responders (NR; n = 15 based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects--were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24 and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18, based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up. χ2-test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers.Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06-0.31, p = 0.004 and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.86, p = 0.07.In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14.

  19. Increased plasma chemokine levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; Hossain, Waheeda; Sulsona, Carlos; Driscoll, Daniel J; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by loss of paternally expressed genes from the 15q11-q13 region and reportedly rearranged as a cause of autism. Additionally, increased inflammatory markers and features of autism are reported in PWS. Cytokines encoded by genes involved with inflammation, cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion play a role in neurodevelopment and could be disturbed in PWS as abnormal plasma cytokine levels are reported in autism. We analyzed 41 plasma cytokines in a cohort of well-characterized children with PWS between 5 and 11 years of age and unaffected unrelated siblings using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Data were analyzed using ANOVA testing for effects of diagnosis, gender, body mass index (BMI) and age on the 24 cytokines meeting laboratory criteria for inclusion. No significant effects were observed for age, gender or BMI. The log-transformed levels of the 24 analyzable cytokines were examined simultaneously using MANOVA adjusting for age and gender and a main effect of diagnosis was found (P-value <0.03). Four of 24 plasma cytokine levels (MCP1, MDC, Eotaxin, RANTES) were significantly higher in children with PWS compared with controls and classified as bioinflammatory chemokines supporting a disturbed immune response unrelated to obesity status. BMI was not statistically different in the two subject groups (PWS or unaffected unrelated siblings) and chemokine levels were not correlated with percentage of total body fat. Additional studies are required to identify whether possible early immunological disturbances and chemokine inflammatory processes found in PWS may contribute to neurodevelopment and behavioral features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Creatinine and cytokines plasma levels related to HLA compatibility in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine V. Alves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The success of kidney transplantation depends on prevention of organ rejection by the recipient’s immune system, which recognizes alloantigens present in transplanted tissue. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA typing is one of the tests used in pre-renal transplantation and represents one of the most important factors for a successful procedure.Objective:The present study evaluated creatinine and cytokines plasma levels in kidney transplant patients according to pre-transplant HLA typing.Methods:We assessed 40 renal transplanted patients selected in two transplant centers in Belo Horizonte (MG.Results:Patients were distributed into three groups according to HLA compatibility and, through statistical analysis, the group with more than three matches (H3 was found to have significantly lower post-transplant creatinine levels, compared to groups with three or fewer matches (H2 and H1, respectively. The median plasma levels of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin 10 (IL-10 were evaluated according to the number of matches. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in groups with lower HLA compatibility. On the other hand, the regulatory cytokine IL-10 had significantly higher plasma levels in the group with greater compatibility between donor and recipient.Conclusion:These findings allow us to infer that pre-transplant HLA typing of donors and recipients can influence post-transplant renal graft function and may contribute to the development and choice of new treatment strategies.

  1. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  2. Plasma serotonin levels are elevated in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Caypinar, Sema Suzen; Kanawati, Ammar; Yildiz, Sukru; Ekin, Murat

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between serotonin and hyperemesis gravidarum. Plasma samples of 87 women in their first trimester pregnancies with HG (n = 28), morning sickness of pregnancy (n = 30) and control (n = 29) groups were obtained. Plasma levels of serotonin were compared between the groups, and the correlations with severity of symptoms using modified PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis) scoring, BMI, E2, hCG and TSH were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to serotonin levels, the group with hyperemesis gravidarum was found to have significantly higher serotonin levels (p = 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the serotonin level and the PUQE score in all study subjects (r = 0.578, p = 0.0001). A serotonin threshold of >277.58 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 72.4%, negative predictive value of 87.9%, and a likelihood ratio of 5.53 (p = 0.0001). Our findings support the possible role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  3. Basal Plasma Levels of Copeptin are Elevated in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Bowel Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine ( n = 5,415 and Malmö Diet and Cost Study ( n = 6,103, individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma. Sixty-two IBD patients were identified. The only difference between patients and controls was higher copeptin levels in the patients compared with controls ( P = 0.006, with higher copeptin levels in resected than unresected patients ( P = 0.020. There was no difference in any precursor levels between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, between different distributions of disease lesions, or between different treatments.

  4. Synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders in free flowing plasma jet with different energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D.; Sivkov, A.; Rahmatullin, I.; Ivashutenko, A.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanopowders were produced by the synthesis in an electrodischarge plasma jet generated by a high-current pulsed coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. The present work focuses on the experiments where the obtained hypersonic plasma jet flew into space of the reactor chamber without impact on a target. The energy level of experiments was changed from ∼10.0 to ∼30.0 kJ. Four experiments were carried out at different energy levels. The powder products synthesized by the plasmadynamic method were studied by such well-known methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the powders mainly contain cubic silicon carbide (β-SiC) particles with clear crystal structures and triangular shapes. SiC content reaches its maximum value 95% at the energy level 21.0 kJ, then SiC content is decreased to 70% the energy level 27.8 kJ. The powder crystallites in different experiments have approximately the same average crystallite size because quasistationary time, which allows growing powder crystallites, is absent.

