Contemporary comparisons of reusable and single-use perioperative textiles (surgical gowns and drapes) reflect major changes in the technologies to produce and reuse these products. Reusable and disposable gowns and drapes meet new standards for medical workers and patient protection, use synthetic lightweight fabrics, and are competitively priced. In multiple science-based life cycle environmental studies, reusable surgical gowns and drapes demonstrate substantial sustainability benefits over the same disposable product in natural resource energy (200%-300%), water (250%-330%), carbon footprint (200%-300%), volatile organics, solid wastes (750%), and instrument recovery. Because all other factors (cost, protection, and comfort) are reasonably similar, the environmental benefits of reusable surgical gowns and drapes to health care sustainability programs are important for this industry. Thus, it is no longer valid to indicate that reusables are better in some environmental impacts and disposables are better in other environmental impacts. It is also important to recognize that large-scale studies of comfort, protection, or economics have not been actively pursued in the last 5 to 10 years, and thus the factors to improve both reusables and disposable systems are difficult to assess. In addition, the comparison related to jobs is not well studied, but may further support reusables. In summary, currently available perioperative textiles are similar in comfort, safety, and cost, but reusable textiles offer substantial opportunities for nurses, physicians, and hospitals to reduce environmental footprints when selected over disposable alternatives. Evidenced-based comparison of environmental factors supports the conclusion that reusable gowns and drapes offer important sustainability improvements. The benefit of reusable systems may be similar for other reusables in anesthesia, such as laryngeal mask airways or suction canisters, but life cycle studies are needed to
Levin, Rona F; Wright, Fay; Pecoraro, Kathleen; Kopec, Wendy
Unintentional perioperative hypothermia has been shown to cause serious patient complications and, thus, to increase health care costs. In 2009, an evidence-based practice improvement project produced a significant decrease in unintentional perioperative hypothermia in colorectal surgical patients through monitoring of OR ambient room temperature. Project leaders engaged all interdisciplinary stakeholders in the original project, which facilitated the sustainability of the intervention method. An important aspect of sustainability is ongoing monitoring and evaluation of a new intervention method. Therefore, continued evaluation of outcomes of the protocol developed in 2009 was scheduled at specific time points after the initial small test of change with colorectal patients. This article focuses on how attention to sustainability factors during implementation of an improvement project led to the sustainability of a protocol for monitoring OR ambient room temperature with all types of surgical patients five years after the initial project. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceppa, DuyKhanh P.; Welsby, Ian J.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Onaitis, Mark W.; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Berry, Mark F.
BACKGROUND Management of patients requiring antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel (Plavix) and major lung resection must balance the risks of bleeding and cardiovascular events. We reviewed our experience with patients treated with clopidogrel perioperatively to examine outcomes, including results of a new strategy for high-risk patients. METHODS Patients who underwent major lung resection and received perioperative clopidogrel between January 2005 and September 2010 were reviewed. Initially, clopidogrel management consisted of discontinuation approximately 5 days before surgery and resumption immediately after surgery. Following July 2010, high-risk patients (drug-eluting coronary stent placement within prior year or previous coronary event after clopidogrel discontinuation) were admitted 2–3 days preoperatively and bridged with the intravenous GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor eptifibatide (Integrilin) according to a multidisciplinary cardiology/anesthesiology/thoracic surgery protocol. Outcomes were compared to control patients (matched for preoperative risk factors and extent of pulmonary resection) who did not receive perioperative clopidogrel. RESULTS Fifty-four patients who had major lung resection between January 2005 and September 2010 and received clopidogrel perioperatively were matched with 108 controls. Both groups had similar mortality, postoperative length of stay, and no differences in the rates of perioperative transfusions, reoperations for bleeding, myocardial infarctions, and strokes. Seven of the 54 clopidogrel patients were admitted preoperatively for an eptifibatide bridge. Two of these patients received perioperative transfusions, but there were no mortalities, reoperations, myocardial infarctions, or stroke. CONCLUSIONS Patients taking clopidogrel can safely undergo major lung resection. Treatment with an eptifibatide bridge may minimize the risk of cardiovascular events in higher risk patients. PMID:21978871
Sugawara, Kotaro; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Nomura, Yukihiro; Suka, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Keishi; Uemura, Yukari; Koike, Daisuke; Nagai, Motoki; Furuya, Takatoshi; Tanaka, Nobutaka
Prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI) is among the common complications adversely affecting postoperative outcomes. Predictors of PPOI after major abdominal surgery remain unclear, although various PPOI predictors have been reported in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. This study aimed to devise a model for stratifying the probability of PPOI in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Between 2012 and 2013, 841 patients underwent major abdominal surgery after excluding patients who underwent less-invasive abdominal surgery, ileus-associated surgery, and emergency surgery. Postoperative managements were generally based on enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program. The definition of PPOI was based on nausea, no oral diet, flatus absence, abdominal distension, and radiographic findings. A nomogram was devised by evaluating predictive factors for PPOI. Of the 841 patients, 73 (8.8%) developed PPOI. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed smoking history (P = 0.025), colorectal surgery (P = 0.004), and an open surgical approach (P = 0.002) to all be independent predictive factors for PPOI. A nomogram was devised by employing these three significant predictive factors. The prediction model showed relatively good discrimination performance, the concordance index of which was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66-0.77). The probability of PPOI in patients with a smoking history who underwent open colorectal surgery was calculated to be 19.6%. Colorectal surgery, open abdominal surgery, and smoking history were found to be independent predictive factors for PPOI in patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. A nomogram based on these factors was shown to be useful for identifying patients with a high probability of developing PPOI.
Kambakamba, P; Slankamenac, K; Tschuor, C; Kron, P; Wirsching, A; Maurer, K; Petrowsky, H; Clavien, P A; Lesurtel, M
Epidural analgesia (EDA) is a common analgesia regimen in liver resection, and is accompanied by sympathicolysis, peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension in the context of deliberate intraoperative low central venous pressure. This associated fall in mean arterial pressure may compromise renal blood pressure autoregulation and lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). This study investigated whether EDA is a risk factor for postoperative AKI after liver surgery. The incidence of AKI was investigated retrospectively in patients who underwent liver resection with or without EDA between 2002 and 2012. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed including recognized preoperative and intraoperative predictors of posthepatectomy renal failure. A series of 1153 patients was investigated. AKI occurred in 8·2 per cent of patients and was associated with increased morbidity (71 versus 47·3 per cent; P = 0·003) and mortality (21 versus 0·3 per cent; P < 0·001) rates. The incidence of AKI was significantly higher in the EDA group (10·1 versus 3·7 per cent; P = 0·003). Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI between patients undergoing minor hepatectomy with or without EDA (5·2 versus 2·7 per cent; P = 0·421), a substantial difference in AKI rates occurred in patients undergoing major hepatectomy (13·8 versus 5·0 per cent; P = 0·025). In multivariable analysis, EDA remained an independent risk factor for AKI after hepatectomy (P = 0·040). EDA may be a risk factor for postoperative AKI after major hepatectomy. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Liefde, Inge I; Welten, Gijs M J M; Verhagen, Hence J M; van Domburg, Ron T; Stolker, Robert Jan; Poldermans, Don
Earlier studies have shown that hypertensive or hypotensive blood pressure (BP) response during a preoperative treadmill exercise test in patients with peripheral arterial disease is associated with a two-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. However, it is unknown if these patients also experience an increased perioperative complication risk at major vascular surgery. In total 665 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease underwent elective major vascular surgery (carotid endarterectomy, abdominal aorta repair, or lower extremity revascularization). Perioperative complications (infection, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure, cerebrovascular accident or spinal cord ischemia, dialyses, amputation, thrombectomy, reoperation or death) were defined as occurring within 30 days after surgery and were collected using medical records. Hypertensive BP response was defined as a difference between exercise systolic BP and resting systolic BP of more than 55 mmHg. Hypotensive BP response was defined as a drop in exercise systolic BP below resting systolic BP. Patients with a hypertensive BP response during a preoperative exercise test (n = 66) showed a higher risk of early perioperative thrombectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 2.80 95% CI (1.24-6.33)] compared with patients with a normal BP response (n = 582). Patients with a hypotensive BP response (n = 18) showed an increased risk of perioperative myocardial infarction [HR 3.69 95% CI (1.08-12.64)] and cardiac complications [HR 2.90 95% CI (1.02-8.19)] compared with patients with a normal BP response. Patients with an abnormal BP response have more cardiovascular complications at elective major vascular surgery.
Marta Inés Berrío Valencia
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis remains one of the potential causes of perioperative death, being generally unanticipated and quickly progress to a life threatening situation. A narrative review of perioperative anaphylaxis is performed.CONTENT: The diagnostic tests are primarily to avoid further major events. The mainstays of treatment are adrenaline and intravenous fluids.CONCLUSION: The anesthesiologist should be familiar with the proper diagnosis, management and monitoring of perioperative anaphylaxis.
Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Bach; Laurberg, Søren
and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting......, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is a well-established risk factor for perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. However, the impact of preoperative glucose levels on perioperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing nonemergent, major noncardiothoracic surgery is unclear. Methods and Results A total of 680 patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery were prospectively evaluated. Patients older than 18 years who underwent an elective, nonday case, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Electrocardiography and cardiac biomarkers were obtained 1 day before surgery, and on days 1, 3 and 7 after surgery. Preoperative risk factors and laboratory test results were measured and evaluated for their association with the occurrence of in-hospital perioperative cardiovascular events. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG defined as fasting plasma glucose values of 100 to 125 mg/dl; DM was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl or the current use of blood glucose-lowering medication, and glucose values below 100 mg/dl were considered normal. Plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with perioperative cardiovascular events (n = 80, 11.8% in comparison to those without cardiovascular events (131 ± 42.5 vs 106.5 ± 37.5, p Conclusions Not only DM but also IFG is associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular event rates in patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery.
Bisbe, Elvira; Basora, Misericordia; Colomina, María J
In patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, pre-operative anaemia, peri-operative bleeding and a liberal transfusion policy are the main risk factors for requiring red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). The clinical and economic disadvantages of RBCT have led to the development and implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualised strategies, collectively termed patient blood management, which aim to reduce RBCT and improve patients' clinical outcome and safety. Within a patient blood management programme, low pre-operative haemoglobin is one of the few modifiable risk factors for RBCT. However, a survey among Anaesthesia Departments in Spain revealed that, although pre-operative assessment was performed in the vast majority of hospitals, optimisation of haemoglobin concentration was attempted in operative haemoglobin levels, in order to minimise the risk of patients requiring RBCT. To this purpose, after reviewing the diagnostic value and limitations of available laboratory parameters, we developed an algorithm for the detection, classification and treatment of pre-operative anaemia, with a patient-tailored approach that facilitates decision-making in the pre-operative assessment. We also reviewed the efficacy of the different pharmacological options for pre-operative and post-operative management of anaemia. We consider that such an institutional pathway for anaemia management could be a viable, cost-effective strategy that is beneficial to both patients and healthcare systems.
Sato, Hiroaki; Lattermann, Ralph; Carvalho, George; Sato, Tamaki; Metrakos, Peter; Hassanain, Mazen; Matsukawa, Takashi; Schricker, Thomas
Although hyperglycemia is a well-recognized risk factor in the context of cardiac surgery, the relevance of perioperative glycemic control for patients undergoing major noncardiac operations has received little attention. We designed this study to assess the hyperglycemic response to liver resection, and to test the hypothesis that perioperative glucose and insulin administration while maintaining normoglycemia (GIN therapy) provides glycemic control superior to that achieved by the conventional use of insulin. Patients were randomly assigned to GIN therapy or standard therapy (control group). In the GIN therapy group, insulin was administered at 2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) during surgery. At the end of surgery, the insulin infusion was decreased to 1 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) and continued for 24 hours. Dextrose 20% was infused at a rate adjusted to maintain blood glucose within the target range of 3.5 to 6.1 mmol . L(-1) (63-110 mg . dL(-1)). Patients in the standard therapy group received a conventional insulin sliding scale during and after surgery. The mean and SD of blood glucose as well as the percentage of blood glucose values within the target range were calculated. To evaluate intrasubject variability, the coefficient of variability (CV) of blood glucose was calculated for each patient. Episodes of severe hypoglycemia, i.e., blood glucose GIN therapy always remained within the target range. The blood glucose levels were lower in the GIN therapy group than in the standard therapy group (during surgery, P GIN therapy (n = 19), target glycemia was achieved in 90.1% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 77.8% of the measurements after surgery. In diabetic patients receiving GIN therapy (n = 7), target glycemia was achieved in 81.2% of the blood glucose measurements during surgery and in 70.5% of the measurements after surgery. In nondiabetic patients receiving standard therapy (n = 19), target glycemia was achieved in 37.4% of the blood glucose
Full Text Available Postoperative pneumonia (POP is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC surgery.Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later.The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP.Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.
Full Text Available Research on sustainability is now fast approaching half a century of dedicated work. Although there have been significant breakthroughs, sustainability and its corollary, sustainable development, have proven a tough nut to crack. In our paper, we have started from some fundamental questions, which have yet to be answered and analyzed the implications that stem from these questions. Going past the problem of weakly quantifiable concepts in the definition, a very important issue is that of individual and community preferences. Specifically, these are all short to mid-term lived, while some sustainability problems, particularly those relating to the environment require a significantly longer time period. Another implication is that, given our limited resources, sustainable development would require a careful balance between investments among the three pillars of sustainability, and not follow a maximization policy. Lastly, we conclude that basing our sustainability policies on premises of linear evolution is a dangerous undertaking.
Hansen, Peter Wæde; Gislason, Gunnar H; Jørgensen, Mads Emil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Advanced age increases the risk of perioperative cardiovascular complications and may pose reluctance to subject elderly patients to surgery. We examined the impact of high age on perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality in a nationwide cohort...... of patients undergoing elective surgery. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥20years undergoing non-cardiac, elective surgery in 2005-2011 were identified from nationwide administrative registers. Risks of 30-day MACE (non-fatal ischemic stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) and all......-cause mortality were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for comorbidities, revised cardiac risk index, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, body mass index, and surgery type). RESULTS: A total of 386,818 procedures on 302,459 patients were included; mean age was 54.8years (min-max 20...
Nielsen, Alexander W; Helm, Melissa C; Kindel, Tammy; Higgins, Rana; Lak, Kathleen; Helmen, Zachary M; Gould, Jon C
Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after bariatric surgery. Perioperative chemoprophylaxis is used routinely with bariatric surgery to decrease the risk of VTE. When bleeding occurs, routine chemoprophylaxis is often withheld due to concerns about inciting another bleeding event. We sought to evaluate the relationship between perioperative bleeding and postoperative VTE in bariatric surgery. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset between 2012 and 2014 was queried to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass (n = 28,145), sleeve gastrectomy (n = 30,080), bariatric revision (n = 324), and biliopancreatic diversion procedures (n = 492) were included. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine perioperative factors predictive of postoperative VTE within 30 days in patients who experience a bleeding complication necessitating transfusion. The rate of bleeding necessitating transfusion was 1.3%. Bleeding was significantly more likely to occur in gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy (1.6 vs. 1.0%) (p surgeries, increased age, length of stay, operative time, and comorbidities including hypertension, dyspnea with moderate exertion, partially dependent functional status, bleeding disorder, transfusion prior to surgery, ASA class III/IV, and metabolic syndrome increased the perioperative bleeding risk (p Bariatric surgery patients who receive postoperative blood transfusion are at a significantly increased risk for VTE. The etiology of VTE in those who are transfused is likely multifactorial and possibly related to withholding chemoprophylaxis and the potential of a hypercoagulable state induced by the transfusion. In those who bleed, consideration should be given to reinitiating chemoprophylaxis when safe, extending treatment after discharge, and screening ultrasound.
Juul, Anne Benedicte; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian
Objectives To evaluate the long term effects of perioperative blockade on mortality and cardiac morbidity in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Design Randomised placebo controlled and blinded multicentre trial. Analyses were by intention to treat. Setting University...... anaesthesia and surgical centres and one coordinating centre. Participants 921 patients aged > 39 scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery. Interventions 100 mg metoprolol controlled and extended release or placebo administered from the day before surgery to a maximum of eight perioperative days. Main outcome...... with serious adverse events was 2.4% (- 0.8% to 5.6%). Conclusions Perioperative metoprolol did not significantly affect mortality and cardiac morbidity in these patients with diabetes. Confidence intervals, however, were wide, and the issue needs reassessment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials...
Risk Factors for 30-Day Unplanned Readmission and Major Perioperative Complications Following Spine Fusion Surgery in Adults: A Review of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Database
Su, Alvin W.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.; Thomsen, Kristine M.; Milbrandt, Todd A.; Nassr, Ahmad; Larson, A. Noelle
Study Design Retrospective review of a prospective cohort Objective To determine the patient characteristics and surgical procedure factors related to increased rates of 30-day unplanned readmission and major perioperative complications after spinal fusion surgery, as well as the association between unplanned readmission and major complications. Summary of Background Data Reducing unplanned readmissions can reduce the cost of healthcare. Payers are implementing penalties for 30-day readmissions following discharge. There is limited data regarding the current rates and risk factors for unplanned readmission and major complications related to spinal fusion surgery. Methods Spine fusion patients were identified using the 2012 and 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User File. Rates of readmissions within 30 days following spine fusion surgery were calculated using the person-years method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the independent associations of spine surgical procedure types, diagnoses, patient profiles and major perioperative complications with unplanned related readmissions. Independent risk factors for major complications were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 18,602 identified patients, there was a 5.2% overall major perioperative complication rate. There was a rate of 4.4% per 30 person-days for unplanned readmissions related to index surgery. Independent risk factors for both readmissions and major perioperative complications included combined anterior and posterior surgery, diagnosis of solitary tumor, older age, and higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class. Patients with deep/organ surgical site infection carried higher risk of having unplanned readmission, followed by pulmonary embolism, acute renal failure and stroke/CVA with neurological deficit. Conclusions This study provides benchmark rates of 30-day readmission based on diagnosis and
Su, Alvin W; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Thomsen, Kristine M; Milbrandt, Todd A; Nassr, Ahmad; Larson, A Noelle
Retrospective review of a prospective cohort. The aim of the study was to determine the patient characteristics and surgical procedure factors related to increased rates of 30-day unplanned readmission and major perioperative complications after spinal fusion surgery, and the association between unplanned readmission and major complications. Reducing unplanned readmissions can reduce the cost of healthcare. Payers are implementing penalties for 30-day readmissions after discharge. There is limited data regarding the current rates and risk factors for unplanned readmission and major complications related to spinal fusion surgery. Spine fusion patients were identified using the 2012 and 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User File. Rates of readmissions within 30 days after spine fusion surgery were calculated using the person-years method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the independent associations of spine surgical procedure types, diagnoses, patient profiles, and major perioperative complications with unplanned related readmissions. Independent risk factors for major complications were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Of the 18,602 identified patients, there was a 5.2% overall major perioperative complication rate. There was a rate of 4.4% per 30 person-days for unplanned readmissions related to index surgery. Independent risk factors for both readmissions and major perioperative complications included combined anterior and posterior surgery, diagnosis of solitary tumor, older age, and higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class. Patients with deep/organ surgical site infection carried higher risk of having unplanned readmission, followed by pulmonary embolism, acute renal failure, and stroke/cerebral vascular accident with neurological deficit. This study provides benchmark rates of 30-day readmission based on diagnosis and procedure codes from a high
Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic optimization using noninvasive cardiac output monitoring in major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, pragmatic trial: POEMAS Study (PeriOperative goal-directed thErapy in Major Abdominal Surgery).
