Chen, Bing; He, Yuan; Xia, Lei; Guo, Li-Li; Zheng, Jin-Long
State-related brain structural alterations in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) are unclear. We aimed to conduct a longitudinal study to explore dynamic gray matter (GM) changes between the pain and pain-free phases in ETTH. We recruited 40 treatment-naïve ETTH patients and 40 healthy controls. All participants underwent brain structural scans on a 3.0-T MRI system. ETTH patients were scanned in and out of pain phases. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to determine the differences in regional gray matter density (GMD) between groups. Additional regression analysis was used to identify any associations between regional GMD and clinical symptoms. ETTH patients exhibited reduced GMD in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex, and increased GMD in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula for the in pain phase compared with the out of pain phase. The out of pain phase of ETTH patients exhibited no regions with higher or lower GMD compared with healthy controls. GMD in the left ACC and left anterior insula was negatively correlated with headache days. GMD in the left ACC was negatively correlated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in ETTH patients. This is the first study to demonstrate dynamic and reversible GMD changes between the pain and pain-free phases in ETTH patients. However, this balance might be disrupted by increased headache days and progressive anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Landy, Stephen; White, Jonathan; Lener, Shelly E; McDonald, Susan A
A novel composite endpoint, sustained pain-free/no adverse events, was recently proposed as a more rigorous means of capturing in a single measure the attributes of migraine pharmacotherapy that patients consider most important: rapid and sustained pain-free response with no side-effects. Using pooled data from two replicate randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies, this post hoc analysis compared the fixed-dose combination tablet sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (n = 726) with sumatriptan monotherapy (n = 723), naproxen sodium monotherapy (n = 720), and placebo (n = 742) with respect to sustained pain-free/no adverse events and closely related composite measures. Sustained pain-free/no adverse events was defined as having both a sustained pain-free response from 2 through 24 hours post-dose with no use of rescue medication and having no adverse events within up to 5 days after dosing with study medication. The percentage of patients with sustained pain-free/no adverse events was 16% with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium compared with 11%, 9% and 7% for sumatriptan, naproxen sodium and placebo, respectively (ppain-free/no adverse events within 1 day; (2) sustained pain-free/no drug-related adverse events within up to 5 days; (3) sustained pain-free/no drug-related adverse events within 1 day; (4) sustained pain relief/no adverse events within up to 5 days; and (5) sustained pain relief/no adverse events within 1 day. The results demonstrate the superiority of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium to sumatriptan monotherapy, naproxen sodium monotherapy and placebo with respect to the rigorous and clinically relevant endpoint of sustained pain-free/no adverse events and reinforce the usefulness of utilizing this new composite endpoint.
Cioffi, Iacopo; Landino, Donatella; Donnarumma, Valeria; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Lobbezoo, Frank; Michelotti, Ambrosina
Tooth clenching has been suggested to be related to temporomandibular pain. However, the electromyographic characteristics of daytime clenching episodes have been minimally investigated. This study aimed to analyze the frequency, amplitude, and duration of daytime clenching episodes in patients with masticatory muscle pain and pain-free individuals. Fifteen women with masticatory muscles myalgia (MP group, mean ± SD age = 26.4 ± 7.6 years) matched for age to 18 pain-free women (CTR group, mean ± SD age = 25.3 ± 2.8 years) were submitted to three different ability tasks (filling out questionnaires for 40 min, reading for 20 min, and playing a videogame for 20 min). The electromyographic activity periods (AP) of the right masseter greater than 10 % (AP10), 20 % (AP20), and 30 % (AP30) of the maximum voluntary contraction were analyzed. The mean frequencies of AP10, AP20, and AP30 were greater in MP than in CTR individuals (all p pain-free individuals. Clinicians should recognize that the frequency and intensity of daytime clenching are noticeably increased in individuals with masticatory muscle pain in order to better tailor treatment.
Meier, Michael L; Stämpfli, Phillipp; Vrana, Andrea; Humphreys, Barry K; Seifritz, Erich; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina
In most individuals suffering from chronic low back pain, psychosocial factors, specifically fear avoidance beliefs (FABs), play central roles in the absence of identifiable organic pathology. On a neurobiological level, encouraging research has shown brain system correlates of somatic and psychological factors during the transition from (sub) acute to chronic low back pain. The characterization of brain imaging signatures in pain-free individuals before any injury will be of high importance regarding the identification of relevant networks for low back pain (LBP) vulnerability. Fear-avoidance beliefs serve as strong predictors of disability and chronification in LBP and current research indicates that back pain related FABs already exist in the general and pain-free population. Therefore, we aimed at investigating possible differential neural functioning between high- and low fear-avoidant individuals in the general population using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results revealed that pain-free individuals without a history of chronic pain episodes could be differentiated in amygdala activity and connectivity to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex by their level of back pain related FABs. These results shed new light on brain networks underlying psychological factors that may become relevant for enhanced disability in a future LBP episode.
Chang, Wing Chung; Kwong, Vivian Wing Yan; Lau, Emily Sin Kei; So, Hon Cheong; Wong, Corine Sau Man; Chan, Gloria Hoi Kei; Jim, Olivia Tsz Ting; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai
BackgroundEvidence indicates that the positive effects of 2-year early intervention services for psychosis are not maintained after service withdrawal. Optimal duration of early intervention in sustaining initial improved outcomes remains to be determined.AimsTo examine the sustainability of the positive effects of an extended, 3-year, early intervention programme for patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) after transition to standard care.MethodA total of 160 patients, who had received a 2-year early intervention programme for FEP, were enrolled to a 12-month randomised-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01202357) comparing a 1-year extension of the early intervention (3-year specialised treatment) with step-down care (2-year specialised treatment). Participants were followed up and reassessed 2 and 3 years after inclusion to the trial.ResultsThere were no significant differences between the treatment groups in outcomes on functioning, symptom severity and service use during the post-trial follow-up period.ConclusionsThe therapeutic benefits achieved by the extended, 3-year early intervention were not sustainable after termination of the specialised service. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H; Aasvang, E K
BACKGROUND: Persistent post-herniotomy pain may be a neuropathic pain state based on the finding of a persistent sensory dysfunction. However, detailed information on the normal distribution of sensory function in pain-free post-herniotomy patients hinders identification of exact pathogenic...... mechanisms. Therefore, we aimed to establish normative data on sensory function in pain-free patients >1 year after a groin herniotomy. METHODS: Sensory thresholds were assessed in 40 pain-free patients by a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). Secondary endpoints included comparison of sensory......%) but with a low pain intensity. CONCLUSION: Persistent sensory dysfunction is common in pain-free post-herniotomy patients. Future studies of sensory function in persistent post-herniotomy pain should compare the findings to the present data in order to characterize individual patients and potentially identify...
Landy, Steve H; Tepper, Stewart J; Schweizer, Edward; Almas, Mary; Ramos, Elodie
The objective of this article is to evaluate, in first attack eletriptan headache and pain-free nonresponders, the efficacy of treating a second and third attack with the same dose of eletriptan 40 mg (ELE-40). Data were pooled from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple attack studies of eletriptan in the treatment of migraine. The first-attack eletriptan headache (HNR) and pain-free (PFNR) nonresponder samples consisted of patients who did not achieve headache or pain-free responses at two hours, or sustained headache or pain-free responses at 24 hours. The efficacy of the same dose of eletriptan (vs placebo; PBO) in treating the second and third attacks was evaluated using a logistic regression model. Among Attack 1 eletriptan HNRs, treatment with ELE-40 (vs PBO) was associated with significantly higher two-hour headache response and pain-free rates, respectively, on both Attack 2 (48.8% vs 20.2%; 17.0% vs 3.9%; P pain-free rates at 24 hours were also observed on both Attack 2 and Attack 3. The results of this pooled analysis suggest that patients who have HNR or PFNR to an initial dose of eletriptan may respond when a second and third attack is treated with the same dose.
O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard
Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP o...
Full Text Available Pain control during the dental procedure is essentials and challenging. A complete efficacious pulp anesthesia has not been attained yet. The regional anesthesia such as inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB only does not guarantee the effective anesthesia with patients suffering from irreversible pulpitis. This main aim of this review was to discuss various aspects of intraseptal dental anesthesia and its role significance in pain-free treatment in the dental office. In addition, reasons of failure and limitations of this technique have been highlighted. Literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published in English language in last 30 years. Search words such as dental anesthesia, pain control, intraseptal, and nerve block were entered using a web of knowledge and Google scholar databases. Various dental local anesthesia techniques were reviewed. A combination of block anesthesia, buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection resulted in deep anesthesia (P = 0.003, and higher success rate compared to IANB. For pain-free management of conditions such as irreversible pulpitis, buccal infiltration (4% articaine, and intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine are better than intraligamentary and IANB injections. Similarly, nerve block is not always effective for pain-free root canal treatment hence, needing supplemental anesthesia. Intraseptal anesthesia is an efficient and effective technique that can be used in maxillary and mandibular adult dentition. This technique is also beneficial when used in conjunction to the regional block or local dental anesthesia.
O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard
Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP of seventeen pain-free subjects was initially recorded. Subjects then assumed their own subjectively perceived ideal posture (SPIP). Finally, 2 testers independently positioned the subjects into a tester perceived neutral posture (TPNP). The inter-tester reliability of positioning in TPNP was very good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.91, mean difference = 3% of range of motion). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that HSP was significantly more flexed than both SPIP and TPNP (p 0.05). HSP was more kyphotic than all other postures. This study suggests that pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral lumbar sitting posture. Further investigation into the role of neutral sitting posture in LBP subjects is warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H
Persistent post-herniotomy pain may be a neuropathic pain state based on the finding of a persistent sensory dysfunction. However, detailed information on the normal distribution of sensory function in pain-free post-herniotomy patients hinders identification of exact pathogenic mechanisms. Therefore, we aimed to establish normative data on sensory function in pain-free patients >1 year after a groin herniotomy. Sensory thresholds were assessed in 40 pain-free patients by a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). Secondary endpoints included comparison of sensory function between the operated and the naïve side, and correlation between sensory function modalities. QST showed that on the operated side, thermal data were normally distributed, but mechanical pressure and pinch thresholds were normalized only after log-transformation, and cold pain and pressure tolerance could not be normalized. Comparison of QST results revealed significant (Ppain-free post-herniotomy patients. Future studies of sensory function in persistent post-herniotomy pain should compare the findings to the present data in order to characterize individual patients and potentially identify subgroups, which may aid in allocation of patients to pharmacological or surgical treatment.
Gazal, G; Fareed, W M; Zafar, M S
Pain control during the dental procedure is essentials and challenging. A complete efficacious pulp anesthesia has not been attained yet. The regional anesthesia such as inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) only does not guarantee the effective anesthesia with patients suffering from irreversible pulpitis. This main aim of this review was to discuss various aspects of intraseptal dental anesthesia and its role significance in pain-free treatment in the dental office. In addition, reasons of failure and limitations of this technique have been highlighted. Literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published in English language in last 30 years. Search words such as dental anesthesia, pain control, intraseptal, and nerve block were entered using a web of knowledge and Google scholar databases. Various dental local anesthesia techniques were reviewed. A combination of block anesthesia, buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection resulted in deep anesthesia (P = 0.003), and higher success rate compared to IANB. For pain-free management of conditions such as irreversible pulpitis, buccal infiltration (4% articaine), and intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine) are better than intraligamentary and IANB injections. Similarly, nerve block is not always effective for pain-free root canal treatment hence, needing supplemental anesthesia. Intraseptal anesthesia is an efficient and effective technique that can be used in maxillary and mandibular adult dentition. This technique is also beneficial when used in conjunction to the regional block or local dental anesthesia.
Martinez, Coleen Archer; Carmeli, Eli; Barak, Sharon; Stopka, Christine Boyd
Symptoms of intermittent claudication (IC) can be relieved by lifestyle modification, medications, and walking exercises. The intensity of the walking exercise is still debatable. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of accommodating pain-free walking exercise therapy program length on pain-free walking. A descriptive, longitudinal study with repeated measures of exercise capacity was conducted. An IC questionnaire was administered to assess IC signs, symptoms, and lifestyle. Walking was performed on a treadmill for 30 to 50 minutes below the participant's individualized walking pain threshold. The study included patients diagnosed with IC due to peripheral arterial disease. All participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A (n = 28) participated in the walking program for 2-9 weeks, group B (n = 30) for 10-14 weeks, and group C (n = 26) for 15-94 weeks. The main outcome measure of the study was to determine changes in exercise capacity: walking distance (miles), walking duration (minutes), and walking speed (mph). Group A increased the amount of distance, duration, and speed walked from pretest to posttest by 80% (P < .001), 27% (P < .001), and 37% (P < .001), respectively. Group B increased the amount of distance, duration, and speed walked from pretest to posttest by 122% (P < .001), 56% (P < .001), and 43% (P < .001), respectively. Group C increased the amount of distance, duration, and speed walked from pretest to posttest by 26% (P = .002), 22% (P = .002), and 5% (P = .541) respectively. We reached the conclusion that a walking program of 10-14 weeks is optimal for achieving the best improvements in walking distance, duration, and speed.
Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul
Introduction: Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Results: Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. Conclusion: According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia. PMID:24396370
Parirokh, Masoud; V Abbott, Paul
Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia.
Nobre, Maria Eduarda; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Moreira, Pedro Ferreira; Leal, Antonio José
To describe the evolution of 15 patients who were treated for difficult-to-control episodic and chronic cluster headaches with clomiphene. Clomiphene treatment was used for seven chronic and eight episodic cluster headache patients. The chronic patients were refractory to the medication being used, and the episodic patients, in addition to being resistant to conventional medication, had longer cluster headache periods, exceeding the average time of previous cluster cycles. Our main analysis was of the time to pain-free, complete remission, and the length of pain-free time and complete remission. Clomiphene was used for 45-180 days. The average time to being pain-free was 15 days and cluster remission was up to 60 days. The average time between being pain-free until cluster remission was 26 days. Clomiphene treatment was significantly efficient. It interrupted chronicity in all patients, suggesting the capability of changing the pattern of attacks. It proved to be safe and well tolerated.
Morton, Neil S
Over the last 25 years, pediatric care has changed dramatically with increased survival after premature birth, more complex care, better outcomes, and reduced mortality. There is a better understanding of how pain pathways and receptor systems develop and also how to assess pain at different stages of development. The myth that children do not feel pain has been comprehensively dispelled. Safe analgesic dose regimens for neonates, infants, and children have been developed based upon a better understanding of developmental pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It is a myth that pain in children cannot be prevented or treated safely and effectively because of the risks of adverse effects and addiction. Large-scale prospective audits have clarified the safety profile and risk-benefit balance for different techniques. There is now a substantial evidence base supporting many techniques of postoperative and procedural pain management for all age-groups of children. Guidelines based upon systematic review of this evidence have been published and updated, but the real challenge is in implementation of accurate pain assessment and safe, effective pain management comprehensively to all children whatever the procedure, clinical setting, developmental stage of the child, or comorbidities. In developed countries, these are core topics in the education of all doctors and nurses who care for children, and they are integrated into clinical practice by acute pediatric pain teams for most hospitals. However, it is disappointing that many country's healthcare systems do not give pediatric pain management a priority and in many parts of the world there are no analgesics available. So pain-free healthcare is sadly lacking in many hospitals. My hope is that the current knowledge can be used more effectively to relieve the unnecessary suffering of children in the 21st century. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mifflin, Katherine; Chorney, Jill; Dick, Bruce
Adolescents with chronic pain often report inattention and poor memory. There has been little research on cognitive function in this population. The goal of this preliminary pilot study was to examine differences in cognitive function between adolescents with chronic pain to pain-free adolescents. All participants completed baseline assessments of pain, school absences, depression, anxiety, and sleep habits. Standardized neurocognitive tests were used to examine cognitive function with a focus on working memory and attention. Recruitment from the chronic pain clinic resulted in a female sample of 13 individuals (largely reflective of the clinical population). Pain-free age-matched and sex-matched individuals (n=12) were therefore also recruited as controls. Individuals with chronic pain had significantly lower working memory scores than controls. Differences were found between groups on the most difficult selective attention task and not on tests of sustained attention, divided attention, or attentional switching. In a stepwise regression with baseline characteristics entered in the first step, pain accounted for approximately 15% of the variance in working memory and medication score counted for 49% of the variance. This pilot study is the first study to examine differences in working memory and attention between participants with chronic pain and pain-free adolescents. Our findings suggest that chronic pain may negatively affect adolescents' working memory function and highlights the risk for cognitive difficulties and problems with educational progression in addition to negative health and social effects associated with chronic pain. The study provides a starting point for more research and has the potential to direct better identification and treatment of these cognitive deficits.
García Morales, L; Rodríguez Arnao, M D; Rodríguez Sánchez, A; Dulín Íñiguez, E; Álvarez González, M A
Children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are at risk of developing mild cognitive impairment despite normal overall intellectual performance. These deficits may be caused by disease-related and treatment-related factors. This study explores the impact of abnormal thyroid function during the first 3 years of life on attention performance at school age. We included 49 children diagnosed with CH and receiving treatment for the condition: 14 boys (mean age 9.5±2.8 years) and 35 girls (9.6±2.6 years). The number of episodes of normal, under-, and overtreatment were estimated based on TSH levels during their first 3 years of life (at 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months). Children were assessed using a computerised version of a Sustained attention test. General linear models were calculated with the attention index as the dependent variable and sex, aetiology, and number of episodes of normal, under-, and overtreatment as independent variables. Higher numbers of episodes of overtreatment (low TSH level) were associated with poorer attention performance at school age (P=.005, r=-0.45). Children with CH should be monitored closely during the first 3 years of life in order to prevent not only hypothyroidism but also any adverse effects of overtreatment that may affect attentional function at school age. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Diener, H-C; Dodick, D W; Goadsby, P J; Lipton, R B; Almas, M; Parsons, B
Thirty to forty percent of migraineurs do not respond to any given triptan treatment. We identified clinical variables that significantly predict therapeutic non-response and evaluated the efficacy of eletriptan (20, 40 and 80 mg) and sumatriptan (100 mg) vs. placebo in a subgroup of patients with all predictor variables. First-attack data were pooled from 10 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled migraine trials (n = 8473). Multivariate regression analyses identified three significant baseline predictors of failure to achieve 2-h pain-free response: severe headache pain, presence of photophobia/phonophobia and presence of nausea. Time of dosing following headache onset did not influence 2-h pain-free response. Among patients with all three risk factors (n = 2010; 24% of total sample), 2-h pain-free response was significantly higher in patients receiving all three doses of eletriptan or sumatriptan vs. placebo (all P < 0.01). Thus, eletriptan and sumatriptan are efficacious in difficult-to-treat patients at high risk for non-response to triptans.
Roy, Richard A; Boucher, Jean P; Comtois, Alain S
The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) in the presence or the absence of pain in the lower back, while receiving one chiropractic treatment at L5 from either a manually assisted mechanical force (Activator) or a traditional diversified technique spinal manipulation. A total of 51 participants were randomly assigned to a control (n = 11), 2 treatment, or 2 sham groups (n = 10 per group). Participants underwent an 8-minute acclimatizing period. The HRV tachygram (RR interval) data were recorded directly into a Suunto watch (model T6; FitzWright Company Ltd, Langley, British Columbia, Canada). We analyzed the 5-minute pretreatment and posttreatment intervals. The spectral analysis of the tachygram was performed with Kubios software. All groups decreased in value except the control group that reacted in the opposite direction, when comparing the pretests and posttests for the high-frequency component. The very low frequency increased in all groups except the control group. The low frequency decreased in all groups except the sham pain-free group. The low frequency-high frequency ratio decreased in the treatment pain group by 0.46 and in the sham pain-free group by 0.26. The low frequency-high frequency ratio increase was 0.13 for the sham pain group, 0.04 for the control group, and 0.34 for the treatment pain-free group. The mean RR increased by 11.89 milliseconds in the sham pain-free group, 18.65 milliseconds in the treatment pain group, and 13.14 milliseconds in the control group. The mean RR decreased in the treatment pain-free group by 1.75 milliseconds and by 0.01 milliseconds in the sham pain group. Adjusting the lumbar vertebrae affected the lumbar parasympathetic nervous system output for this group of participants. Adaptation in the parasympathetic output, reflected by changes in high frequency, low frequency, and very low frequency, may be independent of type of adjustment. Therefore, the group differences found in the
Silva, Anabela G; Punt, T David; Sharples, Paul; Vilas-Boas, João P; Johnson, Mark I
To compare standing head posture measurements between patients with nontraumatic neck pain (NP) and pain-free individuals. Single-blind (assessor) cross-sectional study. Hospital and general community. Consecutive patients (n=40) with chronic nontraumatic NP and age- and sex-matched pain-free participants (n=40). Not applicable. Three angular measurements: the angle between C7, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal; the angle between the tragus of the ear, the eye, and the horizontal; and the angle between the inferior margins of the right and the left ear and the horizontal were calculated through the digitization of video images. NP patients were found to have a significantly smaller angle between C7, the tragus, and the horizontal, resulting in a more forward head posture than pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 45.4 degrees +/-6.8 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 48.6 degrees +/-7.1 degrees ; P50y) revealed an interaction, with a statistically significant difference in head posture for younger participants with NP compared with younger pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 46.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 51.8 degrees +/-5.9 degrees ; Ppain-free, mean +/- SD, 45.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; P>.05; CI for the difference between groups, -4.9 degrees -4.2 degrees ). No other differences were found between patients and pain-free participants. Younger patients with chronic nontraumatic NP were shown to have a more forward head posture in standing than matched pain-free participants. However, the difference, although statistically significant, was perhaps too small to be clinically meaningful.
Landy, Stephen H; McGinnis, Judy E; McDonald, Susan A
The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical indicators of cutaneous allodynia predict the success of migraine therapy with sumatriptan using a brief questionnaire. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST) recent studies demonstrate that the presence of cutaneous allodynia, a clinical manifestation of central sensitization, can be detrimental to the success of migraine therapy with sumatriptan. QST is costly and requires much time, therefore it is not feasible to use in clinical practice. In this prospective study, migraineurs completed a questionnaire about their skin sensitivity during migraine. Each migraineur treated 2 migraine headaches with sumatriptan (100 mg): 1 headache at the earliest sign of migraine pain (mild, within 1 hour of onset) and 1 headache at least 4 hours after the onset of pain while moderate or severe. Thirty-six migraine headaches were evaluated in 18 migraineurs. A total of 44% of the headaches were not associated with allodynia at any time. Irrespective of allodynic status, headaches were more likely to become pain-free with early versus late treatment (2 hours; 78% vs. 33%, respectively). Headaches were equally likely to become pain-free when allodynia was reported before treatment but not 2 and 4 hours after treatment (2 hours; 67 vs. 63%, respectively, 4 hours 80 vs. 81%, respectively). However, no headaches were pain-free when allodynia was reported at 2 and 4 hours after treatment. Headaches without allodynia were aborted when treated early or late, and headaches with allodynia were aborted only when allodynia was not present after treatment. These findings suggest that different mechanisms account for allodynia before and after treatment; a developing phase in which central sensitization depends on incoming pain signals from the peripheral nociceptors and an established phase in which the sensitization becomes independent of the pain signals that come from the dura.
Andersen, Hjalte H; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa
MicroRNAs have emerged as important biomarkers and modulators of pathophysiological processes including oncogenesis and neurodegeneration. MicroRNAs are found to be involved in the generation and maintenance of pain in animal models of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Recently, microRNA dysregulation has been reported in patients with painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum microRNA alterations occur during migraine attacks and whether migraine manifests in chronic serum microRNA aberrations. Two cohorts of 24 migraineurs, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. High-content serum microRNA (miRNA) arrays were used to assess the serum microRNA profiles of migraineurs during attacks and pain-free periods in comparison with healthy controls. Of the 372 assessed microRNAs, 32 or ≈ 8% were found to be differentially expressed and 4 of these--miR-34a-5p, 29c-5p, -382-5p, and -26b-3p--were selected for further investigation. Migraine attacks were associated with an acute upregulation in miR-34a-5p and miR-382-5p expression. Interestingly, miR-382-5p not only exhibited an upregulation during attack but also proved to be a biomarker for migraine when comparing migraineurs in pain-free periods to the healthy control group (p = pain-free periods. This finding sheds light on the potential role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of migraine and adds a new approach towards potential identification of much sought-after serum biomarkers of migraine.
Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn
Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.
Huumonen, S; Sipilä, K; Zitting, P; Raustia, A M
The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiographic findings between subjects with reported facial pain and pain-free controls in a population-based sample of 34-year olds. The study was a part of a comprehensive medical survey including subjects born in the year 1966 in Northern Finland. A sub-sample of the cohort was formed based on the question concerning facial pain. A panoramic radiograph was taken of 48 subjects with facial pain and 47 pain-free controls. Pathological findings in the dentition, jaws, maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were compared between the groups. The majority of the subjects in both groups did not have pathological findings. Compared with controls, the subjects with facial pain did not show significantly more pathological findings in the teeth, periodontium, maxillary sinuses, TMJs or in the other areas. Radiographic panoramic findings had no association with reported facial pain in the population-based sample of young adults, and have little impact on the diagnosis of facial pain.
Turner, Linda; Linden, Wolfgang; Marshall, Candace
This study evaluated whether electrodermal resistance at acupuncture points (AP) systematically varies as a function of pain. The study was conceived as a proof-of-principle study in support of research on acupuncture and other complementary medicine approaches. Specifically, this study investigates whether or not electrodermal activity systematically differentiates arthritis patients with current pain from pain-free controls. Participants with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 32) and a typical pain level of at least 3 (on a 0-10 scale) were compared with case controls (n = 28) who had no medical diagnosis and were pain free. Electrodermal resistance at AP was measured with a commercial ohmmeter and compared to heart rate, blood pressure, and ratings on the Pain Catastrophization Scale and the McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire. There were consistent differences between the experimental group and the control group on all markers of pain. Similarly, there were significant group differences and some trends for electrodermal activity at the AP labeled 'bladder,' 'gall bladder,' and 'small intestine.' It is concluded that the concept of electrodermal resistance at AP possesses criterion validity for distinguishing pain from a no pain state. This research provides support for the usefulness of measuring electrodermal activity when testing energy-based models of disease, and can be seen as a bridge between Western and Chinese medicine.
Mika, Piotr; Spodaryk, Krzysztof; Cencora, Andrzej; Mika, Anna
To assess the effect of pain-free treadmill training on red blood cell deformability and walking distance in patients with claudication. Randomized-controlled trial of exercise training. Patients were recruited from the primary care, vascular outpatient clinic. A total of 60 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (stage II according to Leriche-Fontaine) were randomized into the treadmill program or a control group. Fifty-five patients completed the study (27 in the exercising group and 28 in the control group). Patients in the exercising group were walking on the treadmill 3 times a week for 3 months. Each session consisted of 1 hour repetitive walking [performed to 85% of the pain-free walking time (PFWT)] was supervised by a qualified physiotherapist. Changes in erythrocyte deformability and treadmill walking performance (PFWT, maximal walking time) were assessed in both groups before the study and after 3 months. After 3 months of treadmill training, red blood cell deformability in the exercising group significantly increased (Ppain-free treadmill training is associated with a significant increase in red cell deformability in patients with claudication.
Madsen, Pernille H; Bak, Klaus; Jensen, Susanne; Welter, Ulrik
Scapular dyskinesis is a major etiological factor in overhead athletes' shoulder problems. Our hypotheses were to evaluate if (1) visual observation of scapular dyskinesis during scaption has substantial interobserver reliability, and (2) scapular dyskinesis may be induced by swim training in pain-free swimmers. A reliability and observational study. Bachelor project at a college institution and at a private sports orthopedic hospital. Seventy-eight competitive swimmers with no history of shoulder pain were included in the study. Fourteen swimmers were evaluated regarding reliability. Inclusion criteria were competitive swimmers with high training volume who previously had no shoulder pain. Observations of scapular dyskinesis (yes/no) during simple scaption. The interobserver reliability of scaption and wall push-up was evaluated in 14 swimmers using kappa analysis. Prevalence of scapular dyskinesis at 4 time intervals during a swim training session. The scaption test resulted in a weighted kappa value of 0.75. Scapular dyskinesis was seen in 29 shoulders (37%) after the first time interval, in another 24 (cumulated prevalence 68%) after one-half of the training session, and in an additional 4 swimmers (cumulated prevalence 73%) after three-quarters of the training session. During the last quarter of the training session, another 7 swimmers had dyskinesis, resulting in a cumulated prevalence of 82%. The prevalence of abnormal scapular kinesis during a normal training session is high in previously pain-free swimmers. The prevalence increases with more training and occurs early during the training session.
Maria Eduarda Nobre
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the evolution of 15 patients who were treated for difficult-to-control episodic and chronic cluster headaches with clomiphene. Methods Clomiphene treatment was used for seven chronic and eight episodic cluster headache patients. The chronic patients were refractory to the medication being used, and the episodic patients, in addition to being resistant to conventional medication, had longer cluster headache periods, exceeding the average time of previous cluster cycles. Our main analysis was of the time to pain-free, complete remission, and the length of pain-free time and complete remission. Results Clomiphene was used for 45-180 days. The average time to being pain-free was 15 days and cluster remission was up to 60 days. The average time between being pain-free until cluster remission was 26 days. Conclusions Clomiphene treatment was significantly efficient. It interrupted chronicity in all patients, suggesting the capability of changing the pattern of attacks. It proved to be safe and well tolerated.