  5. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  6. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  7. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, van B.; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define

  8. Screening of large panel of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels is not adapted for the evaluation of digestive damage following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I.; Dudoignon, N.; Monti, P.; Combes, O.; Wysocki, J.; Grison, S.; Baudelin, C.; Griffiths, N.M.; Scanff, P. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: isabelle.dublineau@irsn.fr

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels as biomarkers of radiation-induced digestive tract damage. To this end, plasma levels of substance P, GRP, motilin, PYY, somatostatin-28, gastrin, and neurotensin were followed for up to 5 days in pigs after a 16-Gy whole-body X-irradiation, completed by a histopathological study performed at 5 days. Each peptide gave a specific response to irradiation. The plasma levels of GRP and substance P were not modified by irradiation exposure; neither were those of motilin and PYY. Concerning gastrin, a 2-3-fold increase of plasma concentration was observed in pig, which presented the most important histological alterations of the stomach. The plasma levels of somatostatin, unchanged from 1 to 4 days after irradiation, was also increased by 130% at 5 days. In contrast, a diminution of neurotensin plasma levels was noted, firstly at 1 day (-88%), and from 3 days after exposure (-50%). The present study suggested that changes in gastrin and neurotensin plasma levels were associated with structural alterations of the stomach and ileum, respectively, indicating that they may be relevant biological indicators of radiation-induced digestive damage to these segments. (author)

  9. The expression levels of plasma micoRNAs in atrial fibrillation patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA has been found in human blood. It has been increasingly suggested that miRNAs may serve as biomarkers for diseases. We examined the potential of circulating miRNA to serve as predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the discovery stage of this project, we used massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS to carry out an in-depth analysis of the miRNA expression profile (miRNome in 5 healthy controls, 5 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF alone, and 5 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF alone. Twenty-two specific miRNAs were found to be dysregulated in each PAF group, PersAF group, or control group. Four candidate microRNAs (miRNA-146a, miRNA-150, miRNA-19a, and miRNA-375 met our selection criteria and were evaluated in an independent cohort of 90 plasma samples using TaqMan miRNA quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We found miRNA-150 levels to be reduced by a factor of approximately 17 in PAF relative to controls and a factor of approximately 20 in PersAF relative to controls (P<.0001. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the reduced miRNA-150 expression levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 3.57, P<0.001, age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.73, P<0.001, and Left atrial diameter (LAD (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.8, P<0.001. Each was independently associated with AF. Much of the identified target genes related to AF were part of the inflammatory response system. We found that plasma levels of CRP were negatively correlated with the plasma levels of miRNA-150. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we firstly found that plasma miRNA-150 levels in from AF patients were substantially lower than that from healthy people. Circulating reduced miRNA-150 was significantly associated with AF.

  10. Higher level of plasma bioactive molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate in women is associated with estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shoudong; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yingjie; Zhai, Lei; Li, Helou; Zhang, Ying; Li, Fuyu; Kan, Yujie; Qin, Shucun

    2014-06-01

    Both sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and estrogen have been documented to play endothelial protective roles. However, it remains unclear whether estrogen could regulate the anabolism of the bioactive molecule S1P and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, 108 healthy participants were separated into three age groups, and their plasma S1P levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the plasma S1P levels were significantly higher in women than those in men within the age of 16-55years old and higher in pre-menopausal than post-menopausal women. The experiment in C57 BL/6 mice confirmed the gender difference of plasma S1P level. In vitro study demonstrated that after the stimulation of 17β-estradiol (E2), S1P levels both in EA.hy926 cells and the culture media were increased about 9 and 3 times, respectively; the mRNA expression, the protein level and the activity of sphingosine kinase (SphK) 1, not SphK2, were markedly increased; the mRNA and protein expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) C1, G2 and S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) were significantly elevated; furthermore, the mRNA and protein expressions of S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1-2 were increased in a time-dependent manner. This study suggests that E2 markedly improves S1P synthesis by activating SphK1 and induces S1P export via activating ABCC1, G2 and Spns2 from endothelium system, which may consequently lead to the gender difference of plasma S1P in adult human and mouse. The results of this study suggest that E2 may exert its vasculoprotective function by activation of the SphK1-S1P-S1PR signaling axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    /ml, and 97.77pg/ml in young males (aged 20-22), respectively. Also, significantly elevated plasma cortisol concentration was noted in betel nut-chewing (median 727.2ng/ml) and oral cancer patients (561.9ng/ml) compared to the mid-aged (176.8ng/ml) and young males (173.4ng/ml), respectively. In addition, lower plasma testosterone concentrations were found in betel nut-chewing subjects compared with young males (2.6±3.3ng/ml vs 6.2±2.9ng/ml). To summarize, the inflammatory cytokines and steroid hormones may reflect the degree of inflammation in betel nut-chewing males and the oral cancer subjects. The above findings suggest that betel nut-chewing or oral cancer inhibits plasma cytokines and regulates steroid hormones concentrations compared to mid-aged or young normal subjects. It is also indicated that betel nut-chewing causes decreased inflammatory cytokines as the same levels as in oral cancer subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages......, whereas corresponding hazard ratios for ischemic heart disease were 1.0 (0.8-1.2), 1.2 (1.0-1.5), and 1.3 (1.0-1.6) (p-trend = 0.01). Stratifying for CRP or other risk factors gave similar results. A doubling in plasma YKL-40 was associated with multifactorially and CRP-adjusted increased risk of 20% (95...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity are associated with reduced GPR 120 plasma levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Peris, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem, particularly in obese children, in whom a vicious cycle of obesity and OSA interdependencies promotes increased food intake. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) is a long-chain free fatty acid (FFA) receptor that plays an important role in energy homeostasis, and protects against insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that GPR 120 levels would be reduced in children with OSA, particularly among obese children. Cross-sectional prospectively recruited cohort. Academic pediatric sleep program. Two hundred twenty-six children (mean age: 7.0 ± 2.1 y) underwent overnight polysomnographic evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assays, monocyte GPR 120 expression, and plasma GPR 120 levels were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Obese children and those with OSA had significantly lower GPR 120 monocyte expression and plasma GPR 120 levels. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were present, GPR 120 levels were lowest. Linear associations emerged between GPR 120 plasma levels and body mass index (BMI) z score, as well as with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) nadir, and respiratory arousal index (RAI), with RAI remaining statistically significant when controlling for age, ethnicity, sex, and BMI z score (P < 0.001). Similarly, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with GPR 120 levels, but neither low density lipoprotein nor high density lipoprotein cholesterol or hsCRP levels exhibited significant correlations. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) levels are reduced in pediatric OSA and obesity (particularly when both are present) and may play a role in modulating the degree of insulin resistance. The short- and long