Pestaña, David; Espinosa, Elena; Eden, Arieh; Nájera, Diana; Collar, Luis; Aldecoa, César; Higuera, Eva; Escribano, Soledad; Bystritski, Dmitri; Pascual, Javier; Fernández-Garijo, Pilar; de Prada, Blanca; Muriel, Alfonso; Pizov, Reuven
In this study, our objective was to determine whether a perioperative hemodynamic protocol based on noninvasive cardiac output monitoring decreases the incidence of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay in major abdominal surgery patients requiring intensive care unit admission. Secondary objectives were the time to peristalsis recovery and the incidence of wound infection, anastomotic leaks, and mortality. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 6 tertiary hospitals. One hundred forty-two adult patients scheduled for open colorectal surgery, gastrectomy, or small bowel resection were enrolled. A hemodynamic protocol including fluid administration and vasoactive drugs based on arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume response was compared with standard practice. Patients were followed until hospital discharge (determined by a surgeon blinded to the study) or death. In contrast to previous studies, we designed a pragmatic trial (as opposed to explanatory trials) to mimic real practice and obtain maximal external validity for the study. Fluid administration was similar except for the number of colloid boluses (2.4 ± 1.8 [treated] vs 1.3 ± 1.4 [control]; P < 0.001) and packed red blood cell units (0.6 ± 1.3 [treated] vs 0.2 ± 0.6 [control]; P = 0.019). Dobutamine was used in 25% (intraoperatively) and 19.4% (postoperatively) of the treated patients versus 1.4% and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). We have observed a reduction in reoperations in the treated group (5.6% vs 15.7%; P = 0.049). However, no significant differences were observed in overall complications (40% vs 41%; relative risk 0.99 [0.67-1.44]; P = 0.397), length of stay (11.5 [8-15] vs 10.5 [8-16]; P = 0.874), time to first flatus (62 hours [40-76] vs 72 hours [48-96]; P = 0.180), wound infection (7 vs 14; P = 0.085), anastomotic leaks (2 vs 5; P = 0.23), or mortality (4.2% vs 5.7%; P = 0.67). The results of our pragmatic study indicate that a perioperative
Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred
Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable for high school and undergraduate students, especially non-science majors. Thirteen hands-on exercises provide an overview of sustainable energy by demonstrating the basic principles of wind power, photovoltaics, electric cars, lighting, heating/cooling, insulation, electric circuits, and solar collectors. The order of content presentation and instructional level (secondary education or college) can easily be modified to suit instructor needs and/or academic programs (e.g., engineering, physics, renewable and/or sustainable energy).
Langbeheim, Elon; Rez, Peter
This paper describes the basic tenets of a sustainable energy course for university science majors. First, it outlines the three core components of the course: (1) The scientific evidence for the connection between climate change and energy usage; (2) An analysis of the capacity and environmental impact of various renewable and traditional energy…
Michard, Frederic; Mountford, William K; Krukas, Michelle R; Ernst, Frank R; Fogel, Sandy L
Preventable postsurgical complications are increasingly recognized as a major clinical and economic burden. A recent meta-analysis showed a 17-29 % decrease in postoperative morbidity with goal-directed fluid therapy. Our objective was to estimate the potential economic impact of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy. We studied 204,680 adult patients from 541 US hospitals who had a major non-cardiac surgical procedure between January 2011 and June 2013. Hospital costs (including 30-day readmission costs) in patients with and without complications were extracted from the Premier Inc. research database, and potential cost-savings associated with a 17-29 % decrease in postoperative morbidity were estimated. A total of 76,807 patients developed one or more postsurgical complications (morbidity rate 37.5 %). In patients with and without complications, hospital costs were US$27,607 ± 32,788 and US$15,783 ± 12,282 (p potential gross cost-savings of US$153-263 million for the study period, US$61-105 million per year, or US$754-1286 per patient. Potential savings per patient were highly variable from one surgical procedure to the other, ranging from US$354-604 for femur and hip-fracture repair to US$3515-5996 for esophagectomies. When taking into account the volume of procedures, the total potential savings per year were the most significant (US$32-55 million) for colectomies. Postsurgical complications occurred in more than one third of our study population and had a dramatic impact on hospital costs. With goal-directed fluid therapy, potential cost-savings per patient were US$754-1286. The highest cost-savings per year were observed for colectomies. These projections should help hospitals estimate the return on investment when considering the implementation of goal-directed fluid therapy.
Dort, Joseph C; Farwell, D Gregory; Findlay, Merran; Huber, Gerhard F; Kerr, Paul; Shea-Budgell, Melissa A; Simon, Christian; Uppington, Jeffrey; Zygun, David; Ljungqvist, Olle; Harris, Jeffrey
Head and neck cancers often require complex, labor-intensive surgeries, especially when free flap reconstruction is required. Enhanced recovery is important in this patient population but evidence-based protocols on perioperative care for this population are lacking. To provide a consensus-based protocol for optimal perioperative care of patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Following endorsement by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society to develop this protocol, a systematic review was conducted for each topic. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were initially searched to identify relevant publications on head and neck cancer surgery from 1965 through April 2015. Consistent key words for each topic included "head and neck surgery," "pharyngectomy," "laryngectomy," "laryngopharyngectomy," "neck dissection," "parotid lymphadenectomy," "thyroidectomy," "oral cavity resection," "glossectomy," and "head and neck." The final selection of literature included meta-analyses and systematic reviews as well as randomized controlled trials where available. In the absence of high-level data, case series and nonrandomized studies in head and neck cancer surgery patients or randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews in non-head and neck cancer surgery patients, were considered. An international panel of experts in major head and neck cancer surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery reviewed and assessed the literature for quality and developed recommendations for each topic based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. All recommendations were graded following a consensus discussion among the expert panel. The literature search, including a hand search of reference lists, identified 215 relevant publications that were considered to be the best evidence for the topic areas. A total of 17 topic areas were identified for inclusion in the protocol for the perioperative
Loeffelbein, Denys J; Julinek, Annette; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kochs, Eberhard; Haller, Bernhard; Haseneder, Rainer
Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are common and result in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs and increased mortality. However, data on the incidence and predictors of PPCs after major oral and maxillofacial surgery with microvascular reconstruction are rare. This retrospective analysis identifies perioperative risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after major oral and maxillofacial surgery with microvascular reconstruction. Perioperative data and patient records of 648 subjects were analyzed in the period of June 2007 to May 2013. PPCs were defined as pneumonia, atelectasis, pleural effusions, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary oedema, pneumothorax or respiratory failure. 18.8% of all patients developed PPCs. Patient-related risk factors for PPCs were male sex, advanced age, smoking, alcohol abuse, a body mass index >30, American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade higher than 2, pre-existent pulmonary diseases and preoperative antihypertensive medication. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, the length of the operation, the amount of fluid administration and blood transfusion and an impaired oxygenation index during surgery were shown to be associated with the development of PPCs. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified a body mass index >30, American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade higher than 2 and alcohol abuse as independent risk factors for PPCs. Several perioperative factors can be identified that are associated with the development of PPCs. Patients having one or more of these conditions should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Happell, Brenda; McAllister, Margaret; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J
Major streams in mental health nursing in undergraduate nursing programs were introduced in Australia as a strategy to address current and projected workforce shortages. Of the 14 programs originally planned or implemented, only five are continuing. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with representatives of universities that had ceased the major streams or abandoned plans to introduce them. Significant themes from interview material on abandoned programs were efficient use of resources, expertise, and problems with registration. On the programs now terminated significant themes were viability and commitment to mental health nursing. These findings suggest demonstrable and sustainable commitment to mental health nursing is a precursor to success of major streams and advancement of the mental health nursing specialty. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.
Enright, K. P.; Gilbert, L. A.; McGillis, A.
Small-scale agriculture has exploded with popularity in recent years, as teenagers and college students gain interest in local food sources. Outdoor experiences, including gardening and farming, are often among the motivations for students to take their first geoscience courses in college. The methods and theories of small agriculture translate well into geologic research questions, especially in the unique setting of college campus farms and gardens. We propose an activity or assignment to engage student-farmers in thinking about geosciences, and connect them with geoscience departments as a gateway to the major and career field. Furthermore, the activity will encourage a new generation of passionate young farmers to integrate the principles of earth science into their design and implementation of more sustainable food systems. The activity includes mapping, soil sampling, and interviewing professionals in agriculture and geology, and results in the students writing a series of recommendations for their campus or other farm. The activity includes assessment tools for instructors and can be used to give credit for a summer farming internship or as part of a regular course. We believe reaching out to students interested in farming could be an important recruitment tool for geosciences and helps build interdisciplinary and community partnerships.
This article describes post-graduate perioperative education in Australia at the Australian Catholic University and St. Vincent's Public Hospital: The Graduate Certificate in Perioperative Practice. The Australian Catholic University operates from eight campuses along the east coast of Australia. There are approximately 9000 students along with 1000 staff. The University consists of major faculties that all have clear relevance to the workplace-namely Arts and Sciences, Education and Health Sciences. Qualifications are offered at Certificate of Doctoral level studies in the areas of business, education, ethics, human movement, management, information systems, music, nursing, religion, social work and theology.
Roland W. Scholz
Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of
Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world?s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the appl...
Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiubo; Sun, Ranhao
Ecosystems, though impacted by global environmental change, can also contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of such large scale changes. Therefore, sustainable ecosystem management is crucial in reaching a sustainable future for the biosphere. Based on the published literature and publicly accessible data, this paper discussed the status and trends of forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems in China that play important roles in the ecological integrity and human welfare of the nation. Ecological degradation has been observed in these ecosystems at various levels and geographic locations. Biophysical (e.g., climate change) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., intensive human use) are the main reasons for ecosystem degradation with the latter factors serving as the dominant driving forces. The three broad categories of ecosystems in China have partially recovered from degradation thanks to large scale ecological restoration projects implemented in the last few decades. China, as the largest and most populated developing nation, still faces huge challenges regarding ecosystem management in a changing and globalizing world. To further improve ecosystem management in China, four recommendations were proposed, including: (1) advance ecosystem management towards an application-oriented, multidisciplinary science; (2) establish a well-functioning national ecological monitoring and data sharing mechanism; (3) develop impact and effectiveness assessment approaches for policies, plans, and ecological restoration projects; and (4) promote legal and institutional innovations to balance the intrinsic needs of ecological and socioeconomic systems. Any change in China's ecosystem management approach towards a more sustainable one will benefit the whole world. Therefore, international collaborations on ecological and environmental issues need to be expanded.
Gross, Erin M.
An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…
Marckmann, P; Toubro, S; Astrup, A
To study whether major weight loss causes sustained improvement in blood lipids and haemostatic profile in obese subjects, and to compare the influence of two different slimming and maintenance regimens...
Full Text Available Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet. This review focuses on definition, risk factors, the emerging role of biomarkers and subsequent management of AKI in the perioperative period, taking into account new and emerging strategies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perioperative hypertension is a situation whose management is suggested by the clinical judgement much more than clinical evidences. JNC 7 guidelines give a classification of blood pressure (BP, without any mention specifically dedicated to patients undergoing surgery. The ACC/AHA guidelines recommend deferring surgery if diastolic BP is above 110 mmHg and systolic BP is above 180 mmHg. AIM OF THE STUDY In this review we considered pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic factors related to perioperative management of hypertensive patients. DISCUSSION In actual trend of the preoperative evaluation, alone hypertension is considered as a minor risk factor. BP values ≤ 180/110 mmHg do not influence the outcomes in patients who underwent noncardiac surgery. Therefore, in these conditions it’s not necessary to delay surgery. Hypertensive picks are possible during the operation, mostly because of the intubation, but, much more dangerous, falls of pressure are possible. The intraoperative arterial pressure should be maintained within 20% of the best estimated preoperative arterial pressure, especially in patients with markedly elevated preoperative pressures. After surgery the arterial BP can increase for stress factors, pain, hypoxia and hypercapnia, hypothermia and infusional liquids overload. For all these reasons a careful monitoring is mandatory. Anti-hypertensive medication should be continued during the postoperative period in patients with known and treated hypertension, as unplanned withdrawal of treatment can result in rebounded hypertension. The decision to give anti-hypertensive drugs must be made for each patient, taking into account their normal BP and their postoperative BP. With regard to the optimal treatment of the patient with poorly or uncontrolled hypertension in the perioperative evaluation, recent guidelines suggest that the best treatment may consider cardioselective β-blockers therapy, but also clonidin by
Erk, Susanne; Mikschl, Alexandra; Stier, Sabine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Gapp, Volker; Weber, Bernhard; Walter, Henrik
Dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion is a key component of major depressive disorder and leads to sustained negative feelings. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the temporal dynamics of emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy controls, testing for acute and sustained neural effects of active emotion regulation. Moderately depressed individuals (n = 17) and never-depressed healthy control subjects (n = 17) underwent fMRI during performance of an active cognitive emotion regulation task while viewing emotionally arousing pictures. In a second task, completed 15 min later, subjects were presented with the same stimuli in a passive viewing task. Whole-brain analyses and connectivity measures were used to determine acute and sustained effects of emotion regulation on brain activation and coupling between regions. On the group level, patients were able to downregulate negative emotions and corresponding amygdala activation, but this ability decreased with increasing symptom severity. Moreover, only healthy control subjects showed a sustained regulation effect in the amygdala after a 15 min delay, whereas depressed patients did not. Finally, patients exhibited diminished prefrontal activation and reduced prefrontolimbic coupling during active regulation. Although emotion regulation capacity in medicated depressive patients appears to be preserved depending on symptom severity, the effect is not sustained. Correlational analyses provide evidence that this diminished sustained-regulation effect might be related to reduced prefrontal activation during regulation.
Guron, Marta; Paul, Jared J.; Roeder, Margaret H.
Although much of the scientific community concerns itself with ideas of a sustainable future, very little of this interest and motivation has reached the classroom experience of the average chemistry major, and therefore, it is imperative to expose students to these ideas early in their careers. The focus of most undergraduate chemistry curricula…
Candefjord, Stefan; Buendia, Ruben; Caragounis, Eva-Corina; Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne; Fagerlind, Helen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes (RTCs) who could benefit from direct transportation to a trauma center (TC). Currently, there is no national classification of TC in Sweden. In this study, 7 university hospitals (UHs) in Sweden were selected to represent a TC level I or level II. These UHs have similar capabilities as the definition for level I and level II TC in the United States. Major trauma was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15. A total of 117,730 patients who were transported by road or air ambulance were selected from the Swedish TRaffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database between 2007 to 2014. An analysis of the patient characteristics sustaining major trauma in comparison with patients sustaining minor trauma (ISS car, truck, or bus and to be involved in a crash in a rural location. Our results show that the majority of RTC major trauma patients are transported to a non-TC. This may cause unnecessary morbidity and mortality. These findings can guide the development of improved prehospital treatment guidelines, protocols and decision support systems.
Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the conditions of sustainable development for Romania it is imperative to advance from a formulated economy on market forces that ignores the environmental values and exigencies to a sustainable economy based on knowledge, system that confers huge opportunities for investment. Against on background, it becomes imperative for our country to pay an increased attention of investments in the reconstruction of ecosystems. This is a fundamental obligation assumed and confirmed in the national strategy for sustainable development. In these circumstances the national economy takes a great step forward for the successful integration in the contemporary paradigm of sustainable development. In this framework the old industries must be restructured on their capacity of production founded on the natural capital and also the new industries will be created taking into account essentially the capacity of innovation and the intellectual capital, renewable resources until now neglected. These substantial changes in the structure of Romania economy requires new professions and modern patterns of production and consumption and highly qualified human resources. In the same vein preparation of human resources, we consider that preparation of human resources is the major premise in achieving of sustainable development. Thus, human resource generates knowledge and information which are endless resources for economic development, which amplify, multiply and diversify through reutilization. Therefore investments in human resources should concentrate essentially following directions of action: development of competitive sector of scientific research ecological valence, the training of specialists in holistic system for the construction of sustainable economy and the preparation of decision makers for managing of sustainable economy. Generally these dimensions of the national economy reconstruction in accordance with imperatives of sustainable development will
Background Reported perioperative pulmonary aspiration (POPA) rates have substantial variation. Perioperative hypoxemia (POH), a manifestation of POPA, has been infrequently studied beyond the PACU, for patients undergoing a diverse array of surgical procedures. Methods Consecutive adult patients with ASA I-IV and pre-operative pulmonary stability who underwent a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were investigated. Using pulse oximetry, POH was documented in the operating room and during the 48 hours following PACU discharge. POPA was the presence of an acute pulmonary infiltrate with POH. Results The 500 consecutive, eligible patients had operative body-positions of prone 13%, decubitus 8%, sitting 1%, and supine/lithotomy 78%, with standard practice of horizontal recumbency. POH was found in 150 (30%) patients. Post-operative stay with POH was 3.7 ± 4.7 days and without POH was 1.7 ± 2.3 days (p < 0.0001). POH rate varied from 14% to 58% among 11 of 12 operative procedure-categories. Conditions independently associated with POH (p < 0.05) were acute trauma, BMI, ASA level, glycopyrrolate administration, and duration of surgery. POPA occurred in 24 (4.8%) patients with higher mortality (8.3%), when compared to no POPA (0.2%; p = 0.0065). Post-operative stay was greater with POPA (7.7 ± 5.7 days), when compared to no POPA (2.0 ± 2.9 days; p = 0.0001). Conditions independently associated with POPA (p < 0.05) were cranial procedure, ASA level, and duration of surgery. POPA, acute trauma, duration of surgery, and inability to extubate in the OR were independently associated with post-operative stay (p < 0.05). POH, gastric dysmotility, acute trauma, cranial procedure, emergency procedure, and duration of surgery had independent correlations with post-operative length of stay (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adult surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with horizontal recumbency have substantial POH and
Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.
chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses......Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...
Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N
Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....
Little, David L., II
Ongoing changes in values, pedagogy, and curriculum concerning sustainability education necessitate that strong curricular elements are identified in sustainability education. However, quantitative research in sustainability education is largely undeveloped or relies on outdated instruments. In part, this is because no widespread quantitative instrument for measuring related educational outcomes has been developed for the field, though their development is pivotal for future efforts in sustainability education related to STEM majors. This research study details the creation, evaluation, and validation of an instrument -- the STEM Sustainability Engagement Instrument (STEMSEI) -- designed to measure sustainability engagement in post-secondary STEM majors. The study was conducted in three phases, using qualitative methods in phase 1, a concurrent mixed methods design in phase 2, and a sequential mixed methods design in phase 3. The STEMSEI was able to successfully predict statistically significant differences in the sample (n= 1017) that were predicted by prior research in environmental education. The STEMSEI also revealed statistically significant differences between STEM majors' sustainability engagement with a large effect size (.203 ≤ eta2 ≤ .211). As hypothesized, statistically significant differences were found on the environmental scales across gender and present religion. With respect to gender, self-perceived measures of emotional engagement with environmental sustainability was higher with females while males had higher measures in cognitive engagement with respect to knowing information related to environmental sustainability. With respect to present religion, self-perceived measures of general engagement and emotional engagement in environmental sustainability were higher for non-Christians as compared to Christians. On the economic scales, statistically significant differences were found across gender. Specifically, measures of males' self
Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; van Geffen, Geert-Jan
The experience of intense postoperative pain remains a significant problem in perioperative medicine. The mainstay of postoperative analgetic therapy is the combination of nonopioid agents (e.g. paracetamol and NSAIDs) with strong opioids (e.g. morphine) according to the WHO analgesic ladder. But as the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain remains high, the search for and evaluation of additional concepts is ongoing. This review highlights the current trends of perioperative multimodal analgesia concepts. Gabapentinoids, ketamine, dexamethasone and magnesium are effective parts of a multimodal analgesia concept without absolute contraindications and nearly without major negative side effects. Recent publications further define the role of these substances for perioperative use in terms of optimal dosing, positive side effects, relative potency and interaction. Components of well tolerated and simple advanced multimodal analgesia concepts in the perioperative period are now easy to apply and ready to become a standard in the daily clinical practice.
