WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained national economic

  1. Resource Management As Panacea For Sustainable National Economic Development And National Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanbi Oluwajuwon Mayomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Resource Management as a Panacea for Sustainable National Economic Development and National Unity. The nation has been besieged by numerous problems due to poor resource management. These problems include corruption health implications poverty and inequality in income distribution ethnic crisis pollutions and it has also resulted in economic losses. These problems have militated against the countrys ability to create wealth for the present and future generation. The paper also looked at the concept of conservation and sustainability and their relationship with resource management. The main thrust of the recommendations was hinged on the problems mentioned. These recommendations include making revenue from resources more equitably distributed compensating the people of the area through the development of infrastructures like health facilities and provision of pipe borne water making and enforcing laws that will reduce pollution and development of capital projects.

  2. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  3. The model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.

  4. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  5. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  6. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  7. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP) management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kholil; Diane Tangian

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction...

  8. Sustainability of National Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mihai Cristea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, cohesion policy is the third country after the domestic and social policy, as this policy is a tool for economic growth and also a balancing factor. Through its solidarity funds contribute to the other sectorial policies: the Common Agricultural Policy, social policy, environmental policy. This article aims to demonstrate the importance of cohesion policy in the national economy and how to improve its implementation by ensuring sustainable development and sustainable economic growth

  9. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunaken Marine Park is one of the world's most beautiful marine tourism which has a unique coral reefs, turtles and diversity of pelagic fish. Currently Bunaken Marine Park has become an excellent tourist attraction for diving. Since the number of visitors and community activities around the park are continues to increase; there have been severe damages to coral reefs as well as polluting the environment around the marine park. Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction. Interpretative Method Structure Modeling (ISM was chosen to design the institutional model appropriate to the conditions surrounding the object, which is able to manage Bunaken Marine Park as a sustainable tourist attraction.

  10. Nontimber forest products in Daniel Boone National Forest region--economic significance and potential for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasharathi Hembram; William L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Household members who gather nontimber forest products (NTFP) in and around the Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF) in eastern Kentucky were interviewed. Participants reported that a wide variety of NTFP were economically and culturally important to them. Forty-three species of plants were sold commercially and 120 were used in households. Ginseng (Panax...

  11. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  12. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  13. Sustainability. An economic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven R. [Department of Economics and Center for Sustainable Systems Studies, Miami University, Oxford, OH (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The economic perspective of sustainability focuses on the trade off of current consumption for future consumption. This was the question that faced the economists of the late 19th century such as Malthus who noticed growth in the population outpaced that of food. Yet, Malthusian prediction of famine and disaster did not come to pass due to technological innovation. There was a substitution of created capital (machines) for natural capital (labor and land). Thus, whether created- and natural capital are substitute or complementary goods is key to sustainability. Many economists believe we can maintain current consumption and that technological innovation will take care of the needs of future generations. However other economists believe that created capital and natural capital are complementary goods; as we consume more created capital, we will also have to consume more natural capital. The relationship between natural and created capital has an impact on what policies and incentives we consider for the preservation of opportunities for future generations. If they are substitutes, current efforts need to focus on development of new technologies which will allow us to do more with less. If they are complements we need to consider efforts of preservation and conservation. We understand that we cannot have our cake and eat it too. The debate is whether we emphasize finding a new way to bake more cake, or carefully consume the cake we have.

  14. 36 CFR 219.21 - Social and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sustainability. 219.21 Section 219.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Economic Sustainability § 219.21 Social and economic sustainability. To contribute to economic and social sustainability, the responsible official involves interested and affected people in planning for National Forest...

  15. The Economics of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohuan Lan; Ben Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an economic framework for examining how economic openness affects nationalism. Within a country, a region's level of nationalism varies according to its economic interests in its domestic market relative to its foreign market. A region's nationalism is strongest if the optimal size of its domestic market equals the size of its country. All else being equal, increasing a region's foreign trade reduces its economic interests in its domestic market and thus weakens its nation...

  16. ALDOT economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This research used quantitative methods to document 15-year trends in various economic factors, from the very detailed (e.g., cost per ton for aggregate) to the very broad (total ALDOT annual receipts and expenditures), and for categories of receipts...

  17. Fiscal Deficit, National Saving and Sustainability of Economic Growth in Emerging Economies: A Dynamic GMM Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical growth models argued that the movement to steady states; technology, exogenous rate of savings, population growth and technical progress stimulate higher growth levels (Solow 1956. Contrary to the neoclassical argument, endogenous growth model argues that, in the theory of endogenous growth, government play a significant role in promoting accumulation of knowledge, research and development, public investment, human capital development, law and order can generate growth both in the short and long run. Moreover, they assumed technical progress as endogenous variable for growth (Barro 1995. This study analyze the effects of fiscal deficit on sustainability of economic growth and provided new empirical evidence on the effects of fiscal deficit on saving and sustainability of economic growth based on the assumption of endogenous growth model. We estimated using the reduced form of GMM method for dynamic panels covers 1990-2009 for three emerging countries that includes China, India and South Africa.

  18. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VERSUS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.

  19. PRIORITY GUIDELINES OF INNOVATIVE NATIONAL ECONOMICS' MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davletbaeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical basis of innovative modernization of the industry as a background for sustainable development of the national economy of Kazakhstan is reviewed. The changes, that are in process in the whole system of production relations in Kazakhstan, are related to new stage of economics reform – to ensure sustainable economic growth based on industrial and innovational development of the industry.

  20. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  1. ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT IS THE BASIS OF MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the global community entered in the XXI century world emerging economy is more clearly considered as post-industrial, where a leading sector of the economy in the GDP production is not agriculture and not even industry but services. The main productive resource in such circumstances is not natural and productive capital but human capital, which is represented by storage of knowledge and skills accumulated by a person in the process of training and previous employment. Value of this capital is directly dependent on the level of education both general and professional. Human intellect becomes a main factor of production and professional. If the level is higher it means that such person can perform more valuable types of work for expand wealth of the country and it is transformed into intellectual capital. Consequently, a special market is formed that is a market of intellectual capital. An offer in this market is represented by labor with a high level of intellectuality and innovativeness and it has, in its turn, high market value. Well-handled components of human capital contribute to scientific-technical and social progress of the society, its sustainable economic development as the main types of final products unlike with previous stages of development are information and knowledge and the main factor of economic growth is productivity of mental labor workers. It is human capital that is one of the main factors ensuring transition to V and VI technological paradigms under current conditions. These paradigms are underlying a solid foundation for formation of new intellectual and information society. New knowledge and information technologies are making a breakthrough not only in the direct production of commodities but in the non-manufacturing sector as well (education, health, trade, finance etc..

  2. ECONOMIC CRISIS SUSTAINS BLACK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicoi Daniel -Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to bring out the fact that during the periods of economic crisis, the black market finds a warm place to develop and even to diversify the ways of expressing. Based on some data of the National Institute of Statistics and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD1 , I’m trying to prove the fact that during the last two years while the world economic crisis has occurred, the black market has been increasing and there have been new forms of expressing this phenomenon. Although there are some positive ways of this phenomenon, on the whole, the increasing of the black market percent of GDP represents a wound within a healthy economy, which if it cannot be stopped at least to be reduced. This work intends to make radiography of the present economic society, a period of economic crisis, during which the black market has found a warm place to express and extend, in most of the countries, including the developed ones, this phenomenon has reached alarming limits.

  3. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotschol, A.; De Giovanni, P.; Esposito Vinzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to

  4. Canton, Miss., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Canton, Miss., is among 22 communities selected to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability goals and enc

  5. St. Petersburg, Fla., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that St. Petersburg, Fla. is one of 22 communities to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability goals and encou

  6. Venezuela's Economic Recovery: Is It Sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jake Johnston; Mark Weisbrot

    2012-01-01

    Venezuela’s current growth is generally described as unsustainable, with various negative scenarios put forth, including spiraling debt, inflation, and balance of payments crises. However, these pessimistic forecasts have been far off the mark for most of the past decade. This paper looks at the available economic data to see if Venezuela’s economic recovery could be sustained, or even accelerated. It finds that Venezuela’s current economic growth is sustainable and could continue at the curr...

  7. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  8. Technology Innovation and Engineering’ Education and Entrepreneurship (TIEE in Engineering Schools: Novel Model for Elevating National Knowledge Based Economy and Socio-Economic Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdulwahed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Technology Innovation and Engineering Education (TIEE is a proposed Unit/Center/Department concept model inside a college of engineering. The TIEE concept has been developed in particular taking in consideration the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and/or Qatar contextual needs and National Vision in the transformation into a Knowledge Based Economy (KBE. The main purpose of such structure is to enable engineering colleges to better respond to these emerging needs of the GCC countries. In this paper, the concept of TIEE is provisioned as an abstract example of organizational structure development for other engineering education institutions that aim to play a key role in innovation and sustainable socio-economic development. The concept is derived from similar global examples and contextualized regionally; it is generic and can be deployed elsewhere with slight modifications. The TIEE concept is in particular vital for engineering institutions in the Middle East and North Africa as a vehicle for economic and technological development. The paper outlines the organizational structure of TIEE, together with its various programs and activities for implementing its stated vision, mission, and strategic objectives. Within this context, the paper also provides a thorough account on advances in engineering innovation, education, scholarship of engineering education, and developments of similar entities.

  9. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  10. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...

  11. Sustainability and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in the UN General Assem- bly’s Millennium Declaration in 2000. 7 In the broadest sense, sustainability can be viewed as the ability of man to live...was the world’s first production PHEV, first offered 317 for sale to business and government buyers in China on December 15, 2008 ( Balfour 2008...Energy Independence. http://www.ameri- canenergyindependence.com/security.aspx (ac- cessed December 15, 2010). Balfour , Frederik. 2008. China’s First

  12. Local Government and Sustainable Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stignei Veronica Paºa

    2013-01-01

    In the current conditions of Romania, the public sector needs to rethink its role as economic hub, to contribute together with the private sector to sustainable economic growth, and not least in the resumption of investment process. Administration is one of the most useful human activity, being found in any area and at all levels of government, in the complexity of all social life.

  13. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economicdevelopment......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...

  14. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. National Identity and Economic Nationalism: Can an Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical position of economic nationalism was relegated to obscurity on the basis that it was considered protectionist, stifled international trade and led to the creation of trade barriers. However, the definition of nationalism is not universally agreed upon in terms of its origins. As states struggle to define their national ...

  16. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the Multiple-Use...

  17. A National Economic Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The privatization of Social Security and educational reform proposals will improve productivity. The second prong, the international component, employs the economic instruments to achieve U.S. goals overseas...

  18. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO SUB-NATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is investigating sustainability metrics from an economic and environmental perspective to determine their applicability at a sub-national level. Metrics are derived from Ecological Footprint, Emergy Analysis, Net Regional Product, and Fisher Information. We chose severa...

  19. SUB-NATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY FROM A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is investigating sustainability metrics from an economic and environmental perspective to determine their applicability at a sub-national level. Metrics are derived from Ecological Footprint, Emergy Analysis, Net Regional Product, and Fisher Information. We chose severa...

  20. Report Calls for U.S. National Sustainability Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The White House should issue an executive order establishing a U.S. national sustainability policy, according to a new report by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. The 28 June report found that sustainability issues inherently involve connections among environmental, economic, and social issues and that the U.S. federal government "is generally not organized or operated to deal with this complexity." The report calls for a sustainability policy to address intertwined environmental, economic, and societal issues that require interagency cooperation.

  1. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ; Marilena PAPUC

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy. At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Mar...

  3. National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Arindam; Khare, Ajay; Sen, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive document visualizing the future of built environment from a multidisciplinary dimension, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario. The multidisciplinary focus would be helpful for the readers to cross-refer and understand others' perspectives. The text also includes case studies substantiating theoretical research. This method of composition helps the book to maintain rational balance among theory, research and its contextual application. The book comprises selected papers from the National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment. The chapters provide varied viewpoints on the core issues of urbanization and planning, especially in the economically diverse Indian market. This compilation would be of interest to students, researchers, professionals and policy makers.

  4. Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)......Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)...

  5. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  6. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Veselovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the perspective of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises is investigated, the factors infl uencing stability of development of the enterprises are analyzed, defi nition of different types of economic stability in the period of economic instability is given, internal and external factors of stability of the enterprises are allocated, is underlined that economic stability, first of all, is distinguished from the major factors infl uencing stability of development of the industrial enterprises. At the same time, authors consider factors of the available instability and their infl uence on rates of development of the industrial enterprises. Change of the current situation requires weakening of a number of the factors resulting in economic instability.Purposes. The purpose of article is the analysis of factors of the industrial enterprises infl uencing a sustainable development in the conditions of economic instability and development of the off ers providing on their sustainable development. Article tasks: to investigate and allocate factors, in the conditions of the worsening economic situation which are expedient for considering at a solution of the problem of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises.Methodology. When carrying out the real research materials of the state statistics were the main sources of basic data. Comparative methods of the analysis are the basis for methodical development.Results. The concept is given and types of economic stability of the industrial enterprises are given. Infl uence of internal and external factors of the enterprises infl uencing stability is shown. Infl uence of an economic situation on a role of these factors is allocated. For achievement of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises it is off ered to realize measures for weakening of the factors resulting in economic instability.Conclusions / importance. In the conditions of new economic

  8. National identity and economic nationalism : can an economic perspective reinforce nationalism and nation building?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs-Martin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    .... The theoretical position of economic nationalism was relegated to obscurity on the basis that it was considered protectionist, stifled international trade and led to the creation of trade barriers...

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  10. The Seductive Logic of Subtractive Sustainability: Reflections on Sustainable Socio-economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the drivers and impediments sustainability of social systems.
    Design / Research methods: Analysis of and reflections on the discussions on campus antifragility during the 4th international conference on efficiency, sustainable business and sustainable economic development,

  11. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  12. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  13. Social and Economic Indicators of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Mitchell; Daniel W. McCallum; Lewis E. Swanson; John Tanaka; Mark Brunson; Aaron Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2006-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide a context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability that have possible relevance in the United States. A brief...

  14. National Report on Sustainable Forests--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy Robertson; Peter Gaulke; Ruth McWilliams; Sarah LaPlante; Richard Guldin

    2011-01-01

    The United States is richly endowed with forests, and their care and conservation have been a national concern for more than a century. This report, the National Report on Sustainable Forests—2010, provides data and analysis aimed at addressing this concern by enhancing dialogue and decisions in pursuit of the goal of forest sustainability. The report relies on the...

  15. Nation branding and sustainable competitiveness of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Mi

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of explaining how a nation brand is effectively managed and how nation branding aligns the nation's brand with country management so as to gain competitiveness, this research aims to assess the role of nation branding and to create a strategic management tool for nation

  16. Addressing multimorbidity to improve healthcare and economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Francesca; García-Goñi, Manuel; Schwierz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Patients with multimorbidity are responsible for more than half of all healthcare utilization, challenging the healthcare budgets of all European nations. Although the European Union is showing signs of a fragile economic recovery, achieving sustainable growth will depend on delivering a combination of fiscal responsibility, structural reforms, and improved efficiency. Addressing the challenges of multimorbidity and providing more effective, affordable, and sustainable care, has climbed the political agenda at a global, European, and national level. Current healthcare systems are poorly adapted to cope with the challenges of patients with multimorbidity. Little is known about the epidemiology and natural history of multimorbidity; the evidence base is weak; clinical guidelines are not always relevant to this population; and financing and delivery systems have not evolved to adequately measure and reward quality and performance. Pockets of innovation are, however, beginning to emerge. In Spain, for example, the ongoing economic crisis has forced regional governments to deliver substantial efficiency savings and, with this in mind, integrated care programmes have been introduced across the country for people with chronic disease and multimorbidity. Early results suggest that formalized integrated care for patients with multimorbidity improves their perceptions of care coordination, reduces hospital and emergency admissions and readmissions, and reduces average costs per capita. Such innovations require meaningful investments at a national level – something that is now supported within the framework of the European Union’s Stability and Growth Pact. PMID:29090168

  17. INSTITUTIONALIZING SUSTAINABILITY: IMPLEMENTATION OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 13,514 AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-07-14

    This article describes the requirements of EO 13514, how PNNL has implemented this mandate and how it has affected the Sustainability Program at PNNL, and makes recommendations about the EO as an effective framework for setting sustainability policy and programs at other institutions.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKICA TODOROVIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the optimal model of sustainable development. The paper points to the importance of previous positive experience in the development of tourism and related activities especially in terms of development planning in accordance with the available resources, spatial opportunities and sustainable development. The research the possibility of defining an optimal model for sustainable tourism development in the case of mountain destinations in Zlatibor District will indicate the need to precisely define economic-geographical resources which determine the individual role of an each resource in creating the tourist offer, as well as, to show that the inadequate management of tourist resources and marketing activities leads to their degradation.

  19. Is our economic model compatible with sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2003-01-01

    The paper concerns the contradictions between sustainability and the present economic growth model. The discussion relates to the work of Jan Otto Andersson.......The paper concerns the contradictions between sustainability and the present economic growth model. The discussion relates to the work of Jan Otto Andersson....

  20. Asheville, N.C., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Asheville, N.C., is among 22 communities selected to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability goals and e

  1. Mobile and Prichard, Ala., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Mobile and Prichard, Ala., are among 22 communities selected to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability

  2. Modeling the transition towards a sustainable energy production in developing nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiam, Djiby-Racine; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    The paper investigates how renewable technologies could promote the transition towards a sustainable energy production in developing nations. Based on two different developing nations in terms of economic, technological and institutional structure: South Africa and Senegal, we implemented scenarios

  3. Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Factory Farming in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo; Giersing, Josephine; Magrane, David; Breitenstein, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper is written with the purpose of looking into sustainable development. More specifically, it will look at the relationship between the environmental and economical pillars of sustainability. In order for sustainable development to take place, the economy must be growing while maintaining earth’s natural resources. Factory farming might be strong from an economic point of view, but it does not seem to be environmentally friendly. Therefore we used factory farming as an example of an i...

  4. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  5. PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Primachev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a systematic consideration of the complex issues of sustainable development of the national maritime transport subsystems in the global maritime transport industry. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the real conditions of operation. There are feasible measures which should be taken to normalize the development of the national merchant fleet in order to achieve relative stability and to minimize the risk of losing the status of maritime power. Aspects of international administration in marine transport industry are highlighted in this article. The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the choice of governance of economic and investment activity in the system of market relations.

  6. Sustainable Agriculture Course Delivered Nationally via Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an instructional model for a sustainable agriculture telecourse offered nationally by Iowa State University. Includes preproduction activities; technology employed; budget; time requirements; course content; student postevaluation results. Provides information and suggestions for individuals and institutions considering production or…

  7. Sustainable national transport planning: Managing multiple objectives and criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    useful for the handling and assessment of multiple, often conflicting objectives or criteria like environmental or social issues intrinsically difficult to quantify. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the assessment and the decision making process beyond merely economic factors. The research project......-based software model. The latter employs the use of CBA, multi-criteria decision analysis and risk analysis techniques enabling the assessment of non-quantifiable impacts within a decision support context. The concept of a decision conference is introduced as relevant for dealing with the strategic elements...... on Sustainable National Transport Planning (SUSTAIN) seeks, among other things, to develop a flexible decision-support model to assess the sustainability of transport projects and policies, the SUSTAIN framework model. The SUSTAIN framework model consists of two parts, namely decision conferences and an Excel...

  8. Challenges for sustainability of home based economic activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors accountable for successful and sustainable home based economic activities were determined. Impacts of home based economic activities were found to be significant in the education of the children, income security and social welfare of families. The study emphasized home economic entrepreneurial education, ...

  9. Modelling management process of key drivers for economic sustainability in the modern conditions of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about issues concerning the management of driver for manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability and manufacturing enterprise sustainability assessment as the key aspect of the management of enterprise economic sustainability. The given issues become topical as new requirements for the methods of manufacturing enterprise management in the modern conditions of market economy occur. An economic sustainability model that is considered in the article is an integration of enterprise economic growth, economic balance of external and internal environment and economic sustainability. The method of assessment of economic sustainability of a manufacturing enterprise proposed in the study allows to reveal some weaknesses in the enterprise performance, and untapped reserves, which can be further used to improve the economic sustainability and efficiency of the enterprise. The management of manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability is one of the most important factors of business functioning and development in modern market economy. The relevance of this trend is increasing in accordance with the objective requirements of the growing volumes of production and sale, the increasing complexity of economic relations, changing external environment of an enterprise.

  10. BUSINESS ETHICS AND SUSTAINABILITY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dan CR?CIUN

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief analysis of some typical processes which affect in a dramatic way the present and the future resources of world development. Sustainability is one of the key-concepts on which a solution of these negative processes could be based. The abstract idea of sustainability can get a more substantial practical support in connection with the concept of triple bottom line, proposed by J. Elkington. The triple bottom line views the industrial performances of a corporation,...

  11. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  12. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  13. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  14. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  15. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can...

  16. livestock husbandry and economic-sustainability of small farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The study attempts livestock husbandry and sustainability of small farmers in West Gojjam region, Ethiopia where a ... and their engagement in different operations of livestock husbandry for economic sustainability. Systematic random sampling was ..... sell and purchase livestock from the livestock markets and within village ...

  17. An Economic Analysis of Agricultural Sustainability in Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Hatai, L.D.; Sen, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    The development of a method for generating Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) for agricultural sustainability and evaluating the existing status has been reported. Some measures have been suggested to promote sustainable agriculture of Orissa. This state has been selected since it faces wide inequality, improper management and over-exploitation of natural resources and explosion of population. These have created a threat to ecological balance and economic as well as social status of...

  18. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  19. Economic vitality in a transition to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    2007-01-01

    The good news is that many of the solutions to this extraordinary problem are within reach. Many of the solutions to global warming are not only feasible, they are economically and socially beneficial. While some claim that addressing global warming will have a negative impact on the economy, the most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ("IPCC") asserts that there is substantial economic potential for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade...

  20. Massive Open Online Courses and Economic Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a…

  1. Evolutionary economic theories of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental

  2. In Search of a Sustainable Economic Development Agenda in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since independence, Ghana has adopted different strategies in a quest for a sustainable economic development agenda to better the lives of her citizens. The Nkrumah administration initiated the process through an Import-Substitution Industrialisation-led economic development policy agenda from 1957 to 1966. That was ...

  3. Social and Economic Concern of Supply Chain Sustainability (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz Mokhtar, Mohd; Omar, Badrul; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Fazlinda Mohd Pauzi, Nur; Hassan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability issues will provide impact on the environment, social and economy. The importance of these three aspects of sustainability must be look at in tandem. Some issues of these three pillars getting more attention by companies since they are more interested to identify issues that may affect performances related to their people or profit. Through CSRs report released by various international companies, this paper identified the value which companies place for social and economic sustainability. Result shows that human right and, occupational and safety have highest concern by companies while Product Utilities is less concern from other social issues. From an economic aspect, sales and net profit are the most influencing factors of sustainability while the raw material cost is shown as of the least concern. Based on the results, companies should consider the issues on social and economic aspects following these priorities.

  4. Sustainable economic development under The perspective of the agrarian right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Araújo Guimarães

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is about an analysis of the principle of the sustainable economic development under the optics of the agrarian economic activity, tends in view to growing environmental crisis after the Green Revolution and the emergence of agroindustrial complexes. It is studied the juridical conflict between the sectors, aiming the balance for the full guarantee to the environment, to the economic development and the function of the property foreseen in the Constitution. It is looked for to introduce a study to reach agrarian sustainable development. The methodology used understood the bibliographical revision of the literature related to the theme.

  5. Government Governance, Legal Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on China’s inter-provincial panel data from 1999–2009, this paper has tested the impact and extent of marketization, government governance, and legal environment of sustainable economic development by controlling physical capital, human capital and productivity, so as to find the institutional reality for the difference in China’s economic development and another explanation for it. It turns out that marketization, government governance, and legal environment play significant roles in promoting sustainable economic development. Further tests show that the results of Eastern China are consistent with China’s inter-provincial results; while in Western China, the promotion effect of marketization, government governance, and legal environment on sustainable economic development is not significant.

  6. National sustainable transport planning - concepts and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  7. INSECURITY AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish the causes of insecurity in Nigeria. 2. To determine the .... youths. This army of the unemployed can become a nuisance to society. It is a time bomb that must be diffused. It is sad and disheartening to see sound graduates of .... the economy (1999-2009), the global macro-economic outlook (2010-2013) and the.

  8. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  9. Deliberative Ecological Economics for Sustainability Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Howarth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the recent emergence of ‘deliberative ecological economics’, a field that highlights the potential of deliberation for improving environmental governance. We locate the emergence of this literature in the long concern in ecological economics over the policy implications of limited views of human action and its encounter with deliberative democracy scholarship and the model of communicative rationality as an alternative to utilitarianism. Considering criticisms over methods used and the focus of research in deliberative decision-making, we put forward a research agenda for deliberative ecological economics. Given the promising potential of deliberative processes for improving the effectiveness and legitimacy of environmental decision-making, work in this area could help advance both theory and practice in environmental governance.