  14. Low-dose baclofen therapy raised plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, but not into the normal range in a predictable and sustained manner in men with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William A; La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; Spungen, Ann M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate, whether once-daily oral baclofen administration increases and/or sustains plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in 11 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and IGF-1 deficiency (i.e. Plasma IGF-1 and self-reported side effects were measured at baseline and every other week for the duration of the study. The subjects were 43 ± 12 years old, had duration of injury of 20 ± 12 years; eight subjects had a complete motor injury, and eight had paraplegia. Nine of 11 subjects completed the 20 mg/day treatment and 5 subjects completed the 40 mg/day treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels improved with each baclofen dose; however, only one subject increased from baseline and remained above the targeted physiological range of 250 ng/ml throughout treatment. A significant increase in IGF-1concentration was observed between baseline and week 2 (154 ± 63 vs. 217 ± 69 ng/ml; P plasma IGF-1 concentrations in the physiological range in men with chronic SCI.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Associated with Prediagnostic Plasma Levels of Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Ana; Bao, Ying; Qian, Zhi Rong; Yuan, Chen; Giovannucci, Edward L; Aschard, Hugues; Kraft, Peter; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Ng, Kimmie; Stampfer, Meir J; Ogino, Shuji; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, John Michael; Rifai, Nader; Pollak, Michael N; Anderson, Matthew L; Cochrane, Barbara B; Luo, Juhua; Manson, JoAnn E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2016-12-15

    Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance, which has been identified as a potential biologic link in the development of obesity-associated cancers, such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1,094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Because of known differences in leptin levels by gender, analyses were conducted separately for men and women. We also evaluated associations between 32 tagging SNPs in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and pancreatic cancer risk. Leptin levels were higher in female versus male control participants (median, 20.8 vs. 6.7 ng/mL; P pancreatic cancer risk and those in the top quintile had a multivariable-adjusted OR of 3.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-7.16; Ptrend = 0.02] compared with men in the bottom quintile. Among women, circulating leptin was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.21). Results were similar across cohorts (Pheterogeneity = 0.88 for two male cohorts and 0.35 for three female cohorts). In genetic analyses, rs10493380 in LEPR was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk among women, with an OR per minor allele of 1.54 (95% CI, 1.18-2.02; multiple hypothesis-corrected P = 0.03). No SNPs were significantly associated with risk in men. In conclusion, higher prediagnostic levels of plasma leptin were associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer among men, but not among women. Cancer Res; 76(24); 7160-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Plasma L-arginine levels distinguish pulmonary arterial hypertension from left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Anna; Schneede, Jörn; Kylhammar, David; Henrohn, Dan; Lundgren, Jakob; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Rådegran, Göran; Wikström, Gerhard

    2017-10-03

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by an imbalance of vasoactive substances and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature. Nitric oxide, formed from L-arginine, is essential for homeostasis and smooth muscle cell relaxation in PAH. Our aim was to compare plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in PAH compared to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and healthy subjects. This was an observational, multicenter study comparing 21 patients with PAH to 14 patients with LVSD and 27 healthy subjects. Physical examinations were obtained and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, L-arginine, L-ornithine, and L-citrulline were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were higher, whereas L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio were lower in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects (p L-arginine than patients with LVSD (p L-Arginine correlated to 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (r s = 0.58, p = 0.006) and L-arginine/ADMA correlated to WHO functional class (r s = -0.46, p = 0.043) in PAH. In conclusion, L-arginine levels were significantly lower in treatment naïve PAH patients compared to patients with LVSD. Furthermore, L-arginine correlated with 6MWD in PAH. L-arginine may provide useful information in differentiating PAH from LVSD.