Waller, Robert; Smith, Anne Julia; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Slater, Helen; Sterling, Michele; McVeigh, Joanne Alexandra; Straker, Leon Melville
Currently there is a lack of large population studies that have investigated pain sensitivity distributions in healthy pain free people. The aims of this study were: (1) to provide sex-specific reference values of pressure and cold pain thresholds in young pain-free adults; (2) to examine the association of potential correlates of pain sensitivity with pain threshold values. This study investigated sex specific pressure and cold pain threshold estimates for young pain free adults aged 21-24 years. A cross-sectional design was utilised using participants (n=617) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at the 22-year follow-up. The association of site, sex, height, weight, smoking, health related quality of life, psychological measures and activity with pain threshold values was examined. Pressure pain threshold (lumbar spine, tibialis anterior, neck and dorsal wrist) and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) were assessed using standardised quantitative sensory testing protocols. Reference values for pressure pain threshold (four body sites) stratified by sex and site, and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) stratified by sex are provided. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased pressure pain sensitivity measures were site (neck, dorsal wrist), sex (female), higher waist-hip ratio and poorer mental health. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased cold pain sensitivity measures were, sex (female), poorer mental health and smoking. These data provide the most comprehensive and robust sex specific reference values for pressure pain threshold specific to four body sites and cold pain threshold at the dorsal wrist for young adults aged 21-24 years. Establishing normative values in this young age group is important given that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical temporal period during which trajectories for persistent pain can be established. These data will provide an important research
Mika, Piotr; Wilk, Boguslaw; Mika, Anna; Marchewka, Anna; Nizankowski, Rafał
To assess the effect of pain-free treadmill training on changes of plasma fibrinogen, haematocrit, lipid profile, and walking ability in patients with claudication. Randomized control trial. Sixty-eight patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease and intermittent claudication (Fontaine stage II) were randomly assigned into the treadmill training (repetitive intervals to onset of claudication pain, three times a week) or a control group (no change in physical activity) over 3 months. Both groups performed treadmill test to assess pain-free walking time (PFWT) and maximal walking time (MWT) and had blood analyses [for haematocrit, fibrinogen, triglycerides, and cholesterol: total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] done at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Total and LDL cholesterol levels in the training group decreased (p pain-free treadmill training parallels with progressive normalization of lipid profiles in patients with claudication.
[Purpose] This study prescribed pain-free range exercises for a female amateur skier who complained of limitations in her shoulder range of motion, and pain caused by protective spasms; the tester evaluated the effects of such exercise on pain. [Subject and Methods] A 23-year-old female who complained of pain of 3 weeks in duration in the right glenohumoral and scapulothoracic joints was enrolled. [Results] After pain-free range exercises, the visual analog pain score was 2 and the shoulder flexion and abduction angles improved compared to the initial values. [Conclusion] Thus, this study suggests muscle-strengthening exercises within the pain-free range, rather than simple pain treatments, as therapy for acute muscle injuries in skiers.
Fishbain, David A; Bruns, Daniel; Disorbio, John Mark; Lewis, John E
. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for five forms of suicidality in rehabilitation acute pain patients (APPs) and rehabilitation chronic pain patients (CPPs) vs pain-free community controls. The Battery for Health Improvement 2 was developed utilizing a healthy (pain-free) community sample (N = 1,478), a community patient sample (N = 158), and a rehabilitation patient sample (N = 777). These groups were asked five suicidality questions relating to history of wanting to die, wanting to die because of pain, recent frequent suicide ideation, having a suicide plan, and history of suicide attempt. Of the rehabilitation patients, 326 were identified as being APPs, 341 as being CPPs, and 110 as having no pain. The risk for affirming each of the five suicidality questions was calculated for rehabilitation APPs, rehabilitation CPPs, and rehabilitation patients without pain utilizing the healthy pain-free community sample as the reference group. In addition, risk was calculated for various subgroups of rehabilitation patients: those with worker's compensation status, with litigation status, and with personal injury status. There are a variety of settings. In rehabilitation CPPs the risk for suicidality was greater than community pain-free controls for three suicidality questions: history of wanting to die, recent frequent suicide ideation, and having a suicide plan. Worker's compensation status, litigation status, and personal injury status appeared to increase risk for affirmation of some types of suicidality in CPPs. Rehabilitation APPs were at greater risk for all five suicidality items than the community pain-free controls. Rehabilitation CPPs are at greater risk for some forms of suicidality than community pain-free controls. This risk is increased by variables such as worker's compensation status, litigation status, and personal injury status. However, it is yet unclear if these variables actually predict suicidality as this requires further
Tessitore, Alessandro; Russo, Antonio; De Micco, Rosa; Fratello, Michele; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Giordano, Alfonso; Cirillo, Mario; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Esposito, Fabrizio
Despite its clinical relevance, the pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still largely unknown, and both central and peripheral mechanisms have been invoked. To investigate whether central pain processing is altered in "drug-naive" pain-free PD (dnPD) patients. Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), functional response to forearm heat stimulation (FHS) at two different intensities (41°C and 53°C) was investigated in 20 pain-free dnPD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls (HCs). Secondary analyses were performed to evaluate associations between BOLD signal changes and PD clinical features and behavioral responses. During low-innocuous FHS (41°C), no activation differences were found between dnPD patients and HCs. During high-noxious FHS (53°C) a significantly increased activation in the left somatosensory cortex, left cerebellum, and right low pons was observed in dnPD patients compared to HCs. In the latter experimental condition, fMRI BOLD signal changes in the right low pons (p < .0001; R = -0.8) and in the cerebellum (p = .004; R = -0.7) were negatively correlated with pain intensity ratings only in dnPD patients. No statistically significant difference in experimental pain perception was detected between dnPD patients and HCs. Our findings suggest that a functional remodulation of pain processing pathways occurs even in the absence of clinically overt pain symptoms in dnPD patients. These mechanisms may eventually become dysfunctional over time, contributing to the emergence of pain symptoms in more advanced PD stages. The comprehension of pain-related mechanisms may improve the clinical approach and therapeutic management of this disabling nonmotor symptom. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Use of a fixed combination of acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen and caffeine compared with acetaminophen alone in episodic tension-type headache: meta-analysis of four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies
Background Most patients with episodic tension-type headache treat headache episodes with over-the-counter medication. Combination analgesics containing caffeine may be more effective and as well tolerated as monotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen (paracetamol) and caffeine in episodic tension-type headache using recently recommended endpoints. Methods Four randomized, controlled trials of identical design in 1,900 patients with episodic tension-type headache comparing acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen and caffeine vs. acetaminophen or placebo were pooled. Analysis populations were ‘all headache episodes’ and those with ‘severe pain at baseline’. Post-hoc defined primary endpoint: headache episodes pain-free at 2 h. Secondary endpoints: headache episodes pain-free at 1 h, headache response at 2 h (mild or no pain), degree of interference with daily activities. Results 6,861 headache episodes were treated, including 2,215 severe headache episodes. The proportion of headache episodes pain-free at 2 h was significantly higher with the triple combination (28.5%) vs. acetaminophen (21.0%) and placebo (18.0%) (p pain-free at 2 h, headache response at 2 h and ability to return to daily activities, even in those with pain rated severe at baseline. PMID:25406671
Orr, Lindsay C; George, Steven Z; Simon, Corey B
Pain sensitivity has been negatively associated with physical activity levels. Few studies have examined associations between experimentally induced pain sensitivity and physical activity in adults with chronic low back pain and pain-free controls. The objective of this study was to examine associations between physical activity levels and how an individual processes pain using experimentally induced pain stimuli. Seventy subjects (CLBP = 49; mean age = 46.8 ± 14.9; Pain-free = 21; mean age = 45.3 ± 18.2, n of females = 46) participated. A self-report questionnaire derived from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to calculate an activity level index. Pain sensitivity was assessed via quantitative sensory testing (QST) at the right lower extremity. Moderate (U = 688, ppain-free vs. individuals with CLBP. Activity level was not associated with pain sensitivity (Pain-free: R2 = 0.02, p> 0.05; CLBP: R2 = 0.01, p> 0.05). Both moderate (R2 = 0.49, ppain-free individuals. Findings suggest that physical activity influences pain modulation amongst pain-free individuals, however no relationship exists once CLBP is present. However, future investigation will elucidate the extent to which physical activity level either prevents CLBP or is effective in alleviating CLBP.
Kennedy, Donna; Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Hickson, Mary
Measurement Reliability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of one vs. the mean of three trials of pain-free grip strength in participants with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study used was a repeated-measures, crossover design. Pain-free grip strength was measured with the Biometric E-Link Evaluation System V900S (Unit 25, Nine Mile Point Ind. Est., Gwent UK NP11 7HZ), pain levels recorded before and after grip tests with visual analog scale. High levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient≥0.91) were found for both one trial and the mean of three trials of pain-free grip strength testing. Median values of grip strength for both methods produced comparable results. Clinically small but statistically significant increases in pain (p≤0.01) were found. One trial of pain-free grip strength is reliable and may save valuable clinical time while reducing the assessment burden placed on patients with RA. N/A. Copyright © 2010 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lower Choline-Containing Metabolites/Creatine (Cr Rise and Failure to Sustain NAA/Cr Levels in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Depressive Episode Recurrence under Maintenance Therapy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Retrospective Cohort Study
Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS parameters at the start of the index episode recovery phase and at recurrence in patients with recurrent depression who were treated with prolonged maintenance therapy.Methods1H-MRS parameters were analyzed in 48 patients with recurrent depression who required maintenance therapy with antidepressant medication prescribed by a psychiatrist and who continued with the same antidepressant during the maintenance phase, either to recurrence of depression, completion of the 10-year observation period, or the start of the withdrawal phase (tapering-off antidepressant. N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline-containing metabolites (Cho, creatine (Cr, and glutamine/glutamate were measured at the start of the recovery phase and 6 months later.ResultsRecurrent depressive episodes occurred in 20 patients. These individuals had a smaller increase in Cho/Cr after the beginning of the recovery phase compared to the non-recurrent patient group and also exhibited a decreased NAA/Cr ratio.ConclusionSustainable NAA and increased Cho levels at the onset of the recovery phase of the index episode are early markers of antidepressant effectiveness associated with a lower risk of major depressive disorder recurrence. The NAA and Cho changes in the non-recurrent group may be attributable to increased brain resilience, contrary to the transient temporal effect observed in subjects who experienced a depressive episode.
A new lancet with an extremely small needle (0.15 mm diameter and 0.75 mm length) mounted on a small pedestal was tested in diabetic patients for blood glucose measurement in a randomized clinical study. A total of 37 diabetic patients were enrolled for the study. A pain scale categorized from 0 to 3 was created to measure the intensity of puncture pain which was explained to patients before testing. The patients' fingers were punctured with their own old style lancets at least 1 hour before the punctures by the new lancets, and puncture pains recorded according to the pain scale. All patients tested with the new lancet reported no pain and recorded the puncture pain as scale 0. Among the total 37 patients tested with their old style lancets, 2 patients (5.40%) reported no pain and recorded the pain as scale 0, thirteen patients (35.14%) recorded as scale 1, 16 patients (43.24%) as scale 2, and 6 patients (16.22%) as scale 3. The average pain scale of the patients who used old style lancets was 1.702 with the standard error 0.133. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test shows that the proportion of the pain scales comes from the claimed distribution with unequal frequencies, and chi-square tests for independence indicate that neither sex nor age of the sample patients is related to the pain scales.The paired t-test to test the existence of any difference in pain levels between the new lancet and the old style lancet showed; t = 1.702/0.133 = 12.796 with p-value Pain-free needle puncture was achieved by limiting the puncture depth to less than 0.75 mm with a thin needle with a 0.15 mm diameter. By allowing patients to see the new lancets before testing, psychological pain anticipation was minimized as the very thin and short needle is visually less intimidating. With a pain free puncture, better compliance and improved subsequent glucose levels may be achieved.
Besier, Thor F; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E; Beaupré, Gary S; Delp, Scott L
One proposed mechanism of patellofemoral pain, increased stress in the joint, is dependent on forces generated by the quadriceps muscles. Describing causal relationships between muscle forces, tissue stresses, and pain is difficult due to the inability to directly measure these variables in vivo. The purpose of this study was to estimate quadriceps forces during walking and running in a group of male and female patients with patellofemoral pain (n = 27, 16 female; 11 male) and compare these to pain-free controls (n = 16, 8 female; 8 male). Subjects walked and ran at self-selected speeds in a gait laboratory. Lower limb kinematics and electromyography (EMG) data were input to an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model of the knee, which was scaled and calibrated to each individual to estimate forces in 10 muscles surrounding the joint. Compared to controls, the patellofemoral pain group had greater co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings (p = 0.025) and greater normalized muscle forces during walking, even though the net knee moment was similar between groups. Muscle forces during running were similar between groups, but the net knee extension moment was less in the patellofemoral pain group compared to controls. Females displayed 30-50% greater normalized hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces during both walking and running compared to males (ppain-free subjects. The muscle force data are available as supplementary material.
Gaspari, Sevasti; Cogliani, Valeria; Manouras, Lefteris; Anderson, Ethan M; Mitsi, Vasiliki; Avrampou, Kleopatra; Carr, Fiona B; Zachariou, Venetia
Regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) is a striatal-enriched signal-transduction modulator known to have a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviors following exposure to psychostimulants or opioids. RGS9-2 controls the function of several G-protein-coupled receptors, including dopamine receptor and mu opioid receptor (MOR). We previously showed that RGS9-2 complexes negatively control morphine analgesia, and promote the development of morphine tolerance. In contrast, RGS9-2 positively modulates the actions of other opioid analgesics, such as fentanyl and methadone. Here we investigate the role of RGS9-2 in regulating responses to oxycodone, an MOR agonist prescribed for the treatment of severe pain conditions that has addictive properties. Using mice lacking the Rgs9 gene (RGS9KO), we demonstrate that RGS9-2 positively regulates the rewarding effects of oxycodone in pain-free states, and in a model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, although RGS9-2 does not affect the analgesic efficacy of oxycodone or the expression of physical withdrawal, it opposes the development of oxycodone tolerance, in both acute pain and chronic neuropathic pain models. Taken together, these data provide new information on the signal-transduction mechanisms that modulate the rewarding and analgesic actions of oxycodone.
Smietańska, Irmina; Adrian, Elżbieta; Smietański, Maciej; Kitowski, Józef
Postoperative pain still poses a serious problem for 80% of patients undergoing surgery. We assessed the effects of the implementation of standards of postoperative analgesia, according to the guidelines of the "Pain-free hospital" project, and PROSPECT group recommendations, in the daily practice of a general surgical hospital ward. One hundred adult patients, scheduled for elective inguinal or umbilical hernia surgery, were included in the study and allocated to two groups, to receive analgesics on demand (control), or postoperative analgesia according to the introduced programs. The number of additional interventions and patients' satisfaction were chosen as primary end points to assess the clinical value of the introduced standards. Additionally, the type and dose of analgesics, and duration of hospital stay were noted. One additional intervention (2%) was required in the treated group, and 9 (18%) - in the control group (p=0.023). In the treated group, the patient satisfaction (0 to 10) score was rated 9 by 39 patients (78%) and 10 by 11 patients (22%). The duration of hospitalisation was similar in both groups. We confirmed the success of introducing the standards of pain treatment into the daily practice of a surgical ward.
Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn
Alterations of respiratory patterns have been observed in pelvic girdle pain subjects during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). This study investigated how pain-free subjects coordinate motor control during an ASLR when this task is complicated by the addition of a respiratory challenge. Trunk muscle activation, intra-abdominal pressure, intra-thoracic pressure, pelvic floor motion, downward pressure of the non-lifted leg and respiratory rate were compared between resting supine, ASLR, breathing with inspiratory resistance (IR) and ASLR+IR. Subjects responded to ASLR+IR with an increase in the motor activation in the abdominal wall and chest wall compared to when ASLR and IR were performed in isolation. Activation of obliquus internus abdominis was greater on the side of the leg lift during the ASLR+IR, in comparison to symmetrical activation observed in the other abdominal wall muscles. The incremental increase of motor activity was associated with greater intra-abdominal pressure baseline shift when lifting the leg during ASLR+IR compared to ASLR. Individual variation was apparent in the form of the motor control patterns, mostly reflected in variable respiratory activation of the abdominal wall. The findings highlight the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in adapting to simultaneous respiratory and stability demands. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osterbrink, J; Ewers, A; Nestler, N; Pogatzki-Zahn, E; Bauer, Z; Gnass, I; Sirsch, E; Krüger, C; Mitterlehner, B; Kutschar, P; Hemling, S; Fischer, B; Marschall, U; Aschauer, W; Weichbold, M; van Aken, H
Inadequate pain care in health care facilities is still a major concern. Due to structural and organizational shortcomings the potential of modern analgesia is far from being exhausted. The project "Action Alliance Pain-free City Münster" is designed to analyze the multiprofessional pain management in health care facilities in the model City of Münster in an epidemiologic study and aims to optimize pain management in accordance with nursing standards and medical guidelines. Hospitals, nursing homes, outpatient nursing services, hospices and pain care centers will be examined. After an analysis of the current state on the basis of a pre-test, the necessary optimization measures will be developed and implemented. Subsequently, the pain management will be reevaluated in a post-test. In partly still unexplored health care areas of Germany, epidemiologic data will be generated, barriers to the implementation of standards and guidelines revealed and measures of improvements developed and tested. In addition, interface problems between the evaluated sectors will be identified. In this article the objective and the methods of the project are described.
Dipnarine, Krishna; Barak, Sharon; Martinez, Coleen A; Carmeli, Eliezer; Stopka, Christine B
Intermittent claudication, a common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, results in insufficient blood flow and oxygen supply to lower extremity muscles. Compared to men, women with peripheral arterial disease have a higher rate of mobility loss with peripheral arterial disease due to poorer lower extremity functioning. This study evaluates the effect of supervised pain-free treadmill exercise on improving performance in women with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease in comparison to men. A total of 26 participants (women, n = 9, 34.62%; mean age = 67.58 ± 5.59 years; averaging 23.46 ± 3.91 visits and 10.46 ± 0.99 weeks in the program) diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease, with symptoms of intermittent claudication, partook in a 45 min treadmill walk, twice per week, below the participant's minimal pain threshold. Female participants' change scores showed 752%, 278% and 115% improvement in mean walking distance, duration and rate, respectively. Men improved 334%, 149% and 80%, respectively. Significant differences (p 0.80). Our results suggest that women reap similar benefits from this low-intensity treadmill program in comparison to men. © The Author(s) 2015.
Neziri, Alban Y; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Andersen, Ole K; Dickenson, Anthony H; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Curatolo, Michele
Quantitative sensory tests are widely used in human research to evaluate the effect of analgesics and explore altered pain mechanisms, such as central sensitization. In order to apply these tests in clinical practice, knowledge of reference values is essential. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of pain thresholds for mechanical and thermal stimuli, as well as withdrawal time for the cold pressor test in 300 pain-free subjects. Pain detection and pain tolerance thresholds to pressure, heat and cold were determined at three body sites: (1) lower back, (2) suprascapular region and (3) second toe (for pressure) or the lateral aspect of the leg (for heat and cold). The influences of gender, age, height, weight, body-mass index (BMI), body side of testing, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and parameters of Short-Form 36 (SF-36) were analyzed by multiple regressions. Quantile regressions were performed to define the 5th, 10th and 25th percentiles as reference values for pain hypersensitivity and the 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles as reference values for pain hyposensitivity. Gender, age and/or the interaction of age with gender were the only variables that consistently affected the pain measures. Women were more pain sensitive than men. However, the influence of gender decreased with increasing age. In conclusion, normative values of parameters related to pressure, heat and cold pain stimuli were determined. Reference values have to be stratified by body region, gender and age. The determination of these reference values will now allow the clinical application of the tests for detecting abnormal pain reactions in individual patients. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Locke, David; Gibson, William; Moss, Penny; Munyard, Kylie; Mamotte, Cyril; Wright, Anthony
Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) encompasses the effects of inhibitory and facilitatory pain modulatory systems and is inefficient in some chronic pain states. A proportion of healthy subjects also exhibit little or no CPM, perhaps suggesting that inherent factors such as gender or genetics may be influential. However, there is no consensus on how best to determine a meaningful CPM effect. This study aimed to determine the proportion of pain-free subjects exhibiting a meaningful CPM effect. Analyses of associations between 5HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphisms on the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), gender, and CPM effect were also carried out. A total of 125 healthy subjects (47 male; 78 female) underwent pressure pain threshold testing before, during, and after a cold pressor conditioning stimulus. A buccal cell sample was collected for analysis of 5HTTLPR genotype. Meaningful CPM effect was determined as an increase in pressure pain threshold values from baseline greater than the inherent error of measurement, calculated as 5.3%. During the conditioning stimulus, 116 subjects (92.8%) exhibited a CPM effect whereas 9 did not. CPM effect did not differ significantly between genders or between 5HTTLPR genotypes. This provides a clear basis on which to determine the proportion of patients with a chronic pain disorder that exhibit a meaningful CPM effect. This study proposes a method for calculating meaningful CPM effect and reports the proportion and magnitude of effect elicited in a large sample. Associations between CPM, gender, and genotype were also analyzed. Clarification of normal CPM response may help to elucidate the mechanisms driving CPM inefficiency in chronic pain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riedmann, G; Lindner, M; Barolin, G S
Amnesic episodes, by no means infrequent occurrences, are likely to trigger off anxiety in the patient and to evade adequate diagnostic interpretation. They consist of an isolated disturbance of short-term memory, manifesting itself as a permanent memory gap. The clinical features may vary from a conspicuous behaviour with stereotype repetition of questions to a completely inconspicuous picture with flawless execution of even highly differentiated behaviour patterns. The vegetative state may either be completely undisturbed or vary from mild impairment with nausea and vertigo to marked vegetative disorder. We are advocating a classification in 3 groups: a) "Genuine" amnesic states as symptoms of impaired blood flow in the basilar system in the absence of other etiological clues. b) "Symptomatic" amnesic episodes with tangible pathogenic factors, such as injury of the head and cervical spine, epilepsy, intoxication with various agents. The "genuine" amnesic states can also be regarded as transitory ischemic attacks of the basilar system. They show the following criteria: preponderance in females beyond middle age, duration of several hours, relatively high frequency of vascular risk factors and degenerative changes in the cervical spine, often triggered off by stress on the cervical spine, low tendency towards recurrence, general clinical benignity. In consequence, we stress the importance of etiological clarification before the onset of therapy. After the diagnosis of "genuine" amnesic state has been established, treatment has to be in accordance with the principles of basilar stroke therapy with subsequent vascular prophylaxis. Nevertheless, because of possible therapeutic or forensic consequences, the "symptomatic" states have to be kept in mind.
Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Quartana, Phillip J; Quain, Angela M; Smith, Michael T
To determine whether patients with a painful myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) have diminished nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, relative to healthy, pain-free controls. Participants with myofascial TMD and healthy, pain-free volunteers underwent nocturnal polysomnography studies during which HRV indices were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine whether TMD status exerted unique effects on HRV. Ninety-five participants (n = 37 TMD; n = 58 controls) were included in the analyses. The TMD group had a lower standard deviation of R-R intervals (89.81 ± 23.54 ms versus 107.93 ± 34.42 ms, P ⋜ .01), a lower root mean squared successive difference (RMSSD) of R-R intervals (54.78 ± 27.37 ms versus 81.88 ± 46.43 ms, P pain-free controls. Further research should focus on processes that address this ANS imbalance, which may potentially lead to effective therapeutic interventions.
Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Noordermeer, Siri D S; van Wijck, Albert J M; Snijders, Tom J; Geenen, Rinie
Patients with pain are more reactive to various types of sensations, not limited to pain alone. A potential useful instrument to assess reactivity is the Kohn Reactivity Scale (KRS). This study examines the psychometric characteristics of the KRS-Dutch version and its ability to differentiate between subjects with and without pain. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the Dutch translation of the KRS were assessed in 321 pain-free control subjects and different subgroups of this sample. Subsequently, reactivity scores were compared between the pain-free subjects and 291 pain patients who were referred to a pain clinic for treatment. Reliability analyses indicated good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.77) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.95) of the KRS in the control subjects. Validity analyses yielded positive correlations of the KRS with related constructs like pain vigilance and awareness (r = 0.37), symptom severity (r = 0.29), and the personality characteristic neuroticism (r = 0.20). Pain patients had overall significantly higher KRS scores than the pain-free subjects indicating increased reactivity, particularly for the patients with medically unexplained pain. These findings indicate that the KRS is a useful instrument to screen for reactivity in pain patients, which may be of particular relevance for those suffering from medically unexplained pain. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.
Pagé, Gabrielle M; Kleiman, Valery; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Katz, Joel
Factor-analytic studies of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have yielded inconsistent results. One of the reasons for the inconsistency may be that PTSD is highly comorbid with other disorders; the observed factor structure might depend on the particular comorbid disorder. One such disorder is chronic pain. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether PTSD symptom structure differs between pain and pain-free patients scheduled to undergo major surgery. Four hundred and forty-seven patients who were approached 7 to 10 days prior to scheduled surgery completed the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) Version and the Current Pain and Pain History Questionnaire; the latter was used to divide patients into pain (N = 175) and pain-free (N = 272) groups. Results showed that in pain-free patients, PTSD symptoms were best expressed as 2 symptom clusters (re-experiencing/avoidance; emotional numbing/hyperarousal) accounting for 52.4% of the variance. In pain patients, PTSD symptoms were best expressed as a single symptom cluster accounting for 51.1% of the variance. These results suggest different interrelationships among PTSD symptoms in these 2 populations. Results reflect the need for (1) controlling for pain in studies looking at PTSD-symptom expression and (2) further research on PTSD-symptom expression in pain populations. These results may have important implications for research on the comorbidity between PTSD and chronic pain, as well as for treatment of PTSD symptoms in patients presenting with pain problems.
Holstein, A; Thiessen, E; Kaufmann, N; Plaschke, A; Egberts, E H
For many diabetic patients, years of blood glucose self-monitoring (SM) with readings taken several times daily is an inevitable aspect of insulin therapy. We investigated whether SM from abdominal skin might be an alternative to the established fingertip method. A total of 63 diabetic patients and 16 nondiabetic volunteers determined their blood glucose in parallel in capillary blood from the tip of the finger and from abdominal skin 5 times daily on 5 successive days. The blood samples were collected from the two test regions using lancing devices, and the SM determinations were all done with a meter. Consecutive specific enzymatic glucose determinations in blood from the fingertip served as the reference method. The results of the SM from abdominal skin, a method perceived as virtually painless, were in close correlation with the control laboratory determinations and with SM from the finger (Pearson's r, 0.94 and 0.95). The comparison of SM method for abdomen vs. finger laboratory control gave a linear regression equation of y=8.35+0.94x (r=0.94). Error grid analysis revealed: range A, 93.6%; range B, 5.4%; range C, 0.05%; range D, 1.0%; and range E, 0%. Bland and Altman analysis yielded the mean of the differences, 0.2 mg/dl; 2 SD, 32 mg/dl; minimum, -162 mg/dl; maximum, 148 mg/dl. Laboratory glucose determinations in capillary blood from the fingertip and from abdominal skin led in 99.7% of the cases to concordant therapeutic decisions in the diabetics; the sample material was therefore equivalent. The practical aspects (afterbleeding, number of punctures, test strip consumption) of SM from the two regions showed no essential differences. However, only 22% of the diabetic patients investigated continued to perform SM from abdominal skin on a longer basis. In a further 5 adipose diabetic patients (BMI, 32 kg/M2), SM from abdominal skin was not practicable, as there was insufficient blood to collect. SM from abdomal skin is a simple, virtually pain-free and
Michael Lukas Meier
Full Text Available Fear of movement (FOM can be acquired by a direct aversive experience such as pain or by social learning through observation and instruction. Excessive FOM results in heightened disability and is an obstacle for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain (cLBP. FOM has further been identified as a significant explanatory factor in the Fear Avoidance (FA model of cLBP that describes how individuals experiencing acute back pain may become trapped into a vicious circle of chronic disability and suffering. Despite a wealth of evidence emphasizing the importance of FOM in cLBP, to date, no related neural correlates in patients were found and this therefore has initiated a debate about the precise contribution of fear in the FA model. In the current fMRI study, we applied a novel approach encompassing 1 video clips of potentially harmful activities for the back as FOM inducing stimuli and 2 the assessment of FOM in both, cLBP patients (N = 20 and age- and gender-matched pain-free subjects (N = 20. Derived from the FA model, we hypothesized that FOM differentially affects brain regions involved in fear processing in patients with cLBP compared to pain-free individuals due to the recurrent pain and subsequent avoidance behaviour. The results of the whole brain voxel-wise regression analysis revealed that 1 FOM positively correlated with brain activity in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala and the insula and 2 Differential effects of FOM between patients with cLBP and pain-free subjects were found in the extended amygdala and in its connectivity to the anterior insula. Current findings support the FOM component of the FA model in cLBP.
Meier, Michael L; Stämpfli, Philipp; Vrana, Andrea; Humphreys, Barry K; Seifritz, Erich; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina
Fear of movement (FOM) can be acquired by a direct aversive experience such as pain or by social learning through observation and instruction. Excessive FOM results in heightened disability and is an obstacle for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain (cLBP). FOM has further been identified as a significant explanatory factor in the Fear Avoidance (FA) model of cLBP that describes how individuals experiencing acute back pain may become trapped into a vicious circle of chronic disability and suffering. Despite a wealth of evidence emphasizing the importance of FOM in cLBP, to date, no related neural correlates in patients were found and this therefore has initiated a debate about the precise contribution of fear in the FA model. In the current fMRI study, we applied a novel approach encompassing: (1) video clips of potentially harmful activities for the back as FOM inducing stimuli; and (2) the assessment of FOM in both, cLBP patients (N = 20) and age- and gender-matched pain-free subjects (N = 20). Derived from the FA model, we hypothesized that FOM differentially affects brain regions involved in fear processing in patients with cLBP compared to pain-free individuals due to the recurrent pain and subsequent avoidance behavior. The results of the whole brain voxel-wise regression analysis revealed that: (1) FOM positively correlated with brain activity in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala and the insula; and (2) differential effects of FOM between patients with cLBP and pain-free subjects were found in the extended amygdala and in its connectivity to the anterior insula. Current findings support the FOM component of the FA model in cLBP.