  10. Sustainability of the Chinese economic growth: a review from the institutional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Galindo Farfán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chinese economic growth correlates with more or less inclusive politic and economic institutions at different points of history. At 13 century, China stood as the most technologically advanced nation in the world, where economic institutions motivates innovation and trade. In 20th century China experienced some industrialization policy by the regime, the Great Leap Forward, while in the last three decades economic growth has been pushed by an abundant workforce, implementation of economic reforms aimed at the market and promotion of domestic consumption. However, China has driven its economic activity into an authoritarian context, political and economic constraints where we could assume that sustainability of Chinese economic model with high growth rates tends to stagnate in the coming years, if political reforms are not carried out.

  11. QUALITY OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH: FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj I. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: TThe theme of this article is very relevant in the light of changes in the global geo-economic structure and changing the role and place ofRussiain world economic and geopolitical relations. The article deals with the basic aspects of national economic growth, which slowed down in the last three years. The main reason for slowing national economic growth is associated with the depletion of the reserves of the traditional export-oriented development of the Russian economy, as well as problems with sluggish innovative transformation. In this paper, based on a systematic analysis of economic processes and the interpretation of analytical data, addresses the general theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development, as well as practical guidelines and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints.The purpose / objectives: The aim of the article is to analyze the theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development of the Russian economy, which happened in the face of economic sanctions. Objectives of the article: justify practical directions and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints, determine the prospects for the economy of theRussian Federationin the conditions of the introduction of sectoral sanctions by Western countries. Methodology:Methodological basis of this article are the comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.The Results: The study revealed that the harsh environment (sanctions, depreciation of the ruble, and others. Require surgical intervention and adjustments not only the current socio-economic plans, but also to take urgent measures to ensure the development prospects. The most important decision is the degree of support advanced scientific and technical programs and the creation of new domestic

  12. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth And Industrialisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed the twin-problems of unemployment and poverty. The methodology adopted in the analyses was a combination of the historical and logico-mathematical research perspectives. The results showed that the technologically advanced nations (TANs) experienced mass unemployment, low productivity, high ...

  13. Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Bryan, Brett A

    2017-04-12

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector. We scaled targets to three levels of ambition and two timeframes, then quantitatively explored the option space for target achievement under 648 plausible future environmental, socio-economic, technological and policy pathways using the Land-Use Trade-Offs (LUTO) integrated land systems model. We show that target achievement is very sensitive to global efforts to abate emissions, domestic land-use policy, productivity growth rate, and land-use change adoption behaviour and capacity constraints. Weaker target-setting ambition resulted in higher achievement but poorer sustainability outcomes. Accelerating land-use dynamics after 2030 changed the targets achieved by 2050, warranting a longer-term view and greater flexibility in sustainability implementation. Simultaneous achievement of multiple targets is rare owing to the complexity of sustainability target implementation and the pervasive trade-offs in resource-constrained land systems. Given that hard choices are needed, the land-sector must first address the essential food/fibre production, biodiversity and land degradation components of sustainability via specific policy pathways. It may also contribute to emissions abatement, water and energy targets by capitalizing on co-benefits. However, achieving targets relevant to the land-sector will also require substantial contributions from other sectors such as clean energy, food systems

  14. Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Bryan, Brett A.

    2017-04-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector. We scaled targets to three levels of ambition and two timeframes, then quantitatively explored the option space for target achievement under 648 plausible future environmental, socio-economic, technological and policy pathways using the Land-Use Trade-Offs (LUTO) integrated land systems model. We show that target achievement is very sensitive to global efforts to abate emissions, domestic land-use policy, productivity growth rate, and land-use change adoption behaviour and capacity constraints. Weaker target-setting ambition resulted in higher achievement but poorer sustainability outcomes. Accelerating land-use dynamics after 2030 changed the targets achieved by 2050, warranting a longer-term view and greater flexibility in sustainability implementation. Simultaneous achievement of multiple targets is rare owing to the complexity of sustainability target implementation and the pervasive trade-offs in resource-constrained land systems. Given that hard choices are needed, the land-sector must first address the essential food/fibre production, biodiversity and land degradation components of sustainability via specific policy pathways. It may also contribute to emissions abatement, water and energy targets by capitalizing on co-benefits. However, achieving targets relevant to the land-sector will also require substantial contributions from other sectors such as clean energy, food systems

  15. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  16. CRESCIMENTO ECONÔMICO E SUSTENTABILIDADE / Economic Growth and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Montibeller-Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject “economic growth and sustainability” refers to the relationship between economicgrowth and its positive impact on the wellbeing of the population and on the environment. It is,therefore, about economic, as well as social and environmental, sustainability, i.e. the root ofthe sustainable development paradigm. A historical review is needed for understanding theroots of the emergence of this new socio-political and scientific paradigm. It starts from themoment when the economy was mainly viewed as an evil against the environment, to the pointwhen the new sustainable development, or eco-development, is developed. Then the paperpresents the present, and most important, ways that several public and private actions attemptto develop their economic activities guided by this paradigm, emphasising the Brazilian context.

  17. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainability in the Qatar national dietary guidelines, among the first to incorporate sustainability principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seed, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ... sustainability principles within the Qatar Dietary Guidelines. Qatar. Population of Qatar. Qatar has produced one of the first national dietary guidelines to integrate principles of food sustainability...

  19. Sustainable Economic Growth: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sokolov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for the selection of priorities for science and technology (S&T cooperation among the BRICS countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa based on an analysis of international and national strategic documents of BRICS countries and a bibliometric analysis of joint publications by researchers from BRICS countries indexed in the Scopus database. The national S&T priorities for countries are systemized and a comparative assessment of capacities for S&T development in BRICS countries is developed. Indicators of publication activity of all BRICS countries have significantly increased since 2000. Analysis shows that Russia must pay particular attention to the development of cooperation with China, which is already one of the leaders on the global S&T stage. Cooperation with India, Brazil and, in some research areas, with South Africa could also have a positive impact on the performance of research and development in Russia. A list of 14 thematic priorities for S&T cooperation for BRICS countries is presented in the paper based on the analysis of a set of national, bilateral and multilateral strategic and forward-looking documents. Priorities of S&T development create a basis for more efficient and mutually beneficial cooperation between BRICS countries and allows individual scientists to broaden the range of research, use new tools for S&T cooperation and share best practices.

  20. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  1. Economics, Ecology and GMOs: Sustainability, Precaution and Related Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological, evolutionary and economic issues involved in introducing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), mainly in agriculture, are discussed. The ecological and evolutionary impacts identified hamper (economic) valuation of GMOs and their biosafety regulation and creates difficulties for planning for sustainable development. Assessment of the desirability of releasing GMOs is difficult because of lack of communal agreement about the risks involved, about how much precaution should be exer...

  2. The Regional Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for Flanders, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Bleys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the regional Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW is compiled for Flanders for the period 1990–2009. The ISEW is a measure of economic welfare in that it measures the contribution of a country’s or region’s economy to the overall level of well-being of its citizens. It does so by comparing the benefits and the costs of economic activities rather than simply looking at the market value of all final goods and services produced in an economy (Gross Domestic Product-GDP. The ISEW for Flanders shows that the per capita level of sustainable economic welfare in the region decreased between 1990 and 2009. The drop in the ISEW/capita is caused by a deterioration of the net international investment position of Belgium (which is divided over the different regions in the country on a per capita basis and by an increase in the income inequalities in Flanders. To a lesser extent, the increase of the environmental costs (climate change and the use of non-renewable energy resources also contributed to the decrease in the ISEW per capita. In the last four years of the study period, the level of sustainable economic welfare in the Flemish region started to rise again, even in 2008 and 2009 during the economic recession.

  3. Sustaining universal health coverage: the interaction of social, political, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovi, Elio; Compagni, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of health care systems, particularly those supporting universal health care, is a matter of current discussion among policymakers and scholars. In this article, we summarize the controversies around the economic sustainability of health care. We attempt to extend the debate by including a more comprehensive conceptualization of sustainability in relation to health care systems and by examining the dimensions of social and political sustainability. In conclusion, we argue that policymakers when taking decisions around universal health care should carefully consider issues of social, political, and economic sustainability, their interaction, and often their inherent trade-offs. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  5. Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Shah, F; Dinar, A

    2001-02-01

    Accepted practice has been to design and operate reservoirs to fill with sediment, generating benefits from remaining storage over a finite period of time. The consequences of sedimentation and project abandonment are left to the future. This 'future' has already arrived for many existing reservoirs and most others will eventually experience a similar fate, thereby imposing substantial costs on society. Such costs could be avoided if sedimentation was minimized and dams were allowed to live forever. The fact that the world's inventory of suitable reservoir sites is limited provides an additional reason for encouraging the sustainable management of dams. This paper provides a framework for assessing the economic feasibility of sediment management strategies that would allow the life of dams to be prolonged indefinitely. Even if reduced accumulation or removal of sediment is technically possible, its economic viability is likely to depend on physical, hydrological and financial parameters. The model presented incorporates such factors and allows a characterization of conditions under which sustainable management would be desirable. The empirical implementation of the model draws upon the substantial amount of technical information available. We analyze the sustainability of reservoirs, with a focus on the trade-off between such sustainability and the short to medium term benefits which a reservoir is expected to produce. The results show that, for a very wide range of realistic parameter values, sustainable management of reservoirs is economically more desirable than the prevailing practice of forcing a finite reservoir life through excessive sediment accumulation.

  6. Economic sustainability of sheabutter production in Kwara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of sheabutter has the economic potentials in sustaining income generation for rural dwellers. The potentials of shea nuts productivity could only be achieved when technical efficiency of the processing becomes relevant. The study examines the patterns, efficiency and productivity of processing harvested shea ...

  7. Sustainable Management of Natural Resources for Socio-Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies sustainable management of natural resources for socio economic development in Imo state. This it does with the aim to determine the extent to which the exploration and exploitation of natural resources has affected the ecological and environmental conditions of the area. The research also tends to ...

  8. Lecturers' Perspectives on How Introductory Economic Courses Address Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tom L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore sustainability commitments' potential implications for the curriculum of introductory economics courses. Universities have signed the Talloires Declaration, committing themselves to promoting students' environmental literacy and ecological citizenship, thereby creating pressure to integrate…

  9. Tackling the dual challenge of sustainable consumption and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Antunes, Paula; Asara, Viviana

    to ecosystem services have spurred parts of the academic and policy communities into identification of problems and solutions. Some of the most fundamental debates, led by researchers from various disciplines, centre around economic growth and sustainable consumption. However, there is often a lack...... research questions that link the challenges of sustainable consumption with economic growth debates and critiques. The research questions have been identified through an extensive participatory process involving leading researchers and policy makers responsible for sustainability policies throughout...... the whole EU and cover five areas (food, housing, mobility, information and communication technology, finance). The aim of the research questions is to orient researchers towards important research priorities as well as guide policy makers and public authorities in funding of research and use of sound...

  10. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  11. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: The Wellbeing of Nations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wellbeing of Nations portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections contains a subset of 123 variables assembled from the...

  12. Matrix sustainability : applying input-output analysis to environmental and economic sustainability indicators : case: Finnish Forest Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari

    2004-01-01

    Pre-requisite for all sustainability actions in business is accurate measurement of economic, environmental and social performance. Sustainability indicators, or indicator sets, are then the tools, which simplify the complex sustainability information applicable for management processes, decision-making and communication. Measuring business sustainability is not an easy task, especially while simultaneously considering macro-level sustainability. Indicators should somehow capture the corporat...

  13. Towards a sustainable diet combining economic, environmental and nutritional objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Michele; Menozzi, Davide; Zighetti, Camilla; Rosi, Alice; Zinetti, Anna; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Foods consumed and dietary patterns are strong determinants of health status. Diet and nutrition have a key role in health promotion and maintenance during the entire lifetime, but what we choose to eat and drink greatly affects the environmental impact on ecosystems as well as monetary resources. Some studies suggest that a healthy diet with a low environmental impact is not necessarily more expensive. This paper aims to identify a healthy, greener and cheaper diet based on current consumption patterns. Dietary information was collected from 104 young adults in the last year of high school in Parma (Italy). Diet was monitored with 7-day dietary records. Subsequently, food items were decoded to obtain nutritional, economic and environmental impact data. An optimization tool based on mathematical programming (Multi-Objective Linear Programming) was used to identify sustainable diet. Three different 7-day diets were identified, based on nutrition recommendations for the healthy Italian adult population, characterized by different targets and optimizing different impacts: first the diet at the lowest cost (Minimum Cost Diet - MCD), then the Environmentally Sustainable Diet (ESD) obtained by minimizing the three environmental indicators (CO2e emissions, H2O consumption and amount of land to regenerate the resources - m(2)). Finally, the Sustainable Diet (SD) was identified by integrating environmental and economic sustainability objectives. Lastly, suggestions and recommendations for communication campaigns and other interventions to achieve sustainable diet are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Democratizing economics: pluralism as a path toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderbaum, Peter; Brown, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Climate scientists point to a number of unsustainable trends concerning the environment and natural resources. There is also ongoing concern about poverty reduction, labor rights, and other social aspects of sustainable development. Growing numbers argue that change is required, but still at issue is the extent of change and how to facilitate it. In this paper, the focus is on the dominant interpretive schema of influential actors with respect to ideas about science in society, paradigms in economics, and ideological orientations. The authors argue that the monopolistic position of neoclassical economics at university departments of economics in different parts of the world, and the spread of its associated technocratic logic within broader policy arenas, should be abandoned in favor of a more ideologically open attitude that facilitates discussion and debate within academia, public policy, and in civil society more generally. In a sense, economics requires "democratization" with implications for approaches to sustainability monitoring, accounting, and the assessment of projects and policies. The paper provides suggestions for developing sustainability assessment technologies and practices that take pluralism seriously.

  15. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  16. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  17. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...

  18. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  19. HISTORICAL PARALLELS OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC DOCTRINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical experience shows that problems of economic development in certain countries are linked to the rational use of economic resources. It is not accidental that this issue was of high importance as early as in the 19th century in Georgia. An outstanding Georgian writer Ilia Tchavtchavadze (1951-1961 and other researchers (see References dedicated interesting works to studying this problem. Like German national economic doctrines, Ilia Tchavtchavadze was much concerned with the priorities of national economy. Based on the research results, the present work provides conclusions that Ilia Tchavtchavadze’s economic doctrine complies with German as well as classic economic doctrines with the only difference that development of Georgian economy should start with the development of agriculture; complies with free trade policy; gives great importance to building railway network and Batumi-Baku pipeline, development of oil industry, co-existence of private and community ownership and inadmissibility of forceful infringement of such ownership; lays foundation to building of an independent banking system in Georgia.

  20. AN ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE: TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development is complex challenge, so only complex decisions and approaches could be possible to implement in the most efficient way. There is still open question – what is the optimal volume of new energy resources using to support sustainable development and environment safety for any state of the world. Article deals with the availability of convergence to serve for the more effective usage of analytic and system approaches for modeling ecological-economic spillovers in the case of transition to sustainable energy. The economic effects of sustainable energy transition are considered. The analysis of dynamic of energy consumption in the scale of different type of resources during 1820-2030 years depicted the situation of complicated analysis of “economy-energy-environment” linkage. It arises the agenda of necessity to implement complex approaches for modeling and forecasting of new energy systems development. Different types of models and techniques to analyze economy-energy systems are listed and compared.

  1. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  2. Mathematical Methods of Managing Economic Sustainability of the Construction Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuchenko, Vasiliy; Zdanov, Andrej; Rodionov, Anatolij

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a long-term research in developing innovative mathematical techniques of managing the contractor’s economic sustainability proven by some experimental studies. The article aims at presenting some practical results of applying these techniques to the scientific community. This research presents a description of some applied mathematical models, views, and some results of their practical application in the applied field for the purposes of evaluating operational sustainability and minimizing losses in the process of managing the company. The authors have put the technology they have developed to practical use, and the article presents the results of such application. The authors have put the developed technology to practical use. Company management also means the management of power consumption, which is highly vital both for the construction and maintenance of buildings and structures. The articles also dwell on some possible improvements of managing energy consumption within the framework of the general management of company’s economic sustainability, because these phenomena have a tight organic interdependence. The authors continue researching this direction in order to improve the production efficiency of the proposed technologies as well as to eliminate some drawbacks they have spotted.

  3. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  4. Dynamic Systems Modeling for Sustainable Economic Empowerment in Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic problem of living system in Kampung Laut, Cilacap, whichincludes social problems and ecological changes. The paper uses a dynamic system model to structurethe problems. The model simulates various feasible scenarios, from which the best becomesthe base to impose a policy to empower their sustainable economy. The model conceptualizes variablesrelated to the problem to build a figure of Causal Loop Diagram (CLD, which is then simulatedusing Powersim 2.5 software package. Using the scenario of intensification and populationcontrol, the paper finds that it can increase the people’s income, with positive trend until the end ofsimulation.Keywords: Dynamic modelling, sustainable economic empowerment, causal loop diagram

  5. Erratum to: Addressing multimorbidity to improve healthcare and economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Colombo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Erratum to: Colombo F, García-Goñi M, Schwierz C. Addressing multimorbidity to improve healthcare and economic sustainability. J Comorbidity 2016;6(1:21−27. doi: 10.15256/joc.2016.6.74. The first sentence of the Acknowledgements section should read, 'The opinions expressed in this paper are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD, the European Commission or its member countries.' Journal of Comorbidity 2016;6(1:33 The original article can be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.15256/joc.2016.6.74

  6. THE PROGRESS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS BETWEEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Akyuwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness and concept on the environmental friendly development has been emerged since early 1970s. However, the progress on its implementation was varied across countries. In Indonesia, sustainable development indicators have been studied and published by the Central Statistics Board (BPS since 2002. Based on the recommendation of the United Na-tions Commission on Sustainable Development, those indicators were classified into two groups, i.e. environment indicators and social economic indicators. This paper is aimed to compare the progress of social economic indicators among provinces in Indonesia by using descriptive ap-proach. Observed indicators were including population, per capita gross domestic product (GDP, open unemployment, poverty, energy consumption, transportation, and agriculture. In addition, regional fiscal capacity and human development index among provinces were also analyzed. Although the fund transfer from central to local governments has increased signifi-cantly since the implementation of local autonomy and fiscal decentralization in 2001, however, in general, the improvement of social economic indicators were varied between provinces. Sev-eral provinces with high fiscal capacity were not able to improve its social economic indicators significantly. On the contrary, the other provinces with low fiscal capacity have achieved better social economic indicators. This phenomenon has proved the importance of having appropriate capability in managing local economic development.

  7. Economics and National Security: The Case of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to explore the national security dimensions of the U.S. - China economic relationship and identify possible roles for the economic element of national power in formulating policy options...

  8. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  9. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuran Sivapalan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For carbon capture and storage (CCS to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and

  10. Economic sustainability of organic dairy sheep systems in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro-Mujica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems in regions with a Mediterranean climate are important in social, economic and environmental terms. Modeling these systems allows, among others, evaluation of the costs efficiencies which in turn permits assessing the expected effects of changes in production variables. This paper presents a prototype analysis of the economic sustainability of ecological dairy sheep systems of Castilla-La Mancha, Central Spain evaluated through the estimation of costs efficiencies. Costs functions were developed using data from 31 farms. Rate of supplementary feeding, labour use, and flock size were used to measure the cost efficiency. On average, cost efficiency was 61.7±15.5%, with significant differences among typological groups. High efficiency was found in only 29% of the farms. The economic analyses performed suggest that the continued existence of economically unsustainably farms is explained by the available subsidies, lack of amortization of fixed assets leading to progressive decapitalization, and subsistence incomes by family groups (gross family income.

  11. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.

  12. Free to Squander? Democracy, Institutional Design, and Economic Sustainability, 1975–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Indra de Soysa; Jennifer Bailey; Eric Neumayer

    2004-01-01

    While democracy’s effect on economic growth has come under intense empirical scrutiny, its effect on economic sustainability has been noticeably neglected. We assess the effects of regime type and democratic institutional design on economic, or “weak” sustainability. Sustainability requires that stocks of capital do not depreciate in value over time. The World Bank gauges the rate of net investment in manufactured, human, and natural capital, a unified indicator of weak sustainability (the ge...

  13. Decision Support For Digester Algae Integration For Improved Environmental And Economic Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has teamed with University of Idaho and Boise State University to make the use of ADs more attractive by implementing a two-stage AD and coupling additional processes to the system. The addition of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reactor, algae cultivation system, and a biomass treatment system such as fast-pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) would further sequester carbon and nutrients, as well as add valuable products that can be sold or used on-site to mitigate costs. The Decision-support for Digester-Algae IntegRation for Improved Environmental and Economic Sustainability (DAIRIEES) technoeconomic model will play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness and viability of this system to achieve economic and environmental sustainability by the dairy industry.

  14. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  15. The relationships among National Socio-Economic Indicators and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships among National Socio-Economic Indicators and Child Health Statistics. ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... The objective of this study was therefore to use data reported by the United Nations to assess the relationships among national socio-economic statistics on education, economic ...

  16. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TAX EVASION THROUGH FICTITIOUS ECONOMIC OPERATIONS, OBSTACLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU-BOGDAN CONSTANTIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion means the avoidance of declaring and paying taxes. The purpose of the research is to identify ways and mechanisms of tax evasion through fictitious economic operations and how this kind o tax evasion can influence sustainable development. The principal methods are researching tax evasion cases investigated by the Romanian authorities responsible for combating this phenomenon, court trials on tax evasion and using the bibliographic references in the field. The data used are obtained through open sources of the authorities specialized in combating tax evasion for the cases made public, the media and also from specialised literature. The principal results are that this type of tax evasion is manifested through transactions with “ghost companies”, with offshore companies and transactions between associated enterprises. The main causes of this problem are: high taxation, corruption, inefficient government and tax authorities, no fiscal education and very hard tax legislation. The consequences are that the state budget is affected, the companies that do business legally are affected and also the final consumers, so Romania will not have economic growth and the quality of life will not improve. The main conclusion is that in order to have sustainable development, tax evasion in general and this kind of tax evasion in particular must be eradicated. The measures that have to be taken are to prevent tax evasion and to tighten controls but without violating taxpayers rights and without making abuses

  18. Globalization, Openness and Economic Nationalism: Analytical and Conceptual Issues A Foreword to Globalization and Economic Nationalism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    This book to which the present paper provides a foreword, investigates the interactions between globalization and economic nationalism in Asian countries. In this foreword, for South Asian countries the question of economic nationalism is considered through the lens of economic openness. Full globalisation, which connotes close or total integration of countries’ economies with that of the world economy, is the antonym of economic nationalism. The paper argues that economic openness is a multi...

  19. Chicken farming in grassland increases environmental sustainability and economic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m(-2) for grazing sheep to 84 g m(-2) for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (ptraditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0-10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (ptraditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China.

  20. Criterion IV: Social and economic indicators of rangeland sustainability (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz

    2010-01-01

    Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...

  1. SUSTAINABILITY OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN INCOMES DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ion Boldea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inequality in incomes distribution is a present one, much discussed. Economic growth is considered an essential force to reduce the level of poverty by increasing the labor demand and finally the wages within the economy. But the extent to which poverty is reduced as a result of economic growth depends mostly on the initial inequalities in income and on how the distribution of income changes with economic growth. A lot of researches are focused on studying the evolution of inequality in incomes distribution and others have attempted to explore the relationship between income inequality and economic growth. There are also studies which try to identify the main factors which have impact on inequality in incomes distribution. The objective of this study is to put in discussion another possible factor that affects the variability on inequality of incomes distribution – economic growth variability. As background research, until now, we did not find any studies which are investigating this possible relation between inequality of incomes distribution and economic growth variability. To provide some empirical evidences for a positive impact of social output volatility on inequality of incomes’ distribution we are involving a small sample of 27 developing countries for an observation time span between 1995 and 2006. The values of the Gini coefficient reported in World Income Inequality Database are used as dependent variable. As a first step in testing our research hypothesis, we are involving a static panel data model with pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects (FE and random effects (RE estimators. The F statistics tests the null hypothesis of same specific effects for all countries. If we accept the null hypothesis, we could use the OLS estimator. The Hausman test can decide which model is better: random effects (RE versus fixed effects (FE. The FE model was selected because it avoids the inconsistency due to

  2. Economic impact of the world summit on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa hosted the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD in 2002.  This event is regarded as the single biggest conference to be held anywhere in the world. The aim of this paper is to set out the estimated economic impact of the WSSD and its parallel events on South Africa.  This impact can be expressed in monetary terms as well as employment figures.  The impact is calculated by using an input-output model and employment spin-offs determined from the IO table by using partial multipliers.  The input data were derived from a survey amongst WSSD delegates as well as information on government and private investments made.

  3. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  4. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  5. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  6. Economic sustainability of agricultural holdings in Poland in the context of their environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Wrzaszcz; Józef St. Zegar

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of agriculture and agricultural farms is the subject of increasing interests of society and researchers. The main problem of this issue is appropriate methodology of measuring agriculture sustainability, due to its complexity. Different proposals are presented and discussed, and still, there is no generally accepted measures of agriculture sustainability. This problem also concerns agricultural holdings` economic and environment sustainability examination. The particular dilemm...