  17. Plasma zinc levels, anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics of school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Gelal, Basanta; Mehta, Kisundeo; Lamsal, Madhab; Pokharel, Paras Kumar; Baral, Nirmal

    2014-01-09

    Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in many developing countries including Nepal. The present study was designed to assess the prevalence of zinc deficiency and to study the association of zinc deficiency with anthropometric and socio-demographic variables, in school children of eastern Nepal. This cross-sectional study included total 125 school children of age group 6-12 years from Sunsari and Dhankuta districts of eastern Nepal. Plasma zinc level was estimated by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The Median interquartile range (IQR) values of zinc in the two districts Sunsari and Dhankuta were 5.9 (4.4, 7.9) μmol/L and 5.8 (4.3, 8.4) μmol/L respectively. A total of 55 children (87.3%) in Sunsari and 52 (83.9%) in Dhankuta had zinc deficiency, no significant difference was observed in the Median (IQR) plasma zinc levels (p = 0.9) and zinc deficiency patterns (p = 0.3) of the two districts. Significant differences were observed in the plasma zinc levels (p = 0.02) and zinc deficiency patterns (p = 0.001), of the school children having age groups 6-8 years than in 9-10 and 11-12 years of age, and zinc deficiency patterns between male and female school children (p = 0.04) respectively. The present study showed higher prevalence of zinc deficiency among school children in eastern Nepal. In our study, zinc deficiency was associated with both sex and age. The findings from the present study will help to populate data for policy implementation regarding consumption and supplementation of zinc.

  18. Plasma carotenoid levels in passerines are related to infection by (some parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi eFiguerola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plumage coloration plays an important role in intra and inter-sexual competition in birds. Many of the yellow, orange or red colours present in birds are carotenoid dependent. Carotenoids can not be synthetized de novo by birds and consequently should be obtained through their diet, and access to carotenoids may differ between individuals and species. In addition to ornamentation, carotenoids are important for bird physiology and it has been proposed that a trade-off in their allocation to these two functions occurs. Under this scenario parasites may play a central role in maintaining the honesty of plumage as a signaling system by increasing the demands for carotenoids for infection or damage control and/or by reducing carotenoid absorption in the intestines. We analyzed the relationship between (1 carotenoid concentrations in plasma and (2 blood and intestinal parasite richness and abundance in 22 species of passerines sampled in spring. Loads of different groups of parasites were unrelated so conclusions drawn from examining a particular group of parasites cannot be extrapolated to the whole community of pathogens and parasites inhabiting a host. At intraspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related to the richness of intestinal parasites and the abundance of some groups of intestinal parasites, at interspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related with the abundance of intestinal parasites. No relationship at intra- nor interpecific level was found between carotenoids and blood parasites. The results suggest that intestinal parasites play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of carotenoid-derived sexually selected ornamentations probably through a negative impact on the uptake of carotenoids at the gut.

  19. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  20. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  1. Renal function and plasma dabigatran level measured at trough by diluted thrombin time assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Martinuzzo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran etexilate (direct thrombin inhibitor is effective in preventing embolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. It does not require laboratory control, but given the high renal elimination, its measurement in plasma is important in renal failure. The objectives of the study were to verify the analytical quality of the diluted thrombin time assay for measurement of dabigatran plasma concentration (cc, correlate cc with classic coagulation assays, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and evaluate them according to the creatinine clearance (CLCr. Forty plasma samples of patients (34 consecutive and 6 suspected of drug accumulation receiving dabigatran at 150 (n = 19 or 110 (n = 21 mg/12 hours were collected. Blood samples were drawn at 10-14 hours of the last intake. Dabigatran concentration was determined by diluted thrombin time (HemosIl DTI, Instrumentation Laboratory (IL. PT and APTT (IL were performed on two fotooptical coagulometers, ACL TOP 300 and 500 (IL. DTI presented intra-assay coefficient of variation < 5.4% and inter-assay < 6%, linearity range 0-493 ng/ml. Patients' cc: median 83 (4-945 ng/ml. Individuals with CLCr in the lowest tertile (22.6-46.1 ml/min showed significantly higher median cc: 308 (49-945, compared to the average 72 (12-190 and highest tertile, 60 (4-118 ng/ml. Correlation between cc and APTT or PT were moderate, r2 = 0.59 and -0.66, p < 0.0001, respectively. DTI test allowed us to quantify plasma dabigatran levels, both in patients with normal or altered renal function, representing a useful tool in clinical situations such as renal failure, pre surgery or emergencies

  2. Field-assisted paper spray mass spectrometry for the quantitative evaluation of imatinib levels in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aronco, Sara; Calandra, Eleonora; Crotti, Sara; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Marangon, Elena; Posocco, Bianca; Traldi, Pietro; Agostini, Marco