Dounavi, Myrto D; Chesterton, Linda S; Sim, Julius
Little evidence exists regarding parameter selection for hypoalgesia using interferential therapy (IFT). This study investigated segmental and extrasegmental hypoalgesic effects of different IFT parameter combinations upon experimentally induced pressure pain threshold (PPT) in pain-free volunteers. The participants were randomly assigned to 6 groups: control, placebo, bipolar constant amplitude modulation frequency (AMF), bipolar sweep AMF, quadripolar constant AMF, and quadripolar sweep AMF. The study was conducted in a university laboratory. One hundred eighty adults who were healthy and pain-free participated in the study. Interferential therapy was delivered to all groups at high, to-tolerance intensity and at high AMF. Stimulation to the dominant forearm was delivered for 30 minutes, with monitoring for a further 30 minutes. Pain pressure threshold was measured at the area of first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant and nondominant hands (segmental measurements) and over the tibialis anterior muscle (extrasegmental measurement) at baseline and at 10-minute intervals using a pressure algometer. Square root transformed PPT data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was a significant change in PPT over time, but no significant between-subjects difference in segmental or extrasegmental PPT between any of the IFT groups and the placebo or control group. Thus, IFT delivered in any of these parameter combinations did not significantly affect the PPT of pain-free participants compared with the control or placebo group. Success of blinding was not evaluated. This study showed that IFT delivered at high, to-tolerance intensity and high AMF does not produce significant segmental and extrasegmental hypoalgesic effects on PPT in participants who were healthy compared with a control or placebo group. Further research is warranted to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of different IFT parameter combinations and to explain its possible
Nester, Christopher J; Jarvis, Hannah L; Jones, Richard K; Bowden, Peter D; Liu, Anmin
Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals. Kinematics of the leg, calcaneus, midfoot, medial and lateral forefoot and hallux were measured in 100 self reported healthy and pain free individuals during walking. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise foot movements. Contributions from different foot segments to the total motion in each plane were also derived to explore functional roles of different parts of the foot. Foot segments demonstrated greatest motion in the sagittal plane, but large ranges of movement in all planes. All foot segments demonstrated movement throughout gait, though least motion was observed between the midfoot and calcaneus. There was inconsistent evidence of movement coupling between joints. There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature. The data reveal the foot is a multiarticular structure, movements are complex, show incomplete evidence of coupling, and vary person to person. The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.
Moloney, Niamh; Hall, Toby; Doody, Catherine
Nonspecific arm pain (NSAP) is a common clinical entity, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate sensory profiles in individuals with nonspecific arm pain compared with cervical radiculopathy and pain-free controls. Forty office workers with NSAP, 17 people with cervical radiculopathy, and 40 pain-free controls were assessed by means of quantitative sensory testing (thermal and vibration detection thresholds; thermal and pressure pain thresholds), tests for neural tissue sensitivity, and questionnaires. Between-group comparisons were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis tests. An exploratory factor analysis was used to determine characteristic features in NSAP. Both patient groups demonstrated cold and pressure pain sensitivity (P<0.003; P<0.05) and neural tissue sensitivity (P<0.001). The NSAP group also demonstrated heat pain sensitivity (P<0.001). Both patient groups demonstrated hypoaesthesia to vibration thresholds (P<0.05), whereas thermal hypoaesthesia was only evident in the cervical radiculopathy group (P<0.05). Exploratory factor analysis revealed pressure and thermal pain sensitivity as the key characteristics of this NSAP group. Sensory profiles in NSAP and cervical radiculopathy differ. NSAP is characterized by widespread sensitivity to thermal and pressure pain in the absence of thermal hypoaesthesia, whereas cervical radiculopathy is characterized by the presence of thermal and vibratory hypoaesthesia as well as more localized cold and pressure pain sensitivity. The identification of widespread sensory hypersensitivity in NSAP has important implications for clinical decision making.
Baastrup, Sidsel; Schultz, Rikke; Brødsgaard, Inger
Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly...... different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain. The results showed that FM and NP patients...... did not cope differently with pain. The only difference between the groups was that FM patients felt more in control of their pain than NP patients. Both patient groups used more maladaptive/passive coping strategies, but surprisingly also more adaptive/active coping strategies than healthy controls...
Larsen, Lars Henrik; Sørensen, Brian Østergaard; Brogner, Heidi Marie
Introduction: Trunk muscle control is consistently altered in persistent low back pain patients during a variety of functions but the effect of experimental pain induction in recurrent low back pain patients during a pain-free period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate...... activity during swing phases in patients compared with control participants indicated persistent sensorimotor changes in recurrent low back patients during a pain-free period. Acknowledgement: The study was supported by Center for Neuroplasticity and Pain (CNAP), SMI, Department of Health Science...
Baastrup, Sidsel; Schultz, Rikke; Brødsgaard, Inger; Moore, Rod; Jensen, Troels S; Vase Toft, Lene; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Gormsen, Lise
Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain. The results showed that FM and NP patients did not cope differently with pain. The only difference between the groups was that FM patients felt more in control of their pain than NP patients. Both patient groups used more maladaptive/passive coping strategies, but surprisingly also more adaptive/active coping strategies than healthy controls. However, FM patients with high levels of passive strategies felt less in control than FM patients with low levels of passive strategies. This was not seen in NP patients. An important implication for clinical practice is therefore that passive coping strategies should be restructured into active ones, especially for FM patients. Otherwise, the same psychological treatment model can be applied to both groups since they use similar coping styles. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G
In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Magalhães, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Paula M C C; Sacramento, Sylvio N; Martin, RobRoy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y
The purpose of the study was to compare hip agonist-antagonist isometric strength ratios between females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome and pain-free control group. One hundred and twenty females between 15 and 40 years of age (control group: n = 60; PFP group: n = 60) participated in the study. Hip adductor, abductor, medial rotator, lateral rotator, flexor, and extensor isometric strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Comparisons in the hip adductor/abductor and medial/lateral rotator and flexor/extensor strength ratios were made between groups using independent t-tests. Group comparisons also were made between the anteromedial hip complex (adductor, medial rotator, and flexor musculature) and posterolateral hip complex (abductor, lateral rotator, and extensor musculature). On average, the hip adductor/abductor isometric strength ratio in the PFP group was 23% higher when compared with the control group (p = 0.01). The anteromedial/posterolateral complex ratio also was significantly higher in the PFP group (average 8%; p = 0.04). No significant group differences were found for the medial/lateral rotator ratio and flexor/extensor strength ratios. The results of this study demonstrate that females with PFP have altered hip strength ratios when compared with asymptomatic controls. These strength imbalances may explain the tendency of females with PFP to demonstrate kinematic tendencies that increase loading on the patellofemoral joint (i.e., dynamic knee valgus).
Austin, Stephen; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry
Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....
Tuleasca, Constantin; Carron, Romain; Resseguier, Noémie; Donnet, Anne; Roussel, Philippe; Gaudart, Jean; Levivier, Marc; Régis, Jean
The goal of this study was to establish whether clear patterns of initial pain freedom could be identified when treating patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The authors compared hypesthesia and pain recurrence rates to see if statistically significant differences could be found. Between July 1992 and November 2010, 737 patients presenting with TN underwent GKS and prospective evaluation at Timone University Hospital in Marseille, France. In this study the authors analyzed the cases of 497 of these patients, who participated in follow-up longer than 1 year, did not have megadolichobasilar artery- or multiple sclerosis-related TN, and underwent GKS only once; in other words, the focus was on cases of classic TN with a single radiosurgical treatment. Radiosurgery was performed with a Leksell Gamma Knife (model B, C, or Perfexion) using both MR and CT imaging targeting. A single 4-mm isocenter was positioned in the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve at a median distance of 7.8 mm (range 4.5-14 mm) anterior to the emergence of the nerve. A median maximum dose of 85 Gy (range 70-90 Gy) was delivered. Using empirical methods and assisted by a chart with clear cut-off periods of pain free distribution, the authors were able to divide patients who experienced freedom from pain into 3 separate groups: patients who became pain free within the first 48 hours post-GKS; those who became pain free between 48 hours and 30 days post-GKS; and those who became pain free more than 30 days after GKS. The median age in the 497 patients was 68.3 years (range 28.1-93.2 years). The median follow-up period was 43.75 months (range 12-174.41 months). Four hundred fifty-four patients (91.34%) were initially pain free within a median time of 10 days (range 1-459 days) after GKS. One hundred sixty-nine patients (37.2%) became pain free within the first 48 hours (Group PF(≤ 48 hours)), 194 patients (42.8%) between posttreatment Day 3 and
Foster, David C; Falsetta, Megan L; Woeller, Collynn F; Pollock, Stephen J; Song, Kunchang; Bonham, Adrienne; Haidaris, Constantine G; Stodgell, Chris J; Messing, Susan P; Iadarola, Michael; Phipps, Richard P
Fibroblast strains were derived from 2 regions of the lower genital tract of localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) cases and pain-free controls. Sixteen strains were derived from 4 cases and 4 controls, age and race matched, after presampling mechanical pain threshold assessments. Strains were challenged with 6 separate stimuli: live yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), yeast extract (zymosan), or inactive vehicle. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were proinflammatory response measures. Highest IL-6 and PGE2 occurred with vestibular strains after C albicans, C glabrata, and zymosan challenges, resulting in the ability to significantly predict IL-6 and PGE2 production by genital tract location. After C albicans and C glabrata challenge of all 16 fibroblast strains, adjusting for dual sampling of subjects, PGE2 and IL-6 production significantly predicted the presampling pain threshold from the genital tract site of sampling. At the same location of pain assessment and fibroblast sampling, in situ immunohistochemical (IHC)(+) fibroblasts for IL-6 and Cox-2 were quantified microscopically. The correlation between IL-6 production and IL-6 IHC(+) was statistically significant; however, biological significance is unknown because of the small number of IHC(+) IL-6 fibroblasts identified. A low fibroblast IL-6 IHC(+) count may result from most IL-6 produced by fibroblasts existing in a secreted extracellular state. Enhanced, site-specific, innate immune responsiveness to yeast pathogens by fibroblasts may be an early step in LPV pathogenesis. Fibroblast strain testing may offer an attractive and objective marker of LPV pathology in women with vulvodynia of inflammatory origin.
Horn-Hofmann, C; Wolf, D; Wolff, S; Heesen, M; Knippenberg-Bigge, K; Lang, P M; Lautenbacher, S
Empirical evidence suggests that affective responses to pain are changed in chronic pain. The investigation of startle responses to pain might contribute to clarifying whether such alterations also expand to motivational defensive reactions. We aimed at comparing startle responses to tonic heat pain with high threat (HT) or low threat (LT) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and controls. As pain-related anxiety and catastrophizing are typically elevated in chronic pain, we expected to find stronger startle responses in patients specifically under experimental HT. Patients with chronic musculoskeletal, preferentially, back pain (N = 19) and matched pain-free controls (N = 19) underwent two pain-related threat conditions (high and low) in balanced order. Only, in the HT condition, 50% of the trials were announced to include a short further noxious temperature increase at the end. Startle responses to loud tones were always assessed prior to a potential temperature increase in the phase of anticipation and were recorded by surface electromyogram. Surprisingly, we observed no differences in startle responses and ratings of emotional and pain responses between patients and controls despite significantly higher pain-related anxiety and catastrophizing in the patients. Overall, startle was potentiated in the HT condition, but only in participants who started with this condition. Our results suggest that, in general, patients with pain are not more responsive emotionally to experimental threat manipulations despite elevated pain anxiety and catastrophizing. Instead, exaggerated responses in patients might be triggered only by individual concerns relating to pain, which are not sufficiently mirrored by our threat paradigm.
V. B. Geethika
Full Text Available Background: Low back pain is a common, benign, and self-limiting disease that affects almost all persons, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 84%. In contrast, sciatica affects only 40 % of all persons in the Western industrialized countries. In sciatica, pain radiates down the legs, below the knee along the distribution of sciatic nerve. Nerve root compression is the most common cause of sciatica. Neuro dynamics or Neural Tissue Mobilization is relatively new approach in treatment of neuro musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the study to determine the effectiveness of Neural Tissue mobilization on pain, pain free passive SLR ROM &functional disability in LBA subjects with Sciatica. Objective of the study is to study and compare the effectiveness of Neural tissue mobilization in LBA subjects with sciatica in terms of pain, pain free SLR ROM and Oswestry Disability Index. Methods: 30 subjects were selected by simple random sampling and assigned in to Control(n=15 &Experimental group(n=15.The subjects in control group were given conventional physiotherapy and those in Experimental group were given Neural Tissue Mobilization in addition to conventional therapy. All the participants were assessed with VAS, ODI and pain free passive SLR ROM. Results: After the analysis, the results were found to be significant improvement in pain, pain free SLR ROM, ODI in both groups (p< 0.00.But there is a high significance in Experimental group when compared to control group. Conclusion: Results suggest that NEURAL TISSUE MOBILIZATION along with conventional therapy is more effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving SLR ROM.
Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O’Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz
Background Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Methods Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymp...
Kunz, M; Capito, E S; Horn-Hofmann, C; Baum, C; Scheel, J; Karmann, A J; Priebe, J A; Lautenbacher, S
The way individuals attend to pain is known to have a considerable impact on the experience and chronification of pain. One method to assess the habitual "attention to pain" is the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ). With the present study, we aimed to test the psychometric properties of the German version of the PVAQ across pain-free samples and across patients with acute and chronic pain. Two samples of pain-free individuals (student sample (N = 255)/non-student sample (N = 362)) and two clinical pain samples (acute pain patients (N = 105)/chronic pain patients (N = 36)) were included in this cross-sectional evaluation of the German PVAQ. Factor structure was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Construct validity was tested by assessing correlations between PVAQ and theoretically related constructs. Exploratory factor analysis (non-student sample) and confirmatory factor analysis (student sample, acute pain patient sample) suggested that a two-factor solution best fitted our data ("attention to pain," "attention to changes in pain"). Internal consistency ranged from acceptable to good in all four samples. As hypothesized, the PVAQ correlated significantly with theoretically related constructs in all four samples, suggesting good construct validity in pain-free individuals and in pain patients. The German PVAQ shows good psychometric properties across samples of pain-free individuals and patients suffering from pain that are comparable to PVAQ versions of other languages. Thus, the German PVAQ seems to be a measure of pain vigilance equally valid as found in other countries.
Kuscu, O O; Kucuktepe, C; Caglar, E; Cildir, S K; Hacinlioglu, N; Sandallı, N
To examine the role of 'student-to-student local analgesia administration' on undergraduate dental students' opinions regarding pain-free local analgesia techniques in children. Grade 3 (n:29), Grade 4 (n:59) and Grade 5 students (n:28) of Yeditepe University, School of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey participated in the study. Informed consent and ethical approval were obtained. Students' opinions were evaluated by means of a short survey administered before and after educational activities. Activities were provided in a didactic manner (theoretical, practical and clinical stages) and lasted for 6 months. Theoretical lectures on 'pain-free local analgesia techniques in children' were given to all classes. In the practical stage, 3rd and 4th grade students were paired and performed infiltration analgesia on each other according to the lectured technique. In the final clinical stage, 4th and 5th grade students were supervised, whilst administering the technique on children during their clinical training. Before the activities, only 40% of students believed in the possibility of pain-free local analgesia in children, whereas after the educational activities, the percentage had risen to 68% (P = 0.0001). A significant difference was observed between the opinions of 4th grade students who attended the practical stage and 5th grade students who did not. The role of 'student-to-student local analgesia administration' was found to be significant in changing undergraduate students' opinions about pain-free dental injections in children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coviello, Joseph Paul; Kakar, Rumit Singh; Reynolds, Timothy James
While there is limited evidence supporting the use of soft tissue mobilization techniques for Subacromial Pain Syndrome (SAPS), synonymous with subacromial impingement syndrome, previous studies have reported successful outcomes using soft tissue mobilization as a treatment technique. The purpose of this case report is to document the results of Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) for the treatment of SAPS. Diagnosis was reached based on the subject's history, tenderness to palpation, and four out of five positive tests in the diagnostic cluster. Treatment consisted of three visits where the IASTM technique was applied to the pectoral muscles as well as periscapular musculature followed by retesting pain-free shoulder flexion active range of motion (AROM) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) during active shoulder flexion. Scapulothoracic mobilization and stretching were performed after AROM measurement. The subject reported an NPRS of 0/10 and demonstrated improvements in pain free flexion AROM in each of the three treatment sessions post-IASTM: 85 ° to 181 °, 110 ° to 171 °, and 163 ° to 174 ° with some carryover in pain reduction and pain free AROM to the next treatment. Through three treatments, DASH score improved by 17.34%, Penn Shoulder Score improved 29%, worst NPRS decreased from 4/10 to 0/10, and a GROC score of 6. IASTM may have a beneficial acute effect on pain free shoulder flexion. In conjunction with scapulothoracic mobilizations and stretching, IASTM may improve function, decrease pain, and improve patient satisfaction. While this technique will not ameliorate the underlying pathomechanics contributing to SAPS, it may serve as a valuable tool to restore ROM and decrease pain allowing the patient to reap the full benefits of a multi-modal treatment approach. 5.
Mohn, Christine; Vassend, Olav; Knardahl, Stein
Chronic pain may result both from a generalized hypersensitivity to acute pain, suggestive of central sensitization processes, and dysfunction of the endogenous pain regulatory system. One purpose of this study was to compare experimental pain sensitivity at several anatomic sites in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients and pain-free controls during baseline and after standardized mechanical load of the orofacial region. A second purpose was to compare the pain-modulating effects of cardiovascular responses in TMD patients and pain-free controls. Experimental pain was induced by electrocutaneous stimulation of the dorsal left hand and pressure algometry at the right masseter muscle and the sternum. The pain sensitivity of the orofacial region was manipulated by isometric contraction of the masseter muscles. Elevations of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were induced by a simulated job interview. At baseline, the TMD patients exhibited a significantly higher electrocutaneous pain threshold. Relative to the healthy controls, the TMD patients reported increased electrocutaneous and pressure pain sensitivity after isometric contraction of the orofacial region. In addition, there were correlations between mean arterial pressure and pain sensitivity in the TMD group only. Significant increases in generalized pain sensitivity occurred in the TMD group, but not in the control group, after isometric contraction of the orofacial muscles, suggestive of a central sensitization process in TMD. Moreover, only in the TMD group there were significant associations between cardiovascular responsesand pain sensitivity, challenging previous assumptions of this relationship occurring mainly in pain-free individuals.
Jeon, Jaewon; Bussin, Erin; Scott, Alex
The objective of this study was to examine, in individuals with lateral epicondylalgia (LE), the acute time course of acupuncture-induced hypoalgesia and change in pain-free grip strength (PFGS). This was an experimental study, conducted at a single research center in Vancouver, BC. Twenty-one participants with unilateral LE lasting more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled. Participants received a single treatment of acupuncture (either electroacupuncture, 10-30 Hz, or manual acupuncture, assigned randomly). The primary outcome measure was pain level (0-10) during tendon loading (while making a fist) immediately after treatment, and over a 72 h follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures included pain-free grip strength (N). There was a small but statistically significant reduction in participants' perceived pain level immediately after acupuncture (mean improvement of 1.2, 95% CI 0.45-1.9). This change in pain was not accompanied by a change in PFGS. No difference was observed between the two types of acupuncture at any time point. The use of acupuncture or electroacupuncture, as administered in the current study, is unlikely to acutely enhance the ability of people with LE to engage in pain-free rehabilitation exercise. Trial registration Registered February 25, 2015. ISRCTN14667535, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN14667535.
Machado, Gustavo C; Maher, Chris G; Ferreira, Paulo H; Latimer, Jane; Koes, Bart W; Steffens, Daniel; Ferreira, Manuela L
Although recurrence is common after an acute episode of low back pain, estimates of recurrence rates vary widely and predictors of recurrence remain largely unknown. The purposes of the study were to determine the 1-year incidence of recurrence in participants who recovered from an acute episode of low back pain and to identify predictors of recurrence. The design was an inception cohort study nested in a case-crossover study. For 12 months, 832 of the 999 participants who initially presented to primary care within the first 7 days of an episode of low back pain were followed. Of these participants, 469 recovered (1 month pain free) from the index episode within 6 weeks and were included in this study. Recurrence was defined as a new episode lasting more than 1 day, or as an episode of care seeking. Putative predictors were assessed at baseline and chosen a priori. Multivariable regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 1-year incidence of recurrence of low back pain was 33%, and the 1-year incidence of recurrence of low back pain with care seeking was 18%. Participants reporting more than 2 previous episodes of low back pain had increased odds of future recurrences (OR = 3.18, CI = 2.11-4.78). This factor was also associated with recurrent episodes that led to care seeking (OR = 2.87, CI = 1.73-4.78). No other factors were associated with recurrences. There are limitations inherent in reliance on recall. After an acute episode of low back pain, one-third of patients will experience a recurrent episode, and approximately half of those will seek care. Experiencing more than 2 previous episodes of low back pain triples the odds of a recurrence within 1 year.
Roth, Thomas; Bhadra-Brown, Pritha; Pitman, Verne W; Roehrs, Timothy A; Resnick, E Malca
To investigate the differential nature of disturbed sleep in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) reporting sleep difficulties versus patients with primary insomnia (PI) and patients who do not report disturbed sleep (pain-free controls). Patients (FM: n=132; PI: n=109; normals: n=52) were recruited for different studies. FM and PI patients were preselected to meet the sleep disturbance criteria. Patients with sleep or circadian disorders were excluded from all groups. Polysomnography was conducted at screening, during 2 consecutive nights. For this post hoc analysis of polysomnographies, length and frequency (duration, number) of wake and sleep bouts were analyzed, together with traditional sleep measures; a "bout"=consecutive 30-second epochs of sleep or wake. Data are mean±SD. FM and PI patients had decreased total sleep time and slow-wave sleep (SWS), and increased latency to persistent sleep (LPS) and wake time after sleep onset (WASO) versus controls (P<0.05 for each). FM versus PI patients had more SWS (48.1±32.4 vs. 27.2±23.6 min; P<0.0001) and shorter LPS (58.2±29.8 vs. 70.7±31.3 min; P=0.0055), but comparable WASO (107.7±32.8 vs. 108.6±31.5 min). Despite comparable WASO, FM patients had shorter (4.64±2.42 vs. 5.87±3.15 min; P=0.0016) but more frequent wake bouts versus PI patients (41.6±16.7 vs. 35.7±12.6; P=0.0075). Sleep bout duration was similar for FM (9.32±0.35 min) and PI patients (10.1±0.37 min); both populations had shorter sleep bout duration versus controls (15.7±0.7 min; P<0.0001 both). Increased frequency of wake and sleep bouts and decreased wake bout duration, together with decreased LPS and increased SWS, suggests that sleep in FM is characterized by an inability to maintain continuous sleep but a greater sleep drive compared with PI.
Adults with patellofemoral pain do not exhibit manifestations of peripheral and central sensitization when compared to healthy pain-free age and sex matched controls - An assessor blinded cross-sectional study
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Stephenson, Aoife
to study conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and wide-spread hyperalgesia in adults with PFP. This assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design compared CPM and mechanical pressure pain thresholds (PPT) between 33 adults (23 females) diagnosed with PFP and 32 age and sex matched pain-free controls...... no difference in CPM or PPT between young adults with PFP and age and sex matched pain-free controls....
Coviello, Joseph Paul; Reynolds, Timothy James
Background and Purpose While there is limited evidence supporting the use of soft tissue mobilization techniques for Subacromial Pain Syndrome (SAPS), synonymous with subacromial impingement syndrome, previous studies have reported successful outcomes using soft tissue mobilization as a treatment technique. The purpose of this case report is to document the results of Instrument‐Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) for the treatment of SAPS. Case Description Diagnosis was reached based on the subject's history, tenderness to palpation, and four out of five positive tests in the diagnostic cluster. Treatment consisted of three visits where the IASTM technique was applied to the pectoral muscles as well as periscapular musculature followed by retesting pain‐free shoulder flexion active range of motion (AROM) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) during active shoulder flexion. Scapulothoracic mobilization and stretching were performed after AROM measurement. Outcomes The subject reported an NPRS of 0/10 and demonstrated improvements in pain free flexion AROM in each of the three treatment sessions post‐IASTM: 85 ° to 181 °, 110 ° to 171 °, and 163 ° to 174 ° with some carryover in pain reduction and pain free AROM to the next treatment. Through three treatments, DASH score improved by 17.34%, Penn Shoulder Score improved 29%, worst NPRS decreased from 4/10 to 0/10, and a GROC score of 6. Discussion IASTM may have a beneficial acute effect on pain free shoulder flexion. In conjunction with scapulothoracic mobilizations and stretching, IASTM may improve function, decrease pain, and improve patient satisfaction. While this technique will not ameliorate the underlying pathomechanics contributing to SAPS, it may serve as a valuable tool to restore ROM and decrease pain allowing the patient to reap the full benefits of a multi‐modal treatment approach. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:28217425
Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; López-Pascual, Juan; Garrido-Jaén, David; García-Mas, Maria Amparo
The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of lumbopelvic motion and erector spinae (ES) activity during trunk flexion-extension movements and to compare these patterns between patients with recurrent low back pain (LBP) in their pain-free periods and matched asymptomatic subjects. Thirty subjects participated (15 patients with disc herniation and recurrent LBP in their pain-free periods and 15 asymptomatic control subjects). A 3-dimensional videophotogrammetric system and surface electromyography (EMG) were used to record the angular displacements of the lumbar spine and hip in the sagittal plane and the EMG activity of the ES during standardized trunk flexion-extension cycles. Variables were maximum ranges of spine and hip flexion; percentages of maximum lumbar and hip flexion at the start and end of ES relaxation; average percentages of EMG activity during flexion, relaxation, and extension; and flexion-extension ratio of myoelectrical activity. Recurrent LBP patients during their pain-free period showed significantly greater ES activation both in flexion and extension, with a higher flexion-extension ratio than controls. Maximum ranges of lumbar and hip flexion showed no differences between controls and patients, although patients spent less time with their lumbar spine maximally flexed. This study showed that reduced maximum ranges of motion and absence of ES flexion-relaxation phenomenon were not useful to identify LBP patients in the absence of acute pain. However, these patients showed subtle alterations of their lumbopelvic motion and ES activity patterns, which may have important clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sloan, Tim John; Gupta, Rajiva; Zhang, Weiya; Walsh, David Andrew
Case control study including 2 groups of patients with low back pain (LBP, inflammatory and noninflammatory) and a pain-free community control group. We explored whether pain beliefs differ between patients with chronic LBP attributed to inflammatory or noninflammatory medical diagnoses, and between patients with chronic LBP and pain-free controls. Beliefs strongly influence patients' engagement in and response to treatments for chronic LBP. It is unclear, however, whether unhelpful beliefs held by patients with chronic LBP are predominantly associated with diagnosis, or with other aspects of the patient's pain experience. Patients and controls completed the pain beliefs questionnaire addressing beliefs about the causes and consequences of pain. Patients also completed questionnaires addressing catastrophizing (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), physical disability and bodily pain (SF-36 Health Survey), and psychological distress (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Short Form and Cognitive Depression Index). Variance analysis and chi2 test were used as appropriate, adjusting for effects of covariates and multiple comparisons. Linear regression and logistic regression were used to adjust for confounding factors. Patients with noninflammatory LBP more strongly endorsed organic pain beliefs (e.g., that pain necessarily indicates damage), and catastrophizing (e.g., that the pain is never going to get better), than did patients with inflammatory LBP (P pain-free controls (P < 0.05). Endorsement of organic pain beliefs was associated with catastrophizing. Organic pain beliefs are associated with increased catastrophizing in patients with chronic LBP, and addressing these beliefs may help patients to manage their pain and disability. Meanings attributed to inflammatory and noninflammatory diagnostic labels may contribute to the different pain beliefs held by different patient groups.