  7. Legal, Institutional, and Economic Indicators of Forest Conservation and Sustainable Management: Review of Information Available for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Calder M. Hibbard; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the Nation’s legal, institutional, and economic capacity to promote forest conservation and sustainable resource management. It focuses on 20 indicators of Criterion Seven of the so-called Montreal Process and involves an extensive search and synthesis of information from a variety of sources. It identifies ways to fill information gaps and improve...

  8. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in

  9. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  10. Real effects of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.

  11. Law Review of Islamic Capital Market Role to Support Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helza Nova Lita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this paper is to assess on how the rule of Islamic capital markets to support   sustainable economic development and what kind of instruments can be developed.Method – The method used in this research is the study of normative juridical approach to legislation and the concept of Islamic economics through literature review.Result – Issuer's business activities related to support for environmentally friendly business activities are part of the implementation of sharia principles despite the provisions of the implementation of Islamic finance through a decision has not been stated . All types of instruments issued by issuers of sharia in Indonesia should be consistent with Islamic economic values, including the commitment to enforcement of environmentally friendly business activities.Conclusion – This finding suggests to strengthen the legal instruments in the issuer's issuance of Islamic instruments in the form of regulations issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission  and through the National Fatwa Council of Sharia.Keywords : Islamic Capital Markets, sustainable economic development, friendly environment

  12. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  13. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  14. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the formation of economic sustainability of agricultural enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dyachenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    The features of the economic sustainability of agricultural enterprises have been determined. The factors of its formation have been identified. Algorithm research of economic stability and recommendations for its formation have been suggested.

  15. Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Constantinescu

    2015-01-01

    ... to a country’s national security and long term development. The aim of this article is to outline the links and interactions between the availability of natural resources, their sustainable exploitation...

  16. Project on environmentally sustainable transport (EST) : the economic and social implications of sustainable transportation : proceedings from the Ottawa workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that current transport systems are not environmentally, and, consequently, not socially or economically, sustainable over the long term. A new policy approach is needed that gives prominence to environmental criteria along wi...

  17. Universal Economic Plan Based Law Constitutions of Kingdom and Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    In this work, touched on some social issues whatever the result, and a raising awareness was aimed by some new technological upgrades for vital infrastructures of states, social order and economic plan. The main aim is one world order which has no king and accepts nations as local governances as a requirement of hierarchical order. It is completely based on economic benefits of all nations as there is no alternative to establish a healthy economic order as economic management is directly rela...

  18. sustainable development of national energy resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Committee on International Law on Sustainable Development in 2003 and submitted its fifth and final report at .... and gas are shared natural resources, with a recent attempt by the ILC Special Rapporteur on Shared ..... the principles, and widely varying consequences of their application depending on the specific context.

  19. Developing a national approach to building healthy and sustainable cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Renate T

    2007-01-01

    Effective strategies to build a national approach to the integration of health and urban planning at all levels of government is essential if the health problems of urban Australians, such as obesity and respiratory illnesses, are to improve. This paper examines some policies and initiatives that could facilitate intergovernment cooperation on health and sustainability within the constraints of Australia's federal government system. These include recommendations for an Australian Sustainability Commission and Charter of Sustainability, evaluations of the Better Cities Program of the 1990s, and current proposals for improving urban governance to enable the implementation of a healthy and sustainable cities agenda.

  20. Security Economics and Critical National Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Fuloria, Shailendra

    There has been considerable effort and expenditure since 9/11 on the protection of ‘Critical National Infrastructure' against online attack. This is commonly interpreted to mean preventing online sabotage against utilities such as electricity,oil and gas, water, and sewage - including pipelines, refineries, generators, storage depots and transport facilities such as tankers and terminals. A consensus is emerging that the protection of such assets is more a matter of business models and regulation - in short, of security economics - than of technology. We describe the problems, and the state of play, in this paper. Industrial control systems operate in a different world from systems previously studied by security economists; we find the same issues (lock-in, externalities, asymmetric information and so on) but in different forms. Lock-in is physical, rather than based on network effects, while the most serious externalities result from correlated failure, whether from cascade failures, common-mode failures or simultaneous attacks. There is also an interesting natural experiment happening, in that the USA is regulating cyber security in the electric power industry, but not in oil and gas, while the UK is not regulating at all but rather encouraging industry's own efforts. Some European governments are intervening, while others are leaving cybersecurity entirely to plant owners to worry about. We already note some perverse effects of the U.S. regulation regime as companies game the system, to the detriment of overall dependability.

  1. ECONOMIC VALENCES OF THE NATIONAL INTEREST IN THE CONTEXT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS’ INFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MILEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and the tightening of relationships among countries, we consider to be important an analysis of the national interest of an economy. The national interest is a complex concept consisting of many interests that occur at several levels, converging towards assuring security, freedom, justice and welfare. The state is the main defender of the national interest. The national interest has as objective the definition of the national development priorities in order to ensure the survival and the prosperity of the country concerned, by following a trend of sustainable development and it is based on several factors, including foreign direct investments. These are a necessity for the development of an economy, especially when national savings do not meet the needs of capital for investments. But in order to serve the national interest, foreign direct investments have to be channeled towards the areas of national interest. After the national interest is defined, there are presented the characteristics of the economic national interest and the ways through which foreign direct investments can support the achievement of the economic interest of an economy. Then, the article highlights a few of the areas toward which foreign direct investments should be directed in Romania in order to sustain the sustainable development of our country.

  2. Entropy-Based Economic Denial of Sustainability Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Sotelo Monge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their operational capabilities. Inspired by these methods, Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS attacks pose a similar motivation, but adapted to Cloud computing environments, where the denial is achieved by damaging the economy of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, the most common EDoS approach is making the offered services unsustainable by exploiting their auto-scaling algorithms. In order to contribute to their mitigation, this paper introduces a novel EDoS detection method based on the study of entropy variations related with metrics taken into account when deciding auto-scaling actuations. Through the prediction and definition of adaptive thresholds, unexpected behaviors capable of fraudulently demand new resource hiring are distinguished. With the purpose of demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal, an experimental scenario adapted to the singularities of the EDoS threats and the assumptions driven by their original definition is described in depth. The preliminary results proved high accuracy.

  3. Environmental and economic sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, Alessia; Vitiello, Valeria; Giusti, Anna Maria; Pinto, Alessandro; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; del Balzo, Valeria

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern for disease prevention. However, little information exists on the cost and on the environmental impact of such a dietary model. We compared the environmental impact and the costs of the current food consumption pattern of the Italian population and the Mediterranean model in order to investigate its overall sustainability. The environmental impact was calculated on the basis of three indexes, i.e. Carbon, Ecological and Water Footprint. The costs (Euro) per person of the MD and of the current Italian household food expenditure were considered on a weekly basis according to the 2013 data from the Observatory prices and tariffs of the Ministry of Economic Development and the service SMS consumers of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry. The MD resulted to produce a lower environmental impact than the current food consumption of the Italian population. The monthly expenditure of the MD is slightly higher in the overall budget compared to the current expenditure allocated to food by the Italian population, but there is a substantial difference in the distribution of budget according to the different food groups.

  4. THE ROLE OF INNOVATION POLICIES IN ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the key-elements providing increased competitiveness to countries which is defining in building effective economies. In modern conditions, great attention is paid to economic sustainability which besides effectiveness takes into account the impact of human activities over the environment. Europe has always been one of leading forces of innovation in the world. However, its importance has constantly decreased due to rise of the US, Japan and newly of China. The European Union has oriented much effort towards fostering innovation through various policies and instruments in order to keep up with the growing pace of economic and technologic development in the modern world. By these policies, the EU aims at creating favourable conditions for countries to promote innovation taking into account the national peculiarities as to allow improved flexibility and adaptability. The main goal of the present paper is to assess the impact of the EU innovation policies upon sustainable development of the member countries. There are to be analysed the main paradigms,concepts, initiatives and strategies frame-working innovation in the EU and, consequently, their impact upon economic development and the consistence in facing new challenges. In the end,on the base on identified correlations, concrete actions and measures to foster performance of innovation policies in general are identified.

  5. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  6. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? : An Exploration of Factors that Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, A.

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher

  7. Increasing the Economical Efficiency and Sustainability of Indoor Fish Farming by Means of Aquaponics - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on increasing economical efficiency and sustainability of indoor fish farming. Aspects like sustainability and economical efficiency were reviewed. In order to improve man`s health we must reconsider the agricultural sciences, by this we understand that we must develop technologies friendly for the environment. Sustainable indoor fish farming is the farming of the new millennium. Combining aquaculture with hydroponics we obtain a new innovation named aquaponics which respects principles of sustainable agriculture (wastewater biofiltration by plants and gives us the possibility to increase economical efficiency with an additional production (organic vegetables.

  8. Competitive Environment in Higher Education, Economic Efficiency and National Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rocēns, Valdis

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Valdis Rocens’s thesis „Competitive Environment in Higher Education, Economic Efficiency and National Economic Growth” is the assessment of the correlation between the competition among the institutions of higher education, the economic efficiency of higher education and the states’ economic growth. The research is based on P.Romer’s economic endogenous growth theory and M.Porter’s competition five forces model. In the thesis, there has been measured the competition...

  9. INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MĂRCUTĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyse the correlation between the level of economic growth of a country and its rural development. The phrase sustainable development combines the economic growth and the preservation and improvement of environmental and human health, preservation of social justice and assurance of democratic environment in social life. Therefore, the sustainable economic growth provides for the meeting of current consumption requirements without compromising or prejudicing those of the future generations. By adding the requirements regarding environmental protection and preservation of natural resources to economic growth we may speak of a proper sustainable development.

  10. Economic nationalism and foreign acquisition completion: The case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; He, X.

    2014-01-01

    Extending institutional theory, we incorporate a neglected but important component of formal institution, economic nationalism, into a model that specifies its effects on cross-border acquisition success. We suggest that economic nationalism has a dynamic nature and sees the interaction between

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Imrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan taking into account economic, environmental, social and environmental opportunities of the country; to find the rationale for the concept of sustainable development to eliminate major differences specific to regional economic development, management of economic and social development of the regions.Methods. Historical and comparative analysis, system approach, analysis of statistical and mathematical materials.Findings. We identified the advantages of the concept of sustainable development; cunducted the analysis of the dynamics of development of the leading industries in the region; studied the most promising sectors of the regions from the economic and geographic point of view.Conclusion. We identified socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  12. Developing Sustainable Afghan National Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    I. Three provinces from the Ottoman Empire, Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul, became British protectorates with a mandate approved by the League of Nations...research and experimentation is required to determine the feasibility of using alternative energy sources like solar and wind to lessen fuel costs. Using

  13. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  14. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters–altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed. PMID:28056043

  15. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klavans

    Full Text Available What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  16. National economic interests of Russia in modern geopolitical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers national economic interests that form the basis of national security (food, raw materials, finance, infrastructure including transport and set the priorities for the development of economic sectors (industry, scientific and technological development, entrepreneurship, social sector and innovation development. The authors carry out brief analysis for each type of national economic interests and find out how they are reflected in the national documents on socio-economic development and in international documents on economic cooperation with Russia’s participation. These interests in the national aspect are reflected in the Concept for long-term socio-economic development, and in the strategies and state programs for development of economic sectors. As for the international economic aspect, the authors consider Russia’s contracts with individual countries on trade and/or cooperation, the Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union, the Declaration and agreements of the BRICS countries, the Program for Trade and Economic cooperation between the SCO countries, and international standards relating to socio-economic ratings and indexes. The analysis shows that the country requires the development of a unified conceptual project that would link strategic priorities of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation with changing geoeconomic conditions. This independent project should represent a set of system strategic guidelines on different levels, enhancing the role and increasing the importance of Russia in the new architecture of the geo-economic world order, the country’s participation in the joint strategies implemented by the Russian Federation together with other interested countries and new integration groups, and also defending conceptual interests of national development

  17. Modeling of Diversification of Market as a Basis for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derunova Elena Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of dependence of key macroeconomic indicators on the energy supply price dynamics, especially oil price, relevant to the modern Russian economy. In order to overcome the negative trends related to oil price dynamics, the authors propose to consider the measures on the gradual diversification of the Russian economy as an effective tool of state regulation. To test the hypothesis that diversification contributes to the increase in sustainability of the national economic system, the authors review the simultaneous equations model, the endogenous variables of which include structural values which reflect the structure of national production system. The share of gross value added (hereinafter, GVA generated in the i-th sector in the total GVA and the base GVA index generated in the i-th sector similar to the industry output index sequentially serve as endogenous variables in this study. The test of the hypothesis was carried out in two stages: at the first stage, according to the results of econometric modeling, the indicator of the real effective ruble exchange rate to foreign currencies was chosen as the main exogenous variable; at the second stage, the basic system of equations was evaluated. Econometric calculations have been made for the following types of economic activity (according to the classification of the\tRussian National Classifier of Economic Activities: agriculture, hunting and forestry; mineral extraction; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; repairs of motor vehicles, motorcycles, household goods and personal appliances. During the econometric modeling, co-integrated equations for the pairs of indicators under study have been obtained; it has also been concluded that there are significant disparities in the selected economic sectors. The analysis of the obtained data has helped develop a set of measures of state regulation aimed at overcoming the existing disparities

  18. Economic Conflict and National Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-22

    than he did. Norbert Wiener, looking at all this, once told me that economics is, at best, a one- digit science. No, believe me, he did not make a joke...because unemployment is /.6 percent; inflation has improved from 2 digits to one digit ; and the growth rate has just gone from being negative to being...Burstein Economia , Six Peter Road, 3G, New York City, New York 10010 * Cdr. Rolf Clark Chief, Economic Analysis Section, Systems Analysis Division

  19. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  20. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Making long-term economic growth more sustainable. Evaluating the costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sardar M.N.; Clarke, Matthew [Sustainable Economic Growth Program, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, City Campus, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia); Munasinghe, Mohan [Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND), Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2003-12-01

    Currently, traditional development issues such as economic stagnation, poverty, hunger, and illness as well as newer challenges like environmental degradation and globalisation demand attention. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decisionmakers. Optimal economic growth has also been a crucial goal of both development theorists and practitioners. This paper examines the conditions under which optimal growth might be sustainable, by assessing the costs and benefits of growth. Key environmental and social aspects are considered. The Ecol-Opt-Growth-1 model analyses economic-ecological interactions, including resource depletion, pollution, irreversibility, other environmental effects, and uncertainty. It addresses some important issues, including savings, investment, technical progress, substitutability of productive factors, intergenerational efficiency, equity, and policies to make economic growth more sustainable-a basic element of the sustainomics framework. The empirical results support growing concerns that costs of growth may outweigh its benefits, resulting in unsustainability. Basically, in a wide range of circumstances, long term economic growth is unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage. Nevertheless, the model has many options that can be explored by policy makers, to make the development path more sustainable, as advocated by sustainomics. One example suggests that government supported abatement programs are needed to move towards sustainable development, since the model runs without abatement were infeasible. The optimal rate of abatement increases over time. Abatement of pollution is necessary to improve ecosystem viability and increase sustainability. Further research is necessary to seek conditions under which alternative economic growth paths are likely to become sustainable.

  2. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  3. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...... and/or the process that makes it. It can be used in conjunction with process simulation and economic analysis tools to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and to propose improvement options in order to arrive at the best design among various alternatives...

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  5. Sustainability Matters in National Development Visions—Evidence from Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability advocates for a universally shared common vision of progress towards a society that is just, safe and sustainable for humanity. Beyond environmental protection, the concept recognizes the urgent need to improve life quality through strategies that build socio-economic growth and address a wide range of cross cutting issues. While consensus abound that a more sustainable society serves everyone, opinions on what sustainability means and how it can be achieved are diverse. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, through the 2030 Vision and the 2020 National Transformation Program (NTP outlines an agenda for a more balanced growth and socio-economic development. The extent to which the vision systematically aligns with sustainability principles, however, remains unexplored. This research is a maiden attempt to investigate how much sustainability substance is in the 2030 Vision and the NTP of Saudi Arabia. The Sustainable Society Index (SSI has been employed to examine the 2030 Vision and the NTP to understand the Kingdom’s commitment to building resilient, inclusive and sustainable societies. The vision and NTP texts were matched against five broad measures and 22 sub-measures of the SSI to identity the points of convergence. While both the 2030 Vision and the NTP align with the SSI measures in some respect, the goals and objectives are, at best, a reflection of the needs, aspirations and context of Saudi Arabia. The paper concludes that the success of the 2030 Vision rests on the active involvement and empowerment of relevant stakeholders at all levels as well as the development of comprehensive assessment mechanisms based on which to measure progress towards sustainability.

  6. Empowering Nigerian youths for national economic development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world over, from USA to Asia, United Kingdom to Africa and Australia to Latin America, entrepreneurship has been promoted as an effective means of stimulating economic growth through the generation of greater employment opportunities, the development of local technological base and source of foreign exchange ...

  7. NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH TOURISM PROMOTION/SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor N. ITUMO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is currently facing economic growth and development challenge. The economic challenge is occasioned by mono-cultural economic reliance on the single resource of crude oil export revenue as well as other internal and international effects that affect her economic drive for heightened growth and development. The Nigerian government had over the years searched for ways of diversifying its economy for greater growth and development especially given the various challenges in the economy, mainly the steep reduction in crude oil revenue arising from volatility of global oil price. This paper therefore uses the research methodology of case study to do a holistic assessment of the possibility of Nigeria diversifying into her tourism potentials for economic growth and development. This would be done equally by drawing relevant comparative analysis of other countries bringing economic benefits in Africa and across the globe.

  8. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Creaco, Salvo; Querini, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of ...

  9. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously.

  10. Toward Environmentally Sustainable Mobile Computing Through an Economic Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, Siny; Namboodiri, Vinod; Dev, Vishnu Cherusola

    2014-01-01

    .... Prior work with energy efficiency in mobile devices has primarily focused on the goal of maximizing battery life of these devices and not on the broader concept of environmentally sustainable mobile computing...

  11. Sustainability of biofuels and bioproducts: socio-economic impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rutz, D; van Eijck, J.A.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries worldwide are increasingly engaging in the promotion of biomass production for industrial uses such as biofuels and bioproducts (chemicals, bioplastics, etc.). Until today, mainly biofuels were supported by European policies, but support for bioproducts is still lacking behind. Thus, also the public sustainability debate concentrated on biofuels, but so far not on bioproducts. Driven by the strong public debate on sustainability aspects, biofuels are confronted with many enviro...

  12. Sustainability of Beekeeping as a Means of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small or large-scale beekeeping contributes significantly to livelihood security, economic empowerment, food security, biodiversity and environmental conservation. It is thus imperative to highlight the prospects of beekeeping as a priority for immediate socio-economic development especially at the rural level where there is ...

  13. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  14. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, A. F.; Turner, M. F.; Rasky, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine and analyze architecture concepts for an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure system that can extend the life, functionality, and distance traveled of surface mobility missions.

  15. EPA Helps 22 Communities to Meet their Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that 22 communities will receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability goals and encourage local economic develo

  16. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  17. Strengthening the Economic Committee of the National Assembly in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening the Economic Committee of the National Assembly in Vietnam: Phase 2. Since the liberalization of the Vietnamese economy in 1986, the country has made significant gains in economic growth and poverty reduction. However, Vietnam has also experienced bouts of macroeconomic instability, increased ...

  18. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  19. Economic Research at National Liberal Arts Colleges: School Rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.; Robinson, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive ranking of all national liberal arts colleges based on publications cataloged by the "Journal of Economic Literature" (JEL) from 1989-1994. Concludes that, although economics research is important at the highest ranked colleges, it remains a secondary consideration at the rest. Briefly discusses previous rankings…

  20. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  1. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  2. Ecologic, Economic, and Social Considerations for Rangeland Sustainability: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. McCollum; H. Theodore Jr. Heintz; Aaron J. Harp; John A. Tanaka; Gary R. Evans; David Radloff; Louis E. Swanson; William E. III Fox; Michael G. Sherm Karl; John E. Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Use and sustainability of rangelands are inherently linked to the health and sustainability of the land. They are also inherently linked to the social and economic infrastructures that complement and support those rangelands and rangeland uses. Ecological systems and processes provide the biological interactions underlying ecosystem health and viability. Social and...

  3. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  4. Declining national park visitation: An economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Stevens; Thomas A. More; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Visitation to the major nature-based national parks has been declining. This paper specifies an econometric model that estimates the relative impact of consumer incomes, travel costs, entry fees and other factors on per capita attendance from 1993 to 2010. Results suggest that entrance fees have had a statistically significant but small impact on per capita attendance...

  5. Education, Economic Globalisation and National Qualifications Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    There are many aims that have been articulated with respect to national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). Among them are those concerned with transparency, which is to say, that it is assumed that once employers understand the competencies of employees, as defined by their education credentials, then the mismatch between what employers are looking…

  6. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  7. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

  8. Livestock Husbandry and Economic-Sustainability of Small Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts livestock husbandry and sustainability of small farmers in West Gojjam region, Ethiopia where a large number of livestock are reared due to the favorable climatic conditions. The mainstay of the population (those with holding of less than 3 ha) practices mixed crop-livestock farming. It discovers issues of ...

  9. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...

  10. The Economics of Ecosystems: Efficiency, Sustainability and Equity in Ecosystem Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Economics of Ecosystems demonstrates how the concepts of economic efficiency, sustainability and equity can be applied in ecosystem management. The book presents an overview of these three key concepts, a framework for their analysis and modelling and three case studies. Specific attention is

  11. Patriotisme économique et développement durable Economic patriotism and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Poirot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Le patriotisme économique est généralement perçu comme une invitation faite aux acteurs économiques tels que l’État, les consommateurs ou les entreprises, à favoriser les activités nationales. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que le patriotisme économique n’est pas seulement un instrument au service de la puissance industrielle et commerciale d’un État ou un vecteur de sa puissance financière, mais qu’il est aussi parfaitement compatible avec les dimensions sociale et environnementale du développement durable. Le concept de patriotisme économique, à cet égard, a été examiné dans ses logiques traditionnelles d’inspiration mercantiliste, listienne et keynésienne et revisité dans l’optique de la théorie du don, initiée par Marcel Mauss et dans celle de Durkheim.Economic patriotism is generally perceived as an invitation given to economic actors such as the State, consumers or companies, to facilitate national activities. The objective of this article is to show that economic patriotism is not only an instrument in the service of the industrial and commercial power of a State or a vector of its financial power, but that it is also perfectly compatible with the social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The concept of economic patriotism, in this respect, was examined in its traditional logics (Mercantilism, List and Keynes and revisited in the optics of the theory of gift, introduced by Marcel Mauss and in the optics of Durkheim.

  12. Determinants of economic (inequality and its implications for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Lekovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on specific key aspects of economic inequality, as well as economic equality, by analyzing numerous theoretical, methodological and empirical views concerning the mentioned socio-economic phenomena aims to identify the following related and relevant aspects that affect the efficiency of the functioning of a modern economy: a economic inequality that has a stimulating effect on the creative, productive and innovative use of all production factors positively affects the functioning of the economy and is socially justifiable; b high level of economic inequality which shows a tendency to further increase has a negative effect on the economic system indicators, as well as the stability of the society and the political environment, therefore resulting in weaker economic performance and lower economic growth rate; c economic equality (certainly, not egalitarianism by contributing to greater social and political stability, which in turn reflects positively on the economic stability and efficiency, is the basis for greater success of the modern economy and dynamic economic growth rates. The main result of this study is assessing the basic factors of high and rising economic inequality and its implications for the functioning of modern economies, and accordingly, pointing to the need to implement economic policies that would lower economic inequality and mitigate its adverse consequences for the economy and the society.

  13. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  14. Notes on the economic use of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G. Engelbrecht

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available In an economic analysis the present use of the most important national park in South Africa, (Kruger National Park is compared with the use of the same land for agricultural purposes. The present use of the Kruger National Park creates substantially more net social benefits to society than agricultural use. The question remains whether these benefits are equitably distributed at various levels of the South African society.

  15. Forecasting models for national economic planning

    CERN Document Server

    Heesterman, A R G

    1972-01-01

    This book is about the specification of linear econometric models, and for this reason some important related fields have been deliberately omitted. I did not want to discuss the problems of parameter-estimation, at least not in any detail, as there are other books on these problems written by specialized statisticians. This book is about the models them­ selves and macro-economic models in particular. A second related sub­ ject is the policy decision that can be made with the help of a model. While I did write a chapter on policy decisions, I limited myself to some extent because of my views on planning as such. The logical approach to this problem is in terms of mathematical programming, but our models and our ideas about the policies we want are too crude for its effective utilisation. A realistic formulation of the problem should involve non­ linearities in an essential way, the models I consider (and most existing models) are linear. At the present state of econometrics, I do not really believe in suc...