    Drug levels in patients' bloodstreams vary among individuals and consequently therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is fundamental to controlling the effective therapeutic range. For TDM purposes, different analytical approaches have been used, mainly based on immunoassay, liquid chromatography- ultraviolet, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. More recently a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation method has been proposed for the determination of irinotecan levels in the plasma of subjects under therapy and this method has been cross- validated by comparison with data achieved by LC-MS/MS. However, to reach an effective point-of-care monitoring of plasma drug concentrations, a TDM platform technology for fast, accurate, low-cost assays is required. In this frame, recently the use of paper spray mass spectrometry, which is becoming a popular and widely employed MS method, has been proposed. In this paper we report the results obtained by the development of a paper spray-based method for quantitative analysis in plasma samples of imatinib, a new generation of anticancer drug. Preliminary experiments showed that poor sensitivity, reproducibility and linear response were obtained by the "classical" paper spray set-up. In order to achieve better results, it was thought of interest to operate in presence of a higher and more homogeneous electrical field. For this aim, a stainless steel needle connected with the high voltage power supply was mounted below the paper triangle. Furthermore, in order to obtain valid quantitative data, we analysed the role of the different equilibria participating to the phenomena occurring in paper spray experiments, depending either on instrumental parameters or on the chemical nature of analyte and solvents. A calibration curve was obtained by spiking plasma samples containing different amounts of imatinib (1) with known amounts of deuterated imatinib (1d3) as

  3. The plasma osteoprotegerin level and osteoprotegerin expression in renal biopsy tissue are increased in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-T; Zhang, C-Y; Zhang, C-M; Rong, W

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the plasma osteoprotegerin level and osteoprotegerin expression in renal biopsy tissue in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. Plasma osteoprotegerin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 type 2 diabetes with normoalbuminuria, 48 patients with microalbuminuria, 44 patients with macroalbuminuria and 40 healthy persons. Part of diabetes patients with nephropathy were performed kidney biopsy by ultrasound guide. The osteoprotegerin expression in kidney biopsy tissue is examined by immunohistochemistry. The plasma osteoprotegerin levels were significantly elevated in patients with microalbuminuria (3.73±0.75 ng/l) and macroalbuminuria (4.68±0.82 ng/l) as compared with patients with normoalbuminuria (2.71±0.69 ng/l) and control subjects (2.11±0.42 ng/l). And the plasma osteoprotegerin level in macroalbuminuric group was also higher than that in microalbuminuria group. The plasma osteoprotegerin level had a positive correlation with the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), glycohemoglobinA1c (HbA1C), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and log(UAER). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that plasma osteoprotegerin level was an independent factor associated with albuminuria in type 2 diabetes. The immunohistochemistry results showed that positive immunostaining for osteoprotegerin was observed in the renal tubule cells of biopsy and not in glomerulus, and the osteoprotegerin expression was higher in macroalbuminuria group than that in microalbuminuria group. The plasma osteoprotegerin level and the osteoprotegerin expression in renal tubule cells of biopsy tissue were increased in nephropathy of type 2 diabetes. This finding supports the growing concept that osteoprotegerin may act as an important regulatory molecule in the angiopathy, and particularly, that it may be involved in the occurrence and development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    ? If we assess the life cycle and relate the impact scores to the remaining capacity available for impacts, there is a risk that all products are seen absolutely sustainable. In addition, how should we decide on who can use the remaining capacity? To address these issues an allocation method is proposed......Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable...... allocation keys specific to each product group, e.g. mass for furniture, or economic revenue for IT. The proposed method facilitates assessment of absolute sustainability of products within the LCA framework....

  5. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  6. Eicosanoid and cytokine levels in plasma of patients during mesenteric infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nathan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Multible organ failure (MOF induced by mesenteric infarction is associated with a high mortality rate. This study reports eicosanoid and cytokine levels in the blood of three atherosclerotic patients who ultimately died from MOF induced by mesenteric infarction. High plasma levels of 6- keto-prostaglandin (PG F1α (the stable metabolite of PGI2, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 are observed whereas plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, TxB2 (the stable metabolite of TxA2, PGE2, leukotrienes (LTB4 and LTC4, and whole blood platelet-activating factor levels are not different from values obtained in similarly severe atherosclerotic patients. This short report questioned the clinical involvement of TNFα during such a pathology where a persistent translocation of endotoxin has been observed through the gut endothelial barrier. Activation of phospholipase A2 is suggested by the increase in the stable metabolite of PGI2 and might be by itself or through lipidic metabolites, a major systemic stimulus of IL-6 and IL-8 production.