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M
and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of automated text messages has made it possible to identify different courses of low back pain (LBP, and it has been observed that pain often fluctuates and that absolute recovery is rather rare. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of pain-free weeks and pain-free periods in subjects with non-specific LBP treated by chiropractors, and to compare subjects from two different countries in these aspects. Methods Data were obtained from two practice-based multicentre prospective outcome studies, one Danish and one Swedish, involving subjects being treated by chiropractors for non-specific LBP. Over 18 weeks, subjects answered a weekly automated text message question on the number of days in the past week that they had experienced bothersome LBP, i.e. a number between 0 and 7. The number of weeks in a row without any LBP at all ("zero weeks" as well as the maximum number of zero weeks in a row was determined for each individual. Comparisons were made between the two study samples. Estimates are presented as percentages with 95% confidence intervals. Results In the Danish and the Swedish populations respectively, 93/110 (85% and 233/262 (89% of the subjects were eligible for analysis. In both groups, zero weeks were rather rare and were most commonly (in 40% of the zero weeks reported as a single isolated week. The prevalence of pain free periods, i.e. reporting a maximum of 0, 1 or 2, or 3-6 zero weeks in a row, were similar in the two populations (20-31%. Smaller percentages were reported for ≥ 7 zero weeks in a row. There were no significant differences between the two study groups. Conclusion It was uncommon that chiropractic subjects treated for non-specific LBP experienced an entire week without any LBP at all over 18 weeks. When this occurred, it was most commonly reported for brief periods only. Hence, recovery in the sense that patients become absolutely pain free is rare, even in a primary
Lemeunier, Nadège; Kongsted, Alice; Axén, Iben
The use of automated text messages has made it possible to identify different courses of low back pain (LBP), and it has been observed that pain often fluctuates and that absolute recovery is rather rare. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of pain-free weeks and pain-free periods in subjects with non-specific LBP treated by chiropractors, and to compare subjects from two different countries in these aspects. Data were obtained from two practice-based multicentre prospective outcome studies, one Danish and one Swedish, involving subjects being treated by chiropractors for non-specific LBP. Over 18 weeks, subjects answered a weekly automated text message question on the number of days in the past week that they had experienced bothersome LBP, i.e. a number between 0 and 7. The number of weeks in a row without any LBP at all ("zero weeks") as well as the maximum number of zero weeks in a row was determined for each individual. Comparisons were made between the two study samples. Estimates are presented as percentages with 95% confidence intervals. In the Danish and the Swedish populations respectively, 93/110 (85%) and 233/262 (89%) of the subjects were eligible for analysis. In both groups, zero weeks were rather rare and were most commonly (in 40% of the zero weeks) reported as a single isolated week. The prevalence of pain free periods, i.e. reporting a maximum of 0, 1 or 2, or 3-6 zero weeks in a row, were similar in the two populations (20-31%). Smaller percentages were reported for ≥ 7 zero weeks in a row. There were no significant differences between the two study groups. It was uncommon that chiropractic subjects treated for non-specific LBP experienced an entire week without any LBP at all over 18 weeks. When this occurred, it was most commonly reported for brief periods only. Hence, recovery in the sense that patients become absolutely pain free is rare, even in a primary care population.
Lyons, Amanda D; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Robinson, Gail; Suddendorf, Thomas
People with schizophrenia have difficulty engaging in specific future-directed thoughts and behaviours, such as generating phenomenological characteristics of future events (a component of episodic foresight), and executing directed preparatory behaviours (a component of prospective memory). However, it remains unclear whether they also exhibit difficulties using episodic foresight to appropriately guide future-directed behaviours. People with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls were administered a behavioural measure that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight. In keeping with our focus on the functional application of foresight, this measure required participants to identify a problem, self-generate a resolution, and execute the appropriate future-directed intention. Relative to controls, people with schizophrenia were less likely to spontaneously acquire items that would later allow a problem to be solved, and were also less likely to subsequently use these items to solve the problems. There was no interaction between group and task, indicating that these two components of foresight were disrupted to an equivalent degree. In the clinical (but not the control) group, item acquisition and item use were correlated with general cognitive capacity. No significant associations with clinical variables emerged. The capacity to apply episodic foresight in a functionally adaptive way is disrupted in schizophrenia and may at least partially reflect broader cognitive dysfunction. Future work is now needed to clarify the implications of these difficulties in everyday life, as well as how these difficulties might be remediated. People with schizophrenia have known difficulties with episodic foresight, and it now appears that those difficulties extend to the performance of foresightful preparatory behaviours. Because preparatory behaviours are central to routine and adaptive planning, difficulties with episodic foresight may contribute to or be a result of
Pfingsten, M; Wendt, A; Kröner-Herwig, B; Lüder, S; Hildebrandt, J; Petzke, F
The fear-avoidance model implies that in situations with physical demands patients with back pain will overestimate the demand and underestimate their own capacities. A total of 71 patients with back pain and 48 pain-free control subjects carried out a standardized lifting test with a preceding estimation of their lifting capacity. In both groups the self-estimation and real lifting capacity were in concordance for most group members with patients showing less disconcordance than controls. In the control group 35% of the subjects even underestimated their lifting capacity, which was the case in only 14% of the patients. Patients more frequently overestimated their capacity than pain-free controls (14% vs. 2%). Within the patients subgroups could be identified where patients in general either underestimated or overestimated their own capacity. A comparison between the groups demonstrated significant differences in pain intensity, fear avoidance beliefs and effort. As an explanation for these unexpected results it can be hypothesized that in cases of back pain, patients' attention is focused on pain-relevant issues which enables a more realistic estimation of their lifting capacity.
Douglas, Pamela; Keogh, Renee
In the past decade, biological nurturing and activation of maternal and infant instincts after birth have constituted a major advance in clinical breastfeeding support. Yet, physiologic breastfeeding initiation is not enough to ensure ongoing pain-free and effective breastfeeding for many pairs. Current interventions, including "hands-off" mammalian approaches, do not improve breastfeeding outcomes, including in randomized controlled trials. Back-arching, difficulty latching or staying on the breast, and fussing at the breast are common signs of infant positional instability during breastfeeding. These cues are, however, often misdiagnosed as signs of medical conditions or oral connective tissue abnormalities, and underlying positional instability is not addressed. New clinical approaches are urgently required. This article offers a clinical approach to fit and hold (or latch and positioning)- gestalt breastfeeding, which aims to optimize positional stability and intraoral breast tissue volumes for pain-free effective breastfeeding. The word gestalt (pronounced "ger-shtolt") means a whole that is more than the sum of its parts. Gestalt breastfeeding builds on the theoretical foundations of complexity science, physiologic breastfeeding initiation, and new understandings of the biomechanics of infant suck elucidated in ultrasound studies. It also integrates simple psychological strategies from applied functional contextualism, popularly known as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, empowering women to attend mindfully to breast sensations and their infant's cues. Gestalt breastfeeding can be reproduced for research purposes, including in comparison studies with oral surgery, and has the potential to improve breastfeeding outcomes.
Hübscher, Markus; Moloney, Niamh; Rebbeck, Trudy; Traeger, Adrian; Refshauge, Kathryn M
Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to elucidate the peripheral and central mechanisms that underlie changes in pain sensitivity associated with low back pain (LBP). However, it remains unclear to what degree peripheral and central changes contribute to the generation and maintenance of LBP. The aim of this study was to compare thermal pain sensitivity, measured using QST, in participants with acute LBP, chronic LBP, and pain-free controls. Participant groups with acute LBP (N=20), chronic LBP (N=30), and pain-free controls (N=30) were assessed by thermal QST. The unique contributions of pain-related psychological and QST variables to predict membership to the acute and chronic pain groups were also determined. We found that participants with chronic LBP demonstrated significantly lower cold pain threshold (CPT) in the primary area of pain (low back) as well as in an area anatomically remote from the primary area of pain (forearm) when compared with controls. Participants with acute LBP did not show significantly elevated pain sensitivity. CPT at the remote site was a significant independent predictor of membership to the chronic pain group, after the adjustment for mood and pain catastrophizing. CPT explained 8% of the total variance of 46% related to group membership. We found evidence for localized and generalized cold hyperalgesia in chronic, but not acute LBP. We might speculate that hyperalgesia develops as a consequence of long-lasting LBP, but prospective studies are needed to confirm this assumption.
Scheuer, Raphael; Friedrich, Martin
Evaluation of reliability of isometric strength measurements in the neck and trunk region and comparison of these measurements between patients with chronic neck pain and pain-free subjects. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Institutional practice. Patients with neck pain (n=53) and pain-free persons (n=42) (mean age ± SD, 49.7±10.74 vs 48.7±12.02; women, 73% vs 71%). Strength of flexion, extension, and lateral flexion in the neck and trunk were measured. Each participant underwent 2 measurement passes on each of 2 examination days; 3 were performed by the same investigator, 1 by a second. Intrarater (short-term and long-term) and interrater reliability, differences in strength between both groups of probands. Reliability in both groups ranged from substantial to almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient: patients, .76-.89; control group, .80-.88). The patients' strength in the neck and trunk was significantly below that of the control group (P<.002). Isometric strength measurement is a reliable and feasible way to estimate the possible benefit of specific strengthening programs. Patients with chronic neck pain showed strength deficits in all measured regions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neblett, Randy; Brede, Emily; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J
Lumbar flexion-relaxation (FR) is a well-known phenomenon that can reliably be seen in normal subjects but not in most chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. The purpose of this study was to determine which surface electromyographic (SEMG) measures of FR best distinguish CLBP patients from pain-free control subjects. Standing SEMG and lumbar flexion range of motion (ROM) were also evaluated. A cohort of 218 CLBP patients, who were admitted to a functional restoration program, received a standardized SEMG and ROM assessment during standing trunk flexion and reextension. An asymptomatic control group of 30 nonpatients received an identical assessment. Both groups were compared on 8 separate SEMG and 3 flexion ROM measures. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine how well each measure distinguished between the CLBP patients and the pain-free control subjects. All SEMG measures of FR performed acceptably. Between 79% and 82% of patients, and 83% and 100% of controls were correctly classified. Standing SEMG performed less well. Gross flexion ROM was the best single classification measure tested, correctly classifying 88% of patients and 83% of controls. A series of discriminant analyses found that certain combinations of SEMG and ROM performed slightly better than gross ROM alone for correctly classifying the 2 subjects groups. Because all SEMG measures of FR performed acceptably, the determination of which SEMG measure of FR is "best" is largely dependent on one's specific purpose. In addition, ROM measures were found to be important components of the FR assessment.
Clemens, Béla; Bánk, József; Piros, Pálma; Bessenyei, Mónika; Veto, Sára; Tóth, Márton; Kondákor, István
Investigating the brain of migraine patients in the pain-free interval may shed light on the basic cerebral abnormality of migraine, in other words, the liability of the brain to generate migraine attacks from time to time. Twenty unmedicated "migraine without aura" patients and a matched group of healthy controls were investigated in this explorative study. 19-channel EEG was recorded against the linked ears reference and was on-line digitized. 60 x 2-s epochs of eyes-closed, waking-relaxed activity were subjected to spectral analysis and a source localization method, low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Absolute power was computed for 19 electrodes and four frequency bands (delta: 1.5-3.5 Hz, theta: 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha: 8.0-12.5 Hz, beta: 13.0-25.0 Hz). LORETA "activity" (=current source density, ampers/meters squared) was computed for 2394 voxels and the above specified frequency bands. Group comparison was carried out for the specified quantitative EEG variables. Activity in the two groups was compared on a voxel-by-voxel basis for each frequency band. Statistically significant (uncorrected P pain-free interval and might be suitable for planning forthcoming investigations.
Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.
Bettina M Pause
Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory.
Pause, Bettina M; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory.
Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa
In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…
Spira, Adam P; Runko, Virginia T; Finan, Patrick H; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Bounds, Sara C; Liu, Lianqi; Buenaver, Luis F; McCauley, Lea M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Smith, Michael T
Aberrant circadian rest/activity rhythms (RARs) may promote poor aging-related health outcomes. Osteoarthritis and chronic insomnia are common age-related conditions, but the circadian RARs of each group have not been well characterized or compared. We evaluated actigraphic RARs in individuals with: (1) knee osteoarthritis (KOA) only; (2) chronic insomnia only; (3) KOA + insomnia; and (4) pain-free good sleepers. Compared to participants with KOA only, those with KOA + insomnia had less robust RARs. There were no differences between other groups. Further research is needed to evaluate whether aberrant RARs contribute to arthritis symptoms and insomnia in KOA, and whether strengthening RARs ameliorates arthritis symptoms.
Auricchio, Angelo; Meijer, Albert; Kurita, Takashi; Schloss, Edward; Brinkman, Karin; Claessens-van Ooijen, Marieke; Sterns, Laurence
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shock therapy improves survival of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. The high sensitivity of ICDs to detect tachycardia events is accompanied by reduced specificity resulting in inappropriate and unnecessary shocks. Up to 30% of ICD patients may experience inappropriate shocks, which are most commonly caused by lead noise, oversensing of T-waves, and supraventricular tachycardias. The new Protecta ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices have been designed to minimize inappropriate and unnecessary shocks through novel SmartShock(TM) technology algorithms targeting these causes. The PainFree SST study is a prospective, multicentre clinical trial, which will be conducted in two consecutive phases. Phase I will assess safety and any delay that may arise in ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrhythmia detection time using new algorithms. Phase II will evaluate reduction of inappropriate and unnecessary shocks at 1 year of follow-up. Additional objectives will include Quality of Life, healthcare utilization, safety of extending the ventricular tachyarrhythmia/VF interval detection duration (18 out of 24 vs. 30 out of 40 intervals), and reasons for inappropriate shock. Up to 2000 subjects in 150 centres worldwide will be enrolled with a follow-up of at least 1 year. Subjects enrolled in Phase I will continue in Phase II of the study and data from all enrolled subjects will contribute to the analysis of Phase II objectives. Inappropriate and unnecessary shock delivery remains a significant clinical issue for patients receiving device therapies, which has considerable consequences for patients and the healthcare system. The PainFree SST study will investigate the ability of new algorithms to reduce inappropriate shocks. Results from this study are expected in mid-2013.
Yung, Emmanuel Y; Oh, Cheongeun; Wong, Michael S; Grimes, Jason K; Barton, Erica M; Ali, Muhammad I; Cameron, David
Some normotensive patients can have a spike in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) in response to acute neck pain. Applying the typical dosage of mobilization may potentially result in a sympatho-excitatory response, further increasing resting SBP. Therefore, there is a need to explore other dosage regimens that could result in a decrease in SBP. To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of pain-free, normotensive adults when receiving unilateral posterior-to-anterior mobilization (PA) applied to the neck versus its corresponding placebo (PA-P). Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. 44 (18 females) healthy, pain-free participants (mean age, 23.8 ± 3.04 years) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a PA-P in which light touch was applied to the right 6th cervical vertebra. Group 2 received a PA to the same location. BP and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of PA or PA-P. A mixed-effect model of repeated measure analysis was used for statistical analysis. During-intervention, the PA group had a significant reduction in SBP, while the placebo group had an increase in SBP. The change in SBP during-intervention was significantly different between the PA and the placebo group (p-value = 0.003). There were no significant between-group differences found for HR and diastolic BP (DBP). The overall group-by-time interaction was statistically significant for SBP (p-value = 0.01). When compared to placebo, the dosage of applied PA resulted in a small, short-lived drop in SBP not exceeding the minimal detectable change. Trial registered at Germanctr.de (DRKS00005095). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parent, Alexandre J; Beaudet, Nicolas; Daigle, Kathya; Sabbagh, Robert; Sansoucy, Yanick; Marchand, Serge; Sarret, Philippe; Goffaux, Philippe
Descending pain inhibition is an endogenous pain control system thought to depend partially on the activation of bulbospinal monoaminergic pathways. Deficits in descending pain inhibition have been reported in numerous human chronic pain conditions, but there is currently no consensus regarding the neurochemical correlates responsible for this deficit. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the efficacy of descending pain inhibition in pain-free and chronic pain subjects, 2) screen for changes in centrally (ie, cerebrospinal fluid) and peripherally (ie, plasma) acting monoamine concentrations, and 3) explore the relationship between descending pain inhibition and monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations. Our results clearly show a deficit in pain inhibition, along with lower plasma norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations in chronic pain subjects, compared to pain-free subjects. No differences were found in cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter concentrations. Finally, our results revealed a positive relationship between blood-bound norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations and the efficacy of descending pain inhibition. Thus, basal monoamine levels in blood were related to descending pain inhibition. This finding supports the emerging idea that individual differences in descending pain inhibition may be linked to individual differences in peripheral processes, such as monoamines release in blood, which are possibly related to cardiovascular control. This article presents psychophysical and neurochemical findings that indicate that the latent potential of descending pain inhibitory responses is associated with differential activity in peripheral processes governed by monoamine neurotransmitter release, bringing insights into the relationship between descending pain inhibition and cardiovascular control in humans. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zambito-Marsala, Sandro; Erro, Roberto; Bacchin, Ruggero; Fornasier, Annalisa; Fabris, Federico; Lo Cascio, Cecilia; Ferracci, Franco; Morgante, Francesca; Tinazzi, Michele
Several studies documented abnormal nociceptive processing in PD patients. Pain central pathways are accessible by laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). LEPs recording show a N2/P2 complex mostly generated by the anterior cingulate cortex, preceded by an earlier negative component (N1), originating from the opercular cortex. Previous work demonstrated N2/P2 amplitude reduction in PD patients and suggested a centrally-acting pathomechanism for the genesis of pain. However, since a peripheral deafferentation has been recently demonstrated in PD, it is not clear if such LEP abnormalities reflect a mechanism acting centrally or not. To assess whether abnormalities of nociceptive inputs occur at central and/or peripheral level in pain-free PD patients with hemiparkinson using Nd:YAP LEPs. We recorded scalp Nd:YAP-LEPs to hand stimulation in 13 pain-free patients with unilateral PD and in 13 healthy subjects. Additionally, we collected laser pain-rating in both groups. PD patients and normal subjects showed comparable N1, N2 and P2 latencies. The N2/P2 amplitude was significantly lower in PD patients than in controls, regardless of the clinically affected side, whereas the N1/P1 amplitude was not different. PD patients had higher pain-rating, indicative of hyperalgesia. These findings demonstrate that in the PD patients the abnormal processing of pain stimuli occurs at central rather than peripheral level. The co-existence of hyperalgesia and reduced amplitude of the N2/P2 complex, in spite of a normal N1/P1 component, suggests an imbalance between the medial and lateral pain systems. Such a dissociation might explain the genesis of central pain in PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
that two-thirds of the patients had a comorbid personality disorder at two-year follow-up, and schizoid, paranoid and avoidant personality disorder were the most frequent. Schizotypal traits were less prevalent, which in relation to the late follow-up is attributed to uncertainty in differentiating....... Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...... negative symptoms and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive psychotic symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better...
Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna
To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.
One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432
Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.
Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…
Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine Mata; de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Teixeira, Luiza Faria; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo
Low back pain (LBP) is a growing public health problem in old age, and it is associated with disabling pain and depressive disorders. We compared brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels, a key neurotrophin in pain modulation, between older women after an acute episode of LBP and age-matched pain-free controls, and investigated potential differences in BDNF levels between controls and LBP subgroups based on pain severity, presence of depressive symptoms and use of analgesic and antidepressant drugs. A total of 221 participants (154 with LBP and 67 pain-free) were studied. A comprehensive assessment of sociodemographic and clinical variables was conducted including pain severity (11-point NRS), depressive symptoms (GDS-15), age, body mass index, physical activity and total number of comorbidities and medications in use. BDNF levels in LBP group were significantly higher than controls (7515.9±3021.2; Md=7116.0 vs 6331.8±3364.0; Md=5897.5pg/mL, P=0.005). LBP subgroups exhibited higher BDNF levels than controls, regardless of pain severity, presence of depressive symptoms and use of analgesic drugs. BDNF levels were significantly higher in LBP subgroup without use of antidepressant drugs compared to both controls and LBP subgroup with use of antidepressant drugs. This study provides evidence that older women with acute low back pain exhibit higher BDNF plasma levels compared to pain-free controls. Subgroup comparisons suggest that use of pain-relief drugs may influence BDNF levels. The study results offer a novel target for research on mechanisms of back pain in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich
AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy
Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich
AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy
Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C
Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Piña-Pozo, Fernando; Luque-Carrasco, Antonio; Herrera-Monge, Patricia
This study aimed to assess the immediate effects on masticatory muscle mechanosensitivity, maximal vertical mouth opening (VMO), and head posture in pain-free healthy participants after intervention with myofascial treatment in the temporalis and masseter muscles. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. The sample group included 48 participants (n=48), with a mean age of 21±2.47 years (18-29). Two subgroups were defined: an intervention group (n=24), who underwent a fascial induction protocol in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and a control group (n=24), who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The pressure pain threshold in 2 locations in the masseter (M1, M2) and temporalis (T1, T2) muscles, maximal VMO, and head posture, by means of the craniovertebral angle, were all measured. Significant improvements were observed in the intragroup comparison in the intervention group for the craniovertebral angle with the participant in seated (P.05). Myofascial induction techniques in the masseter and temporalis muscles show no significant differences in maximal VMO, in the mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles, and in head posture in comparison with a placebo intervention in which the therapist's hands are placed in the temporomandibular joint region without exerting any therapeutic pressure. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barak, Sharon; Stopka, Christine Boyd; Archer Martinez, Coleen; Carmeli, Eli
Patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) experience muscle aching during walking secondary to ischemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-intensity pain-free exercise (LIPFE) on functional capacity of individuals with PAD. A total of 12 participants with PAD underwent training on treadmill for 6 weeks, twice a week, for about 45 minutes. Outcome measures included walking distance (WDI), walking duration (WDU), mean walking rate (WR), estimated oxygen consumption (EVO(2)), metabolic equivalent (MET), estimated total energy expenditure (ETEE), and estimated rate of energy expenditure (EREE). Mean improvement of WDI, WDU, and MWR were 104% (an addition of 1.0 km), 55% (an addition of 13.3 minutes), and 41% (0.9 km/h faster), respectively. Mean improvement of EVO(2), MET, ETEE, and EREE, were 20%, 20%, 80%, and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, it appears that LIPFE training is an effective intervention for individuals presenting with PAD.
Mosnaim, Aron D; Maturana, Patricio; Callaghan, Owen H; Wolf, Marion E
Eighteen male cluster headache (CH) inpatients within a CH series participated in this research. Blood samples were drawn from patients at least 6-hour pain-free after the last acute CH episode and then shortly prior (SP), during, and soon after (SA) a new acute CH attack. Three healthy male, age-comparable drug-free volunteers served as controls; 5 samples were obtained from each of these individual over a 24-hour period. Individual patient's methionine-enkephalin (MET) plasma concentration showed significant changes, and in some subjects, dramatic changes, during the different phases of a single CH episode. Peptide levels followed a general pattern of higher plasma concentration SP to an acute CH attack, followed by decreased levels during the attack itself, and falling even further SA the acute episode. Consistently, 16 of the 18 patients tested showed pre-CH peptide levels significantly higher (arbitrarily the authors considered values 20% or more as "significant") than their own values obtained during the acute CH pain phase, with observed differences reaching 80% or more in 7 of these individuals. For about half of these patients, peptide concentration during the acute CH episode was significantly above the control's range (68.2-87.6 pg MET/mL; control's circulating MET concentration remaining essentially unchanged during a 24-hour period). MET levels were further decreased in essentially all of the post-CH samples, with values falling within (n = 6) or even further below than those in the control's range (n = 11). Neither age, time of CH occurrence, nor patient's use of a number of medications known for failing to influence plasma MET degradation kinetics seemed to significantly influence MET levels. These results might help in the biochemical characterization of the actual phases of a CH episode. Developing drugs modulating MET bioavailability could lead to novel antinociceptive agents useful for the treatment of CH's associated pain.
van Sighem, Ard; Zhang, Shuangjie; Reiss, Peter; Gras, Luuk; van der Ende, Marchina; Kroon, Frank; Prins, Jan; de Wolf, Frank
OBJECTIVE: To investigate immunologic, virologic, and clinical consequences of episodes of transient viremia in patients with sustained virologic suppression. METHODS: From the AIDS Therapy Evaluation Project, Netherlands cohort, 4447 previously therapy-naive patients were selected who were on
Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, and rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to a cultural life script), and how these were affected by temporal distance (1 month, 1 year, 5+ years). The findings showed that the three types of events differed phenomenologically. First, episodic memories were remembered more easily, with more sensory details, and from a dominantly field perspective, as compared to both future projections and episodic counterfactuals. Second, episodic future projections were more positive, more voluntarily rehearsed, and more central to life story and identity than were both episodic memories and episodic counterfactuals. Third, episodic counterfactuals differed from both episodic memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types, sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to a cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality-monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation.
Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O'Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz
Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20-45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an "upright standing" reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may provide important insights into injury
Ganesh, Shankar; Chhabra, Deepak; Kumari, Nitika
Studies have shown that farming is associated with many agricultural workers experiencing low back pain (LBP). The rehabilitation of these workers should facilitate their functioning, activities and level of participation in an adequate way. The objectives of this study were to identify the health components associated with LBP and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions in returning agricultural workers with LBP to their vocation using the International Classification of Function (ICF) -based tools. Thirty-one full time agricultural workers from 3 different Indian states were prospectively assessed using the ICF core set for LBP. ICF core sets permitted analysis of limitations of function from both the participant and rehabilitation team's perspectives. Each ICF category was rated using an ICF qualifier. The components identified were linked to the ICF categorical profile and assessment sheet. The clinicians identified the global, service program and cycle goals based on ICF. The participants' functioning was followed over a 4-month period. After intervention, the participants were able to undergo their routine activities without increases in pain. However, on returning to active farming, participants noted few improvements in the components d410 (changing basic body position), d415 (maintaining body position), d430 (lifting and carrying objects), d465 (moving around using equipment), d850 (remunerative employment) and d859 (work and employment, other specified and unspecified). The results of the study conclude that the current interventions for LBP are not effective in returning agriculture workers with LBP in India to pain-free farming. There is an urgent need to individualize the health needs of agriculture workers.
Farnworth, Mark J; Barrett, Lorelle A; Adams, Nigel J; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Weidgraaf, Karin; Hekman, Margreet; Chambers, J Paul; Thomas, David G; Waran, Natalie K; Stafford, Kevin J
To assess the potential of a thermal carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to explore antinociception in pain-free cats. Experimental, prospective, blinded, randomized study. Sixty healthy adult female cats with a (mean±standard deviation) weight of 3.3±0.6 kg. Cats were systematically allocated to one of six treatments: saline 0.2 mL per cat; morphine 0.5 mg kg(-1); buprenorphine 20 μg kg(-1); medetomidine 2 μg kg(-1); tramadol 2 mg kg(-1), and ketoprofen 2 mg kg(-1). Latency to respond to thermal stimulation was assessed at baseline and at intervals of 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, 60-75, 90-105 and 120-135 minutes. Thermal thresholds were assessed using time to respond behaviourally to stimulation with a 500 mW CO2 laser. Within-treatment differences in response latency were assessed using Friedman's test. Differences amongst treatments were assessed using independent Kruskal-Wallis tests. Where significant effects were identified, pairwise comparisons were conducted to elucidate the direction of the effect. Cats treated with morphine (χ2=12.90, df=6, p=0.045) and tramadol (χ2=20.28, df=6, p=0.002) showed significant increases in latency to respond. However, subsequent pairwise comparisons indicated that differences in latencies at specific time-points were significant (ppain-free cats after analgesic administration and may provide a simpler alternative to existing systems. Further exploration is required to examine its sensitivity and comparative utility. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward
A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazzone, Antonino; Di Salvo, Michelangelo; Mazzuca, Salvatore; Valerio, Antonella; Gussoni, Gualberto; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Campanini, Mauro; Vescovo, Giorgio; Nozzoli, Carlo
Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) at stage IIb, pain-free walking distance (PFWD) less than 100 m and unsuitable for revascularization have both impaired quality of life and severe clinical outcome. Aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the prostacyclin analogue iloprost, added to standard therapy, in these patients. Patients were randomized to receive standard medical therapy (Group A) or standard therapy plus iloprost (Group B), for 1 year. Iloprost was administered for 10 days every 3 months. Treadmill test was performed every 3 months, in Group B before starting the 10-day iloprost cycle. Fifty patients in Group A and 51 in Group B were enrolled. Mean baseline and 12-month PFWD values were 75.4 ± 21.3 and 128.9 ± 62.9 for iloprost group and 70.3 ± 21.6 and 99.6 ± 62.6 m for controls. Patients treated with iloprost had significantly higher PFWD at 9 and 12 months. This finding was confirmed after carrying forward the last valid observation (124.7 ± 63.4 vs. 88.4 ± 63.1 m, P < 0.01). Major cardiovascular events occurred in 32.0% and 3.9% of patients in Group A and Group B, respectively (P < 0.001). Five patients in Group A died vs. none in Group B (P = 0.02). No serious unexpected adverse reactions occurred in patients receiving iloprost. Iloprost, added to standard therapy, significantly increases exercise capacity in patients with PAD at severe stage IIb. The percentage of patients who died or experienced major cardiovascular events was significantly lower in patients receiving iloprost. Future studies should focus on the effects of this therapy on clinical outcome. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dun, Wang-Huan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Ling; Ding, Dun; Ma, Xue-Ying; Liang, Feng-Li; von Deneen, Karen M; Ma, Shao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the insula in pain pathways and its close relation with the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli. We aimed to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the insula during periovulatory phase in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and further investigate its association with the intensity of perceived pain during menstruation. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were applied by using 3-dimensional T1-weighted and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 36 patients at the peri-ovulation phase and 29 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to examine the intensity of the abdominal pain at periovulation and menstruation. In our results, PDM patients had significant higher VAS-rating during menstruaion than periovulation. Compared with the HC, PDM patients had lower gray matter density in the left anterior insula (aINS). Taken the left aINS as a seed region, we further found hypoconnectivity between aINS and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which showed negative relation with the VAS during menstruation. As the aINS is a key site of the salience network (SN) and the mPFC is a critical region in the default mode network (DMN), it's implicated a trait-related central-alteration that communications between pain attention and perception networks were disrupted without the ongoing menstrual pain. Moreover, result of correlation analysis, at least in part, suggested a possible role of altered FC (pain-free period) in predicting pain perception (menstruation).
Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O
The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.
Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene
Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....