  16. FUNCTIONING OF SUSTAINABLE EDUCATIONAL ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (BADULESCU ANASTASE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses issues related to education management operation that determines the principles and requires an interdisciplinary approach, studying events that occur in the decision to organize a determined pedagogical activity and the management of educational programs. Managerial leadership involves emphasis on ideas, on a systematic approach, on change, innovation strategy, proposing a method of analyzing the functioning of sustainable educational management and positive effects. In this context, the article provides the principles, functions, methods and rules that a school must comply in order to ensure a sustainable future.The teaching staff represents an inexhaustible managerial resource valued at its social ladder of the system and education program.In the content of the paper are highlighted prominent school organization management functions as steps preceding decision making of their training where are presented applied studies on financial issues facing directors of schools who seek solutions to them.

  17. Determination of Economic Indicators in the Context of Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pavláková Dočekalová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on determination of the most significant economic indicators influencing corporate sustainability performance. Corporate sustainability performance is a multidimensional concept based on the original idea of sustainable development, replacing the traditional understanding of corporate performance only as capital appreciation for owners (shareholders. Compared to the original concept of sustainable development which consists of environmental, social and economic performance, the so-called triple-bottom-line, it is broaden to the responsibilities and the impact of Corporate Governance on the corporate performance. The basic set of economic indicators has been constructed from a synthesis of resources developed by international organizations (Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants and research among manufacturing companies in the Czech Republic. The basic set of twenty-five key indicators is divided into seven groups: Costs, Investments, Economic Results, Asset & financial resources utilization, Suppliers reliability, Penalties and R&D expenses. Basic set of indicators was presented to 23 top-managers who quantified the potential effect of each indicator to the success and sustainability of their companies. Through the methods of descriptive statistics knowledge of the particularities of each indicator was obtained. Correlation analysis and factor analysis were applied in order to eliminate information duplicity and dimensionality reduction. The result is a reduction in the number of economic indicators, so that the loss of information on the influence of the original indicators on the corporate sustainability is minimized. Corporate sustainability indicators are a tool for measuring and managing progress towards sustainability goals and environmental, social and economic impacts.

  18. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  19. The Iraqi Impasse: Sustaining Economic Reconstruction During War-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    11. Cf. Robert Looney, “Iraq’s Economic Transition: The Neoliberal model and Its Role,” The Middle East Journal 57:4 (Autumn 200), pp.568-587. 12...The Culture of Entrepreneurship (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991). 25. Francis Fukuyama , Trust: Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (New York

  20. Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Foundation for Sustainability: Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Alf Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2017-01-01

    We need to understand everyday interactions as “qualitative economics” as they have their roots in the historical, subjectivist, and philosophical tradition. As a starting point, we use the philosophy of science perspective and analysis. As the 21st century moves rapidly into a new economic era...

  1. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  2. Flow of natural versus economic capital in industrial supply networks and its implications to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2005-12-15

    Appreciating the reliance of industrial networks on natural capital is a necessary step toward their sustainable design and operation. However, most contemporary accounting techniques, including engineering economics, life cycle assessment, and full cost accounting, fail in this regard, as they take natural capital for granted and concentrate mainly on the economic aspects and emissions. The recently developed "thermodynamic input-output analysis" (TIOA) includes the contribution of ecological goods, ecosystem services, human resources, and impact of emissions in an economic input-output model. This paper uses TIOA to determine the throughputs of natural and economic capitals along industrial supply networks. The ratios of natural to economic capitals of economic sectors reveals a hierarchical organization of the U.S. economy wherein basic infrastructure industries are at the bottom and specialized value-added industries constitute the top. These results provide novel insight into the reliance of specific industrial sectors and supply chains on natural capital and the corresponding economic throughput. Such insight is useful for understanding the implications of corporate restructuring on industrial sustainability metrics and of outsourcing of business activities on outsourcer, outsourcee, and global sustainability. These implications are discussed from the standpoints of weak and strong sustainability paradigms. The calculated ratios can also be used for hybrid thermodynamic life cycle assessment.

  3. Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  4. The environmental and economic sustainability of potential bioethanol from willow in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, A L; Dupree, P; Scott, S A; Dennis, J S

    2010-12-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of a potential operation in the UK in which bioethanol is produced from the hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of coppice willow. If the willow were grown on idle arable land in the UK, or, indeed, in Eastern Europe and imported as wood chips into the UK, it was found that savings of greenhouse gas emissions of 70-90%, when compared to fossil-derived gasoline on an energy basis, would be possible. The process would be energetically self-sufficient, as the co-products, e.g. lignin and unfermented sugars, could be used to produce the process heat and electricity, with surplus electricity being exported to the National Grid. Despite the environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful at present. However, the cost of production could be reduced significantly if the willow were altered by breeding to improve its suitability for hydrolysis and fermentation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social economic and ethical aspect of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncritical fostering of social development within the industrial paradigm often referred to as "unlimited growth", has caused so catastrophic effects that they could argumentatively be described as a real ecocide. This is not only reflected in the total pollution of environment, irrecoverable destruction of natural resources and non-renewable energy sources, but the very existence of elementary biological preconditions for survival of human and other life forms on Earth is endangered. Social development, perceived and applied as mere growth, has favored partial interests on behalf of those of the whole. It has also endorsed interests of present over future generations relying on partial, positivist knowledge against holism humanism and wisdom. These effects have contributed to the new knowledge of the necessity for radical change in dominant development paradigm. An alternative has been found by some authors in the concept of "sustainable development". This concept is based on the idea of adjustment of social growth and development to the natural adaptive capacities. The idea of sustainable development should represent a key for human duration in time and with this a concrete form of responsibility towards future generations. This strategy, now within the ecological paradigm, transcendent partiality of industrial paradigm and offers a uniquely new form for the rationalization of development. At the same time this strategy functions as a new form of ethics (biocentric instead of anthropocentric one and as a new model for wisdom of living. The concept of sustainable development is also the only operative way for radical and permanent elimination of the deepest causes of ecological crises instead of periodical and partial healing of its consequences.

  6. Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

  7. Directions of sustained economic growth of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Irina Petrovna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we’ll consider the innovative activity of company, distinguish the components preventing the introduction of innovations and investigate the main approaches to the formation of innovative development of organization in terms of economic and technological aspects. Relying on the marked-out features of introduction of technological innovations by the domestic enterprises, the directions of their development and use are proved.

  8. The Strategically Oriented Approach to Studying the Economic Sustainability of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko Tеtyana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the constructive consideration of modern approaches to the study of the essence of economic sustainability. It is noted that they are focused on sustainability as a status of the economic system. It is actualized that such an approach does not correspond to the system-synergetic methodology, according to which sustainability has a dualistic nature: as a status and as a property of the system to be stable. The key provisions of the traditional approach to understanding the essence of economic sustainability are systematized. Based on the productive synthesis of the system-synergetic methodology and modern achievements of the theory of strategic management, there formed the author’s conceptual approach that extends the traditional content of economic sustainability exclusively as a status. The proposed approach extends the temporal context of sustainability from the provision of a momentary state to the formation of the possibilities for the permanent functioning of an enterprise. It is argued that these opportunities are determined by the organizational ability of companies to realize their functional purpose. This changes the priority of the managerial focus: from orientation to providing material, financial and labor resources (the traditional approach to the accumulation of resources that can not be the subject of market-based sales transactions (the strategically oriented approach.

  9. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  10. 2013 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors form across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  11. THE INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL, AN INTRISIC FACTOR OF THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA TEODORA BALACEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational system will need to direct its actions and programs towards the identification of the current and future values of the labour market, starting from the existing and potential labour resources, anticipating first and foremost the adjusting of the economy to fast-developing fields and domains, put forward by the State via the Fast-developing Field Strategies or even via the Fast-developing National Strategy. It will accordingly generate a binder between the demands of the labour market as a response to the developing necessities of the economy, and the training/specialization of the labour force as offered by the national syllabus. By these means the educational system would create a labour force compatible with the labour market, which is both a premiss for the increasing level of employment and for the sustainable economic growth. Our task is therefore to provide a concept of education related to technological progress, based on the model of Nelson and Phelps, and a suggestion for investments and education policies.

  12. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  14. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  15. Sustainability as the integration of economics and ethics? Baden, Vienna/Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2000-01-01

    In this study it is argued that the corporate pursuit of sustainability calls forth attitudes in the business world which seem to integrate economic, political and moral issues. The quest for sustainability calls forth reflection and reorientation in business life concerning visions, goals, role...... language, they are not merely saying things but also doing things. By doing things with words, language does not only mirror a certain reality it also has constitutive power....

  16. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  17. Automated preparation of chemotherapy: quality improvement and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Carla; Nanni, Oriana; Antaridi, Sara; Gallegati, Davide; Marri, Mattia; Paolucci, Demis; Minguzzi, Martina; Altini, Mattia

    2014-04-01

    The quality and economic implications of manual versus automated preparation of antineoplastic drugs were compared. This four-week study evaluated 10 routinely used antineoplastic drugs (fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, trastuzumab, bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, irinotecan, and etoposide) prepared by manual and automated procedures. The accuracy of the dose of the active ingredient was calculated in terms of percent relative error for the difference between the nominal value indicated on the prescription and the actual value of the drug in the finished product. A comparative economic analysis of the manual and automated preparation procedures was performed by calculating the mean unit cost for each preparation at different production levels. Participating pharmacists and technicians completed a survey rating each preparation method in terms of performance, operator satisfaction, technology, and safety. Of the 2500 i.v. antineoplastic preparations made in the pharmacy during the four-week study period, 681 were analyzed (348 using the automated procedure and 333 manually). Of these, 17 varied by more than 5% of the prescribed dose, and 1 varied by over 10%. Accuracy, calculated in terms of average percent relative error, was the highest and lowest during manual preparation. The preparation time for individual drugs was always higher when prepared using the automated procedure. A lower mean variable unit cost was observed for preparations made using the automated procedure. Questionnaire results revealed that operators preferred the automated procedure over the manual procedure. Both the automated and manual procedures for preparing antineoplastic preparations proved to be accurate and precise. The automated procedure resulted in substantial advantages in terms of quality maintenance standards and risk lowering.

  18. Preserving the 'commons': addressing the sustainable use of antibiotics through an economic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, C M; Edwards, S E; Harbarth, S

    2017-10-01

    As the growth of antibiotic resistance has resulted in large part from widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could contribute to inappropriate or suboptimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be used to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term. It finds that economic considerations underpinning current antibiotic prescribing strategies are incomplete and short-termist, with the result that they may foster suboptimal use. It also stresses that perverse incentives that drive antibiotic sales and inappropriate prescribing practices must be dis-entangled for sustainable use policies to gain traction. Finally, payment structures can be used to re-align incentives and promote optimal prescribing and sustainable use more generally. In particular, eliminating or altering reimbursement differentials could help steer clinical practice more deliberately towards the minimization of selection pressure and the resulting levels of antibiotic resistance. This work highlights the need for appropriately designed cost-effectiveness analyses, incentives analysis, and novel remuneration systems to underpin sustainable use policies both within and beyond the health sector. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A Framework for Assessing the Social and Economic Impact of Sustainable Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räikkönen Minna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investments towards sustainable development are vital for the future and they must be carefully planned to deliver immediate and long-term benefits. Hence, the ability to communicate the forms of impact of sustainable investments to local societies, people, investors and other stakeholders can provide a competitive advantage. However, the assessments are often under pressure to demonstrate short-term effects rather than emphasise the long-term impact. In addition, indirect and intangible forms of impacts should not be measured solely in economic terms. This paper proposes an assessment framework to support the integrated economic and social impact assessment of sustainable investments aimed at improving physical and socio-economic wellbeing. The framework is demonstrated in two case studies: new construction and renovation investments in affordable housing and social impact investment in sustainable development. The investments in the case studies are evaluated, selected and prioritized not only in terms of money but also with regard to sustainability, social acceptability and their overall impact on society, as a whole. The results indicate that a systematic integrated assessment of monetary and non-monetary factors can be successfully combined with the sustainable development decisions.

  20. Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

    Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

  1. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

  2. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

  3. Socio-economic constraints affecting youths involvement in national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youths occupy a strategic position in any country's developmental process. Their productive capacity and income generating activities contribute to the economic development of any nation. Ironically, youths in Nigeria are ill-equipped to obtain gainful employment. The youths are mostly noted for their involvement in many ...

  4. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Ningseh Mohd Dom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010 data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted.

  5. A Framework for Sustainable Design of Algal Biorefineries: Economic Aspects and Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a framework for sustainable design of algal biorefineries with respect to economic and environmental objectives is presented. As part of the framework, a superstructure is formulated to represent the design space – describing technologies developed for processing various types...... of algae feedstock for the production of biodiesel and co-products. Relevant data and parameters for each process such as yield, conversion, operational cost is then collected using a standardized format (a generic model) and stored in a database. The sustainable design problem is then formulated...... of future and sustainable algal biorefinery concepts....

  6. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  7. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  8. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  9. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  10. Issues of sustainable socio-economic development of a region in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Saifullovich Khairullov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify ways of ensuring sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the conditions of Russia39s joining the WTO to offer tools of state regulation. Methods a systematic approach was applied to the definition of the term conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region comparative method and situational analysis were applied for the study of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO programtarget method and synthesis method were applied for determining the ways of ensuring the socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO. Results the concept conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region were identified the problems and peculiarities of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO were analyzed. Basing on the analysis of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO the path of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region was defined. The priority directions of regional economic policy were listed that meet the challenges of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO. Tools of state regulation and forecasting were offered. The necessity of the formation of an effective system of state regulation of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO was proved. The role of the state in restructuring the economy in the implementation of industrial social investment innovation and food policy was shown ensuring the safety and sustainability of socioeconomic development of the region. Scientific novelty the priority directions of regional economic policy were elaborated which according to the authors will contribute to sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO also tools of state

  11. Economic gains stimulate negative evaluations of corporate sustainability initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Tamar; Newman, George E.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many organizations have sought to align their financial goals with environmental ones by identifying strategies that maximize profits while minimizing environmental impacts. Examples of this `win-win' approach can be found across a wide range of industries, from encouraging the reuse of hotel towels, to the construction of energy efficient buildings, to the large-scale initiatives of multi-national corporations. Although win-win strategies are generally thought to reflect positively on the organizations that employ them, here we find that people tend to respond negatively to the notion of profiting from environmental initiatives. In fact, observers may evaluate environmental win-wins less favourably than profit-seeking strategies that have no environmental benefits. The present studies suggest that how those initiatives are communicated to the general public may be of central importance. Therefore, organizations would benefit from carefully crafting the discourse around their win-win initiatives to ensure that they avoid this type of backlash.

  12. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  13. Criterion 7: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This criterion focuses on the social context of forests—the laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutions—that governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different...

  14. Criterion V: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for rangeland conservation and sustainable management [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonn E. Mitchell; Stan Hamiliton; Thomas Lustig; Kenneth Nelson; Tom Roberts; Brian Czech

    2010-01-01

    Laws, institutions, and economic policies play a large role in determining the sustainability of rangelands. They provide the basic framework from which many lasting decisions about rangeland management are made. The SRR has identified 10 primary indicators to assess how this framework influences the long-term health and productivity of rangeland in this country. The...

  15. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  16. Environmental and economic sustainability of integrated production in bio-refineries: The thistle case in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim; Yazan, Devrim Murat; Mandras, Giovanni; Garau, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bio-refineries that produce multiple products through their supply chains (SCs). A physical enterprise input-output (EIO) model is used to quantify the material/energy/waste flows and integrated to the monetary EIO model

  17. How Can Innovative Practices In HEIs Facilitate Sustainable Social And Economic Development ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psillaki, M.; Youssef, A.B.; Filippov, S.; Ravesteijn, W.; Zvereva, T.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on analyzing net-based practices in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as a policy tool for instituting a sustainable social and economic development. The purpose of the study is to identify relationships between net-based HEIs and welfare perspective; to investigate the

  18. Sustainability and Economic Performance of the Companies in the Renewable Energy Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the sustainability and economic performance of the renewable energy sector of Romania. In our analysis, we have used Total Quality Management (TQM model, which is an economic modern tool used for improving the quality of management for all companies. The aim of this study is to bring into discussion the conceptualized TQM model of Edward Deming underlying different stages of its evolution as it is described in the economic literature. Conceptual model is applied in a case study of the renewable energy sector of Romania. The quantitative research evaluates the impact of the total quality management to achieve the sustainable development, performance objectives and the competitive advantage of the companies in the renewable energy sector. Data was collected through a survey and the questionnaire was addressed to the management and employees in the renewable energy sector. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used and the hypotheses were tested by partial least square (PLS equations. Data was analyzed through the Smart PLS 3 software. The main contribution of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relationship among sustainable development, economic performance of the companies and TQM model indicators. The conclusions of our research are in line with the existing literature and confirm the theoretical assumptions, underlining the fact that the undertaking’s performance and sustainable development is a direct consequence of the combination among a series of factors like decisional power quality, motivated workforce as well as integrity of operational process.

  19. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  20. Sustainability and the Spanish port system. Analysis of the relationship between economic and environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxe, Fernando González; Bermúdez, Federico Martín; Palmero, Federico Martín; Novo-Corti, Isabel

    2016-12-15

    Research into the methodological development of alternative systems of sustainability measures is recent. In understanding sustainable development in a multi-dimensional sense, one of the most significant advances was the construction of Synthetic Indexes, applicable to different spatial spheres or to organisations, businesses, institutions, etc. The Spanish port system of general interest comprises 46 ports integrated in 28 Port Authorities, which in 2014 moved 482,000,000t of goods and more than 28 million passengers. This gives an idea of its importance for the Spanish economy. Using a derivation of the procedure used to calculate the Port Sustainability Synthetic Index, in this research the analysis of the relationship that exists between the findings obtained for the economic and environmental dimensions is used. This enables the existence of links between ports and economic and environmental indicators for a sample of 16 Port Authorities of Spain to be verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  2. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...... the economic risk; (ii) perform the monetary valuation of environmental impact categories under uncertainty; (iii) quantify the potential environmental risk; (iv) measure the alternatives’ eco-efficiency identifying possible trade-offs; and, lastly (v) propose a joint risk assessment matrix...... for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of sustainability at the decision-support level. Through the application of appropriate methods in a hierarchical manner, this tool leads to the identification of the potentially best and more sustainable solutions. Furthermore, the application of the framework...

  3. The equatorial rainforest of Central Africa between economic needs and sustainability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arétouyap, Zakari; Bisso, Dieudonné; Njandjock Nouck, Philippe; Yembe, Shey Jones; Diab, Diab Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    This article sets out to investigate the role played by the rainforest of Central Africa in providing environmental goods and services, regulating and stabilizing the global climate as well as participating in socio-economic development of the riparian countries. This complex role offers a double status, almost confrontational, to this rainforest: it stands as an economic resource and as a major global climate regulator. Hence, there is an urgent need to question certain aspects such as climate trends in this strategic region and the use of local forest resources for economic purpose in order to suggest ecological attitudes to be adopted by policymakers, stakeholders, forest professionals and users for a sustainable development. It is shown that: 1) this rainforest constitutes an economic resource and plays a major socio-cultural role in addition to its global climate regulatory role, 2) an overexploitation of the forest resources for economic purposes exposes the forest to an increased deterioration which can change the ecological and socio-economic balance, or destroy this forest, and by so doing, alter its global climate control power, 3) the climate of the region is experiencing serious variability. Thus, solutions that can satisfy socio-economic needs and give room for sustainable development are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of economic freedom of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation economic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Debbie C. Magallon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI and GDP per capita are dimensions considered to characterize the level of a country’s economic freedom. Trend performance of AEC in these indexes was also determined. The empirical estimate was based on a panel dataset covering 6 member-countries of the ASEAN Economic Community from 2001 to 2010. The model was estimated through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS multiple linear regression analysis. For the trend performance of the indexes, Singapore found to have a remarkable performance. The empirical result strongly suggests that CPI and GDP per capita foster economic freedom. For every 1% decrease in CPI would lead to an increase in economic freedom index by.121 % and for every 1% increase in GDP per capita, EFI will increase by .019%.

  5. Strategy for a transparent, accessible, and sustainable national claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelburd, Robin

    2015-03-01

    The article outlines the strategy employed by FAIR Health, Inc, an independent nonprofit, to maintain a national database of over 18 billion private health insurance claims to support consumer education, payer and provider operations, policy makers, and researchers with standard and customized data sets on an economically self-sufficient basis. It explains how FAIR Health conducts all operations in-house, including data collection, security, validation, information organization, product creation, and transmission, with a commitment to objectivity and reliability in data and data products. It also describes the data elements available to researchers and the diverse studies that FAIR Health data facilitate.

  6. MAJOR EVENTS IN THE ARAB ORDER: THE DECLINE OF SUSTAINABILITY AND THE TRANSITION TO ECONOMIC RESILIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA IOANA OPREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab world particularities are not solely the ones derived from natural wealth (oil and gas, but are also driven from historical particularities which mark this region, together with specific Islamic politics and economic organizational framework, with deep roots in religious concepts. In a global context, where the rules from the West are the ones leading globalization, the Arab World brings its contribution, even though the Islamic space defines a different socio-economic concept. In the East lies a series of features that place the Arab world in a different plan than the one shown frequently in the discussions about world order, with geopolitical but also economic implications. Conflicts in this region lead to declining sustainable development and trigger the need to strengthen the economic resilience. As the least peaceful region of the contemporary world, Arab World integrated the concept of economic resilience, in order to recover from shocks and continue further development.

  7. Greenlining : economic and environmental effects of government facilitated lending to sustainable economic activities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We

  8. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  9. The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pierré BRUWER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

  10. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting.

  11. Energy indicators to assess sustainable development at the national level : acting on the Johannesburg plan of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, I.A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Abdalla, K.L. [United Nations, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs

    2006-04-15

    Energy and its relationship to socio-economic development and the environment was a central theme at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. Countries participating in the resulting Johannesburg plan of implementation need to accurately assess current economic conditions, policy instruments and goals for the future. This article provided details of a cooperative effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs to develop a set of energy indicators to provide insight into the causal relationships between energy trends and policies. The energy indicators are consonant with Agenda 21 objectives, and aim to provide countries with a statistical analysis tool for assessing energy systems status and trends within the paradigm of sustainable development. The first phase of the initiative defined a a conceptual framework that incorporated and identified specific indicators for sustainable energy development. The second phase aimed to test and to provide assistance to countries in the development and use of energy indicators for monitoring progress and for developing energy strategies in conformity with the national objectives of sustainable development. Seven countries participated in the second phase, namely Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia, and Thailand. All participating countries have now defined their energy and sustainable development priorities, and have applied energy indicators to the analysis of energy policies geared to attaining priority goals. The case studies have led to the development of a number of new initiatives to improve national energy statistics as well as to develop databases on energy indicators. It was noted that many developing countries need to make an investment in their energy statistical databases and programs. It was concluded that the case studies demonstrated the advantages of using an integrated approach in the formulation and

  12. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  14. Socio-Economic Priorities for the Sustainable Development of Russian Arctic Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Leksin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To properly justify the priorities for the Russian Arctic Zone sustainable development is methodologically challenging for two reasons. Firstly, this challenge is due to fast changes of external and internal conditions for the development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF. Secondly, the interpretation of the concept of “sustainability” is too wide inconsistent. As the concepts of “sustainability” as well as the concept of “sustainable growth” in this wide sense are frequently used to characterize economic, social and other processes and systems, these key categories are difficult to apply as development’ targets and evaluation criteria practice of public administration in Russia. Using the case of Arctic macro-region, the paper substantiates the concept of spatial systems’ sustainability as their ability to maintain functionality under destabilizing impact of exogenous and endogenous factors. Such an ability is particularly important because of variations in structure and intensity of these negative impacts, including from climate change. Within this methodological framework, we have specified the indicators of sustainability relating to the practice of public management in the AZRF development. The paper has discussed the existing and emerging exogenous and endogenous impacts on the AZRF development sustainability. We set two priorities among the goals and objectives for ensuring the AZRF sustainable functioning under the conditions of climate. In social (socio-economic sphere, it is necessary to maintain and improve the public health. In economic sphere, the most needed are strengthening of coherency and reliability of the transportation system, energy supplies to distant consumers, and stimulating of investment and industrial activities of the large industrial corporations.

  15. Academic drug discovery centres: the economic and organisational sustainability of an emerging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Kirkegaard, Henriette; Valentin, Finn

    2014-11-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organisational sustainability. We take that angle in an in-depth study of four prominent ADDCs. Our findings indicate that there are clear similarities in the way sustainable centres are organised, managed and financed. We also identify factors in the frameworks of academia and research funding affecting their performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald I. Zalewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

  17. The United Nations system for global development: political and economic agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aguado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation, the United Nations Organization has created and implemented a series of public policies, indicators and programs that promote sustainable development. Political leaders all over the world – in both developed and developing countries – have supported the fulfilment of these goals, which have shaped the development agenda of the UN within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The MDGs aim at improving living standards around the globe through the establishment of a sustainable economic system in the social, economic and environmental domains. The World Bank (WB and the International Monetary Fund (IMF have been key institutions when it comes to issuing public policy recommendations for the attainment of the MDGs. This article will first analyze the role of these institutions and macroeconomic policies and then suggest a set of supplementary meso and microeconomic policies that, according to the author, could enhance the potential for macroeconomic policies to achieve a sustainable development and fulfill the Millennium Development Goals.