  7. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  8. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  9. Effect of stimulation of afferent renal nerves on plasma levels of vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caverson, M.M.; Ciriello, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were done in ..cap alpha..-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats with vagus, cervical sympathetic, aortic depressor, and carotid sinus nerves cut bilaterally to investigate the effect of afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation on circulating levels of vasopressin (AVP). Electrical stimulation of ARN elicited a pressor response that had two components, a primary (1/sup 0/) component locked in time with the stimulus and a secondary (2/sup 0/) component that had a long onset latency and that outlasted the stimulation period. The 1/sup 0/ and 2/sup 0/ components of the pressor response were largest at stimulation frequencies of 30 and 40 Hz, respectively. Autonomic blockage with hexamethonium bromide and atropine methylbromide abolished the 1/sup 0/ component. Administration of the vasopressin V/sub 1/-vascular receptor antagonist d(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/ VAVP during autonomic blockade abolished the 2/sup 0/C component. Plasma concentrations of AVP measured by radioimmunoassay increased from control levels of 5.2 +/- 0.9 to 53.6 +/- 18.6 pg/ml during a 5-min period of stimulation of ARN. Plasma AVP levels measured 20-40 min after simulation were not significantly different from control values. These data demonstrate that sensory information originating in the kidney alters the release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis and suggest that ARN are an important component of the neural circuitry involved in homeostatic mechanisms controlling arterial pressure.

  10. Increased plasma levels of IL-6 in bacteremic periodontis patients after scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Bacteremia frequently occurs after dental treatment. Periodontal inflammation may influence the incidence, magnitude and duration of bacteremia. The presence of circulating oral bacteria or bacterial components may induce cytokine synthesis in blood cells, which may contribute to the development...... or exacerbation of atherosclerosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacteremia occurring after scaling in periodontitis patients results in altered plasma levels of cytokines. Twenty periodontitis patients were subjected to scaling. Blood samples at baseline and at 0.5, 10 and 30 minutes postscaling...... were examined for bacteremia whereas baseline and eight-hour postscaling blood samples were examined for the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70. IL-6 levels were significantly increased eight hours after scaling, while IL-8 was significantly decreased. No systematic changes...

  11. Plasma mutant α-galactosidase A protein and globotriaosylsphingosine level in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tsukimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A (GLA and accumulation of glycolipids, and various GLA gene mutations lead to a wide range of clinical phenotypes from the classic form to the later-onset one. To investigate the biochemical heterogeneity and elucidate the basis of the disease using available clinical samples, we measured GLA activity, GLA protein and accumulated globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3, a biomarker of this disease, in plasma samples from Fabry patients. The analysis revealed that both the enzyme activity and the protein level were apparently decreased, and the enzyme activity was well correlated with the protein level in many Fabry patients. In these cases, a defect of biosynthesis or excessive degradation of mutant GLAs should be involved in the pathogenesis, and the residual protein level would determine the accumulation of Lyso-Gb3 and the severity of the disease. However, there are some exceptional cases, i.e., ones harboring p.C142Y, p.R112H and p.M296I, who exhibit a considerable amount of GLA protein. Especially, a subset of Fabry patients with p.R112H or p.M296I has been attracted interest because the patients exhibit almost normal plasma Lyso-Gb3 concentration. Structural analysis revealed that C142Y causes a structural change at the entrance of the active site. It will lead to a complete enzyme activity deficiency, resulting in a high level of plasma Lyso-Gb3 and the classic Fabry disease. On the other hand, it is thought that R112H causes a relatively large structural change on the molecular surface, and M296I a small one in a restricted region from the core to the surface, both the structural changes being far from the active site. These changes will cause not only partial degradation but also degeneration of the mutant GLA proteins, and the degenerated enzymes exhibiting small and residual activity remain and probably facilitate degradation of Lyso-Gb3

  12. Increased levels of legumain in plasma and plaques from patients with carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ngoc Nguyen; Holm, Sverre; Dahl, Tuva B; Elyouncha, Inass; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Gregersen, Ida; Abbas, Azhar; Skjelland, Mona; Espevik, Terje; Solberg, Rigmor; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Halvorsen, Bente

    2017-02-01

    The cysteine protease legumain has been shown to be up-regulated in unstable atherosclerotic plaques. This study aims to further elucidate legumain in atherosclerosis, by examining legumain in plasma and carotid plaques from patients with carotid stenosis. Furthermore, legumain secretion from monocyte-derived macrophages treated with atherogenic lipids during macrophage polarization was studied. Plasma levels of legumain from patients with carotid stenosis (n = 254), healthy controls (n = 91), and secreted from monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting of legumain were performed on isolated plaques and legumain localization was visualized by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. Monocyte-derived macrophages polarized to M1 or M2 macrophages were treated with VLDL, oxLDL or cholesterol crystals (CC) and the level of legumain analysed. Patients with carotid stenosis had significantly higher levels of plasma legumain compared with healthy controls (median 2.0 versus 1.5 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.003), although there was no correlation between the level of legumain and the degree of stenosis, and legumain was not an independent factor to identify patients with carotid plaques. Moreover, patients with symptoms the last 2 months had higher expressions of mature legumain, cystatin C and E/M, and the macrophage markers CD80 (M1) and CD163 (M2). Legumain co-localized with both M1 and M2 macrophages within plaques, whereas legumain mRNA expression was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in plaques compared to non-atherosclerotic arteries (controls). Furthermore, in vitro studies showed significantly increased secretion of legumain from pro-inflammatory M1 compared to pro-resolving M2 macrophages (p = 0.014), and particularly in M1 treated with CC. In plaques, legumain was localized to structures resembling foam cells. Legumain is increased in both plasma and plaques of patients

  13. Increased plasma apolipoprotein (a) levels in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    .0001. Multiple logistic regression analysis of cardiovascular risk factors revealed that plasma apo(a) concentration > 300 U/l is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, odds ratio 1.86 (1.03-3.36) (P 300......OBJECTIVE: The relative mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased 40-fold in IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy as compared with nondiabetic subjects on average. We assessed the potential contribution of dyslipidemia in general and elevated serum apolipoprotein (a...... with and without nephropathy, respectively (P 300 U/l (at-risk level for cardiovascular...