Eckstein, Felix; Cotofana, Sebastian; Wirth, Wolfgang; Nevitt, Michael; John, Markus R; Dreher, Donatus; Frobell, Richard
To investigate whether rates of cartilage loss differ in knees with frequent baseline pain versus those without pain, after adjustment for radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) stage. One knee in each of 718 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants was examined: 310 with calculated Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade 2, 299 with calculated K/L grade 3, and 109 with calculated K/L grade 4. Twelve-month change in (subregional) cartilage thickness was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Change in cartilage thickness in the central subregion of the weight-bearing medial femoral condyle and ordered value 1 (OV1) were selected as primary end points. Frequent knee symptoms were defined as pain, aching, or stiffness on most days of at least 1 month during the previous year. The mean 12-month rate of change in cartilage thickness in the central subregion of the medial femoral condyle was -12 μm (standardized response mean [SRM] -0.15) in knees without pain (n = 146), -27 μm (SRM -0.25) in those with infrequent pain (n = 255), and -54 μm (SRM -0.32) in those with frequent pain (n = 317). Rates differed significantly between frequently painful knees and pain-free knees after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and calculated K/L grade (P = 0.011, R(2) = 2.6%, partial R(2) for frequent pain = 1.4%). Similar results were found in stratified samples of calculated K/L grade 2/calculated K/L grade 3 knees, and in analyses restricted to knees with consistent pain frequency between baseline and followup. OV1 results showed similar trends but were not significant. Knees with frequent pain display greater rates of medial cartilage loss longitudinally than knees without pain, with or without adjustment or stratification for radiographic disease stage. Enrollment of participants with frequent knee pain in clinical trials can increase the observed rate of structural progression (i.e., cartilage loss) and sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person’s past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...... distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation....
on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity...
Palacios-Ceña, María; Ferracini, Gabriela N; Florencio, Lidiane L; Ruíz, Marina; Guerrero, Ángel L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
Previous studies suggest that trigger points (TrPs) contribute to migraine pain, but no data is available on the effects of TrPs on pressure pain sensitivity. Our objective was to investigate the association between the number of TrPs and widespread pressure hypersensitivity in women with episodic migraines. Ninety-five women with episodic migraines participated. Clinical features of migraines, that is, intensity, duration, frequency, and onset, were collected. Active and latent TrPs were bilaterally explored in the temporalis, masseter, suboccipital, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and splenius capitis musculature. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed over the trigeminal area (i.e., temporalis muscle), extratrigeminal (i.e., C5/C6 zygapophyseal joint), and a distant pain-free point (i.e., tibialis anterior muscle). Active TrPs in the temporalis and upper trapezius muscles were the most prevalent. The number of active but not latent TrPs was significantly and negatively associated with PPTs: the higher the number of active TrPs, the lower the widespread PPT and the more generalized sensitization. This study found that the number of active but not latent TrPs in head and neck and shoulder muscles was associated with widespread pressure hypersensitivity in women with episodic migraines, suggesting a potential contribution of active TrPs as contributors for sensitization processes in migraines.
Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person’s past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content...
Vossen, Catherine J; Vossen, Helen G M; Joosten, Engelbert A; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel
The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity.In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity.Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed.In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue.
In everyday life, motivation and learning are connected like music and dancing. Many educators realize this and work hard to improve their students' motivation. A motivated student may repeat and self-rehearse the content of a chapter more often, which leads to better learning. However, from a cognitive psychology point of view, it is still uncertain if motivation without differences in repetition or attention, affects episodic memory performance. That is, would a motivated student perform be...
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....
Mali, Yasmin Poustchi; Simon, John W; Chaudhri, Imran; Zobal-Ratner, Jitka; Barry, Gerard P
Many children present with excessive blinking. Categorization, associated conditions, and prognosis are controversial. All children with excessive blinking were reviewed, excluding those with known uveitis, glaucoma, or obvious eyelid abnormalities. Parents were telephoned for follow-up. No ocular pathology was identified in 31 of 34 children with excessive blinking (91%). Parents were able to report a specific cause of blinking in 7 (21%). In 24 of 34 (71%), parents reported complete resolution of excessive blinking. No new ophthalmologic diagnoses were uncovered on follow-up. Episodes of excessive blinking rarely indicate neurologic disorders and frequently resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Gargoloff, Pedro Rafael
Mixed Episode is a complex syndrome with difficult in its recognition, the most prolonged duration of bipolar episodes, more frequent psychotic profile than Pure Manic Episode, with high suicidality and poor response to drugs. There are evidences of less efficacy with Lithium and Carbamazepine in Manic Episode than mixed states. Valproate improve both, manic and depressive symptoms, and it is proposed to be first choice. Olanzapine has been widely evaluated, showing robust response in acute Mania as well in depressive symptoms during Mixed episode. In the field of clinical practice, there are many patients receiving more than one drug, usually Valproate plus a second generation antipsychotic.
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.
Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen
The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583
Stephens, Guy; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
quality or very low quality because of the small number of studies and events. Paracetamol 1000 mg provided a small benefit in terms of being pain free at two hours for people with frequent episodic TTH who have an acute headache of moderate or severe intensity.
Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland G.; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. PMID:24373942
Shakeri, Hassan; Keshavarz, Roshanak; Arab, Amir Massoud; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil
Kinesiological taping (KT) is commonly used to improve symptoms associated with musculoskeletal disorders. However, review of the literature revealed minimal evidence to support the use of KT in treatment of shoulder disorders and controversy exists regarding the effect of KT in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KT on pain intensity during movement, pain experienced during the night (nocturnal pain), and pain-free shoulder range of motion (ROM) immediately after taping, after three days and after one week, in patients with SIS. Randomized, Double blinded, Placebo-controlled design. A total of 30 patients with SIS participated in this study. Patients were assigned randomly to a control (N = 15) and an experimental group (N = 15). The patients in the experimental group received a standardized therapeutic KT. The standardized, placebo neutral KT was applied for control group. KT was applied two times with a three day interval, remaining on during the 3 day interval. Both groups followed the same procedures. Pain-free active ROM during shoulder abduction, flexion, and elevation in the scapular plane was measured. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity during movement or nocturnal pain and was assessed at baseline, immediately after KT, after three days, and one week after KT. The result of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant change in pain level during movement, nocturnal pain, and pain-free ROM (p = 0.000) after KT in the experimental group. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, change in pain level at movement (p = 0.009) and nocturnal pain (p = 0.04) immediately after KT was significantly greater in the experimental group than in control group. There was no significant difference in ROM measures (p > 0.05) between groups immediately after KT. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the after one week measurements of pain intensity and
Alvarez, Mavis Dora
Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...
Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K; Salvatore, Paola; Zarate, Carlos A; Strakowski, Stephen M; Sanchez-Toledo, Jesús Pérez; Baldessarini, Ross J
Early course in contemporary, clinically treated, nonaffective psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia remains incompletely defined. We prospectively, repeatedly, and systematically assessed 114 patients hospitalized for a first episode of DSM-IV-TR nonaffective psychotic illness for ≥ 2 years (1989-1996) using structured (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Edition; Clinical Global Impressions scale; Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms; Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms; and the expanded version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) and unstructured (best-estimate procedure, life charting) naturalistic follow-up procedures and survival analysis. Duration of untreated psychosis (22 ± 38 months) was longest with schizophrenia. Within 2 years, syndromal remission sustained for ≥ 8 weeks (recovery) was attained by 75 subjects (65.8%); median latency to syndromal recovery was 9.4 (95% CI, 5.7-13.3) weeks and was shorter with cycloid features, initial diagnosis of brief psychosis or schizophreniform disorder, and shorter initial hospitalization. Functional recovery within 2 years was achieved by 28 of 68 subjects (41.2%), more often without initial mood-psychomotor instability or homicidal ideation. New episodes occurred in 52 of 114 subjects (45.6%) and were more likely with less affective flattening, younger age, and white race. Median time to new episodes (43.7 [27.9-70.6] weeks) was earlier with initial first-rank auditory hallucinations, substance abuse, and functional nonrecovery. Diagnosis changed to other nonaffective, schizoaffective, or affective disorders within 2 years in 62 of 108 cases (57.4%). Three-quarters of patients presenting in first lifetime, nonaffective psychotic episodes achieved recovery within 2 years, but only 41% returned to baseline functioning, and nearly half experienced new episodes. Patients with schizophrenia had the longest duration of untreated psychosis. A majority changed diagnosis
International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
Yi, Richard; Pickover, Alison; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M.; Baker, Sydney; Landes, Reid D.
Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other’s scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed. Using an independent-measures design in study 2, the effect of episodic thinking about others was replicated. Study 3 addressed a limitation of studies 1 and 2, the possibility that simply thinking about others decreased social discounting. Capitalizing on Construal Level Theory, which specifies that social distance and time in the future are both dimensions of a common psychological distance, we hypothesized that episodic future thinking should also decrease social discounting. Participants engaged in episodic future thinking or episodic present thinking, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. The pattern of results was similar to study 1, providing support for the notion that episodic thinking about psychologically distant outcomes (for others or in the future) reduces social discounting. Application of similar episodic thinking approaches may enhance altruism. PMID:27821875
Yi, Richard; Pickover, Alison; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Baker, Sydney; Landes, Reid D
Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed. Using an independent-measures design in study 2, the effect of episodic thinking about others was replicated. Study 3 addressed a limitation of studies 1 and 2, the possibility that simply thinking about others decreased social discounting. Capitalizing on Construal Level Theory, which specifies that social distance and time in the future are both dimensions of a common psychological distance, we hypothesized that episodic future thinking should also decrease social discounting. Participants engaged in episodic future thinking or episodic present thinking, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. The pattern of results was similar to study 1, providing support for the notion that episodic thinking about psychologically distant outcomes (for others or in the future) reduces social discounting. Application of similar episodic thinking approaches may enhance altruism.
Jimenez-Lopez, Jesus; Arias, Miguel A; Akerstrom, Finn; Pachon, Marta; Puchol, Alberto
Emergency department admissions due to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks constitute an important patient group. The correct evaluation includes a review of system integrity and a careful analysis of stored intracardiac electrograms. We present a patient admitted with a single ICD discharge due to an episode of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and an unexpected finding. PMID:23071384
Jesus Jimenez-Lopez, MD
Full Text Available Emergency department admissions due to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD shocks constitute an important patient group. The correct evaluation includes a review of system integrity and a careful analysis of stored intracardiac electrograms. We present a patient admitted with a single ICD discharge due to an episode of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and an unexpected finding.
Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.
D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.
Some accreting neutron stars and young stars show unexplained episodic flares in the form of quasi-periodic oscillations or recurrent outbursts. In a series of two papers, we present new work on an instability that can lead to episodic outbursts when the accretion disc is truncated by the star's
Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…
Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl
We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud
The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns…
Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L
Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.
... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...
Thakral, Preston P; Benoit, Roland G; Schacter, Daniel L
Neuroimaging data indicate that episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) and episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, often referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, lateral and medial parietal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence for a core network has been taken as support for the idea that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes. Much remains to be learned about how specific core network regions contribute to specific aspects of episodic simulation. Prior neuroimaging studies of episodic memory indicate that certain regions within the core network are differentially sensitive to the amount of information recollected (e.g., the left lateral parietal cortex). In addition, certain core network regions dissociate as a function of their timecourse of engagement during episodic memory (e.g., transient activity in the posterior hippocampus and sustained activity in the left lateral parietal cortex). In the current study, we assessed whether similar dissociations could be observed during episodic simulation. We found that the left lateral parietal cortex modulates as a function of the amount of simulated details. Of particular interest, while the hippocampus was insensitive to the amount of simulated details, we observed a temporal dissociation within the hippocampus: transient activity occurred in relatively posterior portions of the hippocampus and sustained activity occurred in anterior portions. Because the posterior hippocampal and lateral parietal findings parallel those observed during episodic memory, the present results add to the evidence that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes. Critically, the present study also provides evidence that regions within the core network support
Dam, van Y.K.
In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the
Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio
Recent studies have suggested that the onset of sleepwalking episodes may be preceded by fluctuations in slow-wave sleep electroencephalographic characteristics. However, whether or not such fluctuations are specific to sleepwalking episodes or generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers remains unknown. The goal of this study was to compare spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) as well as slow oscillation density before the onset of somnambulistic episodes versus non-behavioral awakenings recorded from the same group of sleepwalkers. A secondary aim was to describe the time course of observed changes in slow-wave activity and slow oscillations during the 3 min immediately preceding the occurrence of somnambulistic episodes. Twelve adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically during the course of one night. Slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density were significantly greater prior to patients' somnambulistic episodes as compared with non-behavioral awakenings. However, there was no evidence for a gradual increase over the 3 min preceding the episodes. Increased slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density appear to be specific to sleepwalking episodes rather than generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Previous studies have shown that 5-HT3-antagonists reduce muscle pain, but there are no studies that have investigated the expression of 5-HT3-receptors in human muscles. Also, tetrodotoxin resistant voltage gated sodium-channels (NaV) are involved in peripheral sensitization and found in trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the rat masseter muscle. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors alone and in combination with NaV1.8 sodium-channels in human muscles and to compare it between healthy pain-free men and women, the pain-free masseter and tibialis anterior muscles, and patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain-free controls. Methods Three microbiopsies were obtained from the most bulky part of the tibialis and masseter muscles of seven and six healthy men and seven and six age-matched healthy women, respectively, while traditional open biopsies were obtained from the most painful spot of the masseter of five female patients and from a similar region of the masseter muscle of five healthy, age-matched women. The biopsies were processed by routine immunohistochemical methods. The biopsy sections were incubated with monoclonal antibodies against the specific axonal marker PGP 9.5, and polyclonal antibodies against the 5-HT3A-receptors and NaV1.8 sodium-channels. Results A similar percentage of nerve fibers in the healthy masseter (85.2%) and tibialis (88.7%) muscles expressed 5-HT3A-receptors. The expression of NaV1.8 by 5-HT3A positive nerve fibers associated with connective tissue was significantly higher than nerve fibers associated with myocytes (P < .001). In the patients, significantly more fibers per section were found with an average of 3.8 ± 3 fibers per section in the masseter muscle compared to 2.7 ± 0.2 in the healthy controls (P = .024). Further, the frequency of nerve fibers that co-expressed NaV1.8 and 5-HT3A receptors was significantly
Christidis, Nikolaos; Kang, Isabell; Cairns, Brian E; Kumar, Ujendra; Dong, Xudong; Rosén, Annika; Kopp, Sigvard; Ernberg, Malin
Previous studies have shown that 5-HT3-antagonists reduce muscle pain, but there are no studies that have investigated the expression of 5-HT3-receptors in human muscles. Also, tetrodotoxin resistant voltage gated sodium-channels (NaV) are involved in peripheral sensitization and found in trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the rat masseter muscle. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors alone and in combination with NaV1.8 sodium-channels in human muscles and to compare it between healthy pain-free men and women, the pain-free masseter and tibialis anterior muscles, and patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain-free controls. Three microbiopsies were obtained from the most bulky part of the tibialis and masseter muscles of seven and six healthy men and seven and six age-matched healthy women, respectively, while traditional open biopsies were obtained from the most painful spot of the masseter of five female patients and from a similar region of the masseter muscle of five healthy, age-matched women. The biopsies were processed by routine immunohistochemical methods. The biopsy sections were incubated with monoclonal antibodies against the specific axonal marker PGP 9.5, and polyclonal antibodies against the 5-HT3A-receptors and NaV1.8 sodium-channels. A similar percentage of nerve fibers in the healthy masseter (85.2%) and tibialis (88.7%) muscles expressed 5-HT3A-receptors. The expression of NaV1.8 by 5-HT3A positive nerve fibers associated with connective tissue was significantly higher than nerve fibers associated with myocytes (P < .001). In the patients, significantly more fibers per section were found with an average of 3.8 ± 3 fibers per section in the masseter muscle compared to 2.7 ± 0.2 in the healthy controls (P = .024). Further, the frequency of nerve fibers that co-expressed NaV1.8 and 5-HT3A receptors was significantly higher in patients (42
Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe
the construction of specific events during episodic future thinking remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined whether episodic future thoughts depend on executive processes and are affected by cue imageability to the same extent as autobiographical remembering of past events. Results showed...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...... of details in both memories and future thoughts, indicating the involvement of some common component processes in autobiographical memory and future thinking....
Maia, I G; Sá, R; Alves, P A; Ribeiro, J C; Fernandes, P H; Guarçoni, O; Bassan, R; Dohmann, H F
To analyze episodes of Torsades de Pointes (TP), in search of its electrocardiographic characteristics. We analyzed 105 episodes of TP, in 4 patients using quinidine and diuretics, recorded by 24-hour Holter monitoring. The following parameters were studied; ventricular repolarization out of TP, rhythm disturbances before TP; ECG characteristics of the onset, the bouts and the end of the TP. Ventricular repolarization, out of the TP, was abnormal, with the presence of U-waves at the end of the T-waves, resulting in prolongation of the QT (QU) interval. The U-wave voltage was noted to be cycle-length dependent. Ventricular bigeminy preceded TP in 100 episodes (95%) and the mean interval between both parameters was 18 +/- 16 min. The onset of the TP episodes showed the "short/long/short cycle rule", hereby called "pre-pause cycle", "preparing cycle" and "trigger cycle" respectively. The rotatory QRS-T morphology around the baseline, was seen in 75% of episodes, at the beginning or throughout the bout. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia pattern was seen in the other 25% of episodes. Termination of bouts was sudden in all cases, and persistent ventricular bigeminy led to another bout in 90 episodes (85%). In TP patients, there is enlargement of QT intervals mostly due to U-waves appearance. The U-waves seen in these cases, probably have an important role in the genesis of TP and are probably related to ventricular after-potentials (triggered activity). Ventricular bigeminy is a premonitory sign of TP in patients using class 1A antiarrhythmic drugs. Persistent ventricular bigeminy post-TP episodes is a strong indicator of another bout of TP. The onset of TP is more important than its morphology for the correct diagnosis of this arrhythmia.
Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch
Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...
Claus, P L; Carpenter, P C; Chute, C G; Mohr, D N; Gibbons, P S
This paper describes the implementation of clinically defined episodes of care and the introduction of an episode-based summary list of patient problems across Mayo Clinic Rochester in 1996 and 1997. Although Mayo's traditional paper-based system has always relied on a type of 'episode of care' (called the "registration") for patient and history management, a new, more clinically relevant definition of episode of care was put into practice in November 1996. This was done to improve care management and operational processes and to provide a basic construct for the electronic medical record. Also since November 1996, a computer-generated summary list of patient problems, the "Master Sheet Summary Report," organized by episode, has been placed in all patient histories. In the third quarter of 1997, the ability to view the episode-based problem summary online was made available to the 3000+ EMR-capable workstations deployed across the Mayo Rochester campus. In addition, the clinically oriented problem summarization process produces an improved basic "package" of clinical information expected to lead to improved analytic decision support, outcomes analysis and epidemiological research.
Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina
The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.
Andersen, Nicolai Bo
This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...
Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving Environment and Health in the Banda Slums, Kampala (Uganda). Rapid urbanization is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. About 12 000 people live in Banda parish in eastern Kampala. The area is swampy and prone to episodes of cholera. Incidence ...
Adults with patellofemoral pain do not exhibit manifestations of peripheral and central sensitization when compared to healthy pain-free age and sex matched controls – An assessor blinded cross-sectional study
Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Stephenson, Aoife; Mellor, Rebecca; Matthews, Mark; Crossley, Kay; Vicenzino, Bill
Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is highly prevalent among adults and adolescents. Localized mechanical hyperalgesia around the knee and tibialis anterior have been observed in people with PFP, but limited knowledge of potential manifestations of central sensitisation exists. The aims of this study were to study conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and wide-spread hyperalgesia in adults with PFP. This assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design compared CPM and mechanical pressure pain thresholds (PPT) between 33 adults (23 females) diagnosed with PFP and 32 age and sex matched pain-free controls. The investigator taking the PPT measurements was blinded to which participants had PFP. PPTs were reliably measured using a Somedic hand-held pressure algometer at three sites: 1) The centre of the patella, 2) the tibialis anterior muscle and 3) a remote site on the lateral epicondyle. For the assessment of CPM, experimental pain was induced to the contralateral hand by immersion into a cold water bath (conditioning stimulus), and assessment of PPTs (the test stimulus) was performed before and immediately after the conditioning stimulation. On average, the CPM paradigm induced a significant increase in PPTs across the three sites (6.3–13.5%, Ppain-free controls. PMID:29220355
Adults with patellofemoral pain do not exhibit manifestations of peripheral and central sensitization when compared to healthy pain-free age and sex matched controls - An assessor blinded cross-sectional study.
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Stephenson, Aoife; Mellor, Rebecca; Matthews, Mark; Crossley, Kay; Vicenzino, Bill
Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is highly prevalent among adults and adolescents. Localized mechanical hyperalgesia around the knee and tibialis anterior have been observed in people with PFP, but limited knowledge of potential manifestations of central sensitisation exists. The aims of this study were to study conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and wide-spread hyperalgesia in adults with PFP. This assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design compared CPM and mechanical pressure pain thresholds (PPT) between 33 adults (23 females) diagnosed with PFP and 32 age and sex matched pain-free controls. The investigator taking the PPT measurements was blinded to which participants had PFP. PPTs were reliably measured using a Somedic hand-held pressure algometer at three sites: 1) The centre of the patella, 2) the tibialis anterior muscle and 3) a remote site on the lateral epicondyle. For the assessment of CPM, experimental pain was induced to the contralateral hand by immersion into a cold water bath (conditioning stimulus), and assessment of PPTs (the test stimulus) was performed before and immediately after the conditioning stimulation. On average, the CPM paradigm induced a significant increase in PPTs across the three sites (6.3-13.5%, Ppain-free controls.
Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg
that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...
Villarreal Herrera, Georgina
Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability
Grindsted, Thomas Skou
. Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....
Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent
of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...
Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert
Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…
Full Text Available The main concern of this research is the exploration of tendencies made by the participants of a thesis examination in enacting their roles through their speech function choices. Interpretation of the data is based on the principle of critical discourse analysis within the systemic functional linguistic. The results show us the paradox of a Question â€“ and â€“ Answer episode of a thesis examination. It lies in the fact that it must operate in an academic atmosphere, be brief and frightening, and the examiners initiate the interaction by demanding information from the student, and yet it is a joint production of conversation in which, while enacting their supportive roles, the examiners contribute to sustaining the interaction, making it half-way between casual and pragmatic conversation. Based on the findings: some suggestions addressed to examiners are made.
Tandberg, Marte; Ueland, Torill; Sundet, Kjetil
-up. Those unemployed at baseline were rated lower on global functioning and were more likely to have a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Total employment rates were 41% at baseline and 38% at 2-year follow-up. Four employment paths emerged at follow-up, defined as persistently employed, becoming unemployed......-episode psychosis at baseline and 2-year follow-up, and the predictive value of neurocognition on employment status. One-hundred and twenty-two first-episode psychosis patients were assessed with clinical and neurocognitive measures at baseline. Occupational status was assessed at baseline and 2-year follow......, entering employment and persistently unemployed. The persistently employed group had the highest global functioning score. For the total sample, baseline employment status and sustained attention predicted employment status at follow-up. For those employed at baseline, better sustained attention, higher...
Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim
This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...
Reitan Andersen, Kirsti
The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía
Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...
Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.
Health-related quality of life in pain-free or mildly symptomatic patients with metastatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer following treatment with the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist zibotentan (ZD4054).
Dawson, Nancy; Payne, Heather; Battersby, Clare; Taboada, Maria; James, Nick
Zibotentan (ZD4054) is a specific endothelin A receptor antagonist in clinical development for the treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). In a Phase II trial in patients with pain-free or mildly symptomatic metastatic HRPC, zibotentan was well tolerated with a promising signal for prolonged overall survival compared with placebo. As part of this trial, the impact of zibotentan compared with placebo on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily oral zibotentan 10 or 15 mg, or matching placebo. Patients were allocated to one of two questionnaires; the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) or the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), supplemented by PR25, specific for prostate cancer. Questionnaires were completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until disease progression when study treatment was discontinued. Compliance with questionnaire completion was >90% (286 of 312 patients) of the intention-to-treat population at baseline. Of baseline completers who were available for assessment (i.e., had not clinically progressed), 89% (164 of 184) and 83% (73 of 88) completed questionnaires at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. HRQoL scores from both questionnaires were high at baseline and remained high throughout the study, with scores being similar in the zibotentan and placebo groups. However, some floor and ceiling effects were seen in the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. High-baseline HRQoL scores were maintained throughout treatment with zibotentan. The FACT-P instrument was selected to further assess the impact of zibotentan on HRQoL in the Phase III clinical trial program.
Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector
contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact......Background It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. Aims To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. Method Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric inpatients...... and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. Results A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...
Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez
Full Text Available Electrical oscillations in neuronal network activity are ubiquitous in the brain and have been associated with cognition and behavior. Intriguingly, the amplitude of ongoing oscillations, such as measured in EEG recordings, fluctuates irregularly, with episodes of high amplitude alternating with episodes of low amplitude. Despite the widespread occurrence of amplitude fluctuations in many frequency bands and brain regions, the mechanisms by which they are generated are poorly understood. Here, we show that irregular transitions between sub-second episodes of high- and low-amplitude oscillations in the alpha/beta frequency band occur in a generic neuronal network model consisting of interconnected inhibitory and excitatory cells that are externally driven by sustained cholinergic input and trains of action potentials that activate excitatory synapses. In the model, we identify the action potential drive onto inhibitory cells, which represents input from other brain areas and is shown to desynchronize network activity, to be crucial for the emergence of amplitude fluctuations. We show that the duration distributions of high-amplitude episodes in the model match those observed in rat prefrontal cortex for oscillations induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. Furthermore, the mean duration of high-amplitude episodes varies in a bell-shaped manner with carbachol concentration, just as in mouse hippocampus. Our results suggest that amplitude fluctuations are a general property of oscillatory neuronal networks that can arise through background input from areas external to the network.
Millan, J.; Smyser, C.
The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.
Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.
In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...
Dusseldorp, L. van; Goossens, P.J.J.; Achterberg, T. van
The purpose of this literature review is to identify mental health nursing's contribution to the care and treatment of patients with a first episode of psychosis; A systematic literature review was undertaken, with 27 articles selected for study. Five domains were identified: development of
Akyürek, Elkan G.; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard
The relationship between attentional control and episodic representation was investigated in six experiments that employed a variant of the classic attentional blink paradigm. We introduced a task-irrelevant (unpredictive) color match between the first and second target stimulus in a three-stream
Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...
Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan
Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.
Krishnakumar, P.; Jayakrishnan, M. P.; Devarajan, E.
A 9-year-old girl presented to the Child Guidance Clinic with clinical features suggestive of depressive episode of 1 week duration. There was history of short febrile illness 3 weeks prior to the onset of the depressive symptoms. MRI scan of brain showed features of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. PMID:22303048
Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Vliet, Jorine A.; Lammers, Gert J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Swaab, Dick F.; Ferrari, Michel D.
Episodic brain disorders (EBD) form an intriguing group of neurological diseases in which at least some of the symptoms occur in attacks. The hypothalamus integrates many brain functions, including endocrine and autonomic control, and governs various body rhythms. It seems a likely site in which the
Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.
The goal of this work is to create a generator that provides a corpora of input episodes in the specified format, which can be used as an input to test episodic memory models. More specifically, the methods used should ensure the scope to be in years up to a possible lifetime of a typical human agent. It also attempts to verify this on an actual episodic memory model, and test if the generated data has high enough quality to be used for testing psychological paradigms on memory models.
The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a
Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi
were subjected to 45 min of intense painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (episodic pain session), using a stimulus paradigm that in animals has been shown to induce long-term potentiation. These electrical stimulations produced a verbal pain rating of approximately 85 on a 0-100 verbal rating scale......An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants...... (VRS). Physiological (blood flow and axon flare reflex), psychophysical (perception threshold and verbal pain ratings) and electrophysiological (128 channels recorded somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)) measurements were recorded. The stimulation evoked a visible axon flare reflex and caused...
Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E
Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications
Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W
We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.
The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.
New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...
Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle
Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.
This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.
Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich
Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.
Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.
Kristensen, Niels Heine
Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...
dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
Molesworth, Mike; Watkins, Rebecca
Drawing from phenomenological interviews with 24 adult videogamers, we explore videogame consumption as a source of individualised, episodic progress. We first consider the relationship between play, progress, technology and the market. We then document adults’ accounts of progress through the acquisition of new consoles and software, in the accumulation of in-game resources, and in creative achievements within videogames. Alongside an understanding of technological improvements as representi...
Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio; Perez-Dueñas, Belén
This chapter summarizes clinical symptoms of some paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) of infancy and childhood, as well as episodic ataxias. PDs refer to a complex group of disorders whose main feature is the occurrence of sudden, intermittent attacks of abnormal postures and involuntary movements. PDs can sometimes be symptomatic (secondary PDs), but usually an underlying cerebral lesion is not present (primary PDs). Some of the primary PDs are transient, such as benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Chronic PDs are subdivided into nonkinesigenic (Mount and Reback type), kinesigenic (Kertesz type), and exercise-induced (Lance type) but cases that overlap with these types are on record. They are autosomal dominant inherited conditions. The myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 gene is responsible for nonkinesigenic PDs. To date, the genetic basis of kinesigenic PDs remains unknown. Several clinical entities associated epilepsy with PDs, such as infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). Exercise-induced PD type can be produced by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene that encodes Glut1 (glucose transporter type1). Episodic ataxias are inherited disorders of intermittent ataxia. The attacks are brief and triggered by abrupt exercise and emotional stimulus. Between attacks, palpebral and hand muscle myokymia is often seen in episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). In episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) interictal nystagmus is usually present. Some of these latter patients develop progressive ataxia with vermian atrophy. This disorder is associated with mutations in the human Ca channel alfa 1 subunit CACN1A4 gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.
in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten
The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...
Solomon, David A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Boland, Robert J.; Keller, Martin B.