Mebazaa, Alexandre; Pitsis, Antonis A.; Rudiger, Alain; Toller, Wolfgang; Longrois, Dan; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Bobek, Ilona; de Hert, Stefan; Wieselthaler, Georg; Schirmer, Uwe; von Segesser, Ludwig K.; Sander, Michael; Poldermans, Don; Ranucci, Marco; Karpati, Peter Cj; Wouters, Patrick; Seeberger, Manfred; Schmid, Edith R.; Weder, Walter; Follath, Ferenc
Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, signifi cant
A. Mebazaa (Alexandre); A.A. Pitsis (Antonis); A. Rudiger (Alain); W. Toller (Wolfgang); D. Longrois (Dan); S.E. Ricksten; I. Bobek (Ilona); S. de Hert (Stefan); G. Wieselthaler (Georg); U. Schirmer (Uwe); L.K. von Segesser (Ludwig); M. Sander (Michael); D. Poldermans (Don); M. Ranucci (Marco); P.C.J. Karpati (Peter); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); M. Seeberger (Manfred); E.R. Schmid (Edith); W. Weder (Walter); F. Follath
textabstractAcute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF,
Burger, Leona; Fitzpatrick, Jane
All patients undergoing surgery are at risk of developing hypothermia; up to 70% develop hypothermia perioperatively. Inadvertent hypothermia is associated with complications such as impaired wound healing, increased blood loss, cardiac arrest and increased risk of wound infection. Anaesthesia increases the risk as the normal protective shivering reflex is absent. Ambient temperature also has a major effect on the patient's body temperature. Prevention of hypothermia not only reduces the incidence of complications, but patients also experience a greater level of comfort, and avoid postoperative shivering and the unpleasant sensation of feeling cold. Nurses should be aware of the risks of hypothermia so that preventative interventions can be employed to minimize the risk of hypothermia. Preoperative assessment is essential to enable identification of at-risk patients. Simple precautionary measures initiated by nurses can considerably reduce the amount of heat lost, minimize the risk of associated complications and ultimately improve patients' short- and long-term recovery. Minimizing skin exposure, providing adequate bed linen for the transfer to theatre and educating patients about the importance of keeping warm perioperatively are all extremely important. It is also worth considering using forced-air warmers preoperatively as research suggests that initiating active warming preoperatively may be successful in preventing hypothermia during the perioperative period.
Dai, Limin; Wang, Yue; Su, Dongkai; Zhou, Li; Yu, Dapao; Lewis, Bernard J; Qi, Lin
In this article, we introduce China's major forest types and discuss the historical development of forest management in China, including actions taken over the last decade toward achieving SMF. Major challenges are identified, and a strategy for SFM implementation in China is presented. China's forests consist of a wide variety of types with distinctive distributional patterns shaped by complex topography and multiple climate regimes. How to manage this wide array of forest resources has challenged forest managers and policy-makers since the founding of the country. Excessive exploitation of China's forest resources from the 1950s to the late 1990s contributed to environmental problems and calamities, such as floods, soil erosion, and desertification. At the start of the new millennium, the Chinese government decided to shift its emphasis from timber production towards the achievement of sustainable forest management (SFM). With a series of endeavors such as the implementation of the "Six Key Forestry Projects" and the reform of forest tenure policies, and the adoption of a classification system for China's forests, a beginning has been made at reversing the trend of environmental degradation that occurred throughout the latter half of the last century. At the same time, huge challenges remain to be tackled for the development of forestry in China.
Ramesh K Sen
Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ′PubMed′ and ′Google Scholar′ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury. Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury, all other studies recommended screening/ thromboprophylaxis in posttraumatic conditions in the Indian population. Color Doppler was used as common diagnostic or screening tool in most of the studies (eight studies, 722 patients. The incidence of VTE among thromboprophylaxis-receiving group was found to be 8% (10/125, whereas it was much higher (14.49%, 40/276 in patients not receiving any form of prophylaxis. Indian patients have definite risk of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic trauma (except spinal injury, and thromboprophylaxis either by chemical or mechanical methods seems to be justified in them.
J P Attri
Full Text Available Death to most people is a major life event. Nothing in this world prepares us to face and manage the perioperative death although the majority of anesthesiologists will be involved in an intraoperative death during the course of their careers. Whether death on the table was expected or occurred when least expected or may be even later, the anesthesiologist is most likely to be affected emotionally, physically in his personal life, and as well as will have an influence on his professional career. Anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians are likely to experience death on the operating table at some time in their careers. In case of perioperative death, meticulous record keeping including time of occurrence of event and methods and medications used during resuscitation, nature of the problem, and all sequence of events should be adopted to breaking bad news with relatives and blame game should be avoided. The anesthesiologist and the relatives of the patient should also be given emotional support to come out of this untoward event. In this article, we have highlighted the various factors and causes leading on to perioperative death and if in case such an event occurs, what are the protocols to be followed, including medicolegal aspects, giving emotional support to the concerned anesthesiologist, dealing with the relatives of the patient sympathetically, etc. We have also enumerated the various precautions to be taken to prevent perioperative mortality in this article.
Evrendilek, Fatih; Doygun, Hakan
In recent years, Turkey has experienced rapid economic and population growth coupled with both an equally rapid increase in energy consumption and a vast disparity in welfare between socioeconomic groups and regions. In turn, these pressures have accelerated the destruction of productive, assimilative, and regenerative capacities of the ecosystems, which are essential for the well-being of the people and the economy. This paper describes the structure and function of major ecosystem types in Turkey and discusses the underlying causes of environmental degradation in the framework of economy, energy, environment, and ethics. From a national perspective, this paper suggests three sustainability-based policies necessary for Turkey's long-term interests that balance economic, environmental, and energy goals: (1) decoupling economic growth from energy consumption growth through the development of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies; (2) linking economic efficiency and distributive justice of wealth and power through distributive and participatory public policies; and (3) integrating the economic and ecological systems through the internalization of externalities and ecosystem rehabilitation.
Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Secher, N H; Kehlet, H
clinical trials and cited studies, comparing two different fixed fluid volumes on post-operative clinical outcome in major surgery. Studies were assessed for the type of surgery, primary and secondary outcome endpoints, the type and volume of administered fluid and the definition of the perioperative...... found differences in the selected outcome parameters. CONCLUSION: Liberal vs. restrictive fixed-volume regimens are not well defined in the literature regarding the definition, methodology and results, and lack the use of or information on evidence-based standardized perioperative care-principles (fast...... for fluid therapy and outcome endpoints were inconsistently defined and only two studies reported perioperative care principles and discharge criteria. Three studies found an improved outcome (morbidity/hospital stay) with a restrictive fluid regimen whereas two studies found no difference and two studies...
Ko, Hanjo; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D
There is emerging evidence related to the effects of nitrous oxide on important perioperative patient outcomes. Proposed mechanisms include metabolic effects linked to elevated homocysteine levels and endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein formation, and depression of chemotactic migration by monocytes. Newer large studies point to possible risks associated with the use of nitrous oxide, although data are often equivocal and inconclusive. Cardiovascular outcomes such as stroke or myocardial infarction were shown to be unchanged in previous studies, but the more recent Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia I trial shows possible associations between nitrous oxide and increased cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. There are also possible effects on postoperative wound infections and neuropsychological function, although the multifactorial nature of these complications should be considered. Teratogenicity linked to nitrous oxide use has not been firmly established. The use of nitrous oxide for routine anesthetic care may be associated with significant costs if complications such as nausea, vomiting, and wound infections are taken into consideration. Overall, definitive data regarding the effect of nitrous oxide on major perioperative outcomes are lacking. There are ongoing prospective studies that may further elucidate its role. The use of nitrous oxide in daily practice should be individualized to each patient's medical conditions and risk factors.
Michael R. Greenberg
Full Text Available Sustainability is rapidly becoming a widely accepted and desired attitude, as well as a stimulus for both environmentally-conscious individuals and firm behavior. However, does the public interest in sustainability also extend to large U.S. federal agencies? Does the public care about on-site sustainability programs? To answer this question, we surveyed 922 people who live within 50 miles of one of four U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE major facilities: Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Only 14% expressed no interest in DOE’s on-site sustainability efforts. Five percent said that they were interested enough to join a local community group to provide feedback to the DOE; 49% were interested and wanted more information, as well as interaction with the DOE’s site-specific advisory boards or local elected officials. Compared to other DOE on-site activities, respondents rated sustainability as “somewhat important”. Native Americans who live near a site, are familiar with it and self-identify as interested in environmental protection disproportionately belong to the “most interested” category. We conclude that public interest is sufficient to merit outreach by DOE to involve interested and knowledgeable local residents in on-site sustainability plans.
O. N. Boitsova
Full Text Available The number of perioperative monitoring methods is constantly increasing due to the achievements of modern science. However, an increasing number of indicators for monitoring and introduction of the newest monitoring systems was not enough to guarantee the exclusion of perioperative complications. Standard monitoring allows us to control the most common characteristics of homeostasis, the internal environment of the body, which are only a belated reflection of changes in energy-structural activity in the mass of cells in the patient's organism. Therefore, the life expectancy of operated patients does not reach the average life expectancy of the population. Aim. Improvement in treatment results of patients with acute abdominal surgical pathology, by energy-protective perioperative management, based on personified energy-structural monitoring. Materials and methods. The research was performed on the results of the study of energy-protective ability, anesthetic management and perioperative intensive care of 317 patients with acute abdominal surgical pathology. At all the stages of anesthesia management we analyzed the oxygen regime features, acid-base and water-electrolyte status, basal metabolic rate, indicators of oxygen transport, central hemodynamics and microcirculation, reliability of energy-structural activity (ESA, its properties, reserves and possibilities for autoregulation. Brain ischemia markers levels, neurospecific proteins S100 and NSE (neuron specific enolase were additionally determined in venous blood serum by enzyme immunoassay at the main stages of monitoring. Results. A close correlation has been established between early manifestations of neurons and glial cells damage and energy-structural changes in patient's organism. The strongest correlation is observed between energy-osmolar autoregulation and levels of cerebral ischemia markers (p<0,01. Inclusion of energy-structural activity, its properties, reserves, efficiency of
Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R
Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Silva, Marcelina Jasmine; Rubinstein, Andrea
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity. However, several recent studies have called this practice into question. At our institution, we continue buprenorphine perioperatively, whenever possible, in order to provide superior pain control, discourage potentially problematic use and the more dangerous side effects of full mu agonist opiates, and avoid putting recovery at risk for those with opiate dependency issues. We present a unique case comparing two different outcomes for the same surgical course performed at two different times on the same chronic pain patient. These differences may be attributable to the variable of buprenorphine being present for one perioperative course and not the other. Pain control was easier to achieve, and functional recovery was greater when buprenorphine was maintained throughout the perioperative period when compared with using a full mu agonist opioid for chronic pain preoperatively. This is an outcome that much of the literature heretofore suggests would be unlikely. We review some aspects of
Maynard, Andrew A; Burger, Christina F; Schlesinger, Joseph J
To describe the perioperative management of a patient with acquired angioedema (AAE). A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented from an outside hospital with a history of acquired angioedema and gastrointestinal stromal tumor-related intractable urticaria and mastocytosis. He was admitted for urgent laparoscopic partial gastrectomy, secondary to gastric outlet obstruction symptomatology. Previous combined attacks were characterized by a widespread rash, abdominal pain and respiratory distress resulting in hospitalization. Following preoperative consultation with the patient's allergist and a hospital pharmacist, he was treated preoperatively with fresh frozen plasma and his home prednisone dose. C1-inhibitor (Berinert®) was on standby along with epinephrine, given that the underlying etiology (C1- inhibitor deficiency vs histaminergic) was not known. There were no intraoperative complications, and the patient was discharged home 3 days after the procedure. Optimization of perioperative outcomes in patients, especially during urgent or emergent surgery, with a history of angioedema requires the development of a patient-specific perioperative plan, including prophylaxis, rescue therapies and opioid-sparing strategies.
Brumagim, Alan L.; Cann, Cynthia W.
The authors outline an undergraduate exercise to help students more fully understand the environmental and social justice aspects of business sustainability activities. A simple hierarchical framework, based on Maslow's (1943) work, was utilized to help the students understand, analyze, and judge the vast amount of corporate sustainability…
Both patients and caregivers but also treating physicians are concerned about complications along with surgical interventions. A major problem is abrupt cessation of anti-Parkinson medication, which leads to manifold disturbances, sometimes even to an akinetic crisis. There are several means to guarantee continuous dopaminergic stimulation even in patients that are not allowed to take medication orally before they undergo surgery. Amongst others rectally applied levodopa, amantadine infusions, and especially the use of a rotigotine patch are good means to overcome oral intake. Perioperative management is important due to the fact that in Germany alone each year more than 10 000 PD patients undergo surgery. Main reasons for this are fractures, but also elective interventions. Further emergency situations that cause treatment as an inpatient are psychosis, motoric disability, but also pneumonia and cardiovascular disturbances. In contrast PD patients suffer less often from cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Koelmeyer, T D; Beer, B; Mullins, P R
A computer-based analysis of the injury patterns sustained by victims in the DC-10 aircraft that crashed into Mt. Erebus, Antarctica, On November 28, 1979, is presented. The distribution of these injury patterns supports the hypothesis that at impact the plane was in a nose-high attitude with respect to the slope and the impact point was the underside of the rear section of the fuselage.
Manjeet Singh Dhallu
Full Text Available Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease. In this article, we emphasize on early diagnosis and management strategies of neurological disorders in the perioperative period to minimize morbidity and mortality of patients.
Full Text Available Extensive livestock production is a major deforestation driver in the Brazilian Amazon. This study presents an assessment of the economic and environmental feasibility of sustainable livestock intensification in São Félix do Xingu municipality, a deforestation frontier with an area of more than 8.5 million hectares, and home to the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Proposed intensification was limited to approximately three animal units per hectare to avoid negative environmental impacts. Transition costs to sustainable cattle intensification were estimated for thirteen pilot farms taking into account adoption of good agriculture practices, pasture maintenance/restoration, and restoration of environmental liabilities. To move to sustainable intensification practices, a mean total annual investment of US$1335/ha ± US$619/ha would be necessary, varying from US$750 to US$2595/ha. Internal rate of return and net present value estimates indicated that the sustainable livestock intensification approach proposed was profitable in farms with more than 400 hectares of pastureland, but not in those where the pasture areas were smaller than 150 hectares. Livestock sustainable intensification also had the potential to promote social and environmental benefits, including a 54% increase in the number of contract workers, improvement of landowners’ managerial skills, and workers’ training, in addition to avoiding emission of 1.9 Mt CO2eq and sequestration of 0.36 Mt CO2eq. We conclude that the sustainable intensification of pasture areas has the potential to prevent further deforestation in the Amazon while generating social and other environmental benefits.
Pyati, Srinivas; Gan, Tong J
The under-treatment of postoperative pain has been recognised to delay patient recovery and discharge from hospital. Despite recognition of the importance of effective pain control, up to 70% of patients still complain of moderate to severe pain postoperatively. The mechanistic approach to pain management, based on current understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in nociceptive transmission, provides newer options for clinicians to manage pain effectively. In this article we review the rationale for a multimodal approach with combinations of analgesics from different classes and different sites of analgesic administration. The pharmacological options of commonly used analgesics, such as opioids, NSAIDs, paracetamol, tramadol and other non-opioid analgesics, and their combinations is discussed. These analgesics have been shown to provide effective pain relief and their combinations demonstrate a reduction in opioid consumption. The basis for using non-opioid analgesic adjuvants is to reduce opioid consumption and consequently alleviate opioid-related adverse effects. We review the evidence on the opioid-sparing effect of ketamine, clonidine, gabapentin and other novel analgesics in perioperative pain management. Most available data support the addition of these adjuvants to routine analgesic techniques to reduce the need for opioids and improve quality of analgesia by their synergistic effect. Local anaesthetic infiltration, epidural and other regional techniques are also used successfully to enhance perioperative analgesia after a variety of surgical procedures. The use of continuous perineural techniques that offer prolonged analgesia with local anaesthetic infusion has been extended to the care of patients beyond hospital discharge. The use of nonpharmacological options such as acupuncture, relaxation, music therapy, hypnosis and transcutaneous nerve stimulation as adjuvants to conventional analgesia should be considered and incorporated to
Eeles, Alex; Baikady, Ravishankar Rao
Anaemia and allogeneic blood transfusions in surgical patients are associated with poor outcomes. Patient blood management (PBM) has been developed as an evidence-based clinical tool, by which clinicians can optimise anaemia, manage peri-operative bleeding, avoid unnecessary blood transfusion and improve patient outcome. This article aims to highlight the recent updates regarding evidence-based PBM in the perioperative period, following a thorough literature review involving original research articles, published guidelines and consensus documents discovered through an extensive PubMed and Medline search. PBM addresses three main pillars of the patient's journey through the pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative periods. PBM encourages a restrictive approach to transfusion of blood products and promotes alternatives to blood transfusion to maximise clinical efficacy while minimising risks. Anaemia has been identified as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes. PBM highlights the importance of treating anaemia in the pre-operative period. Major elective surgery may be postponed until anaemia is corrected preoperatively. The intra-operative approach to PBM is a collaborative effort between the anaesthesia, surgery and transfusion laboratory teams. Use of tranexamic acid, meticulous haemostasis and cell salvage techniques play an important role during the intra-operative management of surgical and traumatic haemorrhage. Point-of-care coagulation tests with visco-elastographic methods and haemoglobin measurement ensure that the transfusion prescription is tailored to a patient. In the post-operative period, PBM highlights the need for patients to be optimised before discharge from the hospital. Implementation of the PBM has been shown to have individual health as well as economic benefits.
RALUCA IOANA OPREA
Full Text Available The Arab world particularities are not solely the ones derived from natural wealth (oil and gas, but are also driven from historical particularities which mark this region, together with specific Islamic politics and economic organizational framework, with deep roots in religious concepts. In a global context, where the rules from the West are the ones leading globalization, the Arab World brings its contribution, even though the Islamic space defines a different socio-economic concept. In the East lies a series of features that place the Arab world in a different plan than the one shown frequently in the discussions about world order, with geopolitical but also economic implications. Conflicts in this region lead to declining sustainable development and trigger the need to strengthen the economic resilience. As the least peaceful region of the contemporary world, Arab World integrated the concept of economic resilience, in order to recover from shocks and continue further development.
Bräuer, Anselm; Perl, Thorsten; English, Michael J M; Quintel, Michael
Perioperative hypothermia remains a common problem during anesthesia and surgery. Unfortunately, the implementation of new minimally invasive surgical procedures has not lead to a reduction of this problem. Heat losses from the skin can be reduced by thermal insulation to avoid perioperative hypothermia. However, only a small amount of information is available regarding the physical properties of insulating materials used in the Operating Room (OR). Therefore, several materials using validated manikins were tested. Heat loss from the surface of the manikin can be described as:"Q = h . DeltaT . A" where Q = heat flux, h = heat exchange coefficient, DeltaT = temperature gradient between the environment and surface, and A = covered area. Heat flux per unit area and surface temperature were measured with calibrated heat flux transducers. Environmental temperature was measured using a thermoanemometer. The temperature gradient between the surface and environment (DeltaT) was varied and "h" was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of "DeltaT" versus heat flux per unit area. The reciprocal of the heat exchange coefficient defines the insulation. The insulation values of the materials varied between 0.01 Clo (plastic bag) to 2.79 Clo (2 layers of a hospital duvet). Given the range of insulating materials available for outdoor activities, significant improvement in insulation of patients in the OR is both possible and desirable.
The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.
Nielsen, Hans Jørgen
Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....
Full Text Available Hyperglycemia has long been recognized to have detrimental effects on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery. The manifestations of uncontrolled diabetes are manifold and can include risk of hyperglycemic crises, postoperative infection, poor wound healing, and increased mortality. There is substantial literature supporting the role of diligent glucose control in the prevention of adverse surgical outcomes, but considerable debate remains as to the optimal glucose targets. Hence, most organizations advocate the avoidance of hypoglycemia while striving for adequate glucose control in the perioperative period. These objectives can be accomplished with careful preoperative evaluation, clear patient instructions the day of surgery, frequent blood glucose monitoring during the perioperative period, and use of effective strategies for insulin initiation and titration. This article highlights the major issues concerning patients with diabetes undergoing surgery and reviews the management recommendations put forth by general consensus guidelines and expert opinion.
Timothy H Rainer
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. RESULTS: 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17, and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12. Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: -1.2, 3.6 and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: -0.4, 95% CI: -3.2, 2.4 compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: -2.1, 2.8 or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: -0.8, 4.5. CONCLUSION: The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions.
Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J
Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wahbi, Karim; Babuty, Dominique; Probst, Vincent; Wissocque, Ludivine; Labombarda, Fabien; Porcher, Raphaël; Bécane, Henri Marc; Lazarus, Arnaud; Béhin, Anthony; Laforêt, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Clementy, Nicolas; Dussauge, Aurélie Pattier; Gourraud, Jean Baptiste; Pereon, Yann; Lacour, Arnaud; Chapon, Françoise; Milliez, Paul; Klug, Didier; Eymard, Bruno; Duboc, Denis
To describe the incidence and identify predictors of sudden death (SD), major conduction defects and sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We retrospectively enrolled 1388 adults with DM1 referred to six French medical centres between January 2000 and October 2013. We confirmed their vital status, classified all deaths, and determined the incidence of major conduction defects requiring permanent pacing and sustained VTA. We searched for predictors of overall survival, SD, major conduction defects, and sustained VTA by Cox regression analysis. Over a median 10-year follow-up, 253 (18.2%) patients died, 39 (3.6%) suddenly. Analysis of the cardiac rhythm at the time of the 39 SD revealed sustained VTA in 9, asystole in 5, complete atrioventricular block in 1 and electromechanical dissociation in two patients. Non-cardiac causes were identified in the five patients with SD who underwent autopsies. Major conduction defects developed in 143 (19.3%) and sustained VTA in 26 (2.3%) patients. By Cox regression analysis, age, family history of SD and left bundle branch block were independent predictors of SD, while age, male sex, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, syncope, and atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of major conduction defects; non-sustained VTA was the only predictor of sustained VTA. SD was a frequent mode of death in DM1, with multiple mechanisms involved. Major conduction defects were by far more frequent than sustained VTA, whose only independent predictor was a personal history of non-sustained VTA. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01136330.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.
Irizarry-Alvarado, Joan M; Seim, Lynsey A
The prevalence of anticoagulant use has increased in the United States. Medical providers have the responsibility to explain to patients the management of anticoagulant regimens before an invasive procedure. The pharmacologic characteristics of these medications-specifically, their half-lives-are important in timing an interruption of anticoagulant therapy. The authors review the current guidelines and recommendations for therapeutic interruption of anticoagulants and the involved pharmacologic factors. Guidelines and other literature are summarized with discussion of the pharmacology of each medication. Recommendations on how and when to provide bridging for anticoagulants are discussed. Newer oral anticoagulants also are discussed, as well as interruption recommendations. Literature reveals a conservative approach at using bridging when anticoagulation is interrupted because of higher risks of bleeding. Caution is advised when resuming anticoagulant therapy when neuraxial anesthesia is used. Perioperative healthcare providers need to balance risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapy with its interruption preoperatively. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Polomano, Rosemary C; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kwon, Kyung H; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Rupprecht, Christine; Goldberg, Cynthia; Gallagher, Rollin M
Examine response patterns to low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine continuous infusions on multiple pain outcomes, and demonstrate effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of ketamine administration on general wards. Retrospective case series of consecutive patients given low-dose IV ketamine continuous infusions. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Nineteen eligible inpatients with neuropathic pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat with inadequate pain control from multimodal analgesia. A 3-day IV infusion of ketamine at doses ≤ 120 μg/kg/h. Daily present (PPI), average (API), and worst (WPI) pain intensity (0-10), global pain relief (GPR) (1 "no relief" to 5 "complete relief"), daily assessments of adverse events, and daily opioid requirements measured during therapy. A significant reduction in PPI (P injury pain were safe and effective, and demonstrated response patterns over time and by baseline pain score stratification and presence or absence of PLP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Myers, Rachel E
Nursing has long been regarded as a stress-filled profession; the perioperative environment in particular is considered especially challenging. Chronic stress and burnout may have detrimental effects not only on perioperative nurses but also on their coworkers, employers, and patients. Nurses often sacrifice their own needs to care for others. Nurses must first take care of themselves, however, to sustain their optimal ability to provide care for patients. The cultivation of mindfulness is one way that perioperative nurses may promote self-care and well-being. This article discusses mindfulness and its history, the potential benefits and applications to perioperative nursing, and suggestions for cultivating mindfulness. Mindfulness research, practice, and education and the implications of mindfulness meditation in the perioperative environment are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We conducted a pharmaco-economic analysis of the prospective peri-operative studies of beta-blocker and statin administration for major elective non-cardiac surgery, using the Discovery Health claims costs for 2004. This analysis shows that acute peri-operative beta-blockade and statin therapy could result in a cost ...
Wahba, R W
The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia.
Fu, Huiqun; Fan, Long; Wang, Tianlong
The extrinsic risk factors for postoperative cognitive disturbance have been a source of concern during the perioperative period, and these risk factors remain the subject of controversy. This review of recent studies focuses on the effect of these factors on postoperative cognitive disturbance during the perioperative period. Impairment of cerebral autoregulation may predispose patients to intraoperative cerebral malperfusion, which may subsequently induce postoperative cognitive disturbance. The neurotoxicity of several volatile anesthetics may contribute to cognitive functional decline, and the impact of intravenous anesthesia on cognitive function requires further exploration. Multimodal analgesia may not outperform traditional postoperative analgesia in preventing postoperative delirium. Furthermore, acute pain and chronic pain may exacerbate the cognitive functional decline of patients with preexisting cognitive impairment. The nuclear factor-kappa beta pathway is an important node in the neuroinflammatory network. Several intraoperative factors are associated with postoperative cognitive disturbance. However, if these factors are optimized in perioperative management, postoperative cognitive disturbance will improve.
Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Afshari, Arash; Albaladejo, Pierre
and stabilisation of the macro- and microcirculations in order to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Third, targeted procoagulant interventions to reduce the amount of bleeding, morbidity, mortality and costs. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject......The aims of severe perioperative bleeding management are three-fold. First, preoperative identification by anamesis and laboratory testing of those patients for whom the perioperative bleeding risk may be increased. Second, implementation of strategies for correcting preoperative anaemia...
Mariscal, A; Medrano, I Hernández; Cánovas, A Alonso; Lobo, E; Loinaz, C; Vela, L; Espiga, P García-Ruiz; Castrillo, J C Martínez
One of the particular characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the wide clinical variation as regards the treatment that can be found in the same patient. This occurs with specific treatment for PD, as well as with other drug groups that can make motor function worse. For this reason, the perioperative management of PD requires experience and above all appropriate planning. In this article, the peculiarities of PD and its treatment are reviewed, and a strategy is set out for the perioperative management of these patients. Copyright Â© 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Background: Airway-related problems account for the majority of anaesthetic morbidity in paediatric anaesthesia, but more so for cleft lip and palate repair. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, pattern, management and outcome of adverse airway events during the perioperative period in cleft lip and palate ...
Dainer-Best, Justin; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M; Beevers, Christopher G
This study investigated the link between self-reference and attentional engagement in adults with (n=22) and without (HC; n=24) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants completed the Self-Referent Encoding Task (SRET). MDD participants endorsed significantly fewer positive words and more negative words as self-descriptive than HC participants. A whole-scalp data analysis technique revealed that the MDD participants had larger difference wave (negative words minus positive words) ERP amplitudes from 380 to 1000ms across posterior sites, which positively correlated with number of negative words endorsed. No group differences were observed for earlier attentional components (P1, P2). The results suggest that among adults with MDD, negative stimuli capture attention during later information processing; this engagement is associated with greater self-referent endorsement of negative adjectives. Sustained cognitive engagement for self-referent negative stimuli may be an important target for neurocognitive depression interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Groh, J; Van Aken, H; Peter, K
Due to the recent development in operative medicine medical and organizational demands on perioperative patient care have changed significantly. Corresponding to the responsibility of the operative colleagues for therapy of the primary disease, anesthesiologists have to account for monitoring and treatment of vital functions throughout the perioperative period, starting from preoperative evaluation until postoperative care. The postanesthesia recovery unit has a key role in perioperative management. Beyond post-operative monitoring and stabilization of vital parameters it is increasingly used as a buffer and switch operating station, where patients are prepared and allocated to a normal ward, an observation or intensive care unit for subsequent postoperative care. The recovery unit has developed to a "multitasking" care center, which should be operational 24 h a day with an anesthesiologist present during working hours. The terminology should be changed in the future in order to better characterize the new task spectrum, e.g. in perioperative anaesthetic care unit (PACU) for medical and medicolegal reasons patient security must have absolute priority above economic aspects. Effective postoperative pain control using epidural or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia may increase patient comfort and reduce postoperative complications caused by sympathoadrenergic activation. Both method can be safely used on normal wards provided that close cooperation and training of ward personnel is guaranteed as well as continuous supervision by a specialized acute pain service.
Woelber, L.; Jung, S.; Eulenburg, C.; Mueller, V.; Schwarz, J.; Jaenicke, F.; Mahner, S.
Background: Despite radical surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cancer, the majority of patients develop recurrent disease. Secondary cytoreductive surgery can result in favourable outcome in selected patients, but information regarding feasibility, safety and perioperative outcome of
Apugo, Danielle L.
This article explores the use of peer relationships among graduate millennial Black women (GMBW) in majority white urban universities as methods of mentorship and sustainability. Though informally constructed, the women in this study purposed their peer relationships to fill a void often satisfied through formal mentor relationships. Findings from…
The relevant literature since the 1940s has been collected from the Medline database, using the keywords: child, operation, anxiety, distress, postoperative complications, preparation, premedication, parental presence, prevention. Preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative behavior changes are all manifestations of psychological distress in children undergoing surgery. Preoperative anxiety is most prominent during anaesthesia induction. Emergence delirium is frequent and somewhat independent of pain levels. Postoperative behavior changes most often include separation anxiety, tantrums, fear of strangers, eating problems, nightmares, night terrors and bedwetting. These difficulties tend to resolve themselves with time but can last up to one year in some children. The major risk factors for postoperative behavior problems are young age, prior negative experience with hospitals or medical care, certain kinds of hospitalization, postoperative pain, parental anxiety, and certain personality traits of the child. Currently, tools exist for quantifying anxiety (m-YPAS) and postoperative behavior (PHBQ). It is possible to identify those children who are at risk for postoperative complications during the preanaesthesia consultation by paying close attention to children under six years with higher levels of emotionality and impulsivity and poorer socialization skills with anxious parents. Suggested strategies for reducing child distress include preoperative preparation, premedication, parental presence during anaesthesia induction, and interventions affecting the child's environment, such as hypnosis. There are numerous ways to provide preoperative preparation (information, modeling, role playing, encouraging effective coping) and their effectiveness is proven in the preoperative setting but not during anaesthesia induction or in the operating room. Midazolam has been shown to be an effective preoperative sedative for reducing anxiety. Parental presence
Leung, Alexander A; McAlister, Finlay A; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Bates, David W
The prognostic implications of preoperative hypernatremia are unknown. We sought to determine whether preoperative hypernatremia is a predictor of 30-day perioperative morbidity and mortality. We conducted a cohort study using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and identified 908,869 adult patients undergoing major surgery from approximately 300 hospitals from the years 2005 to 2010. We followed the patients for 30-day perioperative outcomes, which included death, major coronary events, wound infections, pneumonia, and venous thromboembolism. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of 30-day perioperative outcomes. The 20,029 patients (2.2%) with preoperative hypernatremia (>144 mmol/L) were compared with the 888,840 patients with a normal baseline sodium (135-144 mmol/L). Hypernatremia was associated with a higher odds for 30-day mortality (5.2% vs 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.56), and this finding was consistent in all subgroups. The odds increased according to the severity of hypernatremia (P 148 mmol/L] categories). Furthermore, hypernatremia was associated with a greater odds for perioperative major coronary events (1.6% vs 0.7%; aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.32), pneumonia (3.4% vs 1.5%; aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.34), and venous thromboembolism (1.8% vs 0.9%; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.42). Preoperative hypernatremia is associated with increased perioperative 30-day morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Tom; Nicholson, Amanda; Hovhannisyan, Karen
of hypoxaemia reduce morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period.3. Use of pulse oximetry per se reduces morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period.4. Use of pulse oximetry reduces unplanned respiratory admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU), decreases the length of ICU readmission or both....... SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2013), EMBASE (1980 to June 2013), CINAHL (1982 to June 2013), ISI Web of Science (1956 to June 2013), LILACS (1982 to June 2013) and databases of ongoing trials; we also....... Results indicated that hypoxaemia was reduced in the pulse oximetry group, both in the operating theatre and in the recovery room. During observation in the recovery room, the incidence of hypoxaemia in the pulse oximetry group was 1.5 to three times less. Postoperative cognitive function was independent...
Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Ahmed, Aamer B; Afshari, Arash
healthcare professionals with an overview of the most recent evidence to help ensure improved clinical management of patients. For this update, electronic databases were searched without language restrictions from 2011 or 2012 (depending on the search) until 2015. These searches produced 18 334 articles. All......: The management of perioperative bleeding involves multiple assessments and strategies to ensure appropriate patient care. Initially, it is important to identify those patients with an increased risk of perioperative bleeding. Next, strategies should be employed to correct preoperative anaemia...... articles were assessed and the existing 2013 guidelines were revised to take account of new evidence. This update includes revisions to existing recommendations with respect to the wording, or changes in the grade of recommendation, and also the addition of new recommendations. The final draft guideline...
Renew, J Ross
Coronary artery disease is a common comorbidity encountered during the perioperative period. Whether patients are scheduled for cardiac or noncardiac surgery, this cardiovascular disease must be addressed in the preoperative period to decrease the accompanying risks and potential postoperative problems. Lipid-lowering medications are often used to treat hyperlipidemia, a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. To discuss the medications most commonly used to treat hyperlipidemia and to describe strategies for handling these treatment regimens in the perioperative period. I conducted an online search of studies and review articles through PubMed and Medline that addressed pharmacology and perioperative management of hyperlipidemia medications. Statins are the most commonly prescribed lipid-lowering agents, with benefits that extend beyond correcting lipid levels. However, statins can have clinically significant adverse effects that may necessitate the use of other lipid-lowering medications with different mechanisms of action. Alternative medications such as nicotinic acid and omega-3 fatty acids should be withheld in the preoperative period because these agents have been associated with hypotension and increased bleeding. Clinicians must be familiar with the various lipid-lowering agents because it is very likely they will encounter such medications during preoperative visits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Martin, Karen K
The staffing challenges faced by perioperative nurse managers today are not easily met by waiting for experienced perioperative nurses to apply for positions. As Baby Boomer nurses retire, managers must consider hiring and orienting new graduates and nurses experienced in other subspecialties who are interested in working in the OR. An effective didactic and clinical education program can produce nurses with a basic perioperative knowledge from which they can build a solid clinical practice. Using Periop 101: A Core Curriculum™, the director of perioperative services at a level II trauma center implemented a successful program to solve a staffing need and help students gain the knowledge and skills necessary to become effective perioperative nurses. Strong interest from capable applicants, a dedicated educator, and financial resources and support from hospital administrators helped make this program a viable way to staff the OR. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jorinde AW Polderman, Robert van Wilpe, Jan H Eshuis, Benedikt Preckel, Jeroen Hermanides Department of Anaesthesiology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Given the growing number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and the growing number of surgical procedures performed in an ambulatory setting, DM is one of the most encountered comorbidities in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Perioperative management of ambulatory patients with DM requires a different approach than patients undergoing major surgery, as procedures are shorter and the stress response caused by surgery is minimal. However, DM is a risk factor for postoperative complications in ambulatory surgery, so should be managed carefully. Given the limited time ambulatory patients spend in the hospital, improvement in management has to be gained from the preanesthetic assessment. The purpose of this review is to summarize current literature regarding the anesthesiologic management of patients with DM in the ambulatory setting. We will discuss the risks of perioperative hyperglycemia together with the pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations for these patients when encountered in an ambulatory setting. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for the optimal perioperative management of the diabetic patient undergoing ambulatory surgery. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, perioperative period, ambulatory surgery, insulin, complications, GLP-1 agonist, DPP-4 inhibitor
Ahuja, Kartikya; Charap, Mitchell H
Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. This risk is well known to extend into the perioperative period. Although most perioperative hypertension can be managed with the patient's outpatient regimen, there are situations in which oral medications cannot be administered and parenteral medications become necessary. They include postoperative nil per os status, severe pancreatitis, and mechanical ventilation. This article reviews the management of perioperative hypertensive urgency with parenteral medications. A PubMed search was conducted by cross-referencing the terms "perioperative hypertension," "hypertensive urgency," "hypertensive emergency," "parenteral anti-hypertensive," and "medication." The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1970 and 2008. Subsequent PubMed searches were performed to clarify data from the initial search. As patients with hypertensive urgency are not at great risk for target-organ damage (TOD), continuous infusions that require intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring and intraarterial catheters seem to be unnecessary and a possible misuse of resources. When oral therapy cannot be administered, patients with hypertensive urgency can have their blood pressure (BP) reduced with hydralazine, enalaprilat, metoprolol, or labetalol. Due to the scarcity of comparative trials looking at clinically significant outcomes, the medication should be chosen based on comorbidity, efficacy, toxicity, and cost.
Miller, Timothy E.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Mythen, Michael G; Gan, Tong J
The 1st POQI Consensus Conference occurred in Durham, NC, on March 4?5, 2016, and was supported by the American Society of Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Evidence-Based Perioperative Medicine (EBPOM). The conference focused on enhanced recovery for colorectal surgery and discussed four topics?perioperative analgesia, perioperative fluid management, preventing nosocomial infection, and measurement and quality in enhanced recovery pathways.
Dyke, Cornelius; Aronson, Solomon; Dietrich, Wulf; Hofmann, Axel; Karkouti, Keyvan; Levi, Marcel; Murphy, Gavin J.; Sellke, Frank W.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; von Heymann, Christian; Ranucci, Marco
Perioperative bleeding is common among patients undergoing cardiac surgery; however, the definition of perioperative bleeding is variable and lacks standardization. We propose a universal definition for perioperative bleeding (UDPB) in adult cardiac surgery in an attempt to precisely describe and
Aithal, B. H.
Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and
Willis, Simon; Bordelon, Gregory J; Rana, Maunak V
Obesity has increased in incidence worldwide. Along with the increased number of obese patients, comorbid conditions are also more prevalent in this population. Obesity leads to changes in the physiology of patients along with an altered response to pharmacologic therapy. Vigilant perioperative physicians must be aware of the unique characteristics of administered agents in order to appropriately provide anesthetic care for obese patients. Because of the variability in tissue content in obese patients and changes in pharmacokinetic modeling, a one-size-fits-all approach is not justified and a more sophisticated and prudent approach is indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poor communication in the perioperative setting contributes to an unsafe OR culture and affects patient safety and employee engagement, decision making, productivity, morale, and retention. Communication breakdowns can lead to surgical delays, patient inconvenience, and serious errors. Simplification and standardization of communication processes and the use of effective communication skills (eg, clear verbal communication, awareness of the effects of nonverbal communication, use of listening and conflict management skills) are ways to improve OR interactions and minimize or prevent errors. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Niesen, Adam D; Jacob, Adam K; Aho, Lucyna E; Botten, Emily J; Nase, Karen E; Nelson, Julia M; Kopp, Sandra L
The occurrence of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder is unclear. There are several factors unique to the perioperative period that may increase a patient's risk of perioperative seizures, including medications administered, timing of medication administration, missed doses of antiepileptic medications, and sleep deprivation. We designed this retrospective chart review to evaluate the frequency of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with a documented history of a seizure disorder who received an anesthetic between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007. Patients excluded from this study include those who had an outpatient procedure or intracranial procedure, ASA classification of V, pregnant women, and patients younger than 2 years of age. The first hospital admission of at least 24 hours during which an anesthetic was provided was identified for each patient. Patient demographics, character of the seizure disorder, details of the surgical procedure, and clinically apparent seizure activity in the perioperative period (within 3 days after the anesthetic) were recorded. During the 6-year study period, 641 patients with a documented seizure disorder were admitted for at least 24 hours after an anesthetic. Twenty-two patients experienced perioperative seizure activity for an overall frequency of 3.4%(95% confidence interval, 2.2%-5.2%). The frequency of preoperative seizures (P seizure (P seizure. As the number of antiepileptic medications increased, so did the frequency of perioperative seizures (P seizures in this patient population. We conclude that the majority of perioperative seizures in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder are likely related to the patient's underlying condition. The frequency of seizures is not influenced by the type of anesthesia or procedure. Because patients with frequent seizures at baseline are
Alcock, Richard F; Naoum, Chris; Aliprandi-Costa, Bernadette; Hillis, Graham S; Brieger, David B
Cardiovascular complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery, with adverse cardiac outcomes estimated to occur in approximately 4% of all patients. Anti-platelet therapy withdrawal may precede up to 10% of acute cardiovascular syndromes, with withdrawal in the peri-operative setting incompletely appraised. The aims of our study were to determine the proportion of patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery currently prescribed anti-platelet therapy, and identify current practice in peri-operative management. In addition, the relationship between management of anti-platelet therapy and peri-operative cardiac risk was assessed. We evaluated consecutive patients attending elective non-cardiac surgery at a major tertiary referral centre. Clinical and biochemical data were collected and analysed on patients currently prescribed anti-platelet therapy. Peri-operative management of anti-platelet therapy was compared with estimated peri-operative cardiac risk. Included were 2950 consecutive patients, with 516 (17%) prescribed anti-platelet therapy, primarily for ischaemic heart disease. Two hundred and eighty nine (56%) patients had all anti-platelet therapy ceased in the peri-operative period, including 49% of patients with ischaemic heart disease and 46% of patients with previous coronary stenting. Peri-operative cardiac risk score did not influence anti-platelet therapy management. Approximately 17% of patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery are prescribed anti-platelet therapy, the predominant indication being for ischaemic heart disease. Almost half of all patients with previous coronary stenting had no anti-platelet therapy during the peri-operative period. The decision to cease anti-platelet therapy, which occurred commonly, did not appear to be guided by peri-operative cardiac risk stratification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seim, Lynsey A; Irizarry-Alvarado, Joan M
No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers. A review was done on the current guideline and available literature for the mechanisms of action and perioperative management of OCPs, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and antineoplastic hormonal modulators. Available guidelines and literature were reviewed and summarized. Based on the available literature, no definite guidelines have been established for perioperative management of OCPs and HRT. However, manufacturers have recommended that these medications should be held perioperatively. Other antineoplastic hormonal modulators have increased the risk of venous thromboembolism and have perioperative implications that should be discussed with the prescribing physicians and addressed with the patient. Until additional studies are performed, the risks and benefits must be weighed on an individual basis with consideration of prophylaxis when a decision is made to continue these medications in the perioperative period. Part of this decision making includes the risk of fetal harm in an unwanted pregnancy in preparation for nonobstetric surgery versus an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The growing prevalence of atherosclerosis means that perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is of significant concern to anesthesiologists. Perioperative revascularization (if indicated medically), beta blockade (in high risk patients) and statin therapy are therapeutic modalities that are currently employed to reduce PMI.
Davis, Sean; Babidge, Wendy; Kiermeier, Andreas; Aitken, Robert; Maddern, Guy
Bariatric surgery is the most effective method of sustainable weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. Low mortality associated with these procedures has been reported internationally; however, Australian outcomes are yet to be published. Despite its efficacy, limited access to bariatric surgery exists in Australian public hospitals. This retrospective data analysis was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, to determine the perioperative mortality rate (POMR) associated with bariatric procedures in Australia, and secondly, to compare public and private hospital bariatric surgery admission demographics and outcomes. A retrospective review of de-identified patient data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database, held by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), was conducted using codes relating to bariatric procedures. POMR calculations were established using AIHW admission data from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2013. From 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2013, 113,929 patient admissions occurred for patients undergoing a bariatric procedure. Thirty-nine deaths occurred nationally, with an overall average POMR of 0.03%. A higher POMR was associated with public admissions and secondary procedures. A higher proportion of secondary procedures were performed in public hospitals. Primary bariatric procedure incidence increased throughout the study period while secondary bariatric procedure incidence decreased. This study demonstrates the Australian bariatric procedure POMR to be substantially lower than internationally reported figures. Public hospitals were shown to perform far fewer bariatric procedures at a higher POMR than private hospitals. Public hospitals performed a higher proportion of secondary revision procedures.
Duncan, Andra E.
Hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. Surgical patients commonly develop hyperglycemia related to the hypermetabolic stress response, which increases glucose production and causes insulin resistance. Although hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcomes, the treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin infusions has not provided consistent benefits. Despite early results, which suggested decreased mortality and other advantages of “tight” glucose control, later investigations found no benefit or increased mortality when hyperglycemia was aggressively treated with insulin. Because of these conflicting data, the optimal glucose concentration to improve outcomes in critically ill patients is unknown. There is agreement, however, that hypoglycemia is an undesirable complication of intensive insulin therapy and should be avoided. In addition, the risk of increased glucose variability should be recognized, because of the associated increased risk for worse outcomes. Patients with diabetes mellitus experience chronic hyperglycemia and often require more intensive perioperative glucose management. When diabetic patients are evaluated before surgery, appropriate management of oral hypoglycemic agents is necessary as several of these agents warrant special consideration. Current recommendations for perioperative glucose management from national societies are varied, but, most suggest that tight glucose control may not be beneficial, while mild hyperglycemia appears to be well-tolerated. PMID:22762467
Full Text Available In the North West of England the issue of a perceived infrastructure gap is of increasing concern. Investment needs to be made to improve the transport infrastructure of the region if it is to be expected to promote the development of its own regional logistics gateway. Funding tools have been set up to address the challenges arising from the imbalance in infrastructure development that exists between regions in the north of the United Kingdom and those in the south. For regions with well developed economies the outlook is promising as the availability of modern transport infrastructure looks set to improve. However, some sources believe that the development of new transport infrastructure will have a negative impact upon sustainable development. It is expected that this will occur in a range of both direct and indirect ways. As a result, it is critical that planning for the creation of new intermodal transport infrastructure, or the upgrading of that which already exists, takes into account the impact that these developments will have on the sustainable development of the host region. A scenario based development methodology is proposed in this paper. It was developed to provide a way to identify potential scenarios that may arise within a given region as a result of transport infrastructure projects. To create significant scenarios the methodology is dependent on the availability of a sufficient quantity of quality data. For this paper that data was collected through a focus group composed of stakeholders from the region in question. This was further supported by the performance of an impact survey using the same group of stakeholders.
Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Noh, Sung Hoon
Purpose The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Materials and Methods Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. Results A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (p60, pnutritional support should be considered. PMID:24142640
Dam, van Y.K.
Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the
Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne
of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 'the broad scope of digital health includes categories such as mobile health (mHealth), health information technology (IT), wearable devices, telehealth and telemedicine, and personalised medicine, and is used by providers and other stakeholders in their efforts to reduce inefficiencies, improve access, reduce costs, increase quality, and make medicine more personalised for patients (FDA 2016). More recently, Paul Sonier, a digital health strategist and founder of the Linkedin digital health group with more than 40,000 members, defined digital health as 'the convergence of the digital and genomic revolutions with health, healthcare, living, and society' (storyofdigitalhealth.com 2016). Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.
Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne
Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...
Mıngır, Tarkan; Ervatan, Zekeriya; Turgut, Namigar
Objective Anxiety is a pathological condition with a feeling of fear accompanied by somatic symptoms due to hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system. In this study, we aimed to compare perioperative anxiety status and the effects of age, gender, educational status, and The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA) score on perioperative anxiety in patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Methods After IRB approval and signed informed consent, 100 healthy patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled. The demographic data of patients and ASA scores were recorded. After spinal anaesthesia, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and anxiety levels were measured. Results The mean anxiety score in patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia indicate the presence of an intermediate level of anxiety (44.58±19.06). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between anxiety scores and age of patients with increased age (p<0.01). Statistically significant differences were found between anxiety scores of patients according to gender, and women’s anxiety scores were found to be significantly higher than in men (p<0.05). Anxiety scores did not differ significantly between education levels. A statistically significant difference was found between anxiety scores regarding ASA scores (p<0.05). Evaluation of patients revealed that the anxiety score of patients with ASA score 1 was significantly higher than the anxiety score of patients with ASA score 2. There was no significant difference between anxiety score of patients with ASA scores 2 and 3. Conclusion There is a mid-level anxiety, associated more with advanced age, female gender, and low ASA score, in patients undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. PMID:27366419
Perioperative epidural analgesia provides continuous pain control and may have advantages over parenteral opiate administration. This study assessed the impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing major surgery.
Ward, Paul R
Many countries of the world have outlined clearly defined and distinct roles, for the perioperative environment, that are played by various individuals from a range of professions. Each of these professions tends to educate its practitioners in an environment that is almost completely isolated from the other perioperative professions and from its peers in other countries. One can only, currently, imagine the potential benefits to be gained from the sharing of educational and clinical experience between countries and between nursing and non-nursing perioperative team members, for both patient and the entire perioperative team. If such a level of sharing existed then the entire global perioperative community would benefit. The transfer of education and clinical practice, however, between countries needs careful thought. Many educational and professional disciplines have conducted research into ways of transferring/borrowing good practice between established systems and those just commencing similar practices. Perioperative practice needs a similar research base that has explored the dilemmas of transfer and borrowing between countries. It is important to determine what information should be shared, in the best interest of the patients, what sharing is affordable, and what method of sharing will fit in to an overall, global, strategy for perioperative practice. This paper seeks to use a recent example of multi-professional perioperative learning undertaken by Advanced Scrub Practitioners to provide a possible first glance in to the "crystal ball" of future practice. The aim of the discussion is to stimulate further discussion and effective research that, if carried out correctly, will seek to encourage interprofessional and international co-operation between perioperative professionals worldwide.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Perioperative pain management has recently been revolutionized with the recognition of novel mechanisms and introduction of newer drugs. Many randomized trials have studied the use of the gabapentinoid anti-epileptic, pregabalin, in acute pain. Published systematic reviews suggest that using pregabalin for perioperative pain management may decrease analgesic requirements and pain scores, at the expense of troublesome side effects. A major limitation of the extant reviews is the lack of rigorous investigation of clinical characteristics that would maximize the benefit harms ratio in favor of surgical patients. We posit that effects of pregabalin for perioperative pain management vary by the type of surgical pain model and propose this systematic review protocol to update previous systematic reviews and investigate the heterogeneity in findings across subgroups of surgical pain models. Methods/Design Using a peer-reviewed search strategy, we will search key databases for clinical trials on perioperative pregabalin use in adults. The electronic searches will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies. No limits of language, country or year will be imposed. Outcomes will include pain; use of co-analgesia, particularly opioids; enhanced recovery; and drug-related harms. We will focus on the identification of surgical models and patient characteristics that have shown benefit and adverse effects from pregabalin. Two clinical experts will independently screen the studies for inclusion using eligibility criteria established a priori. Data extracted by the reviewers will then be verified. Publication bias will be assessed, as will risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Meta-analysis and meta-regression are planned if the studies are deemed statistically, methodologically and clinically homogenous. Evidence will be graded for its strength for a select number of outcomes. Discussion We will explore
Background Perioperative pain management has recently been revolutionized with the recognition of novel mechanisms and introduction of newer drugs. Many randomized trials have studied the use of the gabapentinoid anti-epileptic, pregabalin, in acute pain. Published systematic reviews suggest that using pregabalin for perioperative pain management may decrease analgesic requirements and pain scores, at the expense of troublesome side effects. A major limitation of the extant reviews is the lack of rigorous investigation of clinical characteristics that would maximize the benefit harms ratio in favor of surgical patients. We posit that effects of pregabalin for perioperative pain management vary by the type of surgical pain model and propose this systematic review protocol to update previous systematic reviews and investigate the heterogeneity in findings across subgroups of surgical pain models. Methods/Design Using a peer-reviewed search strategy, we will search key databases for clinical trials on perioperative pregabalin use in adults. The electronic searches will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies. No limits of language, country or year will be imposed. Outcomes will include pain; use of co-analgesia, particularly opioids; enhanced recovery; and drug-related harms. We will focus on the identification of surgical models and patient characteristics that have shown benefit and adverse effects from pregabalin. Two clinical experts will independently screen the studies for inclusion using eligibility criteria established a priori. Data extracted by the reviewers will then be verified. Publication bias will be assessed, as will risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Meta-analysis and meta-regression are planned if the studies are deemed statistically, methodologically and clinically homogenous. Evidence will be graded for its strength for a select number of outcomes. Discussion We will explore the findings of perioperative
Gordon, Adam L; Evans, Barry J; Dhesi, Jugdeep
Life-sustaining and life-improving surgical interventions are increasingly available to older, frailer patients, many of whom have multimorbidity. Physicians can help support perioperative multidisciplinary teams with assessment and preoperative optimisation of physiological reserve, comorbidities and associated geriatric syndromes. Similar structured support can be useful in the postoperative period where older patients are at increased risk of delirium, medical complications, increased functional dependency and where discharge planning can prove more difficult than in younger cohorts. Comprehensive geriatric assessment has been shown to improve outcomes and is now embedded in most UK-based services for traumatic hip fracture. Perioperative comprehensive geriatric assessment has been explored in other surgical disciplines and procedures and, where evaluated, has been associated with improved outcomes. The need to support older patients with frailty undergoing surgery exceeds the capacity of specialist geriatricians. Other groups of healthcare professionals need to nurture the core competencies to support this group perioperatively. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.
McKendy, Katherine M; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lee, Lawrence; Bilgic, Elif; Enani, Ghada; Feldman, Liane S; Fried, Gerald M; Vassiliou, Melina C
Changes in surgical training have raised concerns about residents' operative exposure and preparedness for independent practice. One way of addressing this concern is by optimizing teaching and feedback in the operating room (OR). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on perioperative teaching and feedback. A systematic literature search identified articles from 1994 to 2014 that addressed teaching, feedback, guidance, or debriefing in the perioperative period. Data was extracted according to ENTREQ guidelines, and a qualitative analysis was performed. Thematic analysis of the 26 included studies identified four major topics. Observation of teaching behaviors in the OR described current teaching practices. Identification of effective teaching strategies analyzed teaching behaviors, differentiating positive and negative teaching strategies. Perceptions of teaching behaviors described resident and attending satisfaction with teaching in the OR. Finally models for delivering structured feedback cited examples of feedback strategies and measured their effectiveness. This study provides an overview of perioperative teaching and feedback for surgical trainees and identifies a need for improved quality and quantity of structured feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Repine, John E.
The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent
Wennström, Berith; Hallberg, Lillemor R-M; Bergh, Ingrid
This paper is a report of a study to explore what it means for children to attend hospital for day surgery. Hospitalization is a major stressor for children. Fear of separation, unfamiliar routines, anaesthetic/operation expectations/experiences and pain and needles are sources of children's negative reactions. A grounded theory study was carried out during 2005-2006 with 15 boys and five girls (aged 6-9 years) scheduled for elective day surgery. Data were collected using tape-recorded interviews that included a perioperative dialogue, participant observations and pre- and postoperative drawings. A conceptual model was generated on the basis of the core category 'enduring inflicted hospital distress', showing that the main problem for children having day surgery is that they are forced into an unpredictable and distressful situation. Pre-operatively, the children do not know what to expect, as described in the category 'facing an unknown reality'. Additional categories show that they perceive a 'breaking away from daily routines' and that they are 'trying to gain control' over the situation. During the perioperative period, the categories 'losing control' and 'co-operating despite fear and pain' are present and intertwined. Post-operatively, the categories 'breathing a sigh of relief' and 'regaining normality in life' emerged. The perioperative dialogue used in our study, if translated into clinical practice, might therefore minimize distress and prepare children for the 'unknown' stressor that hospital care often presents. Further research is needed to compare anxiety and stress levels in children undergoing day surgery involving the perioperative dialogue and those having 'traditional' anaesthetic care.
unit (ICU), were studied. All had a confirmed history of coronary artery disease or were at high risk for coronary disease. Subjects were randomly...aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair came after multiple adverse outcomes were attributed to perioperative hypothermia (Bush et al.,1995). A retrospective...aortic aneurysm repair : The high price of avoidable morbidity. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 21, 392-402. Consensus Conference on Perioperative
Alderson, Phil; Campbell, Gillian; Smith, Andrew F; Warttig, Sheryl; Nicholson, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon R
Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia occurs because of interference with normal temperature regulation by anaesthetic drugs and exposure of skin for prolonged periods. A number of different interventions have been proposed to maintain body temperature by reducing heat loss. Thermal insulation, such as extra layers of insulating material or reflective blankets, should reduce heat loss through convection and radiation and potentially help avoid hypothermia. To assess the effects of pre- or intraoperative thermal insulation, or both, in preventing perioperative hypothermia and its complications during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE, OvidSP (1956 to 4 February 2014), EMBASE, OvidSP (1982 to 4 February 2014), ISI Web of Science (1950 to 4 February 2014), and CINAHL, EBSCOhost (1980 to 4 February 2014), and reference lists of articles. We also searched Current Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials of thermal insulation compared to standard care or other interventions aiming to maintain normothermia. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each included study, with a third author checking details. We contacted some authors to ask for additional details. We only collected adverse events if reported in the trials. We included 22 trials, with 16 trials providing data for some analyses. The trials varied widely in the type of patients and operations, the timing and measurement of temperature, and particularly in the types of co-interventions used. The risk of bias was largely unclear, but with a high risk of performance bias in most studies and a low risk of attrition bias. The largest comparison of extra insulation versus standard care had five trials with 353 patients at the end of surgery and showed a weighted mean difference (WMD) of 0.12 ºC (95% CI -0.07 to 0.31; low quality evidence). Comparing extra insulation
Rapoport, Yury; Fox, Charles J; Khade, Parth; Fox, Mary E; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David
Dextrocardia, a term used to describe all varieties of developmental malformations resulting in the positioning of the heart in the right hemithorax, is linked to a number of highly significant cardiac disorders. Current estimates vary tremendously in the literature. Only about 10 % of patients with diagnosed dextroversion show no substantial cardiac pathology; however, the incidence of congenital heart defects associated with dextrocardia is close to 100 %. The majority of studies previously reported include dextrocardia associated with situs inversus and cases of Kartagener syndrome. There is complex embryology and pathogenesis that results in dextrocardia. Physical examinations of the heart, such as percussion and palpation during routine exams, are vitally important initial diagnostic instruments. X-ray, CT scan, echocardiography (ECHO), and MRI are all invaluable imaging modalities to confirm and classify the diagnosis of dextrocardia. In summary, heart malposition is a group of complex pathologic associations within the human body, rather than just a single congenital defect. Clinicians such as anesthesiologists have unique challenges managing patients with dextrocardia. An appreciation of associated pathogenesis, appropriate diagnosis, and management is paramount in ensuring the best outcome for these patients perioperatively.