  18. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  19. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  20. Economic and Environmental Performance of Fashion Supply Chain: The Joint Effect of Power Structure and Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion supply chain members now search for trade-offs between sustainable investment and the related incentives, such as savings on environmental taxes and gains in incremental demands. To evaluate the economic and environmental performance of sustainable investment from a power perspective, we develop an analytical model to study a two-echelon sustainable supply chain consisting of one retailer and one manufacturer with three different power structures. We derive the optimal solutions for various cases associated with different supply chain power structures and sustainable investors. Though it is beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer to make sustainable investment, they often utilize high power to gain economic benefit with less sustainable investment. Interestingly, the follower with less supply chain power has more incentive to make a sustainable effort to achieve a higher profit. The optimal amount of sustainable investment in the apparel manufacturer investment case is greater than that in the retailer investment case in most scenarios.

  1. National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Traub, Guido; Kroll, Christian; Teksoz, Katerina; Durand-Delacre, David; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) -- agreed in 2015 by all 193 member states of the United Nations and complemented by commitments made in the Paris Agreement -- map out a broad spectrum of economic, social and environmental objectives to be achieved by 2030. Reaching these goals will require deep transformations in every country, as well as major efforts in monitoring and measuring progress. Here we introduce the SDG Index and Dashboards as analytical tools for assessing countries' baselines for the SDGs that can be applied by researchers in the cross-disciplinary analyses required for implementation. The Index and Dashboards synthesize available country-level data for all 17 goals, and for each country estimate the size of the gap towards achieving the SDGs. They will be updated annually. All 149 countries for which sufficient data is available face significant challenges in achieving the goals, and many countries' development strategies are imbalanced across the economic, social and environmental priorities. We illustrate the analytical value of the index by examining its relationship with other widely used development indices and by showing how it accounts for cross-national differences in subjective well-being. Given significant data gaps, scope and coverage of the Index and Dashboards are limited, but we suggest that these analyses represent a starting point for a comprehensive assessment of national SDG baselines and can help policymakers determine priorities for early action and monitor progress. The tools also identify data gaps that must be closed for SDG monitoring.

  2. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  3. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  4. Collaborative innovation as a tool for environmental, economic and social sustainability in regional governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Hofstad, Hege

    2015-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy...... collaborative innovation for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The ultimate goal is to assess the ability and potential of Norwegian regions to solve wicked and unruly problems through collaborative innovation....... solutions to common problems. The paper analyses the efforts of Norwegian regions to enhance collaborative innovation through the formation of interactive governance arenas. It compares three different policy areas in order to better understand how different forms of interactive governance enhance...

  5. Sustaining Practice Change One Year After Completion of the National Depression Management Leadership Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Henry; Duffy, Farifteh Firoozmand; Katzelnick, David J; Williams, Mark D; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Rae, Donald S; Regier, Darrel A

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveThis report describes the sustainability of quality improvement interventions for depression care in psychiatric practice one year after the completion of the National Depression Management...

  6. An analysis of the allocation of Yakima River water in terms of sustainability and economic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Brett; Douglas, Ellen M; Terkla, David

    2012-07-30

    Decades of agricultural growth has led to the over appropriation of Yakima water and the ecological integrity of the Basin has been compromised. We evaluate the impact of current water allocation on the natural flow regime of the Yakima River using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration/Range of Variability Analysis and by quantifying indicators of ecosurplus and ecodeficit. We analyze the sustainability of the current water allocation scheme based on a range of sustainability criteria, from weak to strong to environmentally sustainable. Economic efficiency is assessed by describing the current allocation framework and suggesting ways to make it more efficient. Our IHA/RVA analysis suggests that the allocation of water in the Yakima River has resulted in a highly altered flow regime. Ecodeficit is far in excess of ecosurplus. We conclude that this allocation scheme is weakly sustainable, if sustainable at all, in its current framework. The allocation of water is also not economically efficient and we suggest that a reallocation of water rights may be necessary in order to achieve this objective. The creation of water markets to stimulate voluntary water rights transactions is the best way to approach economic efficiency. The first step would be to extend beneficial use requirements to include instream flows, which would essentially allow individuals to convert offstream rights into instream rights. The Washington trust water rights program was implemented as a means of creating a water market, which has contributed to the protection of instream flows, however more needs to be done to create an ideal water rights market so that rights migrate to higher valued uses, many of which are met instream. However, water markets will likely not solve the Yakima's water allocation problems alone; some degree of regulation may still be necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water reuse for domestic consumption. A key element for environmental and economic sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, José; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2013-01-01

    In a context of increasing social awareness about resources conservation, residential water management is essential in ensuring environmental and economic sustainability. An adequate management is attained with integrated solutions, which simultaneously reduce potable water consumption at least in 25% and enable the storage of recovered water. The recovery and storage of underground water can be ensured with the installation of a groundwater drainage network and an underground water deposi...

  8. Tourism for pro-poor and sustainable growth: economic analysis of tourism projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tun; De Guzman, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of tourism in economic development and the rise of “pro-poor” tourism development strategies, properly designing and implementing tourism projects remain generally a difficult process. There are both theoretical and practical challenges in justifying public sector investments in tourism and properly measuring the projects’ benefits and sustainability. There is a need to come up with an analytical framework that would address these challenges and help evaluate...

  9. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Sustainability Analysis of Coffee Farming in Protected Forestof West Lampung Based on Enviromental Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on sustainability of multistrata coffee systems is important related to community forest program. This research aims to study: (1 sustainability of coffee farming in protected forest of West Lampung (2 willingness to pay the external cost and its determinant factors. The study was conducted in Sumberjaya, West Lampung Regency from Juni to October 2009. The study used random sampling method with 50 protected forest farmers were interviewed. Extended Cost Benefit Analysis (ECBA was used to address the purpose (1 while analysis of ordinal logistic regression was to address the purpose (2 Financial analysis showed that coffee farming in protected forest is feasible with NPV of IDR 17,719,505/ha, BCR 1.86 and IRR 24.96%. Coffee with complex multipurpose shade (MPTS, multipurpose tree species generated highest NPV. Based on ECBA, sustainability depended on externality cost (environmental and social cost. Coffee farming was not sustainable (shown by negative NPV when externality cost was more than US $536/ha. When externality cost was 458 USD ha-1 year-1 (minimum value NPV is Rp1.648.633/ha, BCR 1,04 and IRR 26,88. Complex multipurpose shade coffee was the most sustainable among the systems. To sustain the environment, farmers willing to pay external cost in average of Rp475,660/year for soil conservation, planting more shade trees, environmental tax, and reforestation. Based on ordinal logistic regression, farm size, land productivity, household income, household size, and knowledge of forest benefits, positively influencid WTP. Policy of community forest (HKm permit that require a minimum of 400 trees/ha could improve sustainability of coffee farming.Key words: Coffee farming, sustainable, protection forest, economic value

  11. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  12. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: Environmental, social, and economic objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or "pillars") that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three "pillars" that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Modelling the economic value of cross- and sustained-protection in vaccines against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, Nadia; Standaert, Baudouin

    2010-01-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are on the market. Based on expected differences in sustained- and cross-protection between the two vaccines, their long-term economic value is modelled and compared for France, Ireland and Italy. A Markov cohort model reproducing the natural history of HPV infections, screening and vaccination, is adapted to country-specific data. Two hypothetical HPV vaccines (VA and VB) are compared. At baseline VA provides lifetime protection against HPV-16 and 10-year protection against HPV-18 before waning. VB is the same as VA with a 10-year protection against HPV-6 and 11. Sustained- and cross-protection is varied over wide ranges in VA to define the levels that could make VA cost-effective or dominant compared with VB. Under baseline conditions VB dominates VA. VA becomes cost-effective when the difference in cross-protection alone reaches 13-15% (undiscounted), and 22-44% (discounted). A combination of sustained- and cross-protection is required for VA to dominate VB (discounted). The results are dependent upon country, the base-case value and the discount applied. Realistic additional sustained- and cross-protection in one HPV vaccine may confer benefits that offset the economic value of protection against low-risk HPV in the other. The results are country specific.

  14. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  15. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC SECURITY: THREATS TO NATIONAL INTERESTS AND THEIR REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this study due to the fact that at the present time the situation inRussiais complemented by the negative consequences of market reforms in the economy. According to statistical studies in the country with infl ation of about 10% per year among the total population of more than 20% of people with incomes below the subsistence minimum, and the income gap between the highest-income populations and low-income groups more than 12 times. The inequitable distribution of material and spiritual wealth, unemployment (over 9%, ignoring the legitimate rights and interests of a particular person and their direct violation, corruption, alcoholism, drug addiction largely led to the reproduction of aggression, violence in the country. The recession has limited the ability of the material support of the institutions of culture, education, health. The majority of the population is a feeling of uncertainty, future uncertainty, anxiety, loss of landmarks.Objectives The purpose of this work is the identifi cation and characterization of threats to economic security of theRussian Federationat the present time, and to develop recommendations for the prevention of threats to the national interests ofRussia.Method’s. The methodological basis of this article was legal, comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis. Results. In the framework of the submitted article, the authors found that threats to the economic security ofRussiaare potential dangers that can occur when inept and ineffi cient use of economic resources ofRussiaon the domestic and foreign markets. Major threats to the economic security of theRussian Federationare: bankruptcy, weak absorption lines; corruption; threats to small business development; investment crisis, the massive outfl ow of capital; the crisis in the social sphere; food addiction; the crisis of industrial policy, as well as strengthening the role and place of TNCs.Conclusions and Relevance. The practical

  17. 2014 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.

  18. [The economic-financial sustainability of the Family Health Strategy in large municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2011-03-01

    The universalization of basic care and commitment budget of the Ministry of Health with the Family Health Strategy (ESF) through new systematic financing incentives have been highlighted in the Brazilian health policy scenario. One of the great problems observed is the expansion of the strategy for large urban centres. This paper studies the economic-financial sustainability of ESF in Brazilian municipalities of more than 100 thousand inhabitants according to some selected indicators, considering the geographical region to which they belong, their population size and participation in Project for the Expansion and Consolidation Family Health (Proesf). Municipalities belonging to the Southeast region, more developed of the country, have on average better economic-financial performance, but lower average values of coverage of ESF. Municipalities from the North and Northeast, with the lowest average for economic-financial sustainability indicators, were the ones that made more effort to developments in the period. Thus, we observed the dynamics between bigger fiscal capacity and budgetary commitment with the Health Sector for biggest municipalities and in more economically developed regions, and greater vulnerability and dependence of federative transferences for municipalities with less people, in less developed areas.

  19. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  20. India's biophysical economy, 1961-2008. Sustainability in a national and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simron Jit; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lanz, Peter; Martinez-Alier, Joan; Temper, Leah

    2012-04-01

    India's economic growth in the last decade has raised several concerns in terms of its present and future resource demands for materials and energy. While per capita resource consumption is still extremely modest but on the rise, its sheer population qualifies India as a fast growing giant with material and energy throughput that is growing rapidly . If such national and local trends continue, the challenges for regional, national as well as global sustainability are immense in terms of future resource availability, social conflicts, pressure on land and ecosystems and atmospheric emissions. Using the concepts of social metabolism and material flow analysis, this paper presents an original study quantifying resource use trajectories for India from 1961 up to 2008. We argue for India's need to grow in order to be able to provide a reasonable material standard of living for its vast population. To this end, the challenge is in avoiding the precarious path so far followed by industrialised countries in Europe and Asia, but to opt for a regime shift towards sustainability in terms of resource use by building on a host of promising examples and taking opportunities of existing niches to make India a trendsetter.

  1. India's biophysical economy, 1961–2008. Sustainability in a national and global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simron Jit; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Lanz, Peter; Martinez-Alier, Joan; Temper, Leah

    2012-01-01

    India's economic growth in the last decade has raised several concerns in terms of its present and future resource demands for materials and energy. While per capita resource consumption is still extremely modest but on the rise, its sheer population qualifies India as a fast growing giant with material and energy throughput that is growing rapidly . If such national and local trends continue, the challenges for regional, national as well as global sustainability are immense in terms of future resource availability, social conflicts, pressure on land and ecosystems and atmospheric emissions. Using the concepts of social metabolism and material flow analysis, this paper presents an original study quantifying resource use trajectories for India from 1961 up to 2008. We argue for India's need to grow in order to be able to provide a reasonable material standard of living for its vast population. To this end, the challenge is in avoiding the precarious path so far followed by industrialised countries in Europe and Asia, but to opt for a regime shift towards sustainability in terms of resource use by building on a host of promising examples and taking opportunities of existing niches to make India a trendsetter. PMID:23565033

  2. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  3. INVESTMENT PROJECTS IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GOROBIEVSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic development of states in XXI century is focused on specific of sustainable development. Currently in Moldova it is realized through economic, social, infrastructure and other projects at different scales. These projects require major resources, but, given the limited nature of the resources, decisionmakers always have to choose the most feasible and the most effective ideas of projects. For such a selection there is a number of criteria / indicators: internal rate of return, payback period, actuarial indicators, etc. In addition to these criteria, the authors propose to use in selection of investment projects economical-mathematical model that takes into account the restrictions prior to the project and its impact by various stakeholders (people involved in the designing and implementation of the project and the direct and indirect beneficiaries of the project.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS WITHIN FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy of social and economic development of regions has to be a basis for formation budgetary and tax and a monetary policy. Formation of strategic plans have to provide an exit to the new level of innovative economic and social development of Russia. Adaptation of the current legislation is necessary for the solution of the set major problems regarding budgetary and tax and a monetary policy in the Russian Federation. The important direction of development of social and economic development of territories is the clustering and formation of projects of the public-private partnership (PPP. Within integration of the countries into the world economy the organizations as systems in the form of clusters and the PPP projects can only be the competitive. Within formation of the organizations as systems it is necessary to provide formation of standards of a sustainable development (SEU for social protection of the population and increase of the human capital.

  5. The Role of Economics and Democracy in Institutional Change for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Söderbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutional change for sustainable development does not happen by itself. Individuals and organizations function as actors to influence development processes. Reference is made to a “political economic person” (PEP guided by her/his “ideological orientation” and “political economic organization” (PEO, guided by its “mission”. Leaving present unsustainable trends behind is a matter of politics and ideology and even power positions, where democracy plays a crucial role. The perspectives of influential (and other actors are essential in facilitating (or hindering change. I will discuss ideas of the role of science in society, mainstream neoclassical economics in relation to institutional economics in the spirit of K. William Kapp and Gunnar Myrdal as well as neo-liberalism as ideology (where neoclassical economics has contributed to strengthen the legitimacy of neo-liberalism. Various aspects of inertia and flexibility in institutional change processes, such as path dependence, are discussed. Emphasis is on the role of economics and how a strengthened democracy can open the door for a degree of pluralism.

  6. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2006 National Footprint Accounts (NFA) portion of the Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections, version 1.1 is a data set that measures...

  7. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  8. Research and development portfolio of the sustainability science team national sustainable operations USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista Patterson; David Nicholls; Jonathan Long

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainability Science Team (SST) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Sustainable Operations Initiative is a 18-member virtual research and development team, located across five regions and four research stations of the USDA Forest Service. The team provides research, publication, systems analysis, and decision support to the Sustainable...

  9. Does national scale economic and environmental indicators spur logistics performance? Evidence from UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between national economic and environmental indicators with green logistics performance in a time series data of UK since 1981 to 2016. The research used autoregressive distributed lag method to understand the long-run and short-run relationships of national scale economic (foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, per capita income) and environmental indicators (total greenhouse gases, fossil fuel, and renewable energy) on green logistics. In the short run, the research findings indicate that the green logistics and renewable energy have positive relationship, while fossil fuel is negatively correlated with green logistics operations. On the other hand, in the long run, the results show that FDI inflows, renewable energy sources, and per capita income have statistically significant and positive association with green logistics activities, while foreign investments attracted by environmental friendly policies and practices adopted in global logistics operations, which not only increase the environmental sustainability but also enhance economic activities with greater export opportunities in the region.

  10. Is Corruption Bad for Environmental Sustainability? A Cross-National Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... It does this by employing the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and its component variables and indicators as promoted by the World Economic Forum and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI...

  11. The role of Ethiopia's public universities in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has taken centre stage in facilitating the country's aim of equipping a new generation with the expertise needed to fuel the country's economic development. While impressive strides have been made over the last two decades, various development challenges threaten to derail this promising progress. This article examines three of the main challenges - urbanisation, climate change and food security - and the potential for universities to address them. Based on a study using key informant analysis research with 50 experts in Ethiopian education and development, the author concludes that the developing public university system offers promising capabilities to assist the country on its developmental path despite many inherent problems.

  12. Institutions, regulatory role and economic growth of national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vedriš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present time, characterized by the rapid disturbances in all time more connected global economy, territorially as well as structurally, the role of the state’s influence and responsibility with the adequate institutional addresses and procedures, defined in larger context, becomes the essential point not only of the further growth but also of the existing relations viability. It is simply because the encirclement does not function on the principle of status quo situation any more. Therefore, the role and significance of institutions, adequate regulatory role of these addresses, in the context of demand of permanent and stable economic growth, are of particular interest in the creation of this model. This analysis gains in importance studying the realized accelerated economic growth of states from some parts of the world, notably in the period after WW II. This question turned out to be exceptionally essential during the analysis of national strategies of accelerated economic growth (catch up strategy. On the other side of analysis are the transition period and the processes realized on the territory of the East and Central European states up to 1990 that were under the strong influence of the USSR. The attempts and mistakes in the quest for adequate balance of the market role were initially indoctrinated and led by the predominant conviction that the principles of Washington consensus will lead up to accelerated and efficient change of the entire structure of national economies and new frames for future behaviour. The problems that appeared very soon led to the establishment of significantly more balanced first the understanding and then to establishing significantly, more appropriate concept of balance and complementarity of market development with the permanently present role and responsibility of the state in this process and on this road.

  13. The science of decisionmaking: applications for sustainable forest and grassland management in the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Bruce G. Marcot; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; Larry A. Fisher; Michael C. Runge; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable management of national forests and grasslands within the National Forest System (NFS) often requires managers to make tough decisions under considerable uncertainty, complexity, and potential conflict. Resource decisionmakers must weigh a variety of risks, stressors, and challenges to sustainable management, including climate change, wildland fire, invasive...

  14. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality, and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory has a very diverse scientific staff conducting research to address the needs of the United States peanut industry. Research is conducted in the fields of mycology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, breeding, agronomy, economics, and engineering....

  15. German enterprises and the changes in energy economics due to increased concerns regarding environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a first year doctoral research regarding the current state of knowledge in environmental sustainability, energy economics and their impact on European enterprises. As the current changes and modifications of the German energy economics system are observed by people all around the globe, the current paper analyzes what has been said until now in the scientific literature on character of the new strategy for energy consumption and production in Germany and its impact on environmental and social sustainability. With the help of two questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 through the German DIHK1, German enterprises were surveyed in order to: identify potential differences and similarities between the two periods, identify the effects of the energy transition on companies’ profitability, and analyze these effects and compare the results in terms of potential trend developments. The research findings confirmed that changes in the energy system affect not only the environmental sustainability only, but also the economy, in some cases even independent of the stage in which the changing system of the economy presently is.

  16. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  17. National Sustainable Transport Planning – What is it and what should it be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    transport raises important questions concerning the organization of national, planning processes integrating sustainability. In Denmark the effectiveness of the previous ‘ad hoc’ approach has been questioned, and some planning innovations have been adopted, like longer time frames, fixed planning cadences...... and coherent, strategic analyses. Internationally, transdisciplinary research on national, sustainable transport planning is limited and it is not established as a coherent field of research. The ambition of this paper is to contribute to this new field of research by establishing understandings...... and definitions of national sustainable transport planning. This will be done by distinguishing between existing national transport planning frameworks; those frameworks that attempt to incorporate sustainability; and a more elaborate and or ideal concept of national sustainable transport planning. Selected...

  18. Exploring sustainable technical alternatives for Dutch dairy systems by integrating agro-economic modelling and public preferences assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Carmona-Torres, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical discussions on the joint consideration of multiple (economic, social and environmental) functions when assessing the sustainability of human actions are increasing. However few studies exist that integrate the social demand for multifunctional agriculture in the evaluation of the

  19. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  20. Socio-Economic Spatial for the Sustainability of the Estuary Ecosystem in Pelabuhanratu Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, L.; Supriatna, J.; Harmantyo, D.

    2017-02-01

    An estuary area is a typical ecosystem where a vast array of fish breed to enlarge populations. These regions are made productive by organic material in the form of foodstuff, while receiving sunlight sufficient enough to illuminate the brackish waters. These zones must be protected due to their fertile waters and surrounding fertile land. Estuary areas are threatened by nearby landfill and waste debris along and upstream of the river, which consequently contaminate the estuary zone. Socio-economic conditions of the community also affect the sustainability of the estuary. In this case, the Socio-Economic Spatial Model, based on Geographical Information System (GIS) and trade off analysis, were used to elaborate the ecosystem sustainability in the Cimandiri estuary, West Java. This research also uses the temporal analysis of land use change upstream and monitors the community activity around the estuary. The research showed a change in the spatial and temporal land use consequently altering the watershed and the socio-economic analysis showed the community use of the estuary as unsustainable for the region and ecosystems within.

  1. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. ECO PROFIT - A NEW DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crecană Cornel Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a review of theoretical concepts including a conceptual delimitation of the term "sustainable development" from the first definition given in 1987 to concrete implementation of EU law and develop a strategy in this regard. Aim of the work is to emphasize the importance of the transition from an economy focused on obtaining maximum profits in a responsible economy, which does not exclude profit, but prioritizes basic maintenance of ecological balance. The innovative character of such a theoretical-methodological approach is limited only by the practicality of implementing the macroeconomic and microeconomic level. It is noteworthy, however, increasing research activities in this field of sustainable development literature study clearly reflects a new direction in the economy, the paradigm shift is expected by all professionals, but was seriously hampered by the financial crisis. Serious impetus was given to research done by the German company Puma, launched in 2010 through the development and publication of a profit and loss "green", taking into account the impact of the natural environment over activities, impact measured clear and published in financial statements of the company. Starting from these considerations, I propose in this paper, introducing the term ECOPROFIT or profit obtained under maintaining fundamental ecological balances, justifying the need for, and practical possibilities to implement this concept in economic and financial analysis, accounting and fiscal management economic entities by developing a model of differential taxation of profits, depending on the impact the entity's economic activities on the ecological balance.

  3. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-04-01

    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  4. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  5. Incentive Systems That Support Sustainability: A First Nations Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to contact with European settlers, the incentive and governance systems used by First Nations peoples of the Northwest coast of North America provided more sustainable use of the fisheries and other resources of that region than did subsequent systems. This paper explores the major reason for that success: the requirements of the potlatch system that chiefs share their income with each other. Because chiefs controlled well-defined territories and subjected each other to review, the potlatch governance system embodied the characteristics of negative feedback, coordination, resiliency, and robustness that political scientist John Dryzek identifies as means to support ecological rationality in the management of ecosystems. This ecological rationality occurs because the sharing of income made chiefs aware of the effects that their actions had on the income of other chiefs. In addition, public discussions that occurred at feasts would allow chiefs to coordinate their actions as needed. The paper concludes with proposals for application of the potlatch system to modern circumstances. Such application means changing the rules for the distribution of income from using ecosystem resources so that all entities share their surplus income with each other. The potlatch system can be applied to modern organizations by noting that chief executive officers are like chiefs, that profit is like surplus income, and that corporations can be viewed as similar to the houses of the traditional Northwest systems. One major change is that profit is no longer privately owned, and must be shared with other organizations that use an ecosystem. Although controls on behavior mandated by state power would be reduced, a modernized potlatch system would still need to operate within a context provided by governments and international agreements.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Leah [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Rogers, Sam [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Sipes, James L. [Sand County Studios

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.

  7. Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  8. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  9. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lechenet

    Full Text Available Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.. We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  10. Crisis as a Factor of the Sustainability Violation in the Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhereliuk Iuliia O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates that crisis is a factor of violation of the enterprise’s sustainability as economic system, crisis can occur at all stages of the life cycle of enterprise, act as a brake against the further development of enterprise and its movement to the next stage of development. On the basis of theoretical generalization, the author’s own approach to the definition of concept of «crisis» is presented. Causes of occurrence of crisis were generalized depending on certain stage of the life cycle of enterprise. It has been specified that crisis poses a threat to the sustainability of enterprise, but, despite this, it is the regularity and necessity of development, which in all its manifestations and consequences will be overcome by anti-crisis. The theoretical approaches by different scientists as to interpretation of the concept of «anti-crisis sustainability» were considered that allowed to substantiate the author’s own approach to the interpretation of this concept. Prospects for further research in this directions will be systematization of the factors to ensure the anti-crisis sustainability of enterprise in a competitive environment.