Objectives To describe the duration of bipolar I major and minor depressive episodes and factors associated with time to recovery. Method 219 participants with bipolar I disorder based on Research Diagnostic Criteria analogs to DSM-IV-TR criteria were recruited from 1978–1981 and followed for up to 25 years. Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive depressive episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including mixed-effects grouped-time survival models. Results The median duration of major depressive episodes was 14 weeks, and over 70% recovered within 12 months of onset of the episode. The median duration of minor depressive episodes was 8 weeks, and approximately 90% recovered within 6 months of onset of the episode. Aggregated data demonstrated similar durations of the first three major depressive episodes. However, for each participant with multiple episodes of major depression or minor depression, the duration of each episode was not consistent (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.07 and 0.25 for major and minor depression, respectively). The total number of years in episode over follow-up with major plus minor depression prior to onset of a major depressive episode was significantly associated with a decreased probability of recovery from that episode; with each additional year, the likelihood of recovery was reduced by 7% (hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98, p=0.002). Conclusions Bipolar I major depression generally lasts longer than minor depression, and the duration of multiple episodes within an individual varies. However, the probability of recovery over time from an episode of major depression appears to decline with each successive episode. PMID:23561241
Janzen, Laura; Sherman, Elisabeth; Langfitt, John; Berg, Michel; Connolly, Mary
Neuropsychological profiles of four patients with subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are presented to delineate further the phenotype of this disorder. Standardized, norm-referenced measures of cognitive functioning, including intelligence, processing speed, attention, language, visuomotor skills, memory, and fine motor ability were administered to four patients with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of SBH. Despite intellectual impairment and other severe cognitive deficits, all four patients displayed relatively intact episodic memory. This selective sparing of memory functions has not been previously reported in individuals with SBH and suggests that doublecortin does not play a role in the development of memory systems in the mesial temporal region, which tend to be spared in SBH.
Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.
Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas
Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.
Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold
In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory is outli...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ......In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...
Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald
Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dam, van Y.K.
Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the
In the last decades, schizophrenia has intensively been studied using various brain imaging techniques. However, several potential confounding factors limited their interpretation power (e.g. chronicity, the impact of antipsychotic medication). By considering psychosis as a continuum of changes starting from mild cognitive impairments to serious psychotic symptoms, it became possible to provide deeper insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the onset of psychosis by focusing on at-risk individuals and first-episodes. Recent brain imaging meta-analyses of the first episode psychosis (FEP), noteworthy reported conjoint bilateral structural and functional differences at the level of the insula, the superior temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus, encompassing the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present review, we thus provide an update of brain imaging studies of FEP with a particular emphasis on more recent anatomical, functional and molecular explorations. Specifically, we provide 1) a review of the common features observed in individuals with high risk for psychosis and changes characterizing the transition to psychosis, 2) a description of the environmental and drug factors influencing these abnormalities, 3) how these findings in FEP may differ from those observed in chronic individuals with schizophrenia, and 4) a short overview of new classification algorithms able to use MRI findings as valuable biomarkers to guide early detection in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
It is known that comets are aging very rapidly on cosmic scales, because they rapidly shed mass. The processes involved are (i) normal activity - sublimation of ices and expulsion of dust from discrete emission sources on and/or below the surface of a comet's nucleus, and (ii) nuclear fragmentation. Both modes are episodic in nature, the latter includes major steps in the comet's life cycle. The role and history of dynamical techniques used are described and results on mass losses due to sublimation and dust expulsion are reviewed. Studies of split comets, Holmes-like exploding comets, and cataclysmically fragmenting comets show that masses of 10 to 100 million tons are involved in the fragmentation process. This and other information is used to investigate the nature of comets' episodic aging. Based on recent advances in understanding the surface morphology of cometary nuclei by close-up imaging, a possible mechanism for large-scale fragmentation events is proposed and shown to be consistent with evidence available from observations. Strongly flattened pancake-like shapes appear to be required for comet fragments by conceptual constraints. Possible end states are briefly examined.
Ergis, A-M; Eusop-Roussel, E
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show early episodic memory impairments. Such deficits reflect specific impairments affecting one or several stages of encoding, storage and retrieval processes. However, AD patients not only have great difficulty retrieving memories and information but also suffer from distortions of memory, as intrusions and false recognitions. Intrusions can be defined as the unintentional recall of inappropriate information in a laboratory-learning tasks such as word-list recall and story recall. False recognition refers to the erroneous recognition of information that was not previously presented. The first objective of this review is to present studies from the literature that allowed a better understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in AD, and to examine recent research on false memories. The second part of this review is aimed at presenting recent research conducted on prospective memory (PM) in Alzheimer's disease. Prospective memory situations involve forming intentions and then realizing those intentions at some appropriate time in the future. Everyday examples of prospective memory include remembering to buy bread on the way home from work, remembering to give friends a message upon next encountering them, and remembering to take medication. Patients suffering from AD show difficulties in performing prospective tasks in daily life, according to the complaints of their care givers, and these difficulties are massively present at the first stages of the disease. Nevertheless, very few studies have been dedicated to this subject, although the evaluation of PM could be helpful for the early diagnosis of AD.
Ashina, Messoud; Dodick, David; Goadsby, Peter J.
Objective: To assess long-term safety and efficacy of anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor erenumab in patients with episodic migraine (EM). Methods: Patients enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (NCT01952574) who continued in an open-label extension (OL...... reduces long-term MMD and improves headache-related disability and migraine-specific quality of life.......) study will receive erenumab 70 mg every 4 weeks for up to 5 years. This preplanned interim analysis, conducted after all participants had completed the 1-year open-label follow-up, evaluated changes in monthly migraine days (MMD), achievement of ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions, Headache Impact Test (HIT...... improvements and favorable safety and tolerability profiles, supports further investigation of erenumab as a preventive treatment in patients with EM. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01952574. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with episodic migraine, erenumab...
Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Elyas Kaya, Zeynep; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Cingi Yirün, Merve
Cabergoline is an orally administered synthetic dopamine agonist that is used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson's disease and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. One of the main characteristics of cabergoline is its long duration of effect. It is highly effective in suppressing prolactin levels up to 21 days after a single 1 mg oral dose. The prolonged elimination half-life offers an advantage of once-daily dosing, but it might be a handicap in terms of washout of adverse effects such as psychosis. Cabergoline has been associated with adverse reactions consistent with other dopaminergic agonists including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric effects. It is known that dopaminergic treatment is a remarkable risk factor for psychosis. A number of reports implicate dopamine agonists in the development of psychosis, but there is no knowledge in the literature of dopamine agonist-induced mania. In this case, we report the first manic episode occurring after cabergoline use for hyperprolactinemia treatment. In susceptible individuals, cabergoline can cause manic episodes and cabergoline should be used more carefully considering the risk-benefit ratio.
Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.
Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M
A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing
Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.
We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be
Terlizzi, Rossana; Cevoli, Sabina; Nicodemo, Marianna; Pierangeli, Giulia; Grimaldi, Daniela; Cortelli, Pietro
According to the diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society classification, hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral continuous headache of moderate intensity with painful exacerbations associated with ipsilateral autonomic signs without pain-free periods. We report a case of a 42-year-old woman suffered of a remitting form of hemicrania continua evolved from a strictly unilateral migraine without aura.
Forgas, J P; Brown, L B; Menyhart, J
The perception of real-life aggressive episodes was studied, in order to (a) represent the cognitive dimensions used by judges to differentiate between such episodes, (b) to evaluate the perceived differences between different categories of episodes, and (c) to assess the effects of the judges' age, sex and attitudes on their cognitive representation of aggressive episodes. Judgements of 22 aggressive episodes selected from a free-response pilot study were analysed by Carroll & Chang's (1970) INDSCAL procedure, and differences between categories of episodes and groups of judges were evaluated by multiple discriminant analyses. Results indicated that (a) four cognitive dimensions, probability of occurrence, justifiability, emotional provocation, and control, defined the psychological map for aggressive episodes; (b) domestic against public, drunken and non-drunken, criminal against non-criminal episodes were significantly differentiated in this perceptual space; (c) the judges' age, sex and Machiavellism scores were related to their perception of such episodes. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of implicit perceptions of aggression and crime in the criminal justice system. Specifically, it is suggested that similar techniques could be used to (a) gauge popular perceptions of crime as an input to the legislative process, and (b) for the study of perceptions of aggressive episodes by such crucial groups in the criminal justice system as policemen, judges, jury members, victims and offenders.
Palacios Ceña, María; Castaldo, Matteo; Kelun Wang; Torelli, Paola; Pillastrini, Paolo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
To investigate differences in widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia in the trigemino-cervical and extra-trigeminal (distant pain-free) regions in women with frequent episodic (FETTH) and chronic (CTTH) tension-type headache. It seems that people with tension-type headache exhibit central sensitization. No study has investigated differences between FETTH and CTTH in terms of widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity. Forty-three women with FETTH, 42 with CTTH, and 45 women without headache diagnosis were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over trigeminal area (ie, temporalis muscle), extra-trigeminal (ie, C5/C6 zygapophyseal joint), and two distant points (ie, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle) by a blinded assessor. Clinical features of the headache were collected with a 4-week headache diary. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The ANCOVA revealed that PPTs were significantly decreased bilaterally over trigeminal (mean differences ranging from 97.5 to 101.5 kPa), extra-trigeminal (from 94.3 to 114.5 kPa), and distant points (from 99.4 to 208.6 kPa) in both FETTH and CTTH groups compared with controls (all, P .217). Anxiety (all, P > .803) or depression (P > .206) did not influence pressure pain hyperalgesia. No associations between widespread pressure hypersensitivity and headache features were observed (all, P > .110). Current results suggest the presence of similar local and widespread pressure hyperalgesia, not associated with anxiety or depression, in women with FETTH and CTTH supporting that localized and central manifestations are involved in both the episodic and chronic forms of tension-type headache. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Full Text Available Objectives Hemoptysis is an alarming symptom of underlying lung disease. Clinicians are often unsure how to deal with and follow up patients who have had a single episode of hemoptysis, especially if the cause remains unknown despite thorough examination, because a second, more severe episode of hemoptysis might occur despite an apparently stable condition. Investigations were done, using multivariate analyses, to see whether several clinical factors present during an initial episode of hemoptysis could be used to predict a second episode. Subjects and Methods Eighty patients with an initial episode of hemoptysis who underwent both computed tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations from 2003 through 2005 were reviewed. Results The isolation of bacteria from bronchial lavage fluid (odds ratio 13.5, P = 0.001 and the failure to determine the cause of the initial episode of hemoptysis (odds ratio 7.0, P = 0.014 were significant independent predictors of a second episode of hemoptysis. Subset analysis showed that isolation of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Haemophilus influenzae increased the likelihood of a second episode of hemoptysis (P = 0.077, even if colonization, representing host-bacterial equilibrium, had occurred. Furthermore, the failure to determine the etiology of an initial episode of hemoptysis was associated with an increased risk of a massive second episode (P = 0.042, regardless of the volume of the initial episode. Conclusions In patients with bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract or an initial episode of hemoptysis of unknown etiology, there is an increased possibility of a second episode of hemoptysis.
Alvaro, Pasquale K; Jackson, Melinda L; Berlowitz, David J; Swann, Philip; Howard, Mark E
Real life ocular measures of drowsiness use average blink duration, amplitude and velocity of eyelid movements to reflect drowsiness in drivers. However, averaged data may conceal the variability in duration of eyelid closure episodes, and more prolonged episodes that indicate higher levels of drowsiness. The current study aimed to describe the frequency and duration of prolonged eyelid closure episodes during acute sleep deprivation. Twenty male professional drivers (mean age ± standard deviation = 41.9 ± 8.3 years) were recruited from the Transport Workers Union newsletter and newspaper advertisements in Melbourne, Australia. Each participant underwent 24 hours of sleep deprivation and completed a simulated driving task (AusEd), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Eyelid closure episodes during the driving task were recorded and analyzed manually from digital video recordings. Eyelid closure episodes increased in frequency and duration with a median of zero s/h of eyelid closure after 3 h increasing to 34 s/h after 23 h awake. Eyelid closure episodes were short and infrequent from 3 to 14 h of wakefulness. After 17 h of sleep deprivation, longer and more frequent eyelid closure episodes began to occur. Episodes lasting from 7 seconds up to 18 seconds developed after 20 h of wakefulness. Length of eyelid closure episodes was moderately to highly correlated with the standard deviation of lateral lane position, braking reaction time, crashes, impaired vigilance, and subjective sleepiness. The frequency and duration of episodes of prolonged eyelid closure increases during acute sleep deprivation, with very prolonged episodes after 17 hours awake. Automated devices that assess drowsiness using averaged measures of eyelid closure episodes need to be able to detect prolonged eyelid closure episodes that occur during more severe sleep deprivation. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
William Sims Bainbridge
Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.
This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.
Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie
AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...... (FEP) patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with PANSS depression item (g6) at baseline, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years of follow up. At 10 years, depressive symptoms were also assessed with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A PANSS g6 ≥ 4......: Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients...
Many basic ideas of algebra and number theory intertwine, making it ideal to explore both at the same time. Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra focuses on some important aspects of interconnections between number theory and commutative algebra. Using a pedagogical approach, the author presents the conceptual foundations of commutative algebra arising from number theory. Self-contained, the book examines situations where explicit algebraic analogues of theorems of number theory are available. Coverage is divided into four parts, beginning with elements of number theory and algebra such as theorems of Euler, Fermat, and Lagrange, Euclidean domains, and finite groups. In the second part, the book details ordered fields, fields with valuation, and other algebraic structures. This is followed by a review of fundamentals of algebraic number theory in the third part. The final part explores links with ring theory, finite dimensional algebras, and the Goldbach problem.
Schaefer, D.A.; Driscoll, C.T.; Van Dreason, R.; Yatsko, C.P.
Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt, transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive watersheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. In some systems lake outlet ANC reaches negative values. The authors examined outlet water chemistry from II Adirondack lakes during 1986 and 1987 snowmelts. In these lakes, SO concentrations were diluted during snowmelt and did not depress ANC. For lakes with high baseline ANC values, springtime ANC depressions were primarily accompanied by basic cation dilution. For lakes with low baseline ANC, No increases dominated ANC depressions. Lakes with intermediate baseline ANC were affected by both processes and exhibited larger ANC depressions. Ammonium dilution only affected wetland systems. A model predicting a linear relationship between outlet water ANC minima and autumn ANC was inappropriate. To assess watershed response to episodic acidification, hydrologic flow paths must be considered. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)
Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of fi rst-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-fi ve patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfi l the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent per- sonality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation...
Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...
Dolcos, Florin; Katsumi, Yuta; Weymar, Mathias; Moore, Matthew; Tsukiura, Takashi; Dolcos, Sanda
Building upon the existing literature on emotional memory, the present review examines emerging evidence from brain imaging investigations regarding four research directions: (1) Social Emotional Memory, (2) The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Impact of Emotion on Memory, (3) The Impact of Emotion on Associative or Relational Memory, and (4) The Role of Individual Differences in Emotional Memory. Across these four domains, available evidence demonstrates that emotion- and memory-related medial temporal lobe brain regions (amygdala and hippocampus, respectively), together with prefrontal cortical regions, play a pivotal role during both encoding and retrieval of emotional episodic memories. This evidence sheds light on the neural mechanisms of emotional memories in healthy functioning, and has important implications for understanding clinical conditions that are associated with negative affective biases in encoding and retrieving emotional memories. PMID:29255432
Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.
Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival
Bendtsen, L; Ashina, S; Moore, K A
recommendations for the treatment of episodic TTH based on these. RESULTS: Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is most probably involved in the development of muscle pain and the acute episode of TTH. Repetitive episodes of muscle pain may sensitize the central nervous system...... resulting in progression of TTH to the chronic form. Thus, muscular factors may be responsible not only for the acute headache episode but also for chronification of the disorder. Simple analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstays of management of individual headache episodes...... of peripheral nociception and how to avoid peripheral and central sensitization. There is a need for more effective, faster acting drugs for acute TTH. CONCLUSION: Muscular factors play an important role in episodic TTH. Ibuprofen 400 mg and aspirin 1000 mg are recommended as drugs of first choice....
Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica
The ability to remember events - referred to as episodic memory - is typically subject to decline in older adulthood. Episodic memory decline has been attributed in part to less successful executive functioning, which may hinder an older adult's ability to implement controlled encoding and retrieval processes. Since bilingual older adults often show more successful executive functioning than monolinguals, they may be better able to maintain episodic memory. To examine this hypothesis, we compared bilingual and monolingual older adults on a picture scene recall task (assessing episodic memory) and a Simon task (assessing executive functioning). Bilinguals exhibited better episodic memory than their monolingual peers, recalling significantly more items overall. Within the bilingual group, earlier second language acquisition and more years speaking two languages were associated with better recall. Bilinguals also demonstrated higher executive functioning, and there was evidence that level of executive functioning was related to memory performance. Results indicate that extensive practice controlling two languages may benefit episodic memory in older adults.
Kessing, Lars Vedel
episodes). For men, the prevalence of mixed episodes was constantly low. At all episodes, the presence of a current mixed episode increased the risk substantially of getting a future mixed episode. Conclusion: Clinicians should pay more attention to mixed episodes, especially among women, as they may...
Kessing, L V
and the prevalence of mixed, depressive and hypomanic/manic episodes were calculated at each episode. RESULTS: The prevalence of mixed episodes increased from the first episode to the tenth episode, however, only for women (6.7% of the first episodes leading to psychiatric care compared with 18.2% of the tenth...
Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Loland, Lotte
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that asthma is preceded by a stage of recurrent episodes of wheezing during the first years of life and that inhaled corticosteroid therapy during symptomatic episodes in this early phase may delay progression to persistent wheezing. METHODS: We assigned one-month-old ...... not affected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy had no effect on the progression from episodic to persistent wheezing and no short-term benefit during episodes of wheezing in the first three years of life. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00234390.)....
Murrell, Ben; de Oliveira, Tulio; Seebregts, Chris; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad
... residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed...
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.
Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N; Lavender, Jason M; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; Peterson, Carol B; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E
The primary goal of this article is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 min, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in bulimia nervosa. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.
Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.
The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.
NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.
Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V
A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.
Cotton, Sue M; Lambert, Martin; Berk, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Butselaar, Felicity J; McGorry, Patrick D; Conus, Philippe
The aim of this paper was to delineate the impact of gender on premorbid history, onset, and 18 month outcomes of first episode psychotic mania (FEPM) patients. Medical file audit assessment of 118 (male = 71; female = 47) patients with FEPM aged 15 to 29 years was undertaken on clinical and functional measures. Males with FEPM had increased likelihood of substance use (OR = 13.41, p forensic issues (OR = 4.71, p = .008), whereas females were more likely to have history of sexual abuse trauma (OR = 7.12, p = .001). At service entry, males were more likely to be using substances, especially cannabis (OR = 2.15, p = .047), had more severe illness (OR = 1.72, p = .037), and poorer functioning (OR = 0.96, p = .045). During treatment males were more likely to decrease substance use (OR = 5.34, p = .008) and were more likely to be living with family (OR = 4.30, p = .009). There were no gender differences in age of onset, psychopathology or functioning at discharge. Clinically meaningful gender differences in FEPM were driven by risk factors possibly associated with poor outcome. For males, substance use might be associated with poorer clinical presentation and functioning. In females with FEPM, the impact of sexual trauma on illness course warrants further consideration.
Full Text Available During our aerosol measurement program at Syowa Station, Antarctica in 2004-2007, some low visibility (haze phenomena were observed under conditions with weak wind and without drifting snow and fog in winter-spring. In the "Antarctic haze" phenomenon, the number concentration of aerosol particles and black carbon concentration increased by one-two orders higher relative to background conditions at Syowa Station, while surface O_3 concentration simultaneously dropped especially after polar sunrise. Major aerosol constituents in the haze phenomenon were sea-salts (e.g., Na^+ and Cl^-. From the trajectory analysis and NAAPS model, the plumes from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa were transported to Syowa Station, Antarctic coast, during eastward (occasionally westward approach of cyclones in the Southern Ocean. Thus, poleward flow of the plume from mid-latitudes and injection of sea-salt particles during the transport may lead to the Antarctic haze phenomenon at Syowa Station. The difference of O_3 concentration between the background and the haze conditions tended to be larger in spring (polar sunrise relative to that in winter. Because enhancement of sea-salt particles can play an important role as an additional source of reactive halogen species, the haze episodes might make a significant contribution to surface O_3 depletion during the polar sunrise on the Antarctic coast.
CERN Video productions
On Monday 7 November at 4pm in English and 4.20pm in French, watch "What's new@CERN" on webcast.cern.ch. In this second episode: LHC performance, a journey to the particle source and this past month's news. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-posterframe-640x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1394250', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');
Naudin, Marine; Carl, Tatiana; Surguladze, Simon; Guillen, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Atanasova, Boriana
Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE), and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale), an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors), and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant), facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions), and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant). In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten
Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.
Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ
Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component
Full Text Available Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n = 40. Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4 regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability.
Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Redcay, Elizabeth
Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4-and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. PMID:26900967
Cruse, Damian; Wilding, Edward L.
Although the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays roles in episodic memory judgments, the specific processes it supports are not understood fully. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of episodic retrieval have revealed an electrophysiological modulation--the right-frontal ERP old/new effect--which is thought to reflect activity in PFC. The functional…
Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies focus on memory retrieval as a reproduction of what was experienced and have established that neural discharge is replayed to express memory. However, cognitive psychology has established that recollection is not a verbatim replay of stored information. Recollection is constructive, the product of memory retrieval cues, the information stored in memory, and the subject's state of mind. We discovered key features of constructive recollection embedded in the rat CA1 ensemble discharge during an active avoidance task. Rats learned two task variants, one with the arena stable, the other with it rotating; each variant defined a distinct behavioral episode. During the rotating episode, the ensemble discharge of CA1 principal neurons was dynamically organized to concurrently represent space in two distinct codes. The code for spatial reference frame switched rapidly between representing the rat's current location in either the stationary spatial frame of the room or the rotating frame of the arena. The code for task variant switched less frequently between a representation of the current rotating episode and the stable episode from the rat's past. The characteristics and interplay of these two hippocampal codes revealed three key properties of constructive recollection. (1 Although the ensemble representations of the stable and rotating episodes were distinct, ensemble discharge during rotation occasionally resembled the stable condition, demonstrating cross-episode retrieval of the representation of the remote, stable episode. (2 This cross-episode retrieval at the level of the code for task variant was more likely when the rotating arena was about to match its orientation in the stable episode. (3 The likelihood of cross-episode retrieval was influenced by preretrieval information that was signaled at the level of the code for spatial reference frame. Thus key features of episodic recollection manifest in rat hippocampal
Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.
Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.
Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats
The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.
Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D
This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H
The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.
Croxson, Paula L; Browning, Philip G F; Gaffan, David; Baxter, Mark G
Episodic memory depends on a network of interconnected brain structures including the inferior temporal cortex, hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary bodies. We have previously shown that a moderate episodic memory impairment in monkeys with transection of the fornix is exacerbated by prior depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex, despite the fact that depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex on its own has no effect on episodic memory. Here we show that this effect occurs because inferotemporal acetylcholine facilitates recovery of function following structural damage within the neural circuit for episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment caused by lesions of the mammillary bodies, like fornix transection, was exacerbated by prior removal of temporal cortical acetylcholine. However, removing temporal cortical acetylcholine after the lesion of the fornix or mammillary bodies did not increase the severity of the impairment. This lesion order effect suggests that acetylcholine within the inferior temporal cortex ordinarily facilitates functional recovery after structural lesions that impair episodic memory. In the absence of acetylcholine innervation to inferotemporal cortex, this recovery is impaired and the amnesia caused by the structural lesion is more severe. These results suggest that humans with loss of cortical acetylcholine function, for example in Alzheimer's disease, may be less able to adapt to memory impairments caused by structural neuronal damage to areas in the network important for episodic memory.
Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F
The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.
A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…
Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.
In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an
Nessim, Sharon J; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M; Jassal, Sarbjit V
Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p < 0.001). Among patients with repeat CNS peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year.
Cara S. Jonker
Full Text Available Orientation: Emotions must be investigated within the natural contexts in which they occur. It therefore becomes crucial to study episodes in the workplace.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults.Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace.Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes.Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements.Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions.Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.
Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.
♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659
Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J
TTH with moderate or severe pain at baseline, or that tested drugs at first pain onset. The aims were to review methods, quality, and outcomes reported (in particular the IHS-recommended primary efficacy parameter pain-free after 2 hours), and to assess efficacy by meta-analysis. We identified 58......; the 23 largest trials involved 82% of patients. Few trials reported IHS outcomes. The number needed to treat values for being pain-free at 2 hours compared with placebo were 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2 to 15) for paracetamol 1000 mg, 8.9 (95% CI 5.9 to 18) for ibuprofen 400mg, and 9.8 (95% CI 5...
by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.
Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.
LaBianca, Sonja; Jensen, Rigmor; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant form of migraine with motor aura. We present a case report of a father and son with very similar attacks of hemiplegic migraine and recurrent episodes of accompanying psychoses. Previously, such episodes led to hospitalization...... and extended clinical examinations, which further worsened the psychoses. Since the episodes were recognized as related to the hemiplegic migraine, a treatment strategy combining sleep and sedation was initiated and progression onto psychosis was almost completely avoided in both father and son. Genetic...
Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Fei, Yutong; Mehring, Michael; Vertosick, Emily A.; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R
Background Acupuncture is often used for migraine prevention but its effectiveness is still controversial. We present an update of our Cochrane review from 2009. Objectives To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than sham (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as prophylactic treatment with drugs in reducing headache frequency in adults with episodic migraine. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: 2016, issue 1); MEDLINE (via Ovid, 2008 to January 2016); Ovid EMBASE (2008 to January 2016); and Ovid AMED (1985 to January 2016). We checked PubMed for recent publications to April 2016. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform to February 2016 for ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials at least eight weeks in duration that compared an acupuncture intervention with a no-acupuncture control (no prophylactic treatment or routine care only), a sham-acupuncture intervention, or prophylactic drug in participants with episodic migraine. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers checked eligibility; extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results, and assessed risk of bias and quality of the acupuncture intervention. The primary outcome was migraine frequency (preferably migraine days, attacks or headache days if migraine days not measured/reported) after treatment and at follow-up. The secondary outcome was response (at least 50% frequency reduction). Safety outcomes were number of participants dropping out due to adverse effects and number of participants reporting at least one adverse effect. We calculated pooled effect size estimates using a fixed-effect model. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created ’Summary of findings’ tables. Main results Twenty-two trials including 4985 participants in total (median 71, range
Hsieh, Li-Ying; Kuo, Su-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Ying I.
The distribution of nano/micron dicarboxylic acids and inorganic ions in size-segregated suburban aerosol of southern Taiwan was studied for a PM episode and a non-episodic pollution period, revealing for the first time the distribution of these nanoscale particles in suburban aerosols. Inorganic species, especially nitrate, were present in higher concentrations during the PM episode. A combination of gas-to-nuclei conversion of nitrate particles and accumulation of secondary photochemical products originating from traffic-related emissions was likely a crucial cause of the PM episode. Sulfate, ammonium, and oxalic acid were the dominant anion, cation, and dicarboxylic acid, respectively, accounting for a minimum of 49% of the total anion, cation or dicarboxylic acid mass. Peak concentrations of these species occurred at 0.54 μm in the droplet mode during both non-episodic and PM episode periods, indicating an association with cloud-processed particles. On average, sulfate concentration was 16-17 times that of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid was nevertheless the most abundant dicarboxylic acid during both periods, followed by succinic, malonic, maleic, malic and tartaric acid. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of oxalic acid was 0.77 μm with a bi-modal presence at 0.54 μm and 18 nm during non-episodic pollution and an MMAD of 0.67 μm with mono-modal presence at 0.54 μm in PM episode aerosol. The concomitant formation of malonic acid and oxalic acid was attributed to in-cloud processes. During the PM episode in the 5-100 nm nanoscale range, an oxalic acid/sulfate mass ratio of 40.2-82.3% suggested a stronger formation potential for oxalic acid than for sulfate in the nuclei mode. For total cations (TC), total inorganic anions (TIA) and total dicarboxylic acids (TDA), major contributing particles were in the droplet mode, with least in the nuclei mode. The ratio of TDA to TIA in the nuclei mode increased greatly from 8.40% during the non-episodic pollution
The author does not attempt to give a general survey of early astronomy; rather, he chooses to present a few "episodes" and treats them in detail. However, first he provides the necessary astronomical background in his descriptive account of what you can see when you look at the sky with the naked eye, unblinkered by received knowledge, but with curiosity and wit. Chapter 1 deals with the arithmetical astronomy of ancient Mesopotamia where astronomy first was made an exact science. Next are treated Greek geometrical models for planetary motion, culminating in Ptolemy's equant models in his Almagest. Ptolemy does not assign them absolute size in this work, but, as is shown here, if we scale the models properly, they will yield good values, not only of the directions to the planets, but of the distances to them, as well. Thus one can immediately find the dimensions of the Copernican System from parameters in the Almagest - we have evidence that Copernicus did just that. Further, Islamic astronomers' modifications of Ptolemy's models by devices using only uniform circular motion are discussed, as are Copernicus's adoption of some of them. finally, it is made precise which bothersome problem was resolved by the heliocentric hypothesis, as it was by the Tychonic arrangement. Next, the Ptolemaic System, the first cosmological scheme to incorporate quantitative models, is described as Ptolemy himself did it in a recenlty recovered passage from his Planetary Hypotheses. Here he does assign absolute size to his models in order to fit them into the snugly nested spherical shells that made up his universe. This much maligned system was, in fact, a harmonious construct that remained the basis for how educated people thought of their world for a millennium and a half. Finally, after a brief review of the geometry of the ellipse, the author gives an elementary derivation of Kepler's equation, and shows how Kepler solved it, and further proves that a planet moves very nearly
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...