Chadha, Ryan M; Aniskevich, Stephen; Egan, Brian J
Pain continues to be the most common medical concern, and perioperative health care providers are encountering increasing numbers of patients with chronic pain conditions. It is important to have a clear understanding of how long-term use of pain medications impacts anesthesia during the intraoperative and postoperative periods. To review common medications used to treat chronic pain and summarize current recommendations regarding perioperative care. We reviewed the literature by searching PubMed and Google Scholar for articles from 2000-2016. The search strategy included searching for the various classes of pain medications and including the terms perioperative, anesthesiology, and recommendations. We also reviewed the reference lists of each article to identify other relevant sources regarding the perioperative management of pain medications. After the literature review, we were able to establish the pharmacology, anesthetic interactions, and recommendations for management of each of the common classes of pain medication. Management of postoperative pain is an important concern for all perioperative health care providers. Although most pain medications should be continued in the perioperative period, it is important to preoperatively discontinue those that antagonize pain receptors to avoid significant postoperative morbidities associated with poorly managed pain. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Durand, Wesley M; Johnson, Joseph R; Li, Neill Y; Yang, JaeWon; Eltorai, Adam E M; DePasse, J Mason; Daniels, Alan H
Interhospital competition has been shown to influence the adoption of surgical techniques and approaches, clinical patient outcomes, and health-care resource use for select surgical procedures. However, little is known regarding these dynamics as they relate to spine surgery. This investigation sought to examine the relationship between interhospital competitive intensity and perioperative outcomes following lumbar spinal fusion. This study used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset, years 2003, 2006, and 2009. Patients were included based on the presence of the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes corresponding to lumbar spinal fusion, as well as on the presence of data on the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). The outcome measures are perioperative complications, defined using an ICD-9-CM coding algorithm. The HHI, a validated measure of competition within a market, was used to assess hospital market competitiveness. The HHI was calculated based on the hospital cachement area. Multiple regression was performed to adjust for confounding variables including patient age, gender, primary payer, severity of illness score, primary versus revision fusion, anterior versus posterior approach, national region, hospital bed size, location or teaching status, ownership, and year. Perioperative clinical outcomes were assessed based on ICD-9-CM codes with modifications. In total, 417,520 weighted patients (87,999 unweighted records) were analyzed. The mean cachement area HHI was 0.31 (range 0.099-0.724). The average patient age was 55.4 years (standard error=0.194), and the majority of patients were female (55.8%, n=232,727). The majority of procedures were primary spinal fusions (92.7%, n=386,998) and fusions with a posterior-only technique (81.5%, n=340,271). Most procedures occurred in the South (42.5%, n=177,509) or the Midwest (27.0%, n=112,758) regions. In the multiple regression analysis, increased hospital
Full Text Available Since 2000, different types of organisations have registered for the UN Global Compact (UNGC, an essential guide for undertaking socially and environmentally responsible business. As revealed by the UNGC data, enthusiasm in Muslim majority countries (MMCs for subscribing to the Compact is comparatively much less than in any other parts of the world. Analysing the phenomenon and the possible reasons thereof, this article examines individuals’ economic responsibility in these MMCs in adhering to the principles of the UN Global Compact. The work shows that regime types, economic conditions, economic structures (with agriculture sector primacy informally employing the largest percentage of the labour force, and civil society conditions seem to have contributed significantly in the UN Global Compact participation by organisations in MMCs. The paper argues that Muslims should fulfil their individual religious obligation by valuing, upholding, and applying the principles of “public interest” (maṣāliḥ al-mursalah in all commercial dealings not awaiting national consent or the organisations’ conformity to the Global Compact.
Ferrando, A; Fraile, J R; Bermejo, L; de Miguel, A; Aristegui, M; Hervías, M; Quirós, P
Surgical treatment of glomus jugulare tumors yields high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality for several reasons, among them neuroendocrine secretory activity, a high degree of vascularization, intracranial extension, duration of surgery and cranial nerve lesion. Secretory activity (e.g. catecholamines and serotonin) should be investigated before surgery and treated appropriately. Carotid arteriography (and ball occlusion) are useful to assess vascularization of the tumor and determine the need to clamp the carotid artery during the procedure. Potential complications such as hemodynamic alterations (bleeding or endocrine response), pulmonary embolism (air or thrombotic), hypothermia, facial nerve lesion, should be monitored for during surgery. After surgery cranial nerve involvement, which can lead to dysphagia and bronchoaspiration, must be looked for; the risk of cerebro-spinal fluid fistula is also high. We report the case of a woman who underwent surgery for a non secreting glomus jugulare tumor with extradural intracranial invasion. The main complications during surgery were bleeding with hemodynamic repercussions, pulmonary embolism, lesions in the VII, VIII and X cranial nerves, and opening of the dura mater (which required insertion of an intradural drain to prevent formation of a fistula). After surgery oral intake was delayed until intestinal function was established and glottic sphincter competence was verified by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. The only complication presenting at this time was cephalea, which disappeared upon removal of the drain on day 4. The patient was released on day 10.
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan
Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Auckley, Dennis; Cox, Robynn; Bolden, Norman; Thornton, J Daryl
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for significant perioperative complications. This national survey study sought to determine the attitudes of physicians involved in the perioperative care of OSA patients. We modified the perioperative survey used by Turner et al. among Canadian anesthesiologists. We mailed the survey to 3,000 US physicians practicing in the following specialties (750 of each specialty): anesthesiology (A), primary care (family practice or internal medicine) (PC), sleep (SM), and general surgery (S). The survey asked questions about attitudes and practice patterns regarding OSA in the perioperative setting. Of 2,730 eligible subjects, 783 questionnaires (28.7 %) were returned. Overall, 94 % felt OSA was a risk factor for perioperative complications (no difference by specialty) and 90 % felt it was a moderate to major risk factor (A = 91 %, PC = 81 %, SM = 94 %, S = 72 %; p OSA in the perioperative setting. Despite this, only 71 % reported regularly screening for OSA preoperatively, mostly by history and physical examination (A = 89 %, PC = 52 %, SM = 88 %, S = 49 %; p OSA, 32 % would delay surgery pending a sleep study (A = 4 %, PC = 41 %, SM = 54 %, S = 27 %; p OSA patients. The majority of physicians in this survey felt OSA was a significant risk factor for perioperative complications and most reported experience with OSA patients having an adverse outcome. Perioperative management guidelines for OSA are not available at most institutions. Further work is needed to help physicians identify and intervene on patients with OSA in the perioperative setting before adverse events develop.
Gliedt, Jordan A; Daniels, Clinton J; Wuollet, Adam
Acupuncture is one of the oldest forms of the natural healing arts. The exact mechanisms of action are unknown at this time; however, current theories to explain the benefits experienced after acupuncture include Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine concepts. Acupuncture may improve the quality of perioperative care and reduce associated complications. Perioperative acupuncture is apparently effective in reducing preoperative anxiety, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative pain. The Pericardium-6 (P-6; Nei Guan), Yintang (Extra 1), and Shenmen acupuncture points are the most studied and effective acupuncture points in reducing preoperative anxiety, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative pain experiences. Intraoperatively administered acupuncture may reduce immunosuppression in patients and lessen intraoperative anesthetic requirements, although the clinical usefulness of acupuncture in the intraoperative period remains inconclusive. Perioperative acupuncture is a promising intervention, but additional studies are needed to further understand and define acupuncture's role throughout the perioperative period and determine its clinical usefulness. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief clinical review concerning acupuncture and its application for common issues that occur in the perioperative period. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sjöberg, Carina; Amhliden, Helene; Nygren, Jens M; Arvidsson, Susann; Svedberg, Petra
To describe the experiences of participation in perioperative care of 8- to 11-year-old children. All children have the right to participate in decisions that affect them and have the right to express their views in all matters that concern them. Allowing children to be involved in their perioperative care can make a major difference in terms of their well-being by decreasing fear and anxiety and having more positive experiences. Taking the views of children into account and facilitating their participation could thus increase the quality of care. Descriptive qualitative design. The study was conducted in 2013 and data were collected by narrative interviews with 10 children with experience from perioperative care in Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was chosen to describe the variations, differences and similarities in children's experiences of participation in perioperative care. The result showed that receiving preparatory information, lack of information regarding postoperative care and wanting to have detailed information are important factors for influencing children's participation. Interaction with healthcare professionals, in terms of being listened to, being a part of the decision-making and feeling trust, is important for children's participation in the decision-making process. Poor adaptation of the care environment to the children's needs, feeling uncomfortable while waiting and needs for distraction are examples of how the environment and the care in the operating theatre influence the children's experiences of participation. Efforts should be made to improve children's opportunities for participation in the context of perioperative care and further research is needed to establish international standards for information strategies and care environment that promotes children's participation in perioperative care. Nurse anaesthetists need to acquire knowledge and develop strategies for providing preparatory visits and information to children prior to
Schulman, Sam; Carrier, Marc; Lee, Agnes Y Y; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Blostein, Mark; Spencer, Frederick A; Solymoss, Susan; Barty, Rebecca; Wang, Grace; Heddle, Nancy; Douketis, James D
The perioperative management of dabigatran in clinical practice is heterogeneous. We performed this study to evaluate the safety of perioperative management of dabigatran using a specified protocol. Patients treated with dabigatran and planned for an invasive procedure were eligible for inclusion. The timing of the last dose of dabigatran before the procedure was based on the creatinine clearance and procedure-related bleeding risk. Resumption of dabigatran was prespecified according to the complexity of the surgery and consequences of a bleeding complication. Patients were followed up for 30 days for major bleeding (primary outcome), minor bleeding, arterial thromboembolism, and death. We included 541 cases: 324 procedures (60%) with standard risk of bleeding and 217 procedures (40%) with increased risk of bleeding. The last dose of dabigatran was at 24, 48, or 96 hours before surgery according to the protocol in 46%, 37%, and 6%, respectively, of the patients. Resumption was timed according to protocol in 77% with 75 mg as the first dose on the day of procedure in 40% of the patients. Ten patients (1.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.0) had major bleeding, and 28 patients (5.2%; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-7.0) had minor bleeding events. The only thromboembolic complication was transient ischemic attack in 1 patient (0.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0-0.5), and there were 4 deaths unrelated to bleeding or thrombosis. Bridging was not used preoperatively but was administered in 9 patients (1.7%) postoperatively. Our protocol for perioperative management of dabigatran appears to be effective and feasible. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available It is standard practice in many institutions to routinely perform preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin level testing in association with hip joint arthroplasty procedures. It is our observation, however, that blood transfusion after uncomplicated primary hip arthroplasty in healthy patients is uncommon and that the decision to proceed with blood transfusion is typically made on clinical grounds. We therefore question the necessity and clinical value of routine perioperative blood testing about the time of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. We present analysis of perioperative blood tests and transfusion rates in 107 patients undertaking unilateral hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty by the senior author at a single institution over a three-year period. We conclude that routine perioperative testing of haemoglobin levels for hip resurfacing arthroplasty procedures does not assist in clinical management. We recommend that postoperative blood testing only be considered should the patient demonstrate clinical signs of symptomatic anaemia or if particular clinical circumstances necessitate.
Background: Perioperative antibiotic administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections can increase the anaesthetists workload. However, timely administration is essential to reduce risks and improve patient outcome. Objective: This survey evaluates anaesthetists' opinion concerning perioperative antibiotic therapy ...
Anderson, Cheryl I; Gupta, Rama N; Larson, Joseph R; Abubars, Omar I; Kwiecien, Andrew J; Lake, Alexander D; Hozain, Ahmed E; Tanious, Adam; O'Brien, Trevor; Basson, Marc D
Advancing surgical technology and decreasing resident learning hours have limited exposure to perioperative training, necessitating more effective and efficient perioperative teaching by faculty surgeons. Participation in collaborative efforts and process improvement can change behaviors and enhance teaching. To promote deliberate teaching of residents, change resident perception of their teachers, and produce sustainable improvements by objectively measuring surgeons' perioperative teaching performance. This 3-phase observational study of surgeons' perioperative teaching behaviors included university-based surgeons, general surgery residents, and preclinical student observers and involved elective cases at a 600+ bed tertiary hospital. Initially, we measured teaching behaviors by surgeons unaware of study objectives, provided aggregate and confidential individual feedback, and developed standardized preoperative briefings and postoperative debriefings. Phase 2 applied a deliberate teaching model and reinforced behaviors with continuous process improvement efforts (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and repeat observations. Phase 3 used resident prompts to enhance teaching behaviors and demonstrate sustainability. Resident surveys conducted 3 times assessed perceptions of deliberate guidance by faculty when compared with national benchmarks. Introduction of deliberate faculty preprocedural focusing and postprocedural reinforcement to facilitate resident learning. More frequent and complete perioperative teaching by faculty and the perception of enhanced teaching by residents. Faculty more commonly and more completely performed the 10-step preoperative briefings and postoperative debriefings (P teaching styles significantly improved and residents' survey-reported assessments of faculty teaching improved over national data for describing procedural steps (P = .02) and requests for resident self-evaluation (P = .006). Objective recording of teaching behavior frequency
Winkler, Mathias H; Mayer, Eric K; Hrouda, David; Doyle, Patrick
Unrecognized or silent perioperative myocardial ischemia is common in patients who undergo high-risk surgery, including cystectomy, and could predict cardiac morbidity and mortality in postoperative patients. This disorder is not merely a marker of extensive coronary disease but has a close association with perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI). In a review of published data, including meta-analyses, in the context of high-risk urological surgery, up to 50% of PMIs were found to go unrecognized if only clinical signs and symptoms are considered. Prevention and treatment of these previously unrecognized cardiac events might significantly reduce long-term morbidity and mortality. The emergence of reliable markers of PMI, such as increased levels of troponin I, could help in the detection of events that would have otherwise remained unnoticed. In this Review we examine the effect of these developments in the context of high-risk urological surgery. Changes to preoperative assessment, perioperative management, and prophylaxis of PMI are critically assessed. We performed a prospective audit using postoperative troponin I levels to assess the rate of silent perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. An increasingly proactive attitude towards perioperative monitoring for myocardial ischemia and infarction has evolved, and postoperative serial screening with troponin I might be beneficial in high-risk patients undergoing major urological surgery.
Kimura, Norihisa; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Ishido, Keinosuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Yakoshi, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Miura, Takuya; Wakiya, Taiichi; Hakamada, Kenichi
Blood transfusion is linked to a negative outcome for malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate aggressive surgical resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) and assess the impact of perioperative blood transfusion on long-term survival. Sixty-six consecutive major hepatectomies with en bloc resection of the caudate lobe and extrahepatic bile duct for HCCA were performed using macroscopically curative resection at our institute from 2002 to 2012. Clinicopathologic factors for recurrence and survival were retrospectively assessed. Overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 86.7, 47.3, and 35.7 %, respectively. In univariate analysis, perioperative blood transfusion and a histological positive margin were two of several variables found to be significant prognostic factors for recurrence or survival (Pblood transfusion was independently associated with recurrence (hazard ratio (HR)=2.839 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.370-5.884), P=0.005), while perioperative blood transfusion (HR=3.383 (95 % CI, 1.499-7.637), P=0.003) and R1 resection (HR=3.125 (95 % CI, 1.025-9.530), P=0.045) were independent risk factors for poor survival. Perioperative blood transfusion is a strong predictor of poor survival after radical hepatectomy for HCCA. We suggest that circumvention of perioperative blood transfusion can play an important role in long-term survival for patients with HCCA.
Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L
Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beatty, Nicole C; Nicholson, Wayne T; Langman, Loralie J; Curry, Timothy B; Eisenach, John H
Serotonin syndrome is gaining attention in perioperative and chronic pain settings due to the growing prevalence of multimodal therapies that increase serotonin levels and thereby heighten patient risk. A patient's genetic make-up may further increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. A case of serotonin syndrome on emergence after general anesthesia is presented. A subsequent cytochrome P4502D6 genetic test result suggested a potential alteration in metabolism. For this patient, who was taking combination antidepressant medications and receiving common perioperative medicines, additive pharmacodynamic effects converged with a pharmacogenetic predisposition, resulting in serotonin syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balser, J R
Intravenous amiodarone is a potentially valuable therapy for perioperative patients experiencing life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias refractory to conventional antiarrhythmic agents perioperatively. Its potential for hemodynamic and pulmonary toxicity perioperatively suggests that it should remain an alternative therapy rather than a first-line option. However, because of its impressive efficacy in nonsurgical trials, its role in perioperative arrhythmia management will dramatically expand if clinical studies become available that clarify its safety in surgical populations.
Cerantola, Yannick; Grass, Fabian; Cristaudi, Alessandra; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus; Hübner, Martin
Introduction. Preoperative malnutrition is a major risk factor for increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Definition and diagnosis of malnutrition and its treatment is still subject for controversy. Furthermore, practical implementation of nutrition-related guidelines is unknown. Methods. A review of the available literature and of current guidelines on perioperative nutrition was conducted. We focused on nutritional screening and perioperative nutrition in patients undergoing digestive surgery, and we assessed translation of recent guidelines in clinical practice. Results and Conclusions. Malnutrition is a well-recognized risk factor for poor postoperative outcome. The prevalence of malnutrition depends largely on its definition; about 40% of patients undergoing major surgery fulfil current diagnostic criteria of being at nutritional risk. The Nutritional Risk Score is a pragmatic and validated tool to identify patients who should benefit from nutritional support. Adequate nutritional intervention entails reduced (infectious) complications, hospital stay, and costs. Preoperative oral supplementation of a minimum of five days is preferable; depending on the patient and the type of surgery, immune-enhancing formulas are recommended. However, surgeons' compliance with evidence-based guidelines remains poor and efforts are necessary to implement routine nutritional screening and nutritional support.
Full Text Available Introduction. Preoperative malnutrition is a major risk factor for increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Definition and diagnosis of malnutrition and its treatment is still subject for controversy. Furthermore, practical implementation of nutrition-related guidelines is unknown. Methods. A review of the available literature and of current guidelines on perioperative nutrition was conducted. We focused on nutritional screening and perioperative nutrition in patients undergoing digestive surgery, and we assessed translation of recent guidelines in clinical practice. Results and Conclusions. Malnutrition is a well-recognized risk factor for poor postoperative outcome. The prevalence of malnutrition depends largely on its definition; about 40% of patients undergoing major surgery fulfil current diagnostic criteria of being at nutritional risk. The Nutritional Risk Score is a pragmatic and validated tool to identify patients who should benefit from nutritional support. Adequate nutritional intervention entails reduced (infectious complications, hospital stay, and costs. Preoperative oral supplementation of a minimum of five days is preferable; depending on the patient and the type of surgery, immune-enhancing formulas are recommended. However, surgeons' compliance with evidence-based guidelines remains poor and efforts are necessary to implement routine nutritional screening and nutritional support.
Bucx, M J L; Krijtenburg, P; Scheffer, G J
- An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively, under the assumption that they might cause problems.- Frequently, however, these items cannot be removed straightforwardly.- Nail polish and artificial nails only very rarely cause perioperative problems and therefore do not need to be removed pre-operatively.- The same applies to most piercings, except when located in or near the respiratory tract, if they have sharp endings or if they might cause problems as a result of the perioperative positioning of the patient.- Providing adequate information to the patient, knowledge about removal of these items and documentation of agreed arrangements are all important.- A national guideline concerning perioperative policy is urgently required.
Bangalore, Sripal; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pranesh, Shruthi
American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on perioperative assessment recommend perioperative beta blockers for non-cardiac surgery, although results of some clinical trials seem not to support this recommendation. We aimed to critically review the evidence...... to assess the use of perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery....
Ballotta, Enzo; Toniato, Antonio; Farina, Filippo; Baracchini, Claudio
Several studies have shown the beneficial role of statins in reducing the risk of major perioperative complications and death associated with noncardiac vascular surgery, but few have focused on their effects in the event of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study analyzes the effects of preoperative statin use on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing CEA. Data from all consecutive patients who underwent primary CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease between 2002 and 2014 at a single institution were prospectively stored in a vascular surgery registry, recording risk factors, medication, and indication for surgery. Endpoints of the study were perioperative (30-day) stroke and death. Overall, 784 patients were on statins (825 CEAs, Group I), while 494 were not (545 CEAs, Group II). There were two perioperative strokes in Group I (0.24%) and four in Group II (0.73%; p = .22), and no deaths. The only nonfatal cardiac complication occurred in Group II (0.18%, p = .39). A neurologist assessed patients at 1, 6, and 12 months after CEA, and every 2 years thereafter. Follow-up (range: 0.1-13 years; mean, 6.3 ± 3.7 years) was obtained for 1,239 patients (1,326 CEAs). Because 165 patients (166 CEAs) crossed over from Group II to Group I during the follow-up time, long-term data were stratified by postoperative statin treatment rather than by preoperative statin use. The 5- and 10-year restenosis/occlusion and survival rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taking statins prior to CEA did not seem to affect the risk of major perioperative ischemic events and death, most likely due to the extremely low overall incidence of perioperative complications.
Murni, Indah K; MacLaren, Graeme; Morrow, Debra; Iyer, Parvathi; Duke, Trevor
Perioperative infections have significant consequences for children with congenital heart disease (CHD), which can manifest as acute or chronic infection followed by poor growth and progressive cardiac failure. The consequences include delayed or higher-risk surgery, and increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. A systematic search for studies evaluating the burden and interventions to reduce perioperative infections in children with CHD was undertaken using PubMed. Limited studies conducted in low- to middle-income countries demonstrated the large burden of perioperative infections among children with CHD. Most studies focussed on infections after surgery. Few studies evaluated strategies to prevent preoperative infection or the impact of infection on decision-making around the timing of surgery. Children with CHD have multiple risk factors for infections including delayed presentation, inadequate treatment of cardiac failure, and poor nutrition. The burden of perioperative infections is high among children with CHD, and studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to reduce these infections are lacking. As good nutrition, early corrective surgery, and measures to reduce nosocomial infection are likely to play a role, practical steps can be taken to make surgery safer.