  11. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  12. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    The continuous increasing negative effects of fossil fuel consumption on society and the environment, opens a major interest into environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain the increasing demand for energy services. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling...

  13. Formation of sustainable development reporting social component as economic security management element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonik V.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the various scientific approaches to accounting which helped establish the absence of the single classification mechanism for social activity objects that are identified as accounting objects, which cause the formation of false, incomparable, incomplete and confusing information for interested users to make their relevant decisions. It suggests the list of accounting objects of enterprise’s social activity, which the authors single out at the request of reporting on sustainable development. The process of documenting the social activities is analyzed; the paper determines the areas where it is necessary to improve the existing primary documents. The analytical sections on the accounts of social operations of the company are showed. The article proposes the accounting display of economic operations of social activity as the basic information support of the sustainable development reporting social component formation. The authors introduce the form for the internal report, which aims to summarize the social activity aspects of entities

  14. A multivariate analysis for evaluating the environmental and economical aspects of agroecosystem sustainability in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Vincenzo; Mancinelli, Roberto; Proulx, Raphaël; Campiglia, Enio

    2012-05-15

    Over the past century farming activity has intensified worldwide, characterized by an increasing dependence on external inputs and on land conversion. Although the intensification of agriculture has increased productivity, the sustainability of agroecosystems has also been compromised. The objective of this study is to build multivariate relationships between farm structural characteristics and farm performance to highlight the relative costs and benefits of four main farming systems in Central Italy: organic, conventional, mixed and non-mixed farms. Results show that the relationship between cropping diversity and agroecological sustainability is associated to a mixed versus non-mixed farm management dichotomy, not to organic or conventional farming practices. The presence of livestock appears to have played an important role as an economic lever for diversifying the farm cropping system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  16. National sustainable transport planning - what it is and what it should be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration...... of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research. This paper presents preliminary results within SUSTAIN. The aim of the paper is to discuss how to conceive and define...... the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a governance dimension...

  17. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  18. Linking Sustainable Use Policies to Novel Economic Incentives to Stimulate Antibiotic Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Årdal, Christine; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-03-30

    There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D) investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong sustainable use policies will

  19. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  20. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  1. Economic development and foreign direct investment: How to create sustainable development an analysis of the potential for sustainable development on the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homlong Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing critically on the effects of the conditions for foreign direct investment on sustainable growth in the recipient country, this paper analyzes the potential for investments in environmental innovations in India. The definition of sustainability applied in this paper incorporates economic development and investment which promotes environmentally and socially friendly production and innovation. As the Indian economy experienced strong growth in GDP in recent years, but is still lagging behind in providing the basic needs of clean water, clean air and proper waste management for households and companies, the necessity for sustainable development exists. From a methodological point of view this paper uses macroeconomic data to evaluate quantitatively the potentials and needs of Indian states. This results in a state ranking showing the potential for sustainable development in selected Indian states, based on economic and environmental indicators.

  2. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  3. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  4. Sustainable Economic Development in the Transition Countries, With a Retrospect of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolovski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development represents a civilization challenge that should meet the needs of today’s generations without jeopardizing the ability of the Earth to meet the needs of the future generations. This challenge, as an evolutionary process in which the social and economic development and the environment protection are independent, but mutual complementary components demands the solving of several issues The vision of sustainable economic development is based on the historical, cultural and political development of the countries. There is no unique way of sustainable development for different countries and therefore they cannot be made in the same way. The transition toward sustainable development represents a social choice that connects the global vision of the local needs and goals. The citizens must participate in the process of sustainable development. They must recognize the role they have in creating problems and finding solutions. In order to gain a general frame for the assessment of sustainable economic development  it is necessary to integrate several methodologies  and approaches toward the possible future generations for a quality and healthy life. One of the ways of assessing the results from the policies and the activities is the use of the principles and indicators according to which it is determined how much the countries work on sustainable development. Part of the indicators are generally accepted, and part are in a modeling phase. A systematic approach is necessary to see whether all indicators are necessary, and which of them are necessary for the assessment of sustainability. The economists do not have problems in executing the objective and quantitative indicators. The sociologists are facing many problems in the execution of indicators because of the immateriality of the life quality. However, the environment experts see problems when they are limited in the execution of indicators

  5. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, Lisa A; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  6. Economic impacts of climate change on sustainable tuna and billfish management: Insights from the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlgorm, Alistair

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines long-term economic implications of climate change on ocean fisheries, fishing patterns and the management of both fish stocks and fishing nations. General fishery management theory identifies areas of the most immediate impact from climate change, which are assumed to be rises in sea temperatures and altered ocean current movements. The Western Pacific Ocean area is used as a case study to illustrate components of both the biophysical and economic impacts that should be considered in any policy development. These factors influence policy issues for domestic and foreign fishers, with additional risks in these fisheries due to climate change.

  7. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  9. National Association of State Procurement Officials - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  10. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  11. Sustainability for the nation: resource connections and governance linkages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ... that there is no sufficient organization to deal with sustainability issues. Each federal agency appears to have a single mandate or a single area of expertise making it difficult to tackle issues such as managing the ecosystem...

  12. Nation-wide development of sustainable production patterns. The case of 16 years of sustainability in Dutch residential house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper integrates the interorganisational innovation process and national innovation system-approach into a new model. A case study research project that covers a 16-year period of sustainable innovations in the Dutch residential building industry applies the model. The research outcomes

  13. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  14. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 27-29, 2010. The public may file written comments...

  15. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written comments...

  16. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 30-31, 2011. The public may file written comments...

  17. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  18. Toward a Sustainable Low-Carbon China: A Review of the Special Issue of “Energy Economics and Management”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental quality deterioration, along with predatory exploitation of energy resources, are generally associated with economic growth, especially in China. Against this background, the 6th Annual Conference of Energy Economics and Management provides a platform for examining outperforming governance factors and mechanisms of energy economics and policy. Thanks to Sustainability for providing this special issue. This editorial highlights the contents and methodologies of the special issue for this conference, presenting diverse issues in energy economics and management. We also suggest guidelines for future study in energy economics and management.

  19. Rural credit: sustainability and the paradox of the Social and economic development of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR AS PRUDENTE CAMPOS SOUZA VERAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that rural credit has an important role in the modernization and operation of the field by the promotion of agricultural activities, enabling the countryside social and economic development, the objective by this article, is to demonstrate that the institute in frank evolution of an earlier priority for the operation and modernization of farming techniques and pastoral seeking a higher yield, has gone up over time to have a priority for the sustainability of the field by the creation of aid programs for family agriculture and its foundations.So even if the means are temporally disjointed, it is understood that the objectives of sustainability and social economic development of the field would possess the common goal of benefiting the farmers, however, certainly there would be a paradox between them, since the rural credit is taken as the principal by agricultural expansion in 70s, as well by the fact that Brazil is now a world power in agribusiness, which also encompass the environment degradation that has occurred since then.

  20. ICT for Collaborative Lifelong Learning to Sustainable Economic Development of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant attention paid in European Union to increasing the quality of life and the quality of services provided to citizens, to human development, sustainable development and economic growth. This paper highlights the importance of applying information and communication technology in education as one of the main pillars of a strong society, as it is responsible for staff training and hence for the increase of quality of services in all areas. Technological progress is reflected in education through the diversification of educational services and through the high quality of their provision to all actors implied in the educational process, either instructors or students. Everyone benefits from a permanently optimized environment with a constantly growing flexibility. The analysis conducted in the article aims to research the impact of information and communication technology on society through data series and meaningful graphical representations. Educational field represents one of the most important elements in the transformation of Europe into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world, which promotes a sustainable economic development, as the representatives of European Higher Education Area member countries publicly announced their intentions since 2003 in the Berlin Communique in Germany.

  1. Education for sustainability and environmental education in National Geoparks. EarthCaching - a new method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Regelous, Anette

    2017-04-01

    National Geoparks are restricted areas incorporating educational resources of great importance in promoting education for sustainable development, mobilizing knowledge inherent to the EarthSciences. Different methods can be used to implement the education of sustainability. Here we present possibilities for National Geoparks to support sustainability focusing on new media and EarthCaches based on the data set of the "EarthCachers International EarthCaching" conference in Goslar in October 2015. Using an empirical study designed by ourselves we collected actual information about the environmental consciousness of Earthcachers. The data set was analyzed using SPSS and statistical methods. Here we present the results and their consequences for National Geoparks.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

    2012-10-01

    According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

  4. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Genuine savings and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Nicholas David; Dupuy, Louis Paul; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Genuine Savings has emerged as the leading economic indicator of sustainable economic development at the country level. It derives from the literatures on weak sustainability, wealth accounting and national income accounting. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of GS, focusing on the relationship between changes in a nation's extended capital stock and the future path of consumption. The indicator has entered widespread use propelled by the World Bank's publications, despite its varying ...

  6. Sustainable access to safe drinking water: fundamental human right in the international and national scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to potable water is absolutely essential to the maintenance of life, as well as to provide regular exercise of other human rights. The lack of access to water in sufficient quantity or access to non-potable water may cause serious and irreparable damage to people. This paper investigates the evolution of international and national recognition of this fundamental human right, whether implicit or explicit. This was accomplished by the study of international human rights treaties, bibliographic information on water resources and their corresponding legal systems, national and international. The results suggest that sustainable access to drinking water is a fundamental human right in the context of international relations and the State. Further, even without explicitly stating this right in the Constitution of 1988, Brazil has incorporated the main international provisions on the subject, but this right must be acknowledged according to the principles of non-typical fundamental rights and the dignity of the human person. This right should be universally guaranteed by the Government in sufficient quantity and quality, regardless of the economic resources of individuals.

  7. Economic Sustainability of Organic Aloe Vera Farming in Greece under Risk and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, an encouraging environment for the restructuring and modernization of the agricultural sector has formed in Greece. The diversification into higher-value crops can be a promising option for small and average-sized farms, particularly during the current economic crisis. One of the most promising alternative crops that have been recently established in Greece is the organic Aloe vera crop. The main advantage of this crop is that it can utilize poor farmlands and, therefore, can facilitate rural development in marginal areas. This study explores the economic sustainability of the Aloe vera crop, considering the embedded risk and uncertainty. The results indicate that organic aloe farming is a promising alternative to “traditional” crops in Greece, particularly for family farms in rural areas. In contrast, this activity is not advisable to the most entrepreneurial type of farmers, unless their crop size allows economies of scales. Finally, the Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF analysis associates farmers’ risk attitude with their willingness to be involved in organic Aloe vera farming. SERF analysis highlights the crucial role of farmers’ risk aversion and concludes that, above a certain level of risk aversion, farmers have no incentive to adopt this economic activity.

  8. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  9. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030.

  10. [Economic sustainability of therapies: considerations following the introduction of new drugs for hepatitis C virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandonaro, Federico

    2014-06-01

    The availability of new drugs potentially able to drastically reduce the burden of very common infectious diseases like hepatitis C requires the national health services to take a different decision-making process. On the one hand, there is an evident financial issue; on the other hand, low budgets may undermine a system that provides universal access to healthcare. It is unrealistic to expect retrieving the financial resources needed from negotiating prices with pharmaceutical companies, resource reallocation or a reduction in economic waste. The national health systems need a new priority setting and a National fund for healthcare innovation should be built. Novel drugs should be evaluated balancing availability and opportunity, forcing to rethink the decision-making processes. Macro- (re-prioritization of interventions) and micro-policies (the introduction of financial aspects in the process of pricing) are needed, trying to combine welfare and industrial policies.

  11. Entrepreneur ship and economic growth of nations; El emprendimiento y el crecimiento economico de las naciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, M.

    2012-11-01

    Markets and competition are the two necessary conditions for economic growth to take place. However, market and competition work only thank to the arbitraging and risk bearing actions of the entrepreneurs. In fact, the entrepreneur serves as the lubricant of economic activity that transforms unexploited profit opportunities into commercializable product and services. Through a detailed analysis of the evidence provided by recent research, this article argues that there cannot be sustained economic growth without entrepreneur ship. (Author) 49 refs.

  12. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  13. Sustainability and Indicators Overview from Ecological Economics and Environmental Economics Perspective; Panoramica General de la Sostenibilidad y sus Indicadores desde la Perspectiva de la Economia Ecologica y Economia Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, M.

    2012-04-11

    From the emergence of the concept of sustainable development (1987) social sciences have trying to resolve the difficult balance between economy, environment and society and how to measure it with indicators. There are several approaches to sustainability of the economic doctrine which provide different points of view on this issue. The purpose of this article is multiple, firstly we analyze the historical evolution of the relationship between the economic thought and the natural environment. Second, we study the two main economic approaches which study sustainability concerns: the environmental economics and ecological economics. Finally, we examine some of the main economic and environmental indicators. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Reviving Community Spirit: Furthering the Sustainable, Historical and Economic Role of Fish Weirs and Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Bill

    2013-06-01

    Stone wall fish weirs and traps were once an important means for inland and coastal communities to catch fish. In many places the weirs and traps have been left to deteriorate and other more productive but less sustainable practices have taken their place. It was considered that they have fulfilled their historical and economic role and it was the loss of community spirit that has contributed to their decline. A recent survey in Yap, Federated States of Micronesia found a diverse and extensive number of fish weirs and traps, and a community keen to restore and reinvigorate their associated cultural practices and community spirit. The paper draws on comparative data from other places of the world to investigate weirs and traps, and to see if a similar revival could be observed. Of importance was a need to highlight the value of pursuing this type of research for contemporary communities and maritime archaeological practitioners in the current international management framework for underwater cultural heritage.

  15. Factors Associated with the Economic Sustainability of the Registered Dental Hygienist in Alternative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Sara L; Furgeson, Danielle; Fontana, Margherita; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate key factors associated with the economic sustainability of the Registered Dental Hygienist in Alternative Practice (RDHAP).Methods: An invitation to participate in a 38-question electronic survey was sent via postal mail to 440 RDHAP licentiate addressees obtained through the Dental Hygiene Committee of California (DHCC). Legal restrictions did not allow for obtaining the RDHAP licentiate email addresses from the DHCC. The survey was disseminated via email to the 254 RDHAPs who were members of the California Dental Hygienists' Association. Additional invitations to participate were made via flyer distribution at an RDHAP symposium, and on RDHAP only social media sites.Results: The response rate was an estimated 16%. While 44% of the RDHAPs reported some employment in a traditional dental practice, given the opportunity, 61% of these respondents indicated that they would practice exclusively as an RDHAP. With regard to practice strategic planning and alliances, 31% felt that dentists lacked knowledge of the RDHAP, and 25% indicated dentists were resistant to this workforce model. Regarding RDHAP practice staffing patterns, 75% indicated not having any employees. When asked about business systems, 64% had solo, portable practices and 16% had standalone practices. Economic sustainability challenges included practice business/equipment expenses (29%), insurance/reimbursement issues (21%), patient flow (19%) and RDHAP visibility (14%).Conclusions: RDHAP practices face challenges including the need for strategic planning and intra- and inter-professional alliances, efficient and effective patient flow, optimal staffing patterns and effective business systems. Focus on enhancing RDHAP visibility within the dental and medical communities should be a priority. In addition, further research should explore RDHAPs aligning with community-based clinics, Federally Qualified Health Centers and Dental Support Organizations

  16. Organizational Change and Corporate Sustainability in an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rasković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the link between perceived levels of organizational process changes, vis-à-vis selected organization-to-employee relationship dimensions based on the Hackman and Oldham (1975 Job diagnostic survey and marketing performance measures. We follow Pettigrew, Woodman and Cameron (2001 in their call for a deeper understanding of the link between the various elements of the organizational change process itself, and organizational performance outcomes. Our analysis is based on data from over 220 organizations, and over 22,800 of their employees in Slovenia between 2008 and 2010. Our analysis shows that the perceived levels of organizational change (OC are the highest for marketing and HRM processes, relative to other organizational processes. Furthermore, we establish that a higher organization-to-employee relationship quality is in myriad ways linked to higher perceived levels of OC in HRM processes. However, this is true only for the initial phase of the current economic crisis (2008 and 2009, but not also for its subsequent widening (2010. On the other hand, the correlation comparison between selected marketing performance measures and perceived level of OC in marketing processes is also significantly linked also to customer loyalty. Lastly, by analyzing the correlations between perceived levels OC and corporate sustainability (as added value per employee we can see that perceived levels of OC in marketing and production processes display high correlations in the beginning of the economic crisis (2008, but not afterward (2009 or 2010. In addition, perceived levels of OC related to HRM do not correlate with added value per employee in any of the three compared years. This shows a different nature of the relationship between specific areas of perceived OC and corporate sustainability, as measured by added value per employee.

  17. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Sustainable management of the Gran Chaco of South America: Ecological promise and economic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, E.H.; Huszar, P.C.

    1999-10-01

    The vast plain known as the Gran Chaco is a natural region of more than 1--3 million square kilometers, the second largest natural biome in south America, with only the Amazon region being larger. It extends over parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and, marginally, Brazil. The original landscape of the region was mostly a park land with patches of hardwoods intermingled with grasslands. Increasing human encroachment, largely by poor campesinos, with associated overgrazing, excessive timber harvesting, charcoal production and over-exploitation of wildlife, is transforming the region into a dense and unproductive shrub land and is contributing to increasing rural poverty. A management system for the sustainable use of the Chaco has been developed based on a multiple-species ranching system that includes beef, timber, charcoal and wildlife production. An evaluation of the management system finds that it is capable of protecting and enhancing the resource base, while providing higher economic returns in a sustainable manner. However, high initial costs, as well as a divergence between the best interests of campersinos and society, jeopardize the feasibility of the managed system.

  19. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability.

  20. Sustainable development education, practice, and research: an indigenous model of sustainable development at the College of Menominee Nation, Keshena, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Katherine Hall; William Van Lopik; Christopher M. Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute's theoretical model (SDI model) conceptualizes sustainable development as the process of maintaining the balance and reconciling the inherent tensions among six dimensions of sustainability: land and sovereignty; natural environment #including human beings); institutions; technology; economy; and...

  1. Advantages of the south of Russia by activization of participation at national and world economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayman Saypudinovich Reshiyev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The southern of the Russian Federation is characterized not only by well-developed agriculture and recreation & fitness complex, but also by participation in major national projects in the field of agricultural machinery, electric locomotive building, power engineering and agro-industry, serving the entire country's economy. The basic advantages of this macroregion were systematized into the following groups: geographical (geopolitical, climatic, natural resource, demographic and multicultural. Among the individual benefits, within these groups we can note the presence of sea and land gates of Russia connected to the Middle East and Asia, relatively low energy production costs and favorable conditions for agricultural development, the presence of large reserves of oil and gas, water resources potential, agricultural and industrial resources, positive natural population growth, cultural affinity with the peoples of both Europe, Middle East and Asia. Wise usage of these advantages will enable the South of Russia to enter the path of sustainable growth and development, and fully integrate into the united socio-economic area of the country and the world economic processes.

  2. Dynamics of renewable energy consumption and economic activities across the agriculture, industry, and service sectors: evidence in the perspective of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Apergis, Nicholas; Ummalla, Mallesh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on the agriculture, industry, services, and overall economic activities (GDP) across a panel of G20 nations. The study makes use of annual data from 1980 to 2012 on 17 countries of the G20. To achieve the study objectives, we apply several robust panel econometric models which account for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity in the analysis. The empirical findings confirm the significant long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The long-run elasticities indicate that both renewable and non-renewable energy consumptions have significant positive effect on the economic activities across the sectors and also on the overall economic output. These results also imply that the impact is more from renewable energy on economic activities than that of non-renewable energy. Given that, our results offer significant policy implications. We suggest that the policy makers should aim to initiate effective policies to turn domestic and foreign investments into renewable energy projects. This eventually ensures low carbon emissions and sustainable economic development across the G20 nations.

  3. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  4. Divergent Developmental Trajectories and Strategic Coupling in the Pearl River Delta: Where Is a Sustainable Way of Regional Economic Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper interprets regional economic sustainability in the context of the globalization of late-coming regions. Drawing upon the concept of strategic coupling from economic geography, this paper proposes two types of strategic coupling, captive and proactive coupling, for better understanding regional sustainability and resilience through the experiences of the Pearl River Delta in China. It finds that sub-regional economies under captive coupling become highly dependent on exogenous growth and are vulnerable to external shocks. This trajectory looks less sustainable according to the general understanding, but it interestingly shows better resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. In contrast, the ones under proactive coupling are less volatile, but growing much slower and are less resilient. By reporting these regional economic dynamics, this paper argues that sustainability in late-coming regions cannot be explained by either intra-regional forces or the means of global integration alone. In contrast, it has to be explained by the combination of both; the alleged strategic coupling in which economic growth and learning happens. This paper thus calls for greater attention to strategic coupling, the trade-off of globalization and resilience for understanding regional sustainability, rather than purely focusing on resource utilization and ecological balance.

  5. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  6. The contribution to sustainable development : taxation as an economic instrument for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Basso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled exploration of the environment has threatened the assimilative and regenerative capacity of nature. Against this problem, there is a need to take actions aiming at environmental protection, in order to prevent an irreversible trepidation of the balance of the natural environment, which consequences are grievous. Given that situation, it´s important to note that there has to be harmony between economic growth and the environment so that we can achieve sustainable development. The objective of this study is to outline an approach to environmental taxation, presenting its importance to matching economic measures with the protection of natural environment. This leads to the conclusion that for the achievement of environmental protection, environmental taxation can guide to a desirable behavior. That is, it can act in two paths; one positive, through the application of more costly taxation to the activities damaging to the envi- ronment and the other negative, providing a smoother taxation charge for those whom attending political and environmental conservation measures which will result in sustai- nable development.

  7. The Impact of Socio-Economic Indicators on Sustainable Consumption of Domestic Electricity in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Vojtovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania is one of the EU Member States, where the rate of energy consumption is comparatively low but consumption of electricity has been gradually increasing over the last few years. Despite this trend, households in only three EU Member States consume less electricity than Lithuanian households. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of socio-economic factors on the domestic electricity consumption in Lithuania, i.e., to establish whether electricity consumption is determined by socio-economic conditions or population’s awareness to save energy. Cointegration analysis, causality test and error-correction model were used for the analysis. The results reveal that there is a long run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity consumption per capita and GDP at current prices as well as the ratio of the registered unemployed to the working-age population. In consequence, the results of the research propose that improvement of living standards for Lithuanian community calls for the necessity to pay particular attention to the promotion of sustainable electricity consumption by providing consumers with appropriate information and feedback in order to seek new energy-related consumption practices.

  8. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  9. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture....C. App 2, the USDA announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

  10. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  11. A basis for Sraffian ecological economics. A comment on Martins' "Ecosystems, strong sustainability and the classical circular economy"

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    Martins (2016) recently emphasized the role that classical economics can play in building sustainability economics. In this respect, he uses Sraffa's theory of value and Sen and Nussbaum's capability theory to support his argument. My comment focuses on the part of his article concerning Sraffa's theory, and aims to refine some of Martins claims in order to avoid misunderstandings about the possibilities offered by Sraffa's theory.

  12. Economic Policy and Multinational Corporations in Development: The Measurable Impacts in Cross-National Persepective

    OpenAIRE

    BORNSCHIER, VOLKER; Hoby, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this article we report the main findings of a research project at the University of Zurich on Multinational Corporations, Economic Policy and National Development in the World System. For reasons of space the focus is on cross-national empirical findings rather than on theoretical discussion. Dimensions of economic policy against multinational corporations are established and operationalized. A combination of these dimensions is the basis of a typology of economic policy. The article prese...

  13. Business, Economic Nationalism and Finnish Foreign Trade during the 19th and 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we look at a country, Finland, where economic nationalism had a major influence on government policy and on the development of business enterprises from the mid-19th century to the end of the millennium. During this time period, the Finns managed to combine export-oriented economic strategy with exceptionally nationalistic economic policies, even though they could not mould international trade regimes in a way that was beneficial for them.Yet, nationalism also had negative eff...

  14. An outline of economic impacts of management options for Šumava National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dickie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This analysis briefly compares the economic impacts of three potential future management scenarios for Šumava National Park (NP in the Czech Republic: (1 continuation of current management, (2 the adoption of draft Bills that would declassify protected areas and enable developments (e.g. ski lift development within some of the Park ’ s most valuable habitats for wildlife, and (3 the adoption of proposals to expand the wilderness area in the Park ’ s core with associated tourism opportunities. The proposals in the draft Bills have the potential to generate employment through ski lift development, but much of this activity will use imported labour and/or be short-term (e.g. associated with construction work. The financial viability of this development is uncertain for a number of reasons, including: likely requirements to compensate for damage to protected habitats, reduced future snow cover due to climate change, and competition to attract sufficient visitors to use the ski lift. The economic impacts of the adoption of the draft Bills (and, to a lesser extent, of continuing with current management would also include negative effects on current nature tourism activity and on its long-term potential to expand. Currently, and certainly if the proposed plans in the draft Bill are adopted, the value of the NP as an area of wilderness and high-quality ecosystems will be reduced. This would weaken one of its key selling points as a tourism and recreation destination. The opportunity for international branding of the national park based on these ecosystems would be diminished. This damage to ecosystems would go against the views of the 75% of the Czech population who agree that it is important to halt the loss of biodiversity because we have a moral obligation to look after nature. Pro-wilderness development offers an alternative scenario. It would allow economic opportunities to be pursued to promote nature-based tourism at new locations and

  15. Nation Building as a Determinent of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    during and following conflict. Section III: Theory Conflict, Economic Aid, and Military Assistance in the Solow Growth Model The neoclassical growth...4 Section II: Literature Review…………………………………………………………….12 Section III: Theory ……………………………………………………………………….14...off of the neoclassical economic growth model to consider how conflict, economic aid, and military intervention affect GDP per capita growth both

  16. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.