Hudson, Judith A; Mayhew, Estelle M Y; Prabhakar, Janani
Episodic foresight is here defined as the ability to project oneself into the future and mentally simulate situations and outcomes. Tasks used to study the development of episodic foresight in young children are reviewed and compared to tasks used to study other future-oriented abilities (planning, delay of gratification, and prospective memory) in the same age-group. We argue for the importance of accounting for and minimizing the role of other cognitive demands in research tasks. Because episodic foresight is an emerging ability in young children, more research needs to be directed at the contexts in which it emerges and the extent to which episodic foresight is part of a growing ability for mental representation.
Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.
Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...
El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Fasotti, L.; Verny, C.; Allain, P.
Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by episodic memory deterioration. Objective: Our paper investigates the cognitive mechanisms that might underlie this decline. To this aim, we tested two executive hypotheses, the binding and the inhibition hypotheses. Methods: Fifteen HD
Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele
Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples' knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system.
Ibarra-Sifuentes, Héctor Raúl; Del Cueto-Aguilera, Ángel; Gallegos-Arguijo, Daniel Alberto; Castillo-Torres, Sergio Andres; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Martínez-Granados, Rolando Jacob; Atilano-Díaz, Alexandro; Cuellar-Monterrubio, Jesus Eduardo; Pezina-Cantú, Cesar Octaviano; Martínez-Guevara, Edgar de Jesús; Ortiz-Treviño, Juan Francisco; Delgado-García, Guillermo Rubén; Martínez-Jiménez, José Guadalupe; Cruz-Valdez, Jesús; Sánchez-Martínez, Concepción
Intradialytic hypotension is common complication in stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis. Incidence ranges from 15 to 30%. These patients have levocarnitine deficiency. A randomized, placebo-controlled quadruple-blinded trial was designed to demonstrate the levocarnitine efficiency on intradialytic hypotension prevention. Patients were randomized into four groups, to receive levocarnitine or placebo. During the intervention period, levocarnitine and placebo was administered 0 and 30 min before each hemodialysis session, respectively. During the trial, 33 patients received 1188 hemodialysis sessions. We identified 239 (21.3%) intradialytic hypotension episodes. The intradialytic hypotension episodes were less frequent in the levocarnitine group (9.3%, 60 IH events) (P hypotension episodes. Levocarnitine supplementation before each hemodialysis session efficiently diminishes the intradialytic hypotension episodes. This is a new application method that must be considered and explored. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.
Alldinger, Ingo; Siebler, M; Peiper, M; Cupisti, K; Rado, Y; Kindgen-Milles, D; Knoefel, W T
We report on a patient with a complicated course after surgical abdominal intervention and episodic life threatening respiratory failures successfully treated with carbamazepine after diagnosis of a ponto-medullary lesion in the MRI.
Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H
We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor.......We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor....
Vera B M Monteiro; Santos,José Quirino dos; Martin, Denise
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies show that proper treatment after the first psychotic episode may be delayed for a long time. Some patients remain without care even while exhibiting serious symptoms. The objective of the study was to understand the reasons why patients' relatives waited at least 6 months to look for psychiatric counseling and treatment. METHOD: Qualitative analyses of semi-structured interviews with 15 relatives (of patients with first psychotic episode) who have waited more than si...
Blankenship, Tashauna L.
Episodic memory refers to context based explicit memory and shows vast improvements during middle childhood. In this study, episodic encoding was manipulated using stimuli that were hypothesized to require active or passive processing. Nine to eleven-year-old children were presented with a recall task using lower resolution (active processing) and clear (passive processing) images. It was hypothesized that children would recall more low resolution images than clear images. Executive function ...
Murty, Vishnu; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila
Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory—specifically item versus associative memory—in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value assoc...
Campos, Maria S.; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K.; David, Anthony S.; Peralta MD, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J.
Background: Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. Aim: To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Methods: One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital...
How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Murakami, Hidetomo; Ono, Kenjiro
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse. About 80% of patients with MELAS have an A-to-G transition mutation at the nucleotide pair 3243 in the dihydrouridine loop of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR), which causes the absence of posttranscriptional taurine modification at the wobble nucleotide of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) and disrupts protein synthesis. However, the precise pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes is under investigation, with possible hypotheses for these episodes including mitochondrial angiopathy, mitochondrial cytopathy, and neuron-astrocyte uncoupling. With regard to treatment, L-arginine and taurine have recently been suggested for relief of clinical symptoms.
Full Text Available The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.
Murrell, Ben; de Oliveira, Tulio; Seebregts, Chris; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad
The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS) which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.
Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.
Wolf, Martina; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Sewell, Adrian C; Fischer, Andrea
Episodic head tremor anecdotally occurs in the Doberman pinscher dog breed, but it is not described in sufficient detail in the literature. We evaluated 87 Doberman pinschers affected with episodic head tremor and appropriate controls. The data analyzed were collected through detailed questionnaires, elaborate telephone interviews, and video recordings. Affected dogs underwent clinical, neurological, and laboratory examination, and a detailed diagnostic workup was conducted in 5 affected dogs. Pedigrees of affected dogs were collected and reviewed. The affected dogs expressed individual phenotypes of either horizontal or vertical head movements, but rarely did a dog exhibit head movements in both directions. There was considerable variation in duration (10 seconds to 3 hours; median: 3 minutes), frequency of occurrence (1-20 episodes/day; median: 2/day) of head tremor and length of the period without head tremor (1-1,800 days; median: 60 days). Subtle dystonic posturing of the head and neck during head tremor was evident on video recordings of 5 dogs. Certain exceptional conditions such as illness, surgery, some medications, heat, pseudopregnancy, or pregnancy triggered episodes. Two main important forms of episodic head tremor were identified: a familial early-onset form (age dogs were traced back to 1 common sire, also including sporadic cases. Episodic head tremor is an inherited, paroxysmal movement disorder that affects the Doberman pinscher breed. Identification of the causative genes in the future will allow us to obtain a more detailed description of the syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.
Durand, Thomas; Berzero, Giulia; Bompaire, Flavie; Hoffmann, Sabine; Léger, Isabelle; Jego, Virginie; Baruteau, Marie; Delgadillo, Daniel; Taillia, Hervé; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien
Cognitive investigations in brain tumor patients have mostly explored episodic memory without differentiating between encoding, storage, and retrieval deficits. The aim of this study is to offer insight into the memory sub-processes affected in primary brain tumor patients and propose an appropriate assessment method. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and memory assessments of 158 patients with primary brain tumors who had presented to our departments with cognitive complaints and were investigated using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. Retrieval was the process of episodic memory most frequently affected, with deficits in this domain detected in 92% of patients with episodic memory impairments. Storage and encoding deficits were less prevalent, with impairments, respectively, detected in 41% and 23% of memory-impaired patients. The pattern of episodic memory impairment was similar across different tumor histologies and treatment modalities. Although all processes of episodic memory were found to be impaired, retrieval was by far the most widely affected function. A thorough assessment of all three components of episodic memory should be part of the regular neuropsychological evaluation in patients with primary brain tumors.
A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…
This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...
Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent
In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...
"The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...
/ It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism
Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence
Gil César Costa de Paula
Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.
Post, Robert M
The process of sensitization (increased responsivity) to the recurrence of stressors, affective episodes, and bouts of substance abuse that can drive illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders requires a memory of and increased reactivity to the prior exposures. A wealth of studies now supports the postulate that epigenetic mechanisms underlie both normal and pathological memory processes. We selectively reviewed the literature pertinent to the role of epigenetics in behavioral sensitization phenomena and discuss its clinical implications. Epigenetics means above genetics and refers to environmental effects on the chemistry of DNA, histones (around which DNA is wound), and microRNA that change how easily genes are turned on and off. The evidence supports that sensitization to repeated stressor, affective episodes, and substance is likely based on epigenetic mechanisms and that these environmentally based processes can then become targets for prevention, early intervention, and ongoing treatment. Sensitization processes are remediable or preventable risk factors for a poor illness outcome and deserve increased clinical, public health, and research attention in the hopes of making the recurrent unipolar and bipolar affective disorders less impairing, disabling, and lethal by suicide and increased medical mortality. The findings that epigenetic chemical marks, which change in the most fundamental way how genes are regulated, mediate the long-term increased responsivity to recurrent stressors, mood episodes, and bouts of substance abuse should help change how the affective disorders are conceptualized and move treatment toward earlier, more comprehensive, and sustained pharmacoprophylaxis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
García González, Elsa; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; Luaces Cubells, Carles
Prevention is an essential aspect in paediatric poisonings, especially when recurrent episodes are detected. The aims of this article are to detect the recurrence rate for suspected poisoning in emergency consultations, as well as to identify the cases in which specific preventive measures are indicated, and to determine whether the creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in the computerised medical records system facilitates its detection. A retrospective study was conducted on patients less than 18 years of age treated in the emergency room due to suspected poisoning during 2013 and 2014. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of previous episodes. From January 2014, a specific item is present in the computerised medical records of the poisoned patient, where the history of previous episodes is registered. The preventive measures used between both groups were compared. A total of 731 consultations were recorded for suspected poisoning. A history of previous episodes was detected in 9% of cases. Medical injury reports and follow-up in outpatient clinics were more often performed in patients with recurrent episodes than in patients without them (28.8% vs 18.0%, P=.034, and 65.2% vs. 18.8%, P<.001, respectively). In 2013, the recurrence rate was 5.9% vs 12% in 2014 (P=.004). The recurrence rate observed is significant. Although preventive measures are more frequently indicated in these patients, their application is low. The creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in a computerised medical records system facilitates their detection. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The episodic long-term memory system supports remembering of events. It is considered to be the most age-sensitive system, with an average onset of decline around 60 years of age. However, there is marked interindividual variability, such that some individuals show faster than average change and others show no or very little change. This variability may be related to the risk of developing dementia, with elevated risk for individuals with accelerated episodic memory decline. Brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signalling or positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to reveal the brain bases of declining episodic memory in ageing. Several studies have demonstrated a link between age-related episodic memory decline and the hippocampus during active mnemonic processing, which is further supported by studies of hippocampal functional connectivity in the resting state. The hippocampus interacts with anterior and posterior neocortical regions to support episodic memory, and alterations in hippocampus-neocortex connectivity have been shown to contribute to impaired episodic memory. Multimodal MRI studies and more recently hybrid MRI/PET studies allow consideration of various factors that can influence the association between the hippocampal BOLD signal and memory performance. These include neurovascular factors, grey and white matter structural alterations, dopaminergic neurotransmission, amyloid-Β and glucose metabolism. Knowledge about the brain bases of episodic memory decline can guide interventions to strengthen memory in older adults, particularly in those with an elevated risk of developing dementia, with promising results for combinations of cognitive and physical stimulation. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
. In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...
Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Liffick, Emily; Francis, Michael M; Leonhardt, Bethany L; James, Alison; Buck, Kelly D; Hamm, Jay A; Minor, Kyle S; Mehdiyoun, Nikki; Breier, Alan
Impaired insight is common in the first episode of psychosis (FEP). Although considerable research has examined the factors that are associated with impaired insight in chronic psychosis, less is known about the factors that underlie and sustain poor insight in FEP. Impaired metacognition, or the ability to form integrated representations of self and others, is a promising potential contributor to poor insight in FEP. To explore this possibility, the authors assessed insight and metacognition in 40 individuals with FEP and then examined the relationship between these areas and social cognition domains, neurocognitive domains, and psychotic symptoms. Correlation analyses revealed that improved insight was associated with higher metacognition, better vocabulary and Theory of Mind scores, and fewer symptoms. The domain of metacognitive mastery also predicted clinical insight. Results support the need to develop an integrative therapeutic approach focused on improving metacognition, hence addressing poor insight in FEP.
Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…
Selvanathan, Rani G.
There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…
Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.
Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.
The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy
Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders
LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report ’ i...
Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob
Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....
Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.
The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.
Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…
Wormsley, W. E.
This article introduces a group of six papers on sustainability of programs for visually handicapped persons in developing countries. Sustainability is discussed from an anthropological perspective, noting the importance of a social soundness analysis and a social impact assessment, enemies of sustainability, and the need for broad local input in…
Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers
This conceptual paper wants to emphasis the use of the concept of sustainability within logistics and especially transportation. While working on a new tool to help companies develop sustainable European networks, we discovered that we want to use a specific concept of sustainability: People, planet
Palacios-Ceña, María; Ferracini, Gabriela N.; Florencio, Lidiane L.
trapezius, and splenius capitis musculature. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed over the trigeminal area (i.e., temporalis muscle), extratrigeminal (i.e., C5/C6 zygapophyseal joint), and a distant pain-free point (i.e., tibialis anterior muscle). Results: Active TrPs in the temporalis and upper...
Cognitive difficulties are a core feature of schizophrenia. They are frequent, severe, and clearly associated with functional disabilities. They have been explored during different phases of the disease, but what we know essentially concerns the chronic period in middle-age patients. In this article we will specifically focus on cognition at the time of first episode. First episode is a key life period, occurring while social demands are increasing and more complex on the one hand, and while there are important changes in structural and functional cerebral anatomy on the other hand. Exploring cognitive difficulties at the time of first episode offers the opportunity to better know their time course, to avoid interpretative difficulties due to the chronicity of the disease and its treatments, and to develop early therapeutics in order to improve outcome. Cognitive difficulties are clearly present at the time of first episode; their nature and severity appear similar to those observed in more chronic patients. Therefore, they cannot be entirely explained by treatments, hospitalizations or chronicity, and appear more as an intrinsic feature of the disease. The course of their trajectory through the progression of the disease remains uncertain; while they are already present during childhood or adolescence in some subjects who will later declare schizophrenia, they seem to worsen during the period of early prodroms, that is years before psychotic symptoms emerge. Whether they aggravate again during the first episode process is still a matter of debate. While longer DUP is associated with a poor outcome, this does not seem to hold true for cognitive impairments. Cannabis or tobacco use are neither associated with worse cognitive abilities in first-episode patients; a reverse relationship even sometimes exists. Cognitive impairment appears as largely independent from other clinical dimensions, acknowledging its own physiopathology and requiring specific evaluation and
Magee, J.A.; Obedzinski, M.; McCormick, S.D.; Kocik, J.F.
The effect of episodic acidification on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt physiology and survival in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Smolts were held in either ambient (control, pH 6.0-6.6), acidified (chronic, pH 4.4-6.1), or episodically acidified (episodic, pH reduction from control levels to pH ???5.2 for 48 h once weekly) river water for 31 days and then transferred to 34??? SW. Smolts fed little while in acidified conditions and chronic smolts did not grow in length or weight. In FW, chronic smolts experienced increases in hematocrit and plasma potassium and reductions in plasma sodium and chloride. Upon transfer to SW, chronic and episodic smolts experienced reductions in hematocrit, increases in plasma sodium, chloride, and potassium levels, and suffered mortalities. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase and citrate synthase activities were reduced by exposure to acid. For most parameters, the effect of episodic acid exposure was less than that of chronic acidification. Exposure to acidic conditions, even when short in duration and followed by a 30-h recovery period in suitable water (pH 6.5), led to a 35% mortality of smolts upon transfer to SW. This study highlights the importance of measuring and assessing sublethal stresses in FW and their ultimate effects in marine ecosystems.
Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.
Arroll, B; Hill, D; White, G; Sharpe, N; Beaglehole, R
To investigate the effect on blood pressure for 10-min compared with 40-min episodes of physical activity for 4 days. The design used a randomized crossover trial of two exercise episode durations, involving 17 subjects, which were performed in a university setting. The intervention was exercise on a stationary bicycle for four consecutive days, at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake (determined by heart rate), for episode durations of 10 or 40 min. A rest period of 10 days followed before exercise for the alternative duration was performed. The main outcome measure was blinded assessment of blood pressure 24 h after the last exercise episode. Significant reductions were found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after 4 days of 40 min but not after 4 days of 10 min stationary cycling. The reduction in blood pressure was significant for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for 4 days of 40 min of exercise episodes. Exercise of moderate intensity on a stationary bicycle for 10 min for 4 days is not effective in lowering blood pressure in comparison with the same exercise for 40 min for 4 days. The experimental design employed in the present study has potential for monitoring the effects of exercise on blood pressure.
Fredrikson, Mats; Annas, Peter; Hettema, John M
Fear conditioning seems to account for the acquisition of post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas conscious recall of events in aftermath of trauma reflects episodic memory. Studies show that both fear conditioning and episodic memory are heritable, but no study has evaluated whether they reflect common or separate genetic factors. To this end, we studied episodic memory and fear conditioning in 173 healthy twin pairs using visual stimuli predicting unconditioned electric shocks. Fear conditioning acquisition and extinction was determined using conditioned visual stimuli predicting unconditioned mild electric shocks, whereas electrodermal activity served as the fear learning index. Episodic memory was evaluated using cued recall of pictorial stimuli unrelated to conditioning. We used multivariate structural equation modeling to jointly analyze memory performance and acquisition as well as extinction of fear conditioning. Best-fit twin models estimated moderate genetic loadings for conditioning and memory measures, with no genetic covariation between them. Individual differences in fear conditioning and episodic memory reflect distinct genetically influenced processes, suggesting that the genetic risk for learning-induced anxiety disorders includes at least two memory-related genetic factors. These findings are consistent with the facts that the two separate learning forms are distant in their evolutionary development, involve different brain mechanisms, and support that genetically independent memory systems are pivotal in the development and maintenance of syndromes related to fear learning.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD during an acute manic or depressive episode. Methods: The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years. Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Results: In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated. However, indices of affective empathy were significantly higher in the manic group than in depressed and control subjects. In the depressed patients, indices did not differ from those of healthy controls. For affective empathy, a significant positive correlation was found with intensity of manic symptoms and a negative correlation was found with intensity of depressive symptoms. No such correlations were observed with cognitive empathy. Conclusion: We found evidence of increased affective empathy (overempathizing during a manic episode in bipolar patients. This phenomenon may be connected with disturbances in emotion inhibition related to anastrophic thinking and associated with increased activity of mirror neurons, all of which occur during a manic episode.
Riechers, Ronald George; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Piero, Traci; Ruff, Suzanne Smith
Background Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among military personnel serving in Iraq or Afghanistan. The impact of repeated episodes of combat mTBI is unknown. Objective To evaluate relationships among mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and neurological deficits (NDs) in US veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods This was a case–control study. From 2091 veterans screened for traumatic brain injury, the authors studied 126 who sustained mTBI with one or more episodes of loss of consciousness (LOC) in combat. Comparison groups: 21 combat veterans who had definite or possible episodes of mTBI without LOC and 21 veterans who sustained mTBI with LOC as civilians. Results Among combat veterans with mTBI, 52% had NDs, 66% had PTSD and 50% had PTSD and an ND. Impaired olfaction was the most common ND, found in 65 veterans. The prevalence of an ND or PTSD correlated with the number of mTBI exposures with LOC. The prevalence of an ND or PTSD was >90% for more than five episodes of LOC. Severity of PTSD and impairment of olfaction increased with number of LOC episodes. The prevalence of an ND for the 34 combat veterans with one episode of LOC (4/34=11.8%) was similar to that of the 21 veterans of similar age and educational background who sustained civilian mTBI with one episode of LOC (2/21=9.5%, p-NS). Conclusions Impaired olfaction was the most frequently recognised ND. Repeated episodes of combat mTBI were associated with increased likelihood of PTSD and an ND. Combat setting may not increase the likelihood of an ND. Two possible connections between mTBI and PTSD are (1) that circumstances leading to combat mTBI likely involve severe psychological trauma and (2) that altered cerebral functioning following mTBI may increase the likelihood that a traumatic event results in PTSD. PMID:22431700
Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders
LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative reports that buildings are responsible for more than 40 percent of global energy use and over one third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction and real estate sector has the potential to play a significant role in the response to climate change. During the latest years the increase in attention to sustainability and green building by planners, developers, and investors has been remarka...
to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper
How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...... creation, product innovation and business model innovation). The empirical basis for the typology is an exploratory study of managers' mindsets about sustainability as strategy. Ten top managers involved with integrating sustainability within their companies have been interviewed. In order to reveal...
Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian
This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...
Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F
Episodic memory is a polygenic behavioral trait with substantial heritability estimates. Despite its complexity, recent empirical evidence supports the notion that behavioral genetic studies of episodic memory might successfully identify trait-associated molecules and pathways. The development of high-throughput genotyping methods, of elaborated statistical analyses and of phenotypic assessment methods at the neural systems level will facilitate the reliable identification of novel memory-related genes. Importantly, a necessary crosstalk between behavioral genetic studies and investigation of causality by molecular genetic studies will ultimately pave the way towards the identification of biologically important, and hopefully druggable, genes and molecular pathways related to human episodic memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riggs, Anne E; Kalish, Charles W; Alibali, Martha W
How do children's interpretations of the generality of learning episodes affect what they encode? In the present studies, we investigated the hypothesis that children encode distinct aspects of learning episodes containing generalizable and non-generalizable properties. Two studies with preschool (N=50) and young school-aged children (N=49) reveal that their encoding is contingent on the generalizability of the property they are learning. Children remembered generalizable properties (e.g., morphological or normative properties) more than non-generalizable properties (e.g., historical events or preferences). Conversely, they remembered category exemplars associated with non-generalizable properties more than category exemplars associated with generalizable properties. The findings highlight the utility of remembering distinct aspects of social learning episodes for children's future generalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mlynczak, Marcel; Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Gerard
Cough monitoring is an important element of the diagnostics of respiratory diseases. The European Respiratory Society recommends objective assessment of cough episodes and the search for methods of automatic analysis to make obtaining the quantitative parameters possible. The cough "events" could be classified by a microphone and a sensor that measures the vibrations of the chest. Analysis of the recorded signals consists of calculating the features vectors for selected episodes and of performing automatic classification using them. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of classification based on an artificial neural networks using vibroacoustic signals collected from chest. Six healthy, young men and eight healthy, young women carried out an imitated cough, hand clapping, speech and shouting. Three methods of parametrization were used to prepare the vectors of episode features - time domain, time-frequency domain and spectral modeling. We obtained the accuracy of 95% using artificial neural networks.
Craver, Carl F; Kwan, Donna; Steindam, Chloe; Rosenbaum, R Shayna
The metaphor that individuals with episodic amnesia due to hippocampal damage are "stuck in time" persists in science, philosophy, and everyday life despite mounting evidence that episodic amnesia can spare many central aspects of temporal consciousness. Here we describe some of this evidence, focusing specifically on KC, one of the most thoroughly documented and severe cases of episodic amnesia on record. KC understands the concept of time, knows that it passes, and can orient himself with respect to his personal past and future. He expresses typical attitudes toward his past and future, and he is able to make future-regarding decisions. Theories claiming that the hippocampus plays an essential role in temporal consciousness need to be revised in light of these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Romm, Kristin Lie; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Barrett, Elizabeth Ann; Faerden, Ann; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of lifetime Diagnostic and Structural Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth version) major depressive episodes, and the relationship between patient characteristics and current severity of depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis patients (FEPP). A total of 122 FEPP from the ongoing longitudinal thematically organized psychosis research study were included at first treatment. A total of 58 patients (48%) had experienced one or more major depressive episodes; 21 (17%) before onset of psychosis and 37 (30%) during or after onset of psychosis. Poor premorbid childhood adjustment, substance abuse, and excitative symptoms at start of treatment were statistically significant associated with higher current severity of depressive symptoms. Alcohol use was significantly associated with current severity of depression in men, while excitative symptoms were associated in women. Thus depressive symptoms are frequent among FEPP, with indications of gender specific differences in patient characteristics that might imply different approaches to treatment.
Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Postma, Albert; Peters, Madelon L; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno
Interidentity amnesia is considered a hallmark of dissociative identity disorder (DID) in clinical practice. In this study, objective methods of testing episodic memory transfer between identities were used. Tests of both recall (interference paradigm) and recognition were used. A sample of 31 DID patients was included. Additionally, 50 control subjects participated, half functioning as normal controls and the other half simulating interidentity amnesia. Twenty-one patients subjectively reported complete one-way amnesia for the learning episode. However, objectively, neither recall nor recognition scores of patients were different from those of normal controls. It is suggested that clinical models of amnesia in DID may be specified to exclude episodic memory impairments for emotionally neutral material.
Y. Aboel Fetouh
Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.
Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first......-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...
Cognition is organized in a structured series of attentional episodes, allowing complex problems to be addressed through solution of simpler subproblems. A “multiple-demand” (MD) system of frontal and parietal cortex is active in many different kinds of tasks, and using data from neuroimaging, electrophysiology, neuropsychology, and cognitive studies of intelligence, I propose a core role for MD regions in assembly of the attentional episode. Monkey and human data show dynamic neural coding of attended information across multiple MD regions, with rapid communication within and between regions. Neuropsychological and imaging data link MD function to fluid intelligence, explaining some but not all “executive” deficits after frontal lobe lesions. Cognitive studies link fluid intelligence to goal neglect, and the problem of dividing complex task requirements into focused parts. Like the innate releasing mechanism of ethology, I suggest that construction of the attentional episode provides a core organizational principle for complex, adaptive cognition. PMID:24094101
Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten
In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Andersson, Therese; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per
Intact tendons adapt slowly to changes in mechanical loading, whereas in healing tendons the effect of mechanical loading or its absence is dramatic. The longevity of the response to a single loading episode is, however, unknown. We hypothesized that the tissue has a "memory" of loading episodes and that therefore short loadings are sufficient to elicit improved healing. The Achilles tendon of 70 female rats was transected and unloaded by tail suspension for 12 days (suspension started on day 2 after surgery). Each day, the rats were let down from suspension for short daily training episodes according to different regimes: 15 min of cage activity or treadmill running for 15, 30, 60, or 2x15 min. Rats with transected Achilles tendons and full-time cage activity served as controls. The results demonstrated that full-time cage activity increased the peak force over three times compared with unloading. Short daily loading episodes (treadmill running) increased the peak force about half as much as full-time activity. Prolongation of treadmill running above 15 min or dividing the daily training in two separate episodes had minimal further effect. This mechanical stimulation increased the cross-sectional area but had no effect on the mechanical properties of the repair tissue. The findings indicate that once the tissue had received information from a certain loading type and level, this is "memorized" and leads to a response lasting many hours. This suggests that patients might be allowed early short loading episodes following, e.g., an Achilles tendon rupture for a better outcome.
Er, Erkan; Kim, ChanMin
Teachers' episodic memories influence their beliefs. The investigation of episodic memories can help identify the teacher beliefs that limit technology-integration. We propose the Episode-Centered Belief Change (ECBC) model that utilizes teachers' episodic memories for changing beliefs impeding effective technology integration. We also propose…
A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…
Vogler, Christian; Spalek, Klara; Aerni, Amanda; Demougin, Philippe; Müller, Ariane; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans, the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism that influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data suggest a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.
Deans, Katherine J; Thackeray, Jonathan; Askegard-Giesmann, Johanna R; Earley, Elizabeth; Groner, Jonathan I; Minneci, Peter C
Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is a leading cause of childhood traumatic injury and death. Our objectives were to compare the mortality rates of children who experience recurrent episodes of NAT (rNAT) with children who experience a single episode of NAT and to identify factors associated with rNAT and increased mortality from rNAT. Patients of NAT and rNAT in the Ohio State Trauma Registry were identified by matching date of birth, race, and sex between records of patients younger than 16 years between 2000 and 2010 with an DRG International Classification of Diseases--9th Rev. e-code for child abuse (E967-E967.9). Statistical comparisons were made using Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A total of 1,572 patients of NAT were identified, with 53 patients meeting criteria for rNAT. Compared with patients with single-episode NAT, patients with rNAT were more commonly male (66% vs. 52%, p = 0.05), were white (83% vs. 65%, p = 0.02), were evaluated at a pediatric trauma center (87% vs. 69%, p = 0.008), and had higher mortality (24.5% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.002). Compared with rNAT patients who did not die, those who died with rNAT had a longer interval from initial episode to second episode (median [interquartile range], 527 days [83-1,099] vs. 166 days [52-502]; p = 0.07) and were older during their second episode (1 year [<6 months to 3 years] vs. <6 months [<6 months to 1 year]; p = 0.06). At initial presentation, lower-extremity fractures (p = 0.09) and liver injuries (p = 0.06) were reported more commonly in nonsurvivors of rNAT. Mortality is significantly higher in children who experience rNAT. Therefore, it is critically important to effectively intervene with appropriate resources and follow-up after a child's initial episode of NAT to prevent a future catastrophic episode.
Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier
This review offers a critical appraisal of the literature on episodic memory performance in frontotemporal dementia. Historically, description of patients diagnosed with what was then known as Pick's disease included the presence of memory deficits and an underlying amnestic syndrome was noted in some of these patients. Over the last 20 years, however, the clinical view has been that episodic memory processing is relatively intact in the frontotemporal dementia syndrome. In particular, patients with the subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia are reported to perform within normal limits on standard memory tests. In the third clinical presentation of frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, relatively intact episodic memory against a significantly impaired semantic memory was regarded as the hallmark. This position was instrumental in the development of clinical diagnostic criteria for frontotemporal dementia in which amnesia was explicitly listed as an exclusion criterion for the disease. The relative intactness of episodic memory, therefore, appeared to be a useful diagnostic marker to distinguish early frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease, in which early episodic memory disturbance remains the most common clinical feature. We argue that recent evidence questions the validity of preserved episodic memory in frontotemporal dementia, particularly in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In semantic dementia, a complex picture emerges with preservation of some components of episodic memory, notably recognition-based visual memory and recall of recent autobiographical events. We propose a critical synthesis of recent neuropsychological evidence on retrograde and anterograde memory in light of neuroimaging and neuropathological findings, demonstrating involvement of medial temporal structures in frontotemporal dementia, structures known to be critical for episodic memory processing. We further
Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana
This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants.
Full Text Available Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism which influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data support a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.
Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang
Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use
magnitude for environmental education. We can speak of sustainable development, sustainable economies, sustainable democracy, a sustainable world order, and sustainable modes of health maintenance, but when we turn to spiritual matters we are faced with the black hole of green· politics: what constitutes sustainable.
D. N. Pantazis
Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.
Jensen, Jesper Ole
Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... and that sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...
Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente
In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...
Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair
Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital...... instrument in the pursuit of sustainability. Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action. Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship. Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship - resource oriented...
of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green......-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can...... spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1) communications and market creation and (2) responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable...
ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators. Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...
Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua
Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.
Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.
Buist-Bouwman, MA; Ormel, J; de Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM
Background: Numerous studies have shown improved functioning after a depression, but often substantial limitations at follow-up remained. The goal of this study is to examine (1) whether functioning returns to pre-morbid levels after a major depressive episode (MDE), (2) predictors of incomplete
Bola, John R.
Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…
Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M
BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder...
Bloemen HJTh; Mennen M; Meulen A van der; LLO
To assess the behaviour of fine suspended particulate matter (PM10), a descriptive study was undertaken in the Netherlands in the City of Amsterdam and in a rural area some 50 km north-east of Amsterdam. During winter-smog episodes the contribution of PM1 to PM10 increases from approximately 10 to
Suddendorf, Thomas; Redshaw, Jonathan
Episodic foresight is the future-directed counterpart of episodic memory. It is a sophisticated, potentially uniquely human capacity, with tremendous adaptive consequences. Here we review what is currently known about its development through early childhood. We tackle this from two distinct perspectives. First, we present the first systematic evaluation of the development of purported components of mental scenario building as highlighted by a theater metaphor: the stage, the playwright, the set, the actors, the director, the executive producer, and the broadcaster. We find that, although there are diverse developmental trajectories, by 4 years of age children have acquired the basic cognitive components required to mentally construct specific future events. Second, we examine recent attempts to test children's episodic foresight more directly and find that results are in line with those examining the development of required components. This is not to say that children younger than four have no inkling of upcoming events or that older children have nothing left to learn about constructing the future. Episodic foresight, and its neurocognitive foundations, continues to develop throughout childhood. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Factors associated with hypoglycemia episodes in hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary health facility in Malaysia. Hasniza Zaman Huri1,2*, Muhammad Irfan Abdul Aziz1, Shireene Ratna. Vethakkan3 and Riyanto Teguh Widodo1. 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, ...
Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh
While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...
de Haan, L.; van Raaij, B.; van den Berg, R.; Jager, M.; Houweling, P.; Stockmann, M.; Delsing, P.; Linszen, D.; Peters, B.; Wouters, L.
Psychiatric services providing care for patients and their families confronted with a first psychotic episode need to be sensitive towards patients' and families' preferences. Ten patients, ten family members and ten professional caregivers composed a list of 42 preferences in the treatment for a
Feurer, Cope; Hammen, Constance L; Gibb, Brandon E
The goal of this study was to examine chronic and episodic stress in children of mothers with and without a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the children's lives. Participants were 255 mothers selected according to their history of MDD (present vs. absent during child's life) and their children (age 8-14; 53% girls, 81% Caucasian). Mothers' and children's histories of MDD were assessed using diagnostic interviews, and their depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report measures. Children's levels of chronic and episodic stress were assessed using a semistructured contextual threat interview. Children of mothers with a history of recurrent MDD, compared to single MDD or no depression, experienced more chronic stress within several domains including peers, mother-child relations, and other family member relations as well as greater episodic dependent interpersonal stress. Each of these group differences was maintained after excluding children with a history of MDD themselves and controlling for their current depressive symptoms. However, only the group difference in chronic peer stress was maintained when controlling for mothers' current depression. The results suggest that children exposed to recurrent maternal MDD experience higher levels of both chronic and episodic stress, at least some of which they contribute to themselves (dependent interpersonal stress) and which is at least partially independent of the effects of children's depression. In addition, much of this stress is associated primarily with current depression in the mother, though it appears that chronic peer stress may remain elevated even after the remission of maternal depression.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: A sizeable percentage of Hispanic youth are affected by alcohol use. Research is needed to identify specific factors placing Hispanic youth at elevated risk. Purpose: This study examined whether recent alcohol use (past 30 days) and frequent episodic heavy drinking among 7th - 12th grade Hispanic students (N = 946) in Greater…
Interest in the subject of first-episode psychosis has increased considerably in the last two decades. At present, a number of centres around the world focus on early identification and intervention in people with psychotic disorders. Researchers have focused particularly on people who are possibly experiencing the ...
Ragland, John D; Laird, Angela R; Ranganath, Charan; Blumenfeld, Robert S; Gonzales, Sabina M; Glahn, David C
Episodic memory impairments represent a core deficit in schizophrenia that severely limits patients' functional outcome. This quantitative meta-analysis of functional imaging studies of episodic encoding and retrieval tests the prediction that these deficits are most consistently associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional imaging studies that contrasted patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers during episodic encoding and retrieval. From a pool of 36 potential studies, 18 whole-brain studies in standard space that included a healthy comparison sample and low-level baseline contrast were selected. As predicted, patients showed less prefrontal activation than comparison subjects in the frontal pole, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during retrieval. The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex encoding deficits were not present in studies that provided patients with encoding strategies, but dorsolateral prefrontal cortex deficits remained and were not secondary to group performance differences. The only medial temporal lobe finding was relatively greater patient versus comparison subject activation in the parahippocampal gyrus during encoding and retrieval. The finding of prominent prefrontal dysfunction suggests that cognitive control deficits strongly contribute to episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia. Memory rehabilitation approaches developed for patients with frontal lobe lesions and pharmacotherapy approaches designed to improve prefrontal cortex function may therefore hold special promise for remediating memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.
Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.
obscured by multiple episodes of rapid diversification. We provide a phylogenomic estimate of fly relationships based on molecules and morphology from 149 of 157 families, including 30 kb from 14 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes combined with 371 morphological characters. Multiple analyses...
This article reviews the English literature over the past 10 years with regard to treatment outcome in first-episode schizophrenia. Particular attention is paid to factors associated w~h poor outcome ard predictors of relapse, and the use of the new antipsychotic agents. Since the mid-195Gs, conventional antipsychotic agents.
McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K
According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.
Campbell, Rex R.; Garkovich, Lorraine
Presents a collective behavior model for examining the population turnaround (urban to rural migration) of the 1960s/1970s as a specific form of mass movement. Specifies the value-added process that produced this particular episode at this particular point in social history. Explores factors influencing decline in turnaround migration. (Author/MH)
Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...
Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.
Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…
SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was
van Veelen, N.M.J.
The research of this thesis centers on the investigation of first-episode medication-naive and recent onset schizophrenia patients. In part I, functional MRI studies are described, in part II short term treatment effects are compared between ziprasidone and olanzapine. Part I, chapter 2: Differences
Klemfuss, J. Zoe
Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…
Purpose: To determine the factors associated with severity of hypoglycemia in hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary health facility in Malaysia. Methods: This retrospective study involved 207 hospitalised T2DM patients with hypoglycaemia episodes from January 2008 to December 2012 and was ...
van Gemert, J.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.
Whereas video tells a narrative by a composition of shots, current video retrieval methods focus mainly on single shots. In retrieval performance estimation, similar shots in a narrative may result in performance overestimation. We propose an episode-based version of cross-validation leading up to
The other widespread variety of mineral occurrences, notably calcite, siderite and sometime pyrite in the coal basin and traceable to precipitates in various joints, cleats, cell voids and lumens are associated/formed during epigenetic mineralization episode (post depositional phase), when the macerals have differentiated ...
Bliksted, Vibeke; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan; Frith, Chris; Videbech, Poul
Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ, and clinical symptoms. Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance in the patient group. The results imply that social cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia come in two distinct versions where one is a complex, cognitive demanding form linked with IQ. The other version is related to simpler forms of social cognition and independent of IQ. These two forms are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Kvaavik, Elisabeth
Objectives Little is known about the consequences of adolescent social media use. The current study estimated the association between the amount of time adolescents spend on social media and the risk of episodic heavy drinking. Methods A school-based self-report cross-sectional study including 851 Norwegian middle and high school students (46.1% boys). frequency and quantity of social media use. Frequency of drinking four or six (girls and boys, respectively) alcoholic drinks during a single day (episodic heavy drinking). The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Brief, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items for Adolescents, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Peer Relationship problems scale, gender, and school grade. Results Greater amount of time spent on social media was associated with greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents ( OR = 1.12, 95% CI (1.05, 1.19), p = 0.001), even after adjusting for school grade, impulsivity, sensation seeking, symptoms of depression, and peer relationship problems. Conclusion The results from the current study indicate that more time spent on social media is related to greater likelihood of episodic heavy drinking among adolescents.
Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil
-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...
Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O
Emotional events are remembered better than nonemotional ones, especially after a long period of time. In this study, we investigated whether emotional music is kept better in episodic long-term memory than less emotional music and to which extent musical structure is important.
Background: Major psychotic disorders such as the schizophrenias consume a high proportion of health budgets in developed countries. The economic implications of ... Aim: To estimate the direct cost of treating patients with acute psychotic episodes in a mental health unit in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: Forty one ...
To determine the effect of substance abuse on psychosis in terms of onset, duration, severity of symptoms, use of medication ... Subjects in the first-episode psychosis group were more likely to choose cannabis as their substance of abuse than controls. They also started abusing substances at a younger age than controls.
M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)
textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the number of fever episodes as a risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence during the first 6 months after the last previous febrile seizure. In a 6-month follow-up study of 155 children, aged 3 months to 5 y, with a first or a recurrent febrile
This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...
An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....
Cordero, Raúl; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)
A sustainable house is capable of generating and self-sustaining energy by itself to function autonomously, that is to say, without depending on external supply networks. That is possible by supplying the internal energy consumption through renewable energy. This work describes and analyzes the construction of a sustainable house in Paute, Ecuador. The goal of this house was to achieve selfsustainability in several aspects such as construction techniques, creative and functi...
Schlör, H.; Hake, J.-Fr.
Since the nineteen seventies, science and society have been discussing the worldwide ecological, economic, and social problems caused by industrialization and globalization. Sustainable development is perceived as a strategy for coping with these problems. The Rio +20 conference in 2012 confirmed the sustainability concept and introduced the green economy and the life cycle sustainable assessment as its implementation and operationalization strategy and tool.In the following, we will demonstr...
Hugo F. Alrøe
Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.
Hald, Kim Sundtoft
. Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed.......Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...
Grimm, Nancy; van der Pluijm, Ben
Science, Innovation, and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions: A National Academies Symposium; Washington, D. C., 16-18 May 2012 It is no longer disputed that humanity has drastically changed the face of the planet and its life-support systems. The sustainability challenge is to meet people's needs today and in the future while sustaining life-support systems. This grand challenge demands a new scientific approach: use-inspired, solution-driven research that consciously links scientific research to societal decision-making and action. Sustainability science may help fulfill that need if it can engage communities of expertise across a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including the geosciences.
Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin
This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their
To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.
Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J
Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pmemory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Sylvia, Louisa G; Dufour, Steven; Walsh, Samantha; Janos, Jessica; Rabideau, Dustin J; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G; Bobo, William V; Friedman, Edward S; Gao, Keming; Tohen, Mauricio; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Kocsis, James H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A
Psychotic bipolar depressive episodes remain remarkably understudied despite being common and having a significant impact on bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of depressed bipolar patients with current psychosis compared to those without psychosis. We used baseline data of a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine for bipolar disorder (the Bipolar CHOICE study) to compare demographic, clinical, and functioning variables between those with and without psychotic symptoms. Of the 482 participants, 303 (62.9%) were eligible for the present study by meeting DSM-IV criteria for an acute bipolar depressive episode. Univariate analyses were conducted first, and then included in a model controlling for symptom severity. The sample was composed mostly of women (60.7%) and the mean age was 39.5±12.1 years. Psychosis was present in 10.6% (n=32) of the depressed patients. Psychotic patients had less education, lower income, and were more frequently single and unemployed. Psychosis was also associated with a more severe depressive episode, higher suicidality, more comorbid conditions and worse functioning. Most group differences disappeared when controlling for depression severity. Only outpatients were included and the presence of psychosis in previous episodes was not assessed. Psychosis during bipolar depressive episodes is present even in an outpatient sample. Psychotic, depressed patients have worse illness outcomes, but future research is necessary to confirm if these outcomes are only associated with the severity of the disorder or if some of them are independent of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.
A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…
Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco
The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of
Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…
The unit-based sustainability assessment tool (USAT) was administered at Masinde Muliro University of. Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya, between January and March 2012. The assessment focused on establishing to what extent the University integrated sustainability concerns into its core functions of teaching ...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness
It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis
Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis
Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness
Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.
The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The
Action for Sustainable Change. New York: American Management Association, 1999. Fullan , Michael . Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers...institutional Army. iii ACKNOWLEGMENTS I thank my project advisors, Mr. Michael Cain, Director, US Army Environmental Policy Institute and Mr...U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute. Interview by author, date, Arlington, VA. 30 Michaels , Ed. “The War for Talent.” Interview by
What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…
BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.
Keijzers, G.; Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)
Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting from research carried out by Nyenrode Business Universiteit among well over 500 entrepreneurs and managers.
Keijzers, G. (Gerard); Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)
Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble
The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...
Jensen, Karsten Klint
The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...
Afgan Naim H.
Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.
System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...
Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars
Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...
Lauring, Gert Michael
Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...
Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present. The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability? Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein
UNLABELLED: Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. METHODS: A representative sample of 272...... patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms...... and socio-economic variables and the effects of changes in the same variables on S-QoL-development. RESULTS: S-QoL improved significantly over the follow-up period. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline had a positive and longstanding effect on S-QoL-development, but changes...
Chintan Madhusudan Raval
Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one′s customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one′s past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1 year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family.
Melle, I; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U
Quality of life (QoL) measures are increasingly recognized as necessary parts of outcome assessments in psychosis. The present paper is a comprehensive study of patients with first-episode psychosis where QoL is measured by the commonly used Lehman Quality of Life Interview (L-QoLI). The aim...... is to examine if the L-QoLI maintain its original structure when used in a group of patients with first-episode psychosis, and to investigate what determines global subjective QoL with a specific emphasis on premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical symptoms. The study indicates...... of compromised function at this stage produces poor satisfaction with life rather than a downward readjustment of expectations....
Full Text Available Symptomatic common carotid artery (CCA occlusion is an uncommon occurrence that may require surgical intervention. We aim to describe a case of CCA occlusion that presented with the unusual symptom of recurrent syncope. A 69-year-old lady presented with a history of recurrent syncopal episodes and amaurosis fugax associated with left leg weakness. She was found to have a right CCA occlusion on duplex ultrasound and angiography. She underwent a right common carotid endarterectomy and intraoperative findings revealed a heavily calcified plaque in the CCA just proximal to the bifurcation with organised thrombus filling the CCA proximally. CCA occlusion can rarely present with recurrent syncopal episodes. Surgery may be curative.
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non-abusers......, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...
Maria J. Santofimia
Full Text Available Smart Spaces, Ambient Intelligence, and Ambient Assisted Living are environmental paradigms that strongly depend on their capability to recognize human actions. While most solutions rest on sensor value interpretations and video analysis applications, few have realized the importance of incorporating common-sense capabilities to support the recognition process. Unfortunately, human action recognition cannot be successfully accomplished by only analyzing body postures. On the contrary, this task should be supported by profound knowledge of human agency nature and its tight connection to the reasons and motivations that explain it. The combination of this knowledge and the knowledge about how the world works is essential for recognizing and understanding human actions without committing common-senseless mistakes. This work demonstrates the impact that episodic reasoning has in improving the accuracy of a computer vision system for human action recognition. This work also presents formalization, implementation, and evaluation details of the knowledge model that supports the episodic reasoning.
Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H
pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...... significantly after surgery (P sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial
Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smart Spaces, Ambient Intelligence, and Ambient Assisted Living are environmental paradigms that strongly depend on their capability to recognize human actions. While most solutions rest on sensor value interpretations and video analysis applications, few have realized the importance of incorporating common-sense capabilities to support the recognition process. Unfortunately, human action recognition cannot be successfully accomplished by only analyzing body postures. On the contrary, this task should be supported by profound knowledge of human agency nature and its tight connection to the reasons and motivations that explain it. The combination of this knowledge and the knowledge about how the world works is essential for recognizing and understanding human actions without committing common-senseless mistakes. This work demonstrates the impact that episodic reasoning has in improving the accuracy of a computer vision system for human action recognition. This work also presents formalization, implementation, and evaluation details of the knowledge model that supports the episodic reasoning. PMID:24959602
Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj
BACKGROUND: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences...... in sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables among patients suffering exclusively from single-episode depression. METHOD: Systematic recruitment of 301 participants via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and assessment by means of questionnaires and interviews regarding psychiatric diagnoses......, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...
Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne
Objectives While caregivers of persons with first-episode psychosis often report a range of negative experiences, little is known about what psychological factors are involved. The aim of this study was to examine how caregivers' general wellbeing, emotional overinvolvement and metacognition...... influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...... and overinvolvement were associated with more negative experiences of caregiving while greater metacognitive capacity was associated with more positive experiences of caregiving. Conclusions The experience of positive and negative aspects of caregiving seems to be associated with different variables. Greater...
Ko, Chia-Ying; Lai, Chao-Chen; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo
Information of the decadal timescale effects of episodic climatic disturbances (i.e., typhoons) on phytoplankton in freshwater ecosystems have received less attention and fewer seasonal evaluations partly due to the lack of long-term time-series monitoring data in typhoon prevailing areas. Through field observations of a total 36 typhoon cases in a subtropical deep freshwater ecosystem in the period of 2005-2014, we quantified phytoplankton biomass, production and growth rate in response to meteorological and hydrological changes in the weeks before, during and after typhoons between summer and autumn, and also investigated the effects of typhoon characteristics on the aforementioned phytoplankton responses. The results showed that phytoplankton exposed to typhoon disturbances generally exhibited an increasing trend over the weeks before, during and after typhoons in summer but varied in autumn. The correlations and multivariate regressions showed different contributions of meteorological and hydrological variables to individual phytoplankton responses before, during and after typhoons between seasons. The post-typhoon weeks (i.e., within two weeks after a typhoon had passed) were especially important for the timeline of phytoplankton increases and with a detectable seasonal variation that the chlorophyll a concentration significantly increased in autumn whereas both primary production and growth rate were associated with significant changes in summer. Additionally, phytoplankton responses during the post-typhoon weeks were significantly different between discrete or continuous types of typhoon events. Our work illustrated the fact that typhoons did influence phytoplankton responses in the subtropical deep freshwater ecosystem and typhoon passages in summer and autumn affected the phytoplankton dynamics differently. Nevertheless, sustained and systematic monitoring in order to advance our understanding of the role of typhoons between seasons in the modulation of
Lal, Shalini; Malla, Ashok; Marandola, Gina; Thériault, Joanie; Tibbo, Phil; Manchanda, Rahul; Williams, Richard; Joober, Ridha; Banks, Nicola
The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding on the subject of relapse from the perspectives of family members of young people receiving services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP). A qualitative descriptive approach, using focus group methods, was used to elicit experiences, understandings, and knowledge of relapse in FEP. Family members were recruited from 4 specialized early intervention programmes for psychosis in Canada. A total of 24 (6 male, 18 female) family members participated in the study. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. The core underlying theme in all focus groups was worrying about relapse, which was often accompanied by significant levels of fear and anxiety, and was influenced by: (1) impact of an episode of psychosis; (2) limited confidence in recognizing and coping with relapse; (3) unmet needs for coping skills and emotional support and (4) unmet needs regarding frequency and continuity of communication with clinicians. Family members' unmet needs for relapse-focused education, support and communication with service providers and peers, can have a negative impact on relapse prevention. Addressing family members' education and support needs in a tailored manner (including preferences for types of peer support) can contribute positively to their confidence and ability to recognize and respond to relapse. This can help reduce fear and anxieties about relapse, and positively influence the ability to function as caregivers. Future research should focus on best approaches for providing education, sustained contact with the clinical team and family peer support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cosentino, Guiseppe; Brighina, Filippo; Brancato, Sara; Valentino, Francesca; Indovino, Serena; Fierro, Brigida
Evidence shows involvement of the cerebral cortex in the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH). Here we investigated cortical excitability in episodic CH patients by using transcranial magnetic stimulation. In 25 patients with episodic CH and 13 healthy subjects we evaluated the motor cortical response to single-pulse (ie, motor threshold, input-output curves, cortical silent period) and paired-pulse (ie, intracortical facilitation, short intracortical inhibition) transcranial magnetic stimulation in both hemispheres. Thirteen patients were evaluated outside bout and the remaining 12 patients inside bout. Our results showed increased slope of the input-output curves after stimulation of both hemispheres in patients outside bout and in the hemisphere contralateral to the headache side in patients inside bout. Increased intracortical facilitation was observed in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the headache side in patients evaluated both outside and inside bout; reduced short intracortical inhibition was observed in patients inside bout ipsilateral to the side of pain. In conclusion, we provide evidence of increased cortical excitability in episodic CH both outside and inside bout, especially in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the side of headache attacks. Our results suggest that an abnormal regulation of cortical excitability could be involved in the pathophysiology of CH. We investigated cortical excitability in episodic cluster headache by using transcranial magnetic stimulation, providing evidence of cortical hyperexcitability in patients both inside and outside bout. We suggest that an abnormal state of cortical excitability could be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela
Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk is parti...... in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans....
Orsolini, Y. J.; Eskes, H.; Hansen, G.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Kylling, A.; Kyrö, E.; Notholt, Justus; Van der A, R.; von der Gathen, Peter
A pool of low-ozone air resides in the Arctic stratosphere in summer. Its formation and maintenance arise from a combination of chemical ozone-destruction and transport processes. The summertime ozone destruction is induced by gas-phase chemistry dominated by nitrogen and hydrogen catalytic cycles, which are efficient due to long summertime insolation at high latitudes. It is shown that, during events referred to as low-ozone episodes (LOEs), column ozone can locally decrease to values compar...
Michael Barnett - Erik Johansson
ATLAS, The Particles Strike Back is the second episode in a three part series that uncovers the mysteries of the ATLAS experiment. Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is shown the inner, middle and outer sections of the ATLAS detector. The narrator describes how different parts of the detector are able to detect 6 different types of particles: electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, muons and neutrinos.
Eranki, Vijay Gopal
Objective. It is uncommon for dermatomyositis to be associated with papillary thyroid cancer. We report an unusual case of papillary thyroid cancer presenting with dermatomyositis. Methods. The case history, imaging and laboratory data is reviewed. Results. We report the case of a 62-year-old female with a prior history of dermatomyositis and breast cancer who presented with a recurrent episode of dermatomyositis. Extensive evaluation of the cause of the dermatomyositis recurrence revealed no...
Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J
Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Wammes, Jeffrey D; Good, Tyler J; Fernandes, Myra A
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI. We first investigated whether there were observable episodic and autobiographical memory impairments associated with mTBI within an otherwise healthy young group. Next, because previous work had demonstrated some overlap in patterns of behavioral impairment in normally aging adults and younger adults with a history of mTBI (e.g. Ozen, Fernandes, Clark, & Roy, 2015), we sought to determine whether these groups displayed similar cognitive profiles. Lastly, we conducted an exploratory analysis to test whether having suffered an mTBI might exacerbate age-related cognitive decline. Results showed the expected age-related decline in episodic memory performance, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory in older adults. Importantly, this pattern was also present in younger adults with a history of remote mTBI. No differences were observed across older adult groups based on mTBI status. Logistic regression analyses, using each measure in our battery as a predictor, successfully classified mTBI status in younger participants with a high degree of specificity (79.5%). These results indicate that those who have had an mTBI demonstrate a distinct cognitive signature, characterized by impairment in episodic and autobiographical memory, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cusack, Michael; Reche, Cristina
The geographic location of the Western Mediterranean Basin and its peculiar topography, the climatic conditions and the intense anthropogenic and natural emissions of atmospheric pollutants are key factors necessary to interpret the atmospheric aerosol phenomenology over this area. During the cold season it is common to have severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes (of an anthropogenic origin) affecting this region, not only in the urban and industrial areas but also in the regional and rural sites. During these episodes, the midday hourly PM(1) levels at regional background sites are in many cases higher than those at urban areas. Around 10% of the days under winter anticyclonic conditions registered similar PM(1) levels at the regional background than at the urban area and, sporadically the daily PM(1) levels at the regional background sites may exceed those at urban sites. Furthermore, the very high hourly PM(1) levels measured at regional background sites during these episodes are not regularly attained in the closest urban areas, which leads to the hypothesis that an important formation of secondary aerosols occurs during the transport of the polluted air masses towards the elevated rural sites. The interpretation of the variability of PM levels and composition (2002-2008) at one urban site (Barcelona) and at one regional background site (Montseny) allows us to illustrate the phenomenology of these scenarios, to quantify the mean annual contributions to the PM levels and to identify their main tracers. Ammonium nitrate appears to be the most abundant compound during these scenarios, although organic species and trace metals also increase markedly. Owing to the intensity, composition and recurrence of these atmospheric pollution episodes, important health, climatic and ecological implications may be derived.
Oct 5, 2009 ... It is also suggested that ITN usage among boarding school pupils should be incorporated into school health service. Keywords: Boarding schools, ITN use and malaria episodes, Nigeria, students. Résumé arrière-plan: malgré le paludisme est la plus grand problème de santé en Afrique au sud du Sahara ...
Ana Comesaña; Marcela González
This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD) patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psy...
Over the past four decades, a "standard framework" has emerged to explain the neural mechanisms of episodic memory storage. This framework has been instrumental in driving hippocampal research forward and now dominates the design and interpretation of experimental and theoretical studies. It postulates that cortical inputs drive plasticity in the recurrent cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) synapses to rapidly imprint memories as attractor states in CA3. Here we review a range of experimental studies and argue that the evidence against the standard framework is mounting, notwithstanding the considerable evidence in its support. We propose CRISP as an alternative theory to the standard framework. CRISP is based on Context Reset by dentate gyrus (DG), Intrinsic Sequences in CA3, and Pattern completion in cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Compared to previous models, CRISP uses a radically different mechanism for storing episodic memories in the hippocampus. Neural sequences are intrinsic to CA3, and inputs are mapped onto these intrinsic sequences through synaptic plasticity in the feedforward projections of the hippocampus. Hence, CRISP does not require plasticity in the recurrent CA3 synapses during the storage process. Like in other theories DG and CA1 play supporting roles, however, their function in CRISP have distinct implications. For instance, CA1 performs pattern completion in the absence of CA3 and DG contributes to episodic memory retrieval, increasing the speed, precision, and robustness of retrieval. We propose the conceptual theory, discuss its implications for experimental results and suggest testable predictions. It appears that CRISP not only accounts for those experimental results that are consistent with the standard framework, but also for results that are at odds with the standard framework. We therefore suggest that CRISP is a viable, and perhaps superior, theory for the hippocampal function in episodic memory.
Grady, Cheryl L.; Anthony R. Mcintosh; Rajah, M. Natasha; Craik, Fergus I.M.
A striking characteristic of human memory is that pictures are remembered better than words. We examined the neural correlates of memory for pictures and words in the context of episodic memory encoding to determine material-specific differences in brain activity patterns. To do this, we used positron emission tomography to map the brain regions active during encoding of words and pictures of objects. Encoding was carried out by using three different strategies to explore possible interaction...
Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Lin
An integrated sampling technique, dubbed trigger sampling, was developed to capture characteristic industrial emissions or plumes. In the field experiment, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) analyzer was used as the triggering instrument at the boundary of a refinery plant due to frequent complaints of foul smell from local residents. Ten episodic samples were captured when the H2S level surpassed the prescribed trigger level of 8.5 ppbv over a three-day period. Three non-episodic (blank) samples and 23 road-side samples were also collected for comparison. All the 36 flask samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC-MS/FID) for 108 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The total VOC abundance of the event samples was exceedingly higher than the non-episodic samples by over 80 times in the extreme case. Alkanes were found to be the dominant constituents in the event samples, amounting to over 90% of the total VOC concentrations vs. only 30-40% for the blank and metropolitan samples. In addition, light alkanes in the event samples were highly correlated with the trigger species H2S (R2 = 0.82), implying their common origin. The matrix of chemical composition vs. sample types permitted easy visualization of the dominance of light alkanes for the event samples compared to other types of samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two major contributors to cover 93% of the total variance arising from the 36 samples, further quantifying the distinction of the triggered episodic samples from the contrast samples. The proposed trigger sampling is a coupling of fast-and-slow measurement techniques. In this example, the fast-response H2S analyzer served to "guide" sampling to capture industrial plumes which were then characterized by a relatively slow method of GC-MS/FID for detailed chemical composition representative of the prominent sources.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu
Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.
Nigro, Giovanna; Brandimonte, Maria A; Cicogna, PierCarla; Cosenza, Marina
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relationship among retrospective memory, episodic future thinking, and event-based prospective memory performance in preschool, first-grade, and second-grade children. A total of 160 children took part in the experiment. The study included participants from four age groups: 4-year-olds, 5-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and 7-year-olds. Participants were administered a recognition memory task, a task to test the ability to pre-experience future events, and an event-based prospective memory task. Data were submitted to correlational analyses, analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that, overall, all of these abilities improve with age and are significantly correlated with one another. However, when partialling out age and retrospective memory, episodic future thinking and prospective memory performance remained correlated. Logistic regression further showed that age and episodic future thinking abilities were significant predictors of prospective memory performance independent of retrospective memory abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kirk Warren Brown
Full Text Available Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143, a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93, very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57 extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.
Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M
BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis.......BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...
Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni
Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.
Claudia P. Múnera
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.