The phenomenon of desensitisation was expressed as a spectrum between being dissociated from the event and disconnected from the people ..... continue working under conditions of high stress and urgency, and provide an efficient .... Gazoni FM, Durieux ME, Wells L. Life after death: the aftermath of perioperative ...
or delayed / insufficient nutrition support has also been associated with higher risk for complication rates and mortality.4 This suggests that perioperative nutrition support may positively affect outcomes.4. This review will focus on postoperative nutritional support and arginine supplementation in surgical patients. Effect of ...
Perioperative care of infants with diaphragmatic hernias can be a challenge because of pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension. The objective of this study was to report the usefulness of vasopressin infusion in improving pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics in an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Consequently, this can contribute significantly to anaesthetists' feelings of guilt and personal responsibility in the event of a perioperative death. This study set out to describe the range of reactions to such an event amongst a group of anaesthesia trainees. Employing a qualitative methodology, 10 registrars in their fourth ...
Daniel Agustín Godoy
Full Text Available Many neurosurgery patients may have unrecognized diabetes or may develop stress-related hyperglycemia in the perioperative period. Diabetes patients have a higher perioperative risk of complications and have longer hospital stays than individuals without diabetes. Maintenance of euglycemia using intensive insulin therapy (IIT continues to be investigated as a therapeutic tool to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with derangements in glucose metabolism due to surgery. Suboptimal perioperative glucose control may contribute to increased morbidity, mortality, and aggravate concomitant illnesses. The challenge is to minimize the effects of metabolic derangements on surgical outcomes, reduce blood glucose excursions, and prevent hypoglycemia. Differences in cerebral versus systemic glucose metabolism, time course of cerebral response to injury, and heterogeneity of pathophysiology in the neurosurgical patient populations are important to consider in evaluating the risks and benefits of IIT. While extremes of glucose levels are to be avoided, there are little data to support an optimal blood glucose level or recommend a specific use of IIT for euglycemia maintenance in the perioperative management of neurosurgical patients. Individualized treatment should be based on the local level of blood glucose control, outpatient treatment regimen, presence of complications, nature of the surgical procedure, and type of anesthesia administered.
de Haan, L.S.; Calsbeek, H; Wolff, André
Importance: There is a growing interest in enabling ways for patients to participate in their own care to improve perioperative safety, but little is known about the effectiveness of interventions enhancing an active patient role. Objective: To evaluate the effect of patient participation on
Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S
factors, the predominant one being age. Ignorance of the causes for postoperative cognitive dysfunction contributes to the difficulty of conducting interventional studies. Postoperative cognitive disorders are associated with increased mortality and permanent disability. Peri-operative interventions can...... reduce the rate of delirium in the elderly, but in spite of promising findings in animal experiments, no intervention reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction in humans....
Maathuis, PGM; Neut, D; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC; van Horn, [No Value
All surgical procedures have the risk of microbial contamination. However, procedures in which prosthetic materials are involved have a high risk for future infectious problems because of the protection offered by the biofilm mode of growth. Studies of perioperative contamination have been done on
Background: Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is a common complication following noncardiac surgery, with a 30-day mortality of 10-20%. Effective therapeutic interventions ... Significantly more haemodynamically unstable patients received acute coronary interventions (75.8% vs. 23.1%, p-value = 0.0006). Acute ...
F. van Lier (Felix)
textabstractThe first chapter provides an overview of cardiovascular risk identification and modification in the perioperative period. In this chapter the identification of patients at risk using various risk models and biomarkers is described. Noninvasive and invasive preoperative (stress) testing
Desebbe, Olivier; Lanz, Thomas; Kain, Zeev; Cannesson, Maxime
Contrary to the intraoperative period, the current perioperative environment is known to be fragmented and expensive. One of the potential solutions to this problem is the newly proposed perioperative surgical home (PSH) model of care. The PSH is a patient-centred micro healthcare system, which begins at the time the decision for surgery is made, is continuous through the perioperative period and concludes 30 days after discharge from the hospital. The model is based on multidisciplinary involvement: coordination of care, consistent application of best evidence/best practice protocols, full transparency with continuous monitoring and reporting of safety, quality, and cost data to optimize and decrease variation in care practices. To reduce said variation in care, the entire continuum of the perioperative process must evolve into a unique care environment handled by one perioperative team and coordinated by a leader. Anaesthesiologists are ideally positioned to lead this new model and thus significantly contribute to the highest standards in transitional medicine. The unique characteristics that place Anaesthesiologists in this framework include their systematic role in hospitals (as coordinators between patients/medical staff and institutions), the culture of safety and health care metrics innate to the specialty, and a significant role in the preoperative evaluation and counselling process, making them ideal leaders in perioperative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Brogly, N; Alsina, E; de Celis, I; Huercio, I; Dominguez, A; Gilsanz, F
Prevention of perioperative hypothermia decreases morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of implementation of protocols in 3 tertiary Spanish University Hospitals. A survey among anaesthesiologists assessed estimated importance and clinical practice in terms of prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Results were compared depending on their experience. Ptotal of 116 anaesthesiologists answered the survey, of whom 48 (41.3%) were residents, 32 (27.6%) were staff with less than 10 years of experience, and 36 (31.1%) staff with 10 years or more of experience, In a 0-10 importance scale, prevention of hypothermia was scored 7.49±1,79, with no difference between groups (P=.58). Younger staff were more concerned of the end surgery temperature than other colleagues (P=.02). The most usual practice was a combination warming the intravenous fluids and an electric blanket (55%). Only 20% of the anaesthesiologists monitored temperature intra-operatively, even though 75% considered it an important parameter. No unit had a written protocol for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Despite the absence of prevention protocols, the anaesthesiologists were aware of the importance maintaining a normal peri-operative temperature, but this awareness is still not enough to influence their perioperative management to diagnose and prevent hypothermia. A harmonisation of practice at local, regional and national level could improve this practice in the future. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Buchakjian, Marisa R; Davis, Andrew B; Sciegienka, Sebastian J; Pagedar, Nitin A; Sperry, Steven M
To evaluate perioperative pain in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery and identify associations between preoperative and postoperative pain characteristics. Patients undergoing head and neck surgery with regional/free tissue transfer were enrolled. Preoperative pain and validated screens for symptoms (neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia) were assessed. Postoperatively, patients completed a pain diary for 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Seventy-eight percent had pain prior to surgery, and for 38%, the pain had neuropathic characteristics. Thirteen patients (48%) completed at least 2 weeks of the postoperative pain diary. Patients with moderate/severe preoperative pain report significantly greater pain scores postoperatively, though daily pain decreased at a similar linear rate for all patients. Patients with more severe preoperative pain consumed greater amounts of opioids postoperatively, and this correlated with daily postoperative pain scores. Patients who screened positive for neuropathic pain also reported worse postoperative pain. Longitudinal perioperative pain assessment in head and neck patients undergoing surgery suggests that patients with worse preoperative pain continue to endorse worse pain postoperatively and require more narcotics. Patients with preoperative neuropathic pain also report poor pain control postoperatively, suggesting an opportunity to identify these patients and intervene with empiric neuropathic pain treatment.
Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil; Noh, Sung Hoon
The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (pcancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p60, pcancer (pcancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered.
Stricker, Paul A; Goobie, Susan M; Cladis, Franklyn P; Haberkern, Charles M; Meier, Petra M; Reddy, Srijaya K; Nguyen, Thanh T; Cai, Lingyu; Polansky, Marcia; Szmuk, Peter; Fiadjoe, John; Soneru, Codruta; Falcon, Ricardo; Petersen, Timothy; Kowalczyk-Derderian, Courtney; Dalesio, Nicholas; Budac, Stefan; Groenewald, Neels; Rubens, Daniel; Thompson, Douglas; Watts, Rheana; Gentry, Katherine; Ivanova, Iskra; Hetmaniuk, Mali; Hsieh, Vincent; Collins, Michael; Wong, Karen; Binstock, Wendy; Reid, Russell; Poteet-Schwartz, Kim; Gries, Heike; Hall, Rebecca; Koh, Jeffrey; Bannister, Carolyn; Sung, Wai; Jain, Ranu; Fernandez, Allison; Tuite, Gerald F; Ruas, Ernesto; Drozhinin, Oleg; Tetreault, Lisa; Muldowney, Bridget; Ricketts, Karene; Fernandez, Patrick; Sohn, Lisa; Hajduk, John; Taicher, Brad; Burkhart, Jessica; Wright, Allison; Kugler, Jane; Barajas-DeLoa, Lea; Gangadharan, Meera; Busso, Veronica; Stallworth, Kayla; Staudt, Susan; Labovsky, Kristen L; Glover, Chris D; Huang, Henry; Karlberg-Hippard, Helena; Capehart, Samantha; Streckfus, Cynthia; Nguyen, Kim-Phuong T; Manyang, Peter; Martinez, Jose Luis; Hansen, Jennifer K; Levy, Heather Mitzel; Brzenski, Alyssa; Chiao, Franklin; Ingelmo, Pablo; Mujallid, Razaz; Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Syed, Tariq; Benzon, Hubert; Bosenberg, Adrian
The Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group established the Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative Registry to elucidate practices and outcomes in children with craniosynostosis undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction and inform quality improvement efforts. The aim of this study is to determine perioperative management, outcomes, and complications in children undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction across North America and to delineate salient features of current practices. Thirty-one institutions contributed data from June 2012 to September 2015. Data extracted included demographics, perioperative management, length of stay, laboratory results, and blood management techniques employed. Complications and outlier events were described. Outcomes analyzed included total blood donor exposures, intraoperative and perioperative transfusion volumes, and length of stay outcomes. One thousand two hundred twenty-three cases were analyzed: 935 children aged less than or equal to 24 months and 288 children aged more than 24 months. Ninety-five percent of children aged less than or equal to 24 months and 79% of children aged more than 24 months received at least one transfusion. There were no deaths. Notable complications included cardiac arrest, postoperative seizures, unplanned postoperative mechanical ventilation, large-volume transfusion, and unplanned second surgeries. Utilization of blood conservation techniques was highly variable. The authors present a comprehensive description of perioperative management, outcomes, and complications from a large group of North American children undergoing complex cranial vault reconstruction. Transfusion remains the rule for the vast majority of patients. The occurrence of numerous significant complications together with large variability in perioperative management and outcomes suggest targets for improvement.
Clouse, W Darrin; Ergul, Emel A; Patel, Virendra I; Lancaster, R Todd; LaMuraglia, Glenn M; Cambria, Richard P; Conrad, Mark F
Contralateral stroke is an infrequent cause of perioperative stroke after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Whereas the risks of ipsilateral stroke complicating CEA have been discriminated, factors that lead to contralateral stroke are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of perioperative (30-day) contralateral stroke after CEA as well as predisposing preoperative and operative factors. Its specific effect on long-term survival was interrogated. The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) was queried from April 1, 2003, to February 29, 2016, for all CEAs. Duplicated patients and those without complete data were excluded. Patients sustaining contralateral stroke after CEA in the 30-day postoperative period were identified. Demographic, preoperative, and operative factors were analyzed to identify discriminators between those with and those without contralateral stroke. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify factors independently associated with contralateral stroke. The effect of contralateral stroke on 5-year survival was compared with patients with ipsilateral stroke and no stroke using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank testing compared survival curves. There were 10,837 CEAs performed during the study. Average age was 70.4 ± 9.3 years; 6605 (61%) patients were male, and 40% (n = 4324) were performed for symptoms. Most were current or former smokers (n = 8619 [80%]). Coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure were identified in 31% and 8.6%, respectively. Overall, there were 190 strokes within 30 days of CEA (1.8%); 131 were ipsilateral (1.3%), and 59 (0.5%) patients were identified as having contralateral perioperative stroke. Thirteen patients sustained bilateral stroke (0.1%). Significant univariate associations included urgency (P = .0001), ipsilateral stenosis severity (P = .004), length of operation (P = .0001), CEA with coronary artery bypass graft (P = .0001), CEA with other arterial surgery
Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Chertow, Glenn M; McCullough, Peter A; Mesana, Thierry; Shaw, Andrew D; Sundt, Thoralf M; Brown, Craig; Cortville, David; Dagenais, François; de Varennes, Benoit; Fontes, Manuel; Rossert, Jerome; Tardif, Jean-Claude
AKI after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality, prolonged hospital length of stay, use of dialysis, and subsequent CKD. We evaluated the effects of THR-184, a bone morphogenetic protein-7 agonist, in patients at high risk for AKI after cardiac surgery. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose comparison of the safety and efficacy of perioperative THR-184 using a two-stage seamless adaptive design in 452 patients between 18 and 85 years of age who were scheduled for nonemergent cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and had recognized risk factors for AKI. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who developed AKI according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The proportion of patients who developed AKI within 7 days of surgery was similar in THR-184 treatment groups and placebo groups (range, 74%-79%; P =0.43). Prespecified secondary end point analysis did not show significant differences in the severity of AKI stage ( P =0.53) or the total duration of AKI ( P =0.44). A composite of death, dialysis, or sustained impaired renal function by day 30 after surgery did not differ between groups (range, 11%-20%; P =0.46). Safety-related outcomes were similar across all treatment groups. In conclusion, compared with placebo, administration of perioperative THR-184 through a range of dose exposures failed to reduce the incidence, severity, or duration of AKI after cardiac surgery in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Garson, Leslie; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Vakharia, Shermeen; Alexander, Brenton; Stead, Stan; Cannesson, Maxime; Kain, Zeev
The perioperative setting in the United States is noted for variable and fragmented care that increases the chance for errors and adverse outcomes as well as the overall cost of perioperative care. Recently, the American Society of Anesthesiologists put forward the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) concept as a potential solution to this problem. Although the PSH concept has been described previously, "real-life" implementation of this new model has not been reported. Members of the Departments of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care and Orthopedic Surgery, in addition to perioperative hospital services, developed and implemented a series of clinical care pathways defining and standardizing preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and postdischarge management for patients undergoing elective primary hip (n = 51) and knee (n = 95) arthroplasty. We report on the impact of the Total Joint Replacement PSH on length of hospital stay (LOS), incidence of perioperative blood transfusions, postoperative complications, 30-day readmission rates, emergency department visits, mortality, and patient satisfaction. The incidence of major complication was 0.0 (0.0-7.0)% and of perioperative blood transfusion was 6.2 (2.9-11.4)%. In-hospital mortality was 0.0 (0.0-7.0)% and 30-day readmission was 0.7 (0.0-3.8)%. All Surgical Care Improvements Project measures were at 100.0 (93.0-100.0)%. The median LOS for total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty, respectively, was (median (95% confidence interval [interquartile range]) 3 (2-3) [2-3] and 3 (2-3) [2-3] days. Approximately half of the patients were discharged to a location other than their customary residence (70 to skilled nursing facility, 1 to rehabilitation, 39 to home with organization health services, and 36 to home). We believe that our experience with the Total Joint Replacement PSH program provides solid evidence of the feasibility of this practice model to improve patient outcomes and achieve high patient
Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A
Malnutrition and weight loss negatively affect outcomes in surgical cancer patients. Decades of research have sought to identify the most appropriate use of nutrition support in these patients. National and international guidelines help to direct clinicians' use of nutrition support in surgical patients, but a number of specific issues concerning the use of nutrition support continue to evolve. This review focuses on 5 key issues related to perioperative nutrition support in cancer patients: (1) Which perioperative cancer patients should receive nutrition support? (2) How can the nutrition status and requirements of these patients be optimally assessed? (3) What is the optimal route of administration (parenteral nutrition vs enteral nutrition) and composition of nutrition support in this setting? (4) When should feedings be initiated? (5) What is the role of glycemic control in these patients?
McNamara, S A
This study was designed to determine how caring is practiced in perioperative nursing. The theory of nursing by M. Jean Watson, RN, PhD, FAAN, provided the conceptual framework for the study. The researcher used a qualitative, descriptive methodology to analyze data collected in audiotaped interviews with five perioperative nurses and used standard qualitative research procedures for transcribing and analyzing the interview data. The five study participants identified their perceptions of caring behaviors with conscious and unconscious patients in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. They described the essential structure of caring as the establishment of a human care relationship and provision of a supportive, protective, and/or corrective psychological, physical, and spiritual environment.
Aronson, Solomon; Westover, Julie; Guinn, Nicole; Setji, Tracy; Wischmeyer, Paul; Gulur, Padma; Hopkins, Thomas; Seyler, Thorsten M; Lagoo-Deendayalan, Sandhya; Heflin, Mitchell T; Thompson, Annemarie; Swaminathan, Madhav; Flanagan, Ellen
Health care delivery in the United States continues to balance on the tight rope that connects its transition from volume to value. Value in economic terms can be defined as the amount something exceeds its commodity price and is determined by extraordinary reputation, quality, and/or service, whereas its destruction can be a consequence of poor management, unfavorable policy, decreased demand, and/or increased competition. Going forward, payment for health care delivery will increasingly be based on services that contribute to improvements in individual and/or population health value, and funds to pay for health care delivery will become increasingly vulnerable to competitive market forces. Therefore, a sustainable population health strategy needs to be comprehensive and thus include perioperative medicine as an essential component of the complete cycle of patient-centered care. We describe a multidisciplinary integrated program to support perioperative medicine services that are integral to a comprehensive population health strategy.
Awad, Sherif; Lobo, Dileep N
To highlight recent developments in the field of perioperative nutritional support by reviewing clinically pertinent English language articles from October 2008 to December 2010, that examined the effects of malnutrition on surgical outcomes, optimizing metabolic function and nutritional status preoperatively and postoperatively. Recognition of patients with or at risk of malnutrition remains poor despite the availability of numerous clinical aids and clear evidence of the adverse effects of poor nutritional status on postoperative clinical outcomes. Unfortunately, poor design and significant heterogeneity remain amongst many studies of nutritional interventions in surgical patients. Patients undergoing elective surgery should be managed within a multimodal pathway that includes evidence-based interventions to optimize nutritional status perioperatively. The aforementioned should include screening patients to identify those at high nutritional risk, perioperative immuno-nutrition, minimizing 'metabolic stress' and insulin resistance by preoperative conditioning with carbohydrate-based drinks, glutamine supplementation, minimal access surgery and enhanced recovery protocols. Finally gut-specific nutrients and prokinetics should be utilized to improve enteral feed tolerance thereby permitting early enteral feeding. An evidence-based multimodal pathway that includes interventions to optimize nutritional status may improve outcomes following elective surgery.
Kucewicz-Czech, Ewa; Kiecak, Katarzyna; Urbańska, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Kaliś, Robert; Pakosiewicz, Waldemar; Kołodziej, Tadeusz; Knapik, Piotr; Przybylski, Roman; Zembala, Marian
Surgery is an extreme physiological stress for the elderly. Aging is inevitably associated with irreversible and progressive cellular degeneration. Patients above 75 years of age are characterized by impaired responses to operative stress and a very narrow safety margin. To evaluate perioperative complications in patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent cardiac surgery in comparison to outcomes in younger patients. The study was conducted at the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze in 2009-2014 after a standard of perioperative care in seniors was implemented to reduce complications, in particular to decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative delirium. The study group included 1446 patients. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.8 h in patients aged ≥ 75 years and did not differ significantly compared to younger patients. In-hospital mortality among seniors was 3.8%, a value significantly higher than that observed among patients younger than 75 years of age. Patients aged ≥ 75 years undergoing cardiac surgery have significantly more concomitant conditions involving other organs, which affects treatment outcomes (duration of hospital stay, mortality). The implementation of a standard of perioperative care in this age group reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation and lowered the rate of postoperative delirium.