  14. Levels of interleukin-37 in gingival crevicular fluid, saliva, or plasma in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, M; Köseoğlu, S; Savran, L; Pekbağriyanik, T; Sağlam, G; Sütçü, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the levels of levels of interleukin-37 (IL-37) in gingival crevicular fluid, saliva and plasma in patients with periodontal disease and patients with healthy periodontium and to correlate these levels with clinical parameters. Samples of gingival crevicular fluid, whole saliva and plasma were collected from systemically healthy, nonsmoker periodontally healthy controls (group 1, n = 20), gingivitis patients (group 2, n = 20) and chronic periodontitis patients (group 3, n = 20). Full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters, including probing depth, plaque index, gingival index and bleeding on probing, were also recorded. IL-37 levels in the biofluid samples were determined by ELISA. Data were tested statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The concentration of IL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001), whereas the total amounts in gingival crevicular fluid samples were similar (p > 0.05). The salivary and plasma concentrations of IL-37 were similar in the study groups (p > 0.05). There were negative correlations between gingival crevicular fluid IL-37 concentrations and gingival crevicular fluid volume in all groups (p fluid IL-37 concentration and gingival index in group 3 (p fluid, or salivary or plasma concentrations of IL-37, may not be useful diagnostic markers to differentiate periodontal disease and the periodontally healthy condition. The difference in gingival crevicular fluid IL-37 concentration between the study groups may be a result of the variation in gingival crevicular fluid volume, as suggested by the negative correlation between gingival crevicular fluid volume and gingival crevicular fluid IL-37 concentration. In the light of our findings, it seems that IL-37 is not involved in periodontal disease. Further comprehensive studies may clarify this issue more clearly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A

  15. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  16. Effect of octanoic acid-rich formula on plasma ghrelin levels in cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazato Masamitsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD, conventional enteral nutrition formula is an optional treatment to maintain energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which enteral nutrition formula controls appetite and weight remain unknown. We examined whether enteral nutrition formula rich in octanoic acids would increase plasma levels of ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone produced in the stomach, in cachectic patients with CRD. Methods Plasma ghrelin profiles in cachectic patients with CRD were assessed and compared with those in age- and sex-matched controls. Plasma levels of acyl-ghrelin, an active ghrelin modified by octanoic acids, and desacyl-ghrelin were measured separately. We examined changes in 24-h plasma ghrelin profiles before and after single administration of the formula. We also evaluated the effects of 2-week administration of the formula on plasma ghrelin levels and nutritional status in patients. Results The ratio of acyl-ghrelin to desacyl-ghrelin in plasma was lower in patients than in controls. Single administration of the formula did not change plasma desacyl-ghrelin levels, but induced an increase in acyl-ghrelin levels. Two-week treatment with the formula was effective in increasing weight and acyl-ghrelin, along with improving nutritional status in patients. Conclusion These results show that the formula contributes to increased weight, which may be associated with induction of acyl-ghrelin production in cachectic patients with CRD.

  17. Sustaining Turnaround at the School and District Levels: The High Reliability Schools Project at Sandfields Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Eugene; Reynolds, David; Stringfield, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Beginning from 1 high-poverty, historically low-achieving secondary school's successful turnaround work, this article provides data relative to a successful school turnaround, the importance of external and system-level supports, and the importance of building for sustainable institutionalization of improvements. The evidence suggests the…

  18. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  19. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo HK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Kyoung Koo,1 Yoonki Hong,2 Myoung Nam Lim,2 Jae-Joon Yim,3 Woo Jin Kim2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease–antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP levels and COPD severity.Methods: Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses.Results: There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase, pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, respiratory function test, pulmonary emphysema, bronchodilator response

  20. Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Politi, Pierluigi; Bianchi, Marika; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Bertona, Marco; Geroldi, Diego

    2006-04-01

    Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r = 0.34; p = 0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who-after 12-24 months-maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream.

  1. Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n = 23) and WMA- (n = 25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4 ± 1,773.4 vs. 962.9 ± 838.9 pg/mL, p = 0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA.