  17. The Politico-Economic Challenges of Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background National/social health insurance schemes have increasingly been seen in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs as a vehicle to universal health coverage (UHC and a viable alternative funding mechanism for the health sector. Several countries, including Ghana, have thus introduced and implemented mandatory national health insurance schemes (NHIS as part of reform efforts towards increasing access to health services. Ghana passed mandatory national health insurance (NHI legislation (ACT 650 in 2003 and commenced nationwide implementation in 2004. Several peer review studies and other research reports have since assessed the performance of the scheme with positive rating while challenges also noted. This paper contributes to the literature on economic and political implementation challenges based on empirical evidence from the perspectives of the different category of actors and institutions involved in the process. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were held with 33 different category of participants in four selected district mutual health insurance schemes in Southern (two and Northern (two Ghana. This was to ascertain their views regarding the main challenges in the implementation process. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling, stakeholder mapping, and snowballing. Data was analysed using thematic grouping procedure. Results Participants identified political issues of over politicisation and political interference as main challenges. The main economic issues participants identified included low premiums or contributions; broad exemptions, poor gatekeeper enforcement system; and culture of curative and hospital-centric care. Conclusion The study establishes that political and economic factors have influenced the implementation process and the degree to which the policy has been implemented as intended. Thus, we conclude that there is a synergy between implementation and politics; and achieving UHC under

  18. The Politico-Economic Challenges of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam

    2016-04-27

    National/social health insurance schemes have increasingly been seen in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a vehicle to universal health coverage (UHC) and a viable alternative funding mechanism for the health sector. Several countries, including Ghana, have thus introduced and implemented mandatory national health insurance schemes (NHIS) as part of reform efforts towards increasing access to health services. Ghana passed mandatory national health insurance (NHI) legislation (ACT 650) in 2003 and commenced nationwide implementation in 2004. Several peer review studies and other research reports have since assessed the performance of the scheme with positive rating while challenges also noted. This paper contributes to the literature on economic and political implementation challenges based on empirical evidence from the perspectives of the different category of actors and institutions involved in the process. Qualitative in-depth interviews were held with 33 different category of participants in four selected district mutual health insurance schemes in Southern (two) and Northern (two) Ghana. This was to ascertain their views regarding the main challenges in the implementation process. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling, stakeholder mapping, and snowballing. Data was analysed using thematic grouping procedure. Participants identified political issues of over politicisation and political interference as main challenges. The main economic issues participants identified included low premiums or contributions; broad exemptions, poor gatekeeper enforcement system; and culture of curative and hospital-centric care. The study establishes that political and economic factors have influenced the implementation process and the degree to which the policy has been implemented as intended. Thus, we conclude that there is a synergy between implementation and politics; and achieving UHC under the NHIS requires political stewardship. Political

  19. Reed harvesting from wetlands for bioenergy : technical aspects, sustainability and economic viability of reed harvesting in Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.; Poppens, R.P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Rii, O.; Lesschen, J.P.; Galytska, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this report the different aspects of reed and reed lands are discussed related to sustainable harvesting of biomass. This is based on a pilot project for Poltava Oblast, funded by Agency NL of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Within the ‘Pellets for Power project’ several areas were

  20. The Honduran palm oil industry: Employing lessons from Malaysia in the search for economically and environmentally sustainable energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Catherine, E-mail: cec6@sfu.ca [Latin American Studies Program, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Honduras is actively seeking ways to expand its palm oil industry for the purpose of processing biofuels for both internal consumption and export. This would be a critical juncture for Honduras, presenting an opportunity to move beyond the export of basic agricultural commodities and a history of path dependency and weak economic indicators. In order to glean lessons on how to approach palm oil expansion in the most effective manner, I turn to the Malaysian case. Once impoverished, Malaysia expanded plantations, promoted technological innovation, and provided financial incentives and tax structures to develop one of the most sophisticated palm oil industries in the world. In this paper, the insights to be gleaned from the Malaysian case are organized into three key themes: Governance, Investing in Research and Human Capital, and The Environment. Recommendations for Honduras include: increased collaboration with funding bodies, NGOs and universities to foster research; fiscal policies that support the development of a domestic market; and key environmental controls to ensure sustainability in the long term. These insights offer practical and pragmatic solutions not only for Honduras, but also the wider community of small, tropical, developing nations seeking to develop a viable biofuels sector. - Research Highlights: > The Malaysian biofuels industry provides key lessons for Honduras as is seeks to further develop this sector. > Malaysian Governance and Investments in Human Capital provide examples for Honduras. > Malaysian environmental policy in this sector provides a cautionary tale. > Recommendations are tailored to the Honduran context.

  1. Enhancing Economic Sustainability by Markdown Money Supply Contracts in the Fashion Industry: China vs U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy (MMP, are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms (suppliers, one from China and one from U.S.A., that are adopting MMP in their respective supply chains. Via semi-structured interviews with staff members and some public data searching of the target companies, we find that the cultural factors, such as power distance and collectivism/individualism, affect contract selection, contract management, supplier–retailer leadership, and supplier–retailer relationship. We use the Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions theory to explain our insights. Specifically, in China, a country with a relatively high degree of power distance and collectivism, the companies tend to care more about the group interest and loyalty. The Chinese fashion companies are more willing to play the leading role in managing the relationships with their retailers, and offer MMP to them. In the U.S.A., a country with a relatively low degree of power distance and individualism, the companies are more likely to emphasize their own interest in trading. In fact, we find that American fashion suppliers tend to bargain with their retailers, and they are less willing to proactively provide the markdown money as a sponsor. Finally, managerial implications are provided, and several future challenges on MMP are examined.

  2. ECONOMIC AND TOURISM INDICATORS AS A MEANS OF MONITORING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: THE CASE OF INLAND ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vojnovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses indicators to study the sustainability of tourism in inland Istria, which comprises 24 municipalities and towns belonging to Istria County. Taking into account the criteria of availability, reliability, predictability, clarity and feasibility, the following quantitative indicators were used: the Indicator of Tourist Operation (ITO, the Modified Importance Index of major tourism centres (Im, the Specific Overnights Threshold (SOT, tourism-related taxes in the budgets of municipalities and towns, company investments into tourism and hospitality, and the number of employees in tourism and hospitality. According to the ITO indicator, Predominant Tourism Activity was recorded only in Oprtalj Municipality. Being a measure of the spatial distribution of a specific economic activity, the Modified Importance Index established that in all municipalities and towns of inland Istria tourism is either poorly developed or in its incipient stage. The SOT indicator suggests that tourism has no negative effects on local economies and that tourism-related taxes make a minor contribution to the revenue side of municipal and town budgets. Company investment in tourism and hospitality and the number of employees in these industries are indicators that reveal that inland Istria is only beginning to develop into a tourism region. The quantitative indicators were confirmed by the results of qualitative indicators obtained through problem-focused interviews with the representatives of municipalities, towns and local tourist boards. The singular conclusion derived from the interviews was that tourism is a desirable activity, is in its initial stage of development, and is not a threat to local economies. The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that inland Istria is a region of sustainable tourism currently in the involvement stage of the destination lifecycle.

  3. NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLES OF THE CHURCH VOLUME 2

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A. Odeleye

    2017-01-01

    Some opinion holders have harangued that being the largest Black Country in the world, Nigeria may be the next world power. Successive Nigerian governments have desired to have Nigeria a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and to be listed among world’s 20 strongest economies by 2020. Such desires have been matched with almost flawless planning but something almost always go wrong at the execution of such lofty agendas. A cursory look at Nigeria, reputed to have ov...

  4. Sustaining Our Nation's Seniors through Federal Food and Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergerich, Erika; Shobe, Marcia; Christy, Kameri

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing issue in the United States where one in six people suffer from hunger. The older adult population faces unique challenges to receiving adequate nutrition. The federal government currently employs four food and nutrition programs that target the senior population in an effort to address their specific needs. These are the Congregate Meals and Home Delivered Meals Programs (provided through the Older Americans Act), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Child and Adult Care Food Program (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture). As the older adult population continues to grow, it will be important to evaluate and improve these programs and the social policies related to them. This manuscript describes each policy in depth, considers economic and political elements that have shaped each policy, describes the level of program success, and offers suggestions for future research and program development.

  5. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  6. The national sports policies and the sustainable development issue in a globalized world: 2007 – 2013, the experience of an Intergovernmental Organization (IGO-WSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Klein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Organization, the World Sports Alliance (IGO-WSA, was founded with the support of international civil society (AICESIS, UN-NGO-IRENE and the United Nations. It is entrusted with the mission of educating youth and training the executives of the national sports system to deal with human development issues (education, equity, health, gender, environment while also contributing to the economic development of its Member States (partnerships, poverty reduction.A number of lessons can be drawn from this experience about support to national sports policies in a globalized world, more generally about the contribution to national development by and through sport.  We identify seven engines of an integrated approach to a sustainable development of sport in the developing countries.For the foreseeable future, the WSA-IGO faces six challenges, as tools for a renewed program: sustainability, infrastructures, education, equity, employment and training.Key words:

  7. Crisis of the urban development process and the ecological, economic and social sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the economic interest and interest in sustainability contrasts. Then, in the political and social field is where many efforts should be channeled as urban regional research priorities for the next decade. In this regard, most of the academic analysis have been focused on two main aspects: on the one hand, those who consider that the solution to the sustainability problem lies in the change of the relations of production, without clearly specifying what this means; and on the other hand, the analyses that estimate the relevance of making changes inside of the capitalist system where the State would play an important role. In both cases a mental change is required to dealing with the problem of sustainability and new forms of population participation to perform it. Muchos esfuerzos teóricos se han realizado para comprender la problemática urbana vinculada con la sustentabilidad. Entre ellos hay análisis que destacan la insuficiencia de la definición del concepto sustentabilidad cuando éste es reducido únicamente al aspecto de la ecología sin considerar que el problema más importante es político y social. Esto ha explicado el fracaso de muchas reuniones internacionales sobre el tema, cuando no se ha considerado la contradicción en el sistema capitalista donde se contrapone el interés económico y el interés por la sustentabilidad. Es entonces en el terreno político y social donde muchos esfuerzos deben canalizarse como prioridades de investigación urbano

  8. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  9. Methodological Approaches to Ensuring Innovative Development of Metallurgical Enterprises on the Basis of Principles of Economic Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Kostyantyn V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, energy and environmental aspects of the activities of metallurgical enterprises are analyzed in the context of the need to ensure their sustainable development. The high energy intensity of the production process, the low efficiency and irrational structure of capital expenditures for environmental protection, the dominance of material costs in the final cost of finished products at the expense of labor and social contributions are indicated. There proved the low effectiveness of the previous measures of the industrial policy of the metallurgical industry innovative development that were not in compliance with the requirements of the WTO and led to taking compensatory measures against the Ukrainian steel on world markets. The potential of economic nationalism as a system for ensuring the innovative development of the metallurgical industry is considered. There determined the priorities of the industrial policy for the development of metallurgical enterprises based on the principles of economic nationalism and taking into account the global trends in the development of trade and economic relations and Ukraine’s commitments to the WTO.

  10. Out of the wilderness? Achieving sustainable development within Scottish national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Adam; Stockdale, Aileen

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of national parks to Scotland represents a significant shift in the evolution of protected area management within the UK. Although the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000 adopts the established national park aims of conservation and recreation, provisions are also made for advancing notions of sustainable development. This paper provides an assessment of the degree to which the Scottish national park model is likely to enable the realisation of multiple national park objectives. Five key areas are considered for analysis. These relate to management aims, institutional arrangements, implementation, democratic accountability and funding. The evaluation reveals that whilst management provisions have been established in accordance with international sustainable development guidelines, a number of concerns relating to operational processes remain.

  11. Economic analysis of nuclear power reactor dissemination to less developed nations with implications for nuclear proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, R.L.; Howard, J.S. II

    1979-09-01

    An economic model is applied to the transfer of nuclear-power reactors from industrialized nations to the less developed nations. The model includes demand and supply factors and predicts the success of US nonproliferation positions and policies. It is concluded that economic forces dominate the transfer of power reactors to less developed nations. Our study shows that attempts to either restrict or promote the spread of nuclear-power technology by ignoring natural economic incentives would have only limited effect. If US policy is too restrictive, less developed nations will seek other suppliers and thereby lower US Influence substantially. Allowing less developed nations to develop nuclear-power technology as dictated by economic forces will result in a modest rate of transfer that should comply with nuclear-proliferation objectives.

  12. The Eco-Efficiency and Sustainable National Projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gaber EL Sakty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As national mega projects, the Suez Canal Area Development Project and New Suez Canal have logistically imposed two main questions. First, how the project can spot the preferred solution for balancing the business and environmental concerns? Second, how the project can enhance the trade-off between those two dimensions. In order to answer these two questions, the efficient frontier between the profitability and the environmental impact needs to be investigated. Three Levels of Thinking has to be applied. In Marlog 2, the Operational Thinking has been discussed using different supply chain approaches including SCOR and Lean Thinking. In Marlog 3, the Tactical Thinking has been explained for global growth opportunities including thinking process and value chain philosophy. This year, the Strategic Thinking approach will be discussed for improving the Eco-efficiency in logistics clusters with the application for the Suez Canal Logistics Corridor project.  The main purpose of this paper is to explore the eco-efficiency solution and the concept of eco-topology for the national mega project to transfer the Suez Canal region into a global logistics corridor.

  13. The Economic Value of Korean Nuclear Power Industry in the National Economy: An Input-Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. H. [Nuclear Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In 1978, Korea introduced the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 unit, in parallel with the nation's industrialization policy. Thereafter, Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program and sustained a strong commitment to nuclear power development. Thus, nuclear is a prime energy source which presently meets about 30 percent of Korea's power demands. Also, Korea won a contract for APR-1400 NPPs to the UAE in 2009 which led to Korea as a significant exporter in the world nuclear market. Recently, the new government of Korea has been launching 'Creative Economy', from this perspective, the quantitative contributions of nuclear sector to the national economic growth are required to be estimated. This paper is to estimate quantitatively the economic values created by nuclear power industry in the framework of national economy. The total economic values created by nuclear power industry are estimated to be 63.6 trillion won for the study period.

  14. Is Planetary-Scale High Tech Civilization Climatically Sustainable?: The Geophysics v Economics Paradigm War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate/energy policy is gridlocked between (1) a geophysics perspective revealing long-term instabilities from continued energy consumption growth, of which the fossil fuel greenhouse an early symptom; and (2) short-term, fossil-fuel energized-rapid-economic-growth-driven policies likely adaptive for hunter-gatherers competing for scarce food, but climatically fatal to planetary-scale economies dependent on agriculture and "energy slaves." Incorporating social science into climate/energy policy formulation has focused on integrated assessment models (IAMs) exploring scenarios (parallel universes making different social choices) depicting the evolution of GDP, energy consumed, the energy technology mixture, land use, greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, and radiative forcing). Representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios developed for the IPCC AR5 report imply 5-10 degree C warming from fossil fuel burning unless unprecedentedly fast decarbonization rates ~ 7 %/yr are implemented from 2020 to 2100. A massive transition to carbon neutrality by midcentury is needed to keep warming < 2 degrees C (FIG. 1).Fossil fuel greenhouse warming is leveraged by two orders of magnitude relative to heating from human energy consumption. Even if civilization successfully transitions to carbon-neutrality in time, but energy use continues growing at 2%/year, fossil-fuel-greenhouse level warming would be generated by heat rejecting in only 200-300 years underscoring that sustainability implies a steady state planetary economy (FIG.2). Evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics are emergent disciplines that may illuminate the physical v social science paradigm conflict threatening human survivability.

  15. Dynamically linking economic models to ecological condition for coastal zone management: Application to sustainable tourism planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarskas, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    While the development of the tourism industry can bring economic benefits to an area, it is important to consider the long-run impact of the industry on a given location. Particularly when the tourism industry relies upon a certain ecological state, those weighing different development options need to consider the long-run impacts of increased tourist numbers upon measures of ecological condition. This paper presents one approach for linking a model of recreational visitor behavior with an ecological model that estimates the impact of the increased visitors upon the environment. Two simulations were run for the model using initial parameters available from survey data and water quality data for beach locations in Croatia. Results suggest that the resilience of a given tourist location to the changes brought by increasing tourism numbers is important in determining its long-run sustainability. Further work should investigate additional model components, including the tourism industry, refinement of the relationships assumed by the model, and application of the proposed model in additional areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Economic Simulation of the Path to Sustainable Energy: A Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing economics literature neglects the important role of capacity in the production of renewable energy. To fill this gap, we construct a model in which renewable energy production is tied to renewable energy capacity, which then becomes a form of capital. This capacity capital can be increased through investment, which we interpret as arising from the allocation of energy, and which therefore comes at the cost of reduced general production. Requiring societal well-being to never decline—the notion of sustainability favored by economists—we describe how society could optimally elect to split energy in this fashion, the use of non-renewable energy resources, the use of renewable energy resources, and the implied time path of societal well-being. Our model delivers an empirically satisfactory explanation for simultaneous use of non-renewable and renewable energy. We also discuss the optimality of ceasing use of non-renewable energy before the non-renewable resource stock is fully exhausted.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Cristian AVRAMESCU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex interaction mechanism between state and market economy implies the requirement that public power make use of adequate means and techniques for the difficult role the state has to play within economy. The allocation, distribution and, especially, regulatory role of the state presupposes the promotion of economic policy. The involvement of state in the field of tourism is determined by the importance of this sector for the national economy and by its features in relation to other production sectors. The assistance that governments might grant has various forms, from promoting the image of the country as tourist destination to realising the general infrastructure to tax exemption for operation with a tourism character. Even though the tourism sector is regarded, generally, as pertaining to private enterprise, tourism expansion was accompanied by a more and more considerable coordination of the governmental actions.

  19. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  20. Economics of Wind Power when National Grids are Unreliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2010-01-01

    Power interruptions are a typical characteristic of national grids in developing countries. Manufacturing, processing, refrigeration and other facilities that require a dependable supply of power, and might be considered a small grid within the larger national grid, employ diesel generators for

  1. A comparison of national economic diplomacy systems of the leading European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the leading EU-countries’ (Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy national economic diplomacy systems in line with the following criteria: role and functions of key economic diplomacy agents; competences of subnational regions as independent foreign economic actors; practice and mechanisms of ‘inward’ and ‘outward’ economic diplomacy (attraction of foreign investments and export promotion respectively; HR-policy as well as the role of country leaders in economic diplomacy measures. The author outlines the country-specifi c features of the aforementioned systems alongside treats common to all of them.

  2. Strengthening the Economic Committee of the National Assembly in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the liberalization of the Vietnamese economy in 1986, the country has made significant gains in economic growth and poverty reduction. However, Vietnam has also experienced bouts of macroeconomic instability, increased inequality, and vulnerability due to structural weaknesses. The introduction of reforms in ...

  3. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  4. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  5. Threats to the National Economic Security of Ukraine at the Current Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuharskaya Natalia A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that the most important factor of the national economic security of the country is to match both the economic and the industrial relations systems to the economic development of the country. The article provides detailed consideration of the particularities of occurrence of threats to the national economic security of Ukraine by allocating seven major structural blocks, in which threats were not overcome during the years of independence, and some of them even became intensified: 1 institutional sphere; 2 social sphere; 3 financial sphere; 4 shadowing and corruptness of economy; 5 a high level of physical wear and tear of fixed assets and of the production infrastructure; 6 de-industrialization of economy; 7 innovative development. The main components of the national economic security, which would assist in overcoming these threats, have been developed.

  6. National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and assumptions on small town economic investment by government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oranje, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available What matters from the perspective of the NSDP is whether an area has the potential to grow economically in a sustainable way, create jobs and alleviate poverty. If small towns have such potential, there is nothing that precludes such investment...

  7. Sustainable clinical research, health economic aspects and medical marketing: drivers of product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Klassen-Wigger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Marketing-driven innovation in the field of pediatric nutrition, in particular in the infant formula segment is not sustainable. New benefits of products must be scientifically proven and safety and efficacy of new formulae established in clinical trials. The scientific innovation process of three infant formulae is described. Improvement in protein quality allowed to reduce the protein concentration in whey-based infant formula. Weight gain and BMI of infants fed those formulae corresponds to breastfed infants and is lower than in infants fed traditional formulae with higher protein concentration. A meta-analysis indicates associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity later in life. If infants cannot be exclusively breastfed until 4-6 months of age, feeding low-protein formulae may contribute to positive long-term health outcome with potentially important health economic effects. A partially hydrolyzed whey based formula for prevention of allergic symptoms in children with hereditary risk for allergic diseases was developed more than 25 years ago. The most recent meta-analysis which included 15 randomized clinical trials indicates that the risk of all allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis/eczema is significantly reduced in infants at risk when the partially hydrolyzed formula is fed. The partially hydrolyzed formula had the same protective effect as casein-based high-degree extensively hydrolyzed formula. Because of substantial price differences between the two formulae, feeding the partially hydrolyzed whey formula is cost saving. Hypoallergenic claims can be made in many countries, and international nutrition committees have positively commented the preventive effect of those formulae. Acidified formulae have been widely used during the last decade in replacement feeding programs for infants whose mothers are HIV positive. The formula was innovated by improving whey protein quality and lowering protein concentration. The bacteriostatic

  8. The United nations convention against corruption: A successful example of international action against economic crime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlassis Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the progress made in recent years in the development of an international legal framework to combat economic crime, with a specific focus on the United Nations Convention against Corruption...

  9. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

  10. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

  11. The Economic Impact of Ecotourism on the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Area, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the economic impact of ecotourism and the demographics of ecotourists was conducted at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon, from June1993-May 1994....

  12. An outline of economic impacts of management options for Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dickie, I.; Whiteley, G.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Křenová, Zdeňka; Bláha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-29 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Šumava National Park * socio-economic analysis * Wild Heart of Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. The Non-Economic Quality of Life on a Sub-National Level in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Stephanie; Naude, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Most research on the non-economic quality of life have been (a) on a national level or performed on cross-country comparisons, and/or (b) used subjective indicators to measure how people perceive their non-economic quality of life. In this paper, our main contribution is to construct objective indicators of the non-economic quality of life for 354…

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Sustainability Plan with FY 2016 Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Campus sustainability is part of an ongoing process of modernization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Initiated in 2002, it grew to include the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) as of 2008. The SCI embodies a diversity of areas, reflecting the multifaceted nature of sustainability and the resulting need for a holistic approach, by tapping ORNL’s multiplatform science and technology expertise in a pathway critical in catalyzing change and shaping the Laboratory’s future. The past year has shown significant progress for the SCI as well as for sustainable development at large, with the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris setting a new pace and direction for worldwide mitigation of climate change in the coming decades.

  15. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rong-Gang, E-mail: rc@envs.au.dk; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO{sub 3}-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N{sub 2}O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible

  16. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  17. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  18. The Role of Ethiopia's Public Universities in Achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has…

  19. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: Promoting Health and Well-Being through Physical Education Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper shares a health and wellbeing partnership, modelling implementation of physical education (PE) advocated by the United Nations (UN). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) exemplifies global efforts towards equality, specifically Goal 3 and 4 address health and wellbeing. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into cross…

  20. [Economic development axis and socioenvironmental conflicts generation in Brazil: challenges to sustainability and environmental justice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The 1st National Environmental Health Conference, in December 2009, presents countless challenges to the field of Public Health. It debates key concepts as development, sustainability, production and consumption processes, democracy and public policies; advocating for innovative, interdisciplinary and intersectorial aspects of Environmental Health. The Conference recovers and articulates important themes for the Public Health, and also indicates the need of reflecting the socio-environmental determinants of health at the present time, in order to provide progresses in the construction of guidelines and actions to health surveillance and promotion. This article discusses the characteristics of the Brazilian model of development, its impacts and conflicts within social, environmental and health fields. We use theoretical and empirical contributions from the fields of Ecological Economy and Political Ecology, as well as, experiences of cooperation with the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice and several social movements. Two cases are discussed in more detail: the first related to agribusiness and the use of pesticides, and the other about the expansion of the iron and steel industry in Brazil. We conclude proposing some elements that could be incorporated by a research agenda committed to the debate about the 'socioenvironmental crisis'.