Md Nazmul Kayes
Full Text Available Diabetes increases the requirements of surgery as well as perioperative morbidity and mortality. Careful preoperative evaluation and treatment of cardiac and renal diseases, intensive intraoperative and postoperative management are essential to optimize the best outcome. Stress hyperglycemia in response to surgery, osmotic diuresis and hypoinsulinemia can lead to life threatening complications like ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Wound healing is impaired by hyperglycemia and chance of postoperative wound infection is more in diabetics. Therefore aseptic precautions must be taken. Adequate insulin, glucose, fluid and electrolytes should be provided for good metabolic control. Though some current study reveals that oral hypoglycemic agents can be used for the effective management of perioperative diabetes; the adverse effects of newly introduced agents need more clinical observations. Subcutaneous administration of insulin as in Sliding Scale may be a less preferable method, because of unreliable absorption and unpredictable blood glucose. Intravenous administration of rapid onset soluble (short acting insulin as in Alberti (GIK regimen, is safe and effective method controlling perioperative hyperglycemia. Patient with type 1 diabetes needs frequent monitoring of glucose, electrolytes and acid-base balance as chance of high hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis is more. In case of emergency surgery assessment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and meticulous management is essential. Postoperative pain and hyperglycemia should be treated carefully to avoid complications.
Flick, Randall P; Sprung, Juraj; Harrison, Tracy E; Gleich, Stephen J; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Buenvenida, Shonie L; Warner, David O
The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and outcome of perioperative cardiac arrest (CA) in children younger than 18 yr undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac and cardiac procedures at a tertiary care center. After institutional review board approval (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota), all patients younger than 18 yr who had perioperative CA between November 1, 1988, and June 30, 2005, were identified. Perioperative CA was defined as a need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation or death during anesthesia care. A cardiac procedure was defined as a surgical procedure involving the heart or great vessels requiring an incision. A total of 92,881 anesthetics were administered during the study period, of which 4,242 (5%) were for the repair of congenital heart malformations. The incidence of perioperative CA during noncardiac procedures was 2.9 per 10,000, and the incidence during cardiac procedures was 127 per 10,000. The incidence of perioperative CA attributable to anesthesia was 0.65 per 10,000 anesthetics, representing 7.5% of the 80 perioperative CAs. Both CA incidence and mortality were highest among neonates (0-30 days of life) undergoing cardiac procedures (incidence: 435 per 10,000; mortality: 389 per 10,000). Regardless of procedure type, most patients who experienced perioperative CA (88%) had congenital heart disease. The majority of perioperative CAs were caused by factors not attributed to anesthesia, in distinction to some recent reports. The incidence of perioperative CA is many-fold higher in children undergoing cardiac procedures, suggesting that definition of case mix is necessary to accurately interpret epidemiologic studies of perioperative CA in children.
Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.
Sessler, Daniel I.
Most clinically available thermometers accurately report the temperature of whatever tissue is being measured. The difficulty is that no reliably core-temperature measuring sites are completely non-invasive and easy to use — especially in patients not having general anesthesia. Nonetheless, temperature can be reliably measured in most patients. Body temperature should be measured in patients having general anesthesia exceeding 30 minutes in duration, and in patients having major operations under neuraxial anesthesia. Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated. All general anesthetics produce a profound dose-dependent reduction in the core temperature triggering cold defenses including arterio-venous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. Anesthetic-induced impairment of normal thermoregulatory control, and the resulting core-to-peripheral redistribution of body heat, is the primary cause of hypothermia in most patients. Neuraxial anesthesia also impairs thermoregulatory control, although to a lesser extant than general anesthesia. Prolonged epidural analgesia is associated with hyperthermia whose cause remains unknown. PMID:18648241
Carla Monique Lopes Mourão
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature about the perioperative care provided to women submitted to mastectomy. An integrative review of scientific literature conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, published from 2000 to 2011, using the controlled descriptors: preoperative care; preoperative period; intraoperative care; intraoperative period; postoperative care; postoperative period; perioperative care; perioperative period; and mastectomy. The sample of this review consisted of seven articles. The evidence pointed as perioperative care of mastectomy the pharmacological management of pain in different surgical periods. Despite the difficulty in presenting a consensus of evidence for perioperative care of mastectomy, there was concern on the part of professionals to minimize/prevent pre-, intra- and post-operative pain. Nursing should be aware, both of the update of pharmacological treatments in pain management and the development of future research related to nursing care in the perioperative period of mastectomy.
Bougeard, A-M; Brent, A; Swart, M; Snowden, C
The majority of UK hospitals now have a Local Lead for Peri-operative Medicine (n = 115). They were asked to take part in an online survey to identify provision and practice of pre-operative assessment and optimisation in the UK. We received 86 completed questionnaires (response rate 75%). Our results demonstrate strengths in provision of shared decision-making clinics. Fifty-seven (65%, 95%CI 55.8-75.4%) had clinics for high-risk surgical patients. However, 80 (93%, 70.2-87.2%) expressed a desire for support and training in shared decision-making. We asked about management of pre-operative anaemia, and identified that 69 (80%, 71.5-88.1%) had a screening process for anaemia, with 72% and 68% having access to oral and intravenous iron therapy, respectively. A need for peri-operative support in managing frailty and cognitive impairment was identified, as few (24%, 6.5-34.5%) respondents indicated that they had access to specific interventions. Respondents were asked to rank their 'top five' priority topics in Peri-operative Medicine from a list of 22. These were: shared decision-making; peri-operative team development; frailty screening and its management; postoperative morbidity prediction; and primary care collaboration. We found variation in practice across the UK, and propose to further explore this variation by examining barriers and facilitators to improvement, and highlighting examples of good practice. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Kwari, Y D; Bello, M R; Eni, U E
Perioperative cardiac arrests and death on the table represent the most serious complications of surgery and anaesthesia. This paper was designed to study their pattern, causes and outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and intensive care unit (ICU) management in our institution. Three year retrospective review of perioperative cardiac arrests and death on operating table following surgical procedure under anaesthesia. For each cardiac arrest or death on the table the sequence of events leading to the arrest was evaluated using case notes, anaesthetic chart and ICU records. Study variables which include demographic data, ASA score, anaesthetic technique, causes and outcome were analysed and discussed. Fourteen perioperative cardiac arrests were encountered following 4051 anaesthetics administered over the three year study period. Twelve out of the fourteen cardiac arrests occurred following general anaesthesia, while the remaining two occurred following spinal anaesthesia. There was no cardiac arrest following local anaesthesia. Children suffered more cardiac arrest than adults. ASA class III and IV risk status suffered more arrests than ASA I and II. Hypoxia from airway problems was the commonest cause of cardiac arrest followed by septic shock. Monitoring with pulse oximeter was done in only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2 (14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive care so as to improve the outcome of perioperative cardiac arrest.
Raveendran, Raviraj; Wong, Jean; Singh, Mandeep; Wong, David T; Chung, Frances
The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is increasing proportional to the prevalence of obesity. Although anesthesiologists are familiar with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) - the most common SDB, anesthesiologists may not be aware of other SDB such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and overlap syndrome (combination of OSA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The present review provides an update of information regarding the perioperative management of OHS and overlap syndrome. OHS and overlap syndrome are associated with significant comorbid conditions and more perioperative morbidity than OSA alone. Similar to OSA, most of the OHS patients are undiagnosed. An increase in serum bicarbonate level is a surrogate marker of hypercapnia. Because 90% of OHS patients have OSA, preoperative screening for OSA combined with estimation of serum bicarbonate level may detect the majority of the patients with OHS. In patients with OSA, OHS, and overlap syndrome, improvement in the perioperative outcome has been shown by initiating positive airway pressure therapy. Identification and preoperative optimization of these high-risk patients are most important. A protocol-based risk mitigation is necessary for improving the intraoperative and postoperative outcome of these patients. As a perioperative physician, anesthesiologists have a key role in the management of patients with SDB.
Ki Ho Chung
Full Text Available Perioperative hypertension is a phenomenon in which a surgical patient’s blood pressure temporarily increases throughout the preoperative and postoperative periods and remains high until the patient’s condition stabilizes. This phenomenon requires immediate treatment not only because it is observed in a majority of patients who are not diagnosed with high blood pressure, but also because occurs in patients with underlying essential hypertension who show a sharp increase in their blood pressure. The most common complication following facelift surgery is hematoma, and the most critical risk factor that causes hematoma is elevated systolic blood pressure. In general, a systolic blood pressure goal of 65 mm Hg are recommended. This article discusses the causes of increased blood pressure and the treatment methods for perioperative hypertension during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods, in order to find ways to maintain normal blood pressure in patients during surgery. Further, in this paper, we review the causes of perioperative hypertension, such as anxiety, epinephrine, pain, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. The treatment methods for perioperative hypertension are analyzed according to the following 3 operative periods, with a review of the characteristics and interactions of each drug: preoperative antihypertensive medicine (atenolol, clonidine, and nifedipine, intraoperative intravenous (IV hypnotics (propofol, midazolam, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine, and postoperative antiemetic medicine (metoclopramide and ondansetron. This article focuses on the knowledge necessary to safely apply local anesthesia with IV hypnotics during facelift surgery without the assistance of an anesthesiologist.
Chung, Ki Ho; Cho, Myeong Soo; Jin, Hoon
Perioperative hypertension is a phenomenon in which a surgical patient's blood pressure temporarily increases throughout the preoperative and postoperative periods and remains high until the patient's condition stabilizes. This phenomenon requires immediate treatment not only because it is observed in a majority of patients who are not diagnosed with high blood pressure, but also because occurs in patients with underlying essential hypertension who show a sharp increase in their blood pressure. The most common complication following facelift surgery is hematoma, and the most critical risk factor that causes hematoma is elevated systolic blood pressure. In general, a systolic blood pressure goal of 65 mm Hg are recommended. This article discusses the causes of increased blood pressure and the treatment methods for perioperative hypertension during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods, in order to find ways to maintain normal blood pressure in patients during surgery. Further, in this paper, we review the causes of perioperative hypertension, such as anxiety, epinephrine, pain, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. The treatment methods for perioperative hypertension are analyzed according to the following 3 operative periods, with a review of the characteristics and interactions of each drug: preoperative antihypertensive medicine (atenolol, clonidine, and nifedipine), intraoperative intravenous (IV) hypnotics (propofol, midazolam, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine), and postoperative antiemetic medicine (metoclopramide and ondansetron). This article focuses on the knowledge necessary to safely apply local anesthesia with IV hypnotics during facelift surgery without the assistance of an anesthesiologist.
Gao, Weili; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Allison
To explore and evaluate perioperative nurses' experience of organ procurement. Organ procurement is part of the organ donation process, and is typically performed in the perioperative setting. This experience may contribute to perioperative nurses' feelings of distress and negative attitudes towards organ donation. Systematic review of the literature. Primary research studies, published in the English language between 1990-2014 were identified, screened and appraised using Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools. Data extraction and analysis followed. The quality assessment resulted in seven qualitative and three quantitative research studies. The main findings were: (1) Perioperative nurses reported feeling emotionally distressed, challenged, lonely and physically drained throughout the entire organ procurement procedure. (2) Perioperative nurses reported finding their own unique self-coping strategies and ways of eliciting support. (3) Perioperative nurses had positive and negative attitudes towards organ donation. Perioperative nurses reported feelings of sadness, feeling challenged and physically drained through the entire organ procurement procedure, which were influenced by differing factors in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative stages. It is acknowledged that personal coping strategies and support are important to help perioperative nurses improve their psychological well-being, and their experiences and attitudes towards organ procurement and donation. The meaningfulness of these findings for practice policy and research is described. Perioperative nurses play a vital role in the organ procurement procedure and require ongoing support to ensure their psychological welfare, in particular, newly qualified or inexperienced nurses' participating in organ procurement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brindley Peter G
Full Text Available Abstract A study by Burkle et al. in BMC Anesthesiology examined attitudes around perioperative do-not-resuscitate orders. Questionnaires were given to patients, as well as to anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons. The study has limitations and is open to interpretation. However, the findings are important. There appear to be attitudinal differences between patients and doctors, and between specialties. A small majority of patients are content to have a do-not-resuscitate order postponed during the perioperative period. A large majority expects open communication from doctors before proceeding. However, this article could also encourage a broader debate. This is about how to respect patient autonomy, while ensuring that resuscitation truly serves the patient’s best interests. This commentary outlines how more communication is needed at the bedside and in wider society.
Boudreaux, Arthur M; Vetter, Thomas R
concert with their surgical and nursing colleagues. The Triple Aim of Healthcare includes (1) improving the patient experience of care (including quality and satisfaction); (2) improving the health of populations; and (3) reducing per-capita costs of care. The Perioperative Surgical Home essentially seeks to transform perioperative care by achieving the Triple Aim, including improving the health of the surgical population. Many health care delivery systems and many clinicians (including anesthesiologists) are just beginning their population health management journeys. However, by doing so, they are preparing to navigate a much greater risk-sharing landscape, where these efforts can create greater financial stability by preventing major financial loss. Anesthesiologists can and should be leaders in this effort to add value by improving the comprehensive continuum of care of our patients.
Lee, Anna; Chui, Po Tong; Chiu, Chun Hung; Tan, Perpetua E; Tam, Tsui Ping; Samy, Winnie; Tong, Patricia Wy; Critchley, Lester A H; Gin, Tony
To evaluate the risks of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative morbidity associated with active and passive cigarette smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke is associated with perioperative respiratory events in children, but its effect in adults is unknown. We conducted a cohort study of 736 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for major elective surgery. Patients were classified according to their self-reported smoking history and urinary cotinine concentration within 48 hours before surgery. The main outcomes were composite measures of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative morbidity on the third day after surgery. There were 313 (42.5%) never-smokers (reference group), 92 (12.5%) passive nonsmokers, 157 (21.3%) ex-smokers without environmental tobacco smoke exposure, 53 (7.2%) passive ex-smokers, and 121 (16.4%) smokers. The incidence of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative morbidity was 9.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5-11.8] and 29.2% (95% CI, 26.0-32.6), respectively. Smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of perioperative respiratory complications [relative risk (RR), 4.40; 95% CI, 2.20-8.80] and postoperative morbidity (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.22-2.83). Although passive smoking was not associated with the risk of perioperative respiratory complications, the risk of postoperative morbidity was increased in passive nonsmokers (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04-2.21) and passive ex-smokers (RR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.50). One in 5 adults was exposed to environmental tobacco smoke before surgery. Passive cigarette smoking showed very little, if any, increased risk of perioperative respiratory complications. Both active exposure and passive exposure to cigarette smoke increased the risk of postoperative morbidity.
Rio, E; Bardet, E; Peuvrel, P; Martinet, L; Perrot, P; Baraer, F; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J-Y; Malard, O; Ferron, C; Dreno, B
Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (LDR) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medicosurgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6h). The median dose was 20Gy (range, 15-40Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early - within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6cm (p=0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Early perioperative LDR brachytherapy delivering 20Gy at 5mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. 2009 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Melatonin, a new addition to the armamentarium of anesthesiologist, has some unique properties that are highly desirable in routine peri-operative care. Available clinical data show that preoperative melatonin is as effective as benzodiazepines in reducing preoperative anxiety with minimal action on psychomotor performance and sleep wake cycle. It may be considered as a safe and effective alternative of benzodiazepines as preoperative anxiolytic. It may have opioid sparing effect, may reduce intraocular pressure, and have role in prevention of postoperative delirium. The short-term administration of melatonin is free from significant adverse effects also.
Henry, D A; Moxey, A J; Carless, P A; O'Connell, D; McClelland, B; Henderson, K M; Sly, K; Laupacis, A; Fergusson, D
Public concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have prompted re-consideration of the use of allogeneic (from an unrelated donor) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and a range of techniques designed to minimise transfusion requirements. To examine the evidence for the efficacy of desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), in reducing perioperative blood loss and the need for red cell transfusion in patients who do not have congenital bleeding disorders. Articles were identified by: computer searches of OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Current Contents (to August 2000) and web sites of international health technology assessment agencies (to May 1998). References in the identified trials and review articles were checked and authors contacted to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled parallel group trials in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to DDAVP, or to a control group, who did not receive the intervention. Trial quality was assessed using criteria proposed by Schulz et al. (1995) and Jadad et al. (1996). The principal outcomes were: the number of patients exposed to red cells, and the amount of blood transfused. Other clinical outcomes are detailed in the review. Fourteen trials of DDAVP (N=1034) reported data on the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion. In subjects treated with DDAVP the relative risk of exposure to peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusion was 0.98 (95%CI: 0.88 to 1.10) compared with control. In DDAVP-treated patients the relative risk of requiring re-operation due to bleeding was 0.56 (95%CI: 0.18 to 1.73). There was no statistically significant effect overall for mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction in DDAVP-treated patients compared with control (RR=1.53: 95%CI: 0.58 to 4.05) and (RR=1.52: 95%CI: 0.67 to 3.49) respectively. There is no convincing evidence that desmopressin minimises perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion in patients who do not
Maitra, Souvik; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Khanna, Puneet
Melatonin, a new addition to the armamentarium of anesthesiologist, has some unique properties that are highly desirable in routine peri-operative care. Available clinical data show that preoperative melatonin is as effective as benzodiazepines in reducing preoperative anxiety with minimal action on psychomotor performance and sleep wake cycle. It may be considered as a safe and effective alternative of benzodiazepines as preoperative anxiolytic. It may have opioid sparing effect, may reduce intraocular pressure, and have role in prevention of postoperative delirium. The short-term administration of melatonin is free from significant adverse effects also.
Ki Ho Chung; Myeong Soo Cho; Hoon Jin
Perioperative hypertension is a phenomenon in which a surgical patient’s blood pressure temporarily increases throughout the preoperative and postoperative periods and remains high until the patient’s condition stabilizes. This phenomenon requires immediate treatment not only because it is observed in a majority of patients who are not diagnosed with high blood pressure, but also because occurs in patients with underlying essential hypertension who show a sharp increase in their blood pressur...
Because complications are more common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), surgeons and anesthesiologists must be aware of perioperative morbidity and be prepared to recognize and treat perioperative complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for perioperative complications of orthopedic surgery on the lower extremities in patients with CP. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive CP patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Medical history, anesthesia emergence time, intraoperative body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, immediate postoperative complications, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, Cormack-Lehane classification, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification were analyzed. A total of 868 patients was included. Mean age at first surgery was 11.8 (7.6) yr. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and absolute bradycardia were 26.2%, 4.4%, and 20.0%, respectively. Twenty (2.3%) patients had major complications, and 35 (4.0%) patients had minor complications postoperatively. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and major postoperative complications were significantly higher in patients at GMFCS levels IV and V compared with patients at GMFCS levels I to III (P<0.001). History of pneumonia was associated with intraoperative absolute hypotension and major postoperative complications (P<0.001). These results revealed that GMFCS level, patient age, hip reconstructive surgery, and history of pneumonia are associated with adverse effects on intraoperative body temperature, the cardiovascular system, and immediate postoperative complications. PMID:25829819
Gandhi, Gunjan Y; Murad, M Hassan; Flynn, Errol David
To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients.......To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients....
Sep 14, 2010 ... Abstract. This article presents the perioperative anaesthetic management of a patient with Bernard-Soulier syndrome. (BSS). A literature search was conducted to examine the perioperative haemostatic management of BSS, with particular focus on the developing role of recombinant factor VIIa. The early ...
Surgery patients are at risk for iatrogenic malnutrition and subsequent deleterious effects. The benefits of nutrition support on patient outcomes have been demonstrated and the possible benefit of perioperative nutrition support thus implied. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols, including perioperative nutrition ...
Based on the findings of this systematic review and the recently published Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial (COMMIT), it can be concluded that the prevention of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia with a betablocker is clinically more important to peri-operative cardioprotection than whether the ...
Kent, Michael L; Hsia, Hung-Lun John; Van de Ven, Thomas J; Buchheit, Thomas E
To review acute pain management strategies in patients undergoing amputation with consideration of preoperative patient factors, pharmacologic/interventional modalities, and multidisciplinary care models to alleviate suffering in the immediate post-amputation setting. Regardless of surgical indication, patients undergoing amputation suffer from significant residual limb pain and phantom limb pain in the acute postoperative phase. Most studies have primarily focused on strategies to prevent persistent pain with inclusion of immediate postoperative outcomes as secondary measures. Pharmacologic agents, including gabapentin, ketamine, and calcitonin, and interventional modalities such as neuraxial and perineural catheters, have been examined in the perioperative period. Focused Literature Review. Pharmacologic