  2. Development of web-based GIS services for sustainable soil resource management at farm level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kolovos, Chronis; Troyanos, Yerasimos; Doula, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Modern farms situated in urban or suburban areas, include various and in most cases diverse land covers. Land uses in such farms may serve residential, structured, aesthetic and agricultural purposes, usually delimited inside the boundaries of a single property. The environmental conditions across a farm, especially if it is situated on an irregular terrain, can be highly differentiated. Managing soil resources in a small scale diverse farm environment in a holistic and sustainable way should have spatial and temporal reference and take advantage of cut-edge geospatial technologies. In present study, an 8 hectare farm with various land uses in the southern suburbs of Attica Prefecture, Greece was systematically monitored regarding its soil, water and plant resources. Almost 80% of the farm's area is covered with trees, shrubs and low vegetation planted in a mosaic of parterres. Farm data collected concerned soil and water physicochemical characteristics, plant species, topographical features, irrigation network, valves and infrastructure. All data were imported and developed in a GIS geodatabase. Furthermore, web GIS services and a mobile GIS app were developed in order to monitor, update and synchronize present status and future changes performed in the farm. Through the web services and using the mobile GIS app, the user has access to all data stored in the geodatabase and according to access rights he can view or edit the spatial entities. The user can easily make query to specific features, combine their properties with other overlaying spatial data and reach accurate decisions. The app can be downloaded and implemented in mobile devices like smartphones and tablets for extending its functionality. As proven in this study, web GIS services and mobile GIS apps constitute an attractive suite of methodologies for effective and user friendly management of natural resources at farm level.

  3. Parenteral lipid emulsions in guinea pigs differentially influence plasma and tissue levels of fatty acids, squalene, cholesterol, and phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Walker, Candace; Pavlina, Thomas; McGrath, Sheila; Zaloga, Gary; Siddiqui, Rafat

    2014-08-01

    Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute administration, peak triacylglycerols were highest with SO and lowest with OOSO. Upon chronic administration, the plasma triglyceride levels did not increase in any group over that of the controls. Fatty acid levels varied greatly between organs of animals on the control diets and organs of animals following acute or chronic lipid administration. Squalene levels increased in plasma following acute administration of OOSO, but plasma squalene levels were similar to control in all emulsion groups following chronic administration. Total plasma phytosterol levels were increased in the SO, OOSO, and FOCS groups following both acute and chronic infusions, whereas phytosterols were not increased following FO infusion. Total phytosterol levels were higher in liver, lung, kidney and adipose tissue following SO and OOSO. Levels were not increased in tissues after FO and FOCS infusion. These results indicate that fatty acid and sterol contents vary greatly among organs and that no one tissue reflects the fatty acid or sterol composition of other tissues, suggesting that different organs regulate these compounds differently.

  4. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for

  5. Cinacalcet reduces plasma intact parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of its severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) - defined in terms of baseline plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level - and the magnitude of response to cinacalcet.

  6. Genetic Variation in FADS Genes and Plasma Cholesterol Levels in 2-Year-Old Infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molto-Puigmarti, Carolina; Jansen, Eugene; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Penders, John; Mommers, Monique; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Thijs, Carel

    2013-01-01

    ... (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster) are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic...

  7. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  8. The Effect of Six Weeks Combined Training on Plasma Levels of Chemerin, Serum Amyloid A and C-reactive Proteine and Plasma Lipid in Obese Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hosein Pazoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The evidence suggests that obesity causes the chronic inflammation. Chemerin is a new adipokine which is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The effects of combined training on levels of inflammatory markers specialy chemerin and serum amyloid-A has been less studied.The present study aims to examine the effect of six weeks combined training on plasma levels of chemerin, CRP and SAA and plasma lipid in obese men. Materials and Methods: 18 obese men were divided into control and experimental groups. General characteristics of subjects serum levels of chemerin, CRP and SAA were examined (by ELISA method, before and after one session training. Endurance training protocol was performed on the large muscles included in 6 weeks running around the track with 60 to 75% HRmax, 4 sessions per week, intense resistance training for 25 to 30 minutes with 50 to 70% of one repetition maximum of 6 stations (2 sets, 12 Reps. Data analysis was performed by T-independent test for comparison of two control and training groups, T-paired test for comparison of two groups before and after the test and significant level of p≤0.05 was considered. Results: The results show that 6 weeks combined training significantly decrease the plasma levels of chemerin (p=0.004, and SAA (p=0.009, but there was not any significant decrease on CRP levels(p=0. 476. So, it can be concluded that combined training will affect on some inflammatory markers in obese men and improve them. Conclusion: One session combined training for 6 weeks significantly affects on plasma levels of chemerin and serum amyloid-A, however, it doesn't decrease the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP.

  9. Increased seminal plasma lead levels adversely affect the fertility potential of sperm in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoff, Susan; Centola, Grace M; Millan, Colleen; Napolitano, Barbara; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R

    2003-02-01

    Lead remains in high levels in the environment and is known to reduce fertility in animal models, but a direct link between lead exposures and human infertility has not yet been established. In a prospective, double-blind study of the metal ion levels and sperm function, semen was obtained from partners of 140 consecutive women undergoing their first IVF cycle. Lead in seminal plasma was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Motile sperm populations were assessed for surface receptors for mannose binding, and the ability to undergo premature ('spontaneous'), and free mannose-induced acrosome reactions. Fertile donor (n = 9) sperm were exposed to exogenous lead during capacitating incubations and then assessed for mannose receptor expression and acrosome loss. Lead levels were negatively correlated with IVF rates. Lead levels were negatively correlated to tw