  1. Ecosystem's Modeling of Bhoj Wetland - A Base For Economic Valuation and Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Bakshi, N.; Nair, R.

    The Bhoj wetland located in the heart of the Bhopal city, India originated as manmade lake primarily to supply drinking water to the citySs population and over the years it attained features of wetland and started providing multiple functions like commer- cial fishing, waste assimilation, microclimate regulation and recreation etc. to multiple users. It has so happened that multiple benefits have been extracted but little attention has been paid on the maintenance of this wetlands. In this context it becomes imper- ative to generate quantitative information on the economic benefits from the wetland, which could serve as a powerful tool to influence decision-making. Bhoj wetland is a Lacustrine wetland which is the highly diminished remains of the vast lake created in the 11th century by the then ruler of princely state of Bhopal The wetland has wa- ter spread area of 32 square kilometers and catchment area of 370 square kilometers. It is an important source of drinking water for the 40% of citySs total population of 1.5 millions. Multiple stakeholders use it for multiple uses. 17 municipal wards (ad- ministrative division of the city) around the lake directly drain into it. Over the years because of indiscriminate and unsustainable use of lake, its water quality has degraded from SAS quality to SCS quality along with prolific growth of weeds on account of ´ ´ which benefits from the lake have reduced and all the stakeholders are paying heavy direct and indirect costs including the government agencies which are engaged in its restoration and management activities The goal of the management is essentially to balance the use of lake with conserva- tion measures to sustain ecosystem services overtime. The paper tries to analyze the factors causing Bhoj Wetland degradation; nature and extent of injury to the wetland; how does this degradation impact on the uses those citizens of Bhopal extract out of it? What cost is borne by the users on account of degradation in

  2. An economic valuation of the Kakum National Park: An individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    truncated negative binomial method indicate that travel cost, gender, knowledge of composite sites are the most important factors that influence visitation to the Park. Key words: Travel cost, non-market value, protected areas, National Parks. INTRODUCTION. Throughout the world, nature-based recreation and tourism is ...

  3. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... a literature study and by using a method developed during the study for first hand assessment and comparison of biorefinery system characteristics. The management of an average alder plantation in a 6-year coppicing system was found to fixate atmospheric nitrogen to the soil in yearly rates between 50 and 200...

  4. Nation-State Size, Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance in the Advanced Capitalist Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurkoa, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the proposition that the economic performance of advanced capitalist countries depends on their size and ethnic composition. As such it blends insights from two important literatures in comparative political economy. One is exemplified by the work of Peter Katzenstein, who wrote...... the classic treatise on the relationship between nation-state size and economic performance. Another is illustrated by the work of Ernest Gellner, whose work suggested that economic performance depends on the ethnic composition of the nation-state. The argument is tested on pooled data from 30 advanced...

  5. Local natural resource curse and sustainable socio-economic development in a Russian mining community of Kovdor

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Kristian Suutarinen

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource extraction forms the backbone of the Russian economy and characterizes the majority of regions and communities in the Russian North. The long-term socio-economic sustainability of natural resource extraction in resource abundant countries has been questioned and discussed in various social sciences with the resource curse theory, which, however, is understudied on the local level. This study creates a local resource curse theory that is based on the basic idea that there are ...

  6. Enhancing Economic Sustainability by Markdown Money Supply Contracts in the Fashion Industry: China vs U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Shen; Tsan-Ming Choi; Chris Kwan-Yu Lo

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy (MMP), are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms (suppliers), one from China and one from U.S.A., that are adopting MMP in their respective supply chains. Via semi-structured interviews with staff members and some public data searching of the target companie...

  7. Comparative analysis of countries in the peer-group based on economic potential and components of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii VOITKO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors study levels of sustainable development potential and determine the positions of Ukraine and other countries in the peer-groups [4], based on individual macroeconomic indicators. The research includes a comparative analysis of absolute and relative terms of GDP, industrial production and the index of competitiveness for the countries included to the peer-groups. The authors analyse the position of countries based on the GDP per capita and components of sustainable development (Quality of Life Index and Security of Life Index. In the article, the authors suggest the methodical approach of performing the comparative analysis of peer-group countries based on their indicators values. This approach gives the possibility to investigate the country’s potential in the limits of the chosen peer-group and propose the recommendations for increase of economic potential in purpose of sustainable development achievement.

  8. Participating in the UN Decade of Education for Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Programme (SADC REEP) on participation in the United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable. Development ..... Sustainable development requires a new ethic, radical changes (particularly in economic systems) .... interest in the UNDESD include cultural and scientific organisations; health and social welfare.

  9. Port Stakeholder Summit: Advancing More Sustainable Ports (April 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Port Stakeholders Summit, Advancing More Sustainable Ports, focused on actions to protect air quality while reducing climate risk and supporting economic growth, making ports more environmentally sustainable.

  10. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  11. Economics of wind power when national grids are unreliable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooten, G. Cornelis van, E-mail: kooten@uvic.c [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria, V8 W 2Y2 (Canada) and Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria, V8 W 2Y2 (Canada); Wong, Linda, E-mail: lindaw@uvic.c [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria, V8 W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Power interruptions are a typical characteristic of national grids in developing countries. Manufacturing, processing, refrigeration and other facilities that require a dependable supply of power, and might be considered a small grid within the larger national grid, employ diesel generators for backup. In this study, we develop a stochastic simulation model of a very small grid connected to an unreliable national grid to show that the introduction of wind-generated power can, despite its intermittency, reduce costs significantly. For a small grid with a peak load of 2.85 MW and diesel generating capacity of 3.75 MW provided by two diesel generators, the savings from using wind energy (based on wind data for Mekelle, Ethiopia) can amount to millions of dollars for a typical July month, or some 5.5-17.5% of total electricity costs. While wind power can lead to significant savings, the variability of wind prevents elimination of the smaller of two diesel units, although this peaking unit operates less frequently than in the absence of wind power.

  12. Economics of wind power when national grids are unreliable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kooten, G. Cornelis [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria (Canada); Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria (Canada); Wong, Linda [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Stn CSC, Victoria (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Power interruptions are a typical characteristic of national grids in developing countries. Manufacturing, processing, refrigeration and other facilities that require a dependable supply of power, and might be considered a small grid within the larger national grid, employ diesel generators for backup. In this study, we develop a stochastic simulation model of a very small grid connected to an unreliable national grid to show that the introduction of wind-generated power can, despite its intermittency, reduce costs significantly. For a small grid with a peak load of 2.85 MW and diesel generating capacity of 3.75 MW provided by two diesel generators, the savings from using wind energy (based on wind data for Mekelle, Ethiopia) can amount to millions of dollars for a typical July month, or some 5.5-17.5% of total electricity costs. While wind power can lead to significant savings, the variability of wind prevents elimination of the smaller of two diesel units, although this peaking unit operates less frequently than in the absence of wind power. (author)

  13. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2013-01-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private financial institutions and comparable with other investment opportunities. It is therefore important to include robust analysis of the operations business case and its financial attractiveness to commercial investors, early in the design process. As for the economics of forest and forest carbon projects, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk and delivers several revenue streams. These findings are aligned with the advocacy efforts of UNEP and the UN-REDD Programme on multiple benefits and the combination of various funding and

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory DOE Site Sustainability Plan (SSP) with FY 2013 Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is both the largest science and energy laboratory of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and one of the oldest national laboratories still operating at its original site. These characteristics provide the Sustainable Campus Initiative (SCI) both a unique opportunity and a unique challenge to integrate sustainability into facilities and activities. As outlined in this report, SCI is leveraging the outcomes of ORNL’s DOE-sponsored research and development programs to maximize the efficient use of energy and natural resources across ORNL. Wherever possible, ORNL is integrating technical innovations into new and existing facilities, systems, and processes with a widespread approach to achieving Executive Order 13514. ORNL continues to pursue and deploy innovative solutions and initiatives to advance regional, national, and worldwide sustainability and continues to transform its culture and engage employees in supporting sustainability at work, at home, and in the community. Table 1 summarizes ORNL's FY 2013 performance and planned actions to attain future goals. ORNL has achieved numerous successes during FY 2013, which are described in detail throughout this document.

  15. 50 CFR 29.1 - May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges? 29.1 Section 29.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules...

  16. Women's Health, Economic Health: A Cross-National Study of Nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... a healthy woman makes to society is not a luxury, but a necessity for that society's economic growth and future. Data Presentation and Analysis. Health Evaluation. Government ...... Beijing, China, September. Nations Online, World Bank, 2010, Definition of Gross National Income. Per Capita Purchasing ...

  17. Do needs for security and certainty predict cultural and economic conservatism? A cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Inzlicht, Michael; Lelkes, Yphtach

    2014-06-01

    We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with cross-national data from 51 nations reveal that valuing conformity, security, and tradition over self-direction and stimulation (a) predicts ideological self-placement on the political right, but only among people high in political engagement and within relatively developed nations, ideologically constrained nations, and non-Eastern European nations, (b) reliably predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and does so more strongly within developed and ideologically constrained nations, and (c) on average predicts left-wing economic attitudes but does so more weakly among people high in political engagement, within ideologically constrained nations, and within non-Eastern European nations. These findings challenge the prevailing view that needs for security and certainty organically yield a broad right-wing ideology and that exposure to political discourse better equips people to select the broad ideology that is most need satisfying. Rather, these findings suggest that needs for security and certainty generally yield culturally conservative but economically left-wing preferences and that exposure to political discourse generally weakens the latter relation. We consider implications for the interactive influence of personality characteristics and social context on political attitudes and discuss the importance of assessing multiple attitude domains, assessing political engagement, and considering national characteristics when studying the psychological origins of political attitudes.

  18. Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption? A cross-national comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing; Skuland, Silje Elisabeth; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Schjøll, Alexander; Pachucki, Mark C; Rozin, Paul; Stein, Jarrett; Lengard Almli, Valerie; Van Kleef, Ellen

    2017-12-12

    There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.

  19. The economic basis for national science and technology policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    National science and technology policy is concerned with societal choices with respect to the rate and directions of technological change and the adoption and use of new technology in society. Such policy choices occur primarily in connection with management of the creation, dissemination, and use of scientific and technical information. Two categories of policy instruments discussed are market-oriented approaches, and direct public action. Possibilities for increased use of market-oriented approaches that can provide benefits to society in the form of an increased rate of innovation and of more 'appropriate' technology, better suited to the needs of consumers are indicated.

  20. The influence of end-user perception on the economic feasibility of sustainable building skin renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, B.A.; Van den Berg, D.; Zijlstra, S.; De Jong, P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the small addition in the housing supply of newly built dwellings, meeting sustainable goals in the Netherlands will have to come from the existing housing supply. TU Delft’s Solar Decathlon 2014 design focuses on achieving a zero energy renovation that is both sustainable as well as

  1. Effect of economic crisis on sustainability of Holstein dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.; Koops, W.

    2002-01-01

    This analysis presents the development of the Holstein dairy system in Brazil, evaluating system sustainability during a time of crisis, based on changes in system productivity, stability, resilience and equity. Sustainability indicators are used to describe these changes. Records of Holstein cows

  2. Recreation economic values for estimating outdoor recreation economic benefits from the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; Claire. Cvitanovich

    2017-01-01

    Natural resource professionals are often tasked with weighing the benefits and costs of changes in ecosystem services associated with land management alternatives and decisions. In many cases, federal regulations even require land managers and planners to account for these values explicitly. Outdoor recreation is a key ecosystem service provided by national forests and...

  3. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Magalon

    Full Text Available Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies.Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A to the most selective (scenario D. We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit.When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million. We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long term. We also

  4. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long term. We also found that

  5. Banking or Bankrupting: Strategies for Sustaining the Economic Future of Public Cord Blood Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Methods Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. Results When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long

  6. Spaesati d'Italia: Emigration in Italian National Identity Construction from Postwar to Economic Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Woodfin, Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Since the founding of the Italian nation in 1861, mass emigration has played a crucial role in the construction of a national identity among a population historically divided by regional, ethnic, linguistic and cultural differences. In the aftermath of the Second World War, emigration continued to fulfill a vital function in Italy's national redefinition. In material terms, it enabled Italy to rebuild a devastated political and economic framework in a manner that allowed old power blocs to ev...

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Sustainment Monthly Program Report September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Anastasia Dawn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storey, Bradford G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowidowicz, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robertson, William G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hobson, Beverly F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-10-22

    In March of 2012 the Plutonium Sustainment program at LANL completed or addressed the following high-level activities: (1) Delivered Revision 2 of the Plutonium Sustainment Manufacturing Study, which incorporated changes needed due to the release of the FY2013 President's Budget and the delay in the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRRNF). (2) W87 pit type development activities completed a detailed process capability review for the flowsheet in preparation for the Engineering Development Unit Build. (3) Completed revising the Laser Beam Welding schedule to address scope and resource changes. (4) Completed machining and inspecting the first set of high-fidelity cold parts on Precitech 2 for Gemini. (5) The Power Supply Assembly Area started floor cutting with a concrete saw and continued legacy equipment decommissioning. There are currently no major issues associated with achieving MRT L2 Milestones 4195-4198 or the relevant PBIs associated with Plutonium Sustainment. There are no budget issues associated with FY12 final budget guidance. Table 1 identifies all Baseline Change Requests (BCRs) that were initiated, in process, or completed during the month. The earned value metrics overall for LANL are within acceptable thresholds, so no high-level recovery plan is required. Each of the 5 major LANL WBS elements is discussed in detail.

  8. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  9. Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across nationally determined contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul; Calvin, Katherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Hultman, Nathan; Hartin, Corinne; McJeon, Haewon; Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William

    2018-01-29

    An important component of analyses of the Paris Agreement has been the assessment of comparability of countries’ nationally determined contributions (NDCs). These assessments have typically focused on a set of emissions or cost-based indicators1-8. At the same time, an increasing body of literature is articulating many possible linkages between mitigation and other national priorities, with a major focus on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)9-13. The importance of the SDGs raises a question about how their linkages to mitigation activities might influence comparability assessments. We explore this question using a global integrated assessment model14 and provide illustrations of the geographical distributions of the influence of the NDCs on broader sustainability goals. We demonstrate that the extent to which these distributions differ from the distribution of mitigation effort obtained using standard comparability metrics depends on the degree to which domestic mitigation actions affect broader sustainability goals domestically and/or internationally and whether these effects are synergistic or antagonistic. Our analysis provides a foundation for considering how comparability across the NDCs could be better understood in the larger context of sustainability.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SME SECTOR – FUNDAMENT AND NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE RELAUCHING OF THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of economic and financial welfare, the creation of new jobs, the assimilation of technological progress, economic, the increase of competitiveness internationally or reducing social inequities are a few aspects that highlight the necessity to stimulate the SME sector Small business sector dynamism is increasingly considered a factor which determine reviving and strengthening economic development. The development of private business medium in Romania has been adversely affected by extreme volatility and low capacity of predictability. To these were also added effects of the economic crisis, resulting in a severe reduction in the number of SMEs and a worsening of performance indicators. In the paper are presented a series of data, providing an overview of the SME sector in Romania and its contribution to the achievement of the economic growth process in the medium term. The research realised at the level of this important component of the economic environment has revealed that in Romania there are manifested a number of issues regarding the level of productivity, the profitability, contribution to gross value added and competitiveness on external plan. An analysis of economic and financial performance indicators (turnover, gross investments, gross value added, gross result of the exercise at the level of SMEs reflects the recording of negative values after 2008, which demonstrates once again the fragility of the economy in the face of major events but also the impact of the measures promoted by the government, the effects being very often contrary to those expected. The conclusions drawn from the study highlights the need to support the SME sector to ensure a sustainable economic growth and the stimulus measures differences by categories, activity sectors and growth rhythm.

  11. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  12. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D'Arcy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  13. Singular technology – the research area promoting sustainable noosphere d evelopment in Belarus, Russia and other CIS nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Georgievich Nikitenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to nano- and femtotechnology as the basis for sustainable noosphere development of the global socio-economic mega system “nature–man–society” in its relation with the Universe (cosmos in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and other CIS nations. Such factors as the formation of a new (noospheric political and economic outlook and the changes in scientific and technological structure of economy are gaining paramount importance under the action of the law of time and the adequate need to change the logic of socio-economic behavior of the population of planet Earth. Singular technology can become a strategic priority in finding practical solutions to these issues. When creating new productive forces and relations of production, these technologies act as a synergetic and bifurcation (unpredictable interaction of the three system technologies: artificial intelligence, molecular nanotechnology and molecular biotechnology. As soon as man grasps the essence of singular technology, it will be possible to create a new structure of matter at the nano- and femtotechnology levels, and to exercise control over this process. The new structure of matter is the basis for the creation of new productive forces and relations of production in the noosphere economy. Technological singularity originated in the mapping of the human genome, creation of a self-replicating organism, and a self-replicating machine. The nearest strategic objective (2020–2030s of singular technology is to create an artificial brain – a “digital man” on the basis of nano-and femtotechnology. This research area and practice will open the way to new forms of energy, productive forces, industrial relations and socio-economic noosphere systems in general. The wide application of singular technology in the economy will contribute to the conservation and civilizational development of the planetary megasystem “cosmos–nature–man–society”

  14. Economic analysis of technological innovations to improve sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Anh

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing concerns about sustainable production, a growing number of European customers expect seafood products to be certified, for example by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. Water purification technologies such as Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS)

  15. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biancamaria Torquati; Sonia Venanzi; Adriano Ciani; Francesco Diotallevi; Vincenzo Tamburi

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm's income from traditional sources and helping to reduce...

  16. Damariscotta, Maine to Receive EPA Technical Assistance to Meet their Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damariscotta, ME is among 22 towns & cities nationwide chosen to receive technical assistance from the EPA. Damariscotta will receive help identifying sustainable strategies for meeting housing needs for different ages and incomes.

  17. Eco-nomics: Are the Planet-Unfriendly Features of Capitalism Barriers to Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill Singer

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that there are essential features of capitalist modes of production, consumption, and waste dispersal in interaction with the environment and its built-in systemic features that contradict long-term sustainable development. These features include: (a) contradictions in the origin and meaning of sustainability; (b) the central role of the productivity ethic in capitalism and its reproduction in emergent green capitalism; (c) the commodification of nature and the continued pro...

  18. The new United Nations approach to sustainable development post-2015: Findings from four overviews of systematic reviews on interventions for sustainable development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Luiz A C; Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Câmara, Volney Magalhães; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Objective To identify reported interventions that facilitate sustainable development and have had a positive impact on health in four areas: sustainable food production; sustainable energy use; sustainable jobs ("decent work"); and prevention of toxic exposure to chemicals. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted of at least 14 databases and 8 websites for each of the four overviews, using pre-defined protocols, including clear inclusion criteria. To qualify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and had to include measures of health impact. Results In total, 47 systematic reviews and 10 economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. The most promising interventions, such as agricultural policies, were identified for each of the four topics. While the evidence for the interventions is not strong because of the limited number of studies, there is no evidence of a definite negative impact on health. The only possible exception is that of taxes and subsidies-though this intervention also has the potential to be pro-equity with higher relative impacts for lower income groups. Conclusions The evidence found for effective interventions is useful for guiding countries toward the best options for non-health sector interventions that can positively impact health. This overviews shows that intersectoral work benefits every sector involved.

  19. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  20. Risoe DTU annual report 2008. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Birgit; Bindslev, H. (eds.)

    2009-08-15

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2008 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  1. Risoe DTU annual report 2009. Highlights from Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Birgit; Bindslev, H. (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    Risoe DTU is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. The research focuses on development of energy technologies and systems with minimal effect on climate, and contributes to innovation, education and policy. Risoe has large experimental facilities and interdisciplinary research environments, and includes the national centre for nuclear technologies. The 2009 annual report gives highlights on Risoe's research in the following areas: wind energy, bioenergy, solar energy, fusion energy, fuel cells and hydrogen, energy systems and climate change, and nuclear technologies. It also includes information on Education and training, Innovation and business, Research facilities, and Management, Personnel and Operating statements. (LN)

  2. Water-controlled wealth of nations: Using Water Footprints to Estimate Nations Carrying Capacities and Demographic Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (1) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export; (2) changes in consumption patterns; and (3) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  3. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Grant C Hopcraft

    Full Text Available Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty

  4. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  5. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  6. Managing ocean environments in a changing climate: sustainability and economic perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noone, K.J; Sumaila, U.R; Diaz, R.J

    2013-01-01

    .... The editors have engaged leading scientists in a number of areas, such as fisheries and marine ecosystems, ocean chemistry, marine biogeochemical cycling, oceans and climate change, and economics, to examine the threats to the oceans both individually and collectively, provide gross estimates of the economic and societal impacts of these threats, and deliver high-level recommendations.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlpine, Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  8. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  9. National Intelligence and Personality: Their Relationships and Impact on National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Maciej; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between national personality traits and intelligence from 51 countries were examined. It was found that extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness measured at the national level were significantly and positively correlated with national IQs; however, in the regression model only the former two were marginally…

  10. POVERTY AS A THREAT TO ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-12-28

    Dec 28, 2017 ... The success of environmental sustainability activities is hinged on community participation and this makes the relevance of social work indispensable since social ... The Brundtland report (United Nations, 1987) places ecological sustainability on an equal footing with social and economic sustainability.

  11. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. ECONOMIC AND MORAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic communication is more than a decade a point of interest due to the communication supports development and the diversity of information, on one hand, and due to the need for documentation and knowledge, both at the individual level and at the level of society, on the other hand. Thus the freedom into thinking and expression led to the development of communication activities and collecting them in a new vision. The process of communication has become, in a relatively short time, one of the engines of the economy, but also an integral part of what is meant to be today, the psycho-sociology of modern human societies. In this context, we propose an analysis of the communicative process that takes place in the economic environment, since the information and communication technology is, at present, a real factor in sustainable development. We start the analysis from the tight interdependence between the economic communication and the development of human culture as a basic factor for efficient management and for sustainable development overall.

  12. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  13. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  14. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  15. FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND «GREEN ECONOMY»: NATIONAL PROJECT OF EDUCATION GREENING IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanbol O. Zhilbaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show an education system role during transition to "green economy" – to a new stage of development of world economy.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalization of contents of the international and interstate documents of the Republic of Kazakhstan urged to provide sustainable social and economic development. Retrospective and project analysis of course processes features of social and economic system greening of Kazakhstan is also applied.Results and scientific novelty. The essence of the concepts «green economy», "ecological enlightenment", "ecological education" and "greening of society" are disclosed. The Kazakh national specifics of implementation of the international documents on implementation of model of a sustainable development are shown. The Concept of ecological formation of the Republic of Kazakhstan according to which the education system of the country is urged to create, develop and fix effectively, along with a necessary complex of knowledge, stereotypes of behavior of the people capable to make reasonable decisions is provided and to work according to legislatively consolidated nature protection regulations and standards. It is stated that greening of content of education in the republic has the developed regulatory framework, however additional measures for upgrade of an education system are necessary: its theoretical and methodological reasons, preparation and advanced training of pedagogical personnel, development of the new methodical means bring into focus an ecological orientation of training and education, etc.Practical significance. Measures for further improvement of ecological education and ecological education at all steps of education are listed. 

  16. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  17. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-03

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  18. Increase of Exports as a Potential Factor for Sustainable Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo as the newest state in the region, in the economic aspect represents an economic complex with considerable potential of human, economic and demographic resources, having an open economy and entirely Euro integrated, with the central position in Balkan Peninsula. As a new state Kosovo is going through a transition phase and is found in an unsatisfactory position, therefore a serious professional intervention by the competent mechanisms is necessary towards finding an adequate solution which enables a speedier economic, social and cultural development, thus accessing into economic and political integrations in the region and in Europe. Kosovo economy during 2012 was characterised by a positive norm of growth. The real norm of economic growth in the country reached the figure of 2.9 per cent. The slowest developments in the regional and European markets during this year appeared as a challenge for the general economic activity in the country. In 2012, a decrease was marked from several important sources of financing in the country, especially the foreign direct investments. A reduction was also characterised in export of goods, but, growth of export of the services neutralised the effect of decrease of goods export. Kosovo suffers from the negative trade balance, implying that Kosovo depends on imports, whereas its opportunities to export local products into foreign market are very low. With intention of improving the competitive position of Kosovar enterprises, and for increasing export into world market, the existing economic policies need to be amended and supplemented and the institutional functioning needs to be improved as well. The aim of this study is to provide a realistic overview of the economic situation of Kosovo through an overall analysis and to also give recommendations with intention of improving the trade balance in favour of increase of Kosovar export in the future.

  19. Business, government and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de B.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The range of sustainability objectives has now developed from relatively simple issues of environmental protection to a full array of interwoven social, economic and ecological issues, nationally and internationally. The involved process of sustainable development has now become a permanent and

  20. Teaching Young Learners about Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Mindy; Eckhoff, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a core 21st-century movement that stresses keeping interrelationships among the environment, human cultures, and economic systems healthy now--and for future generations--across local, regional, national, and global levels. The ideal sustainable community is able to maintain this balance among the social, environmental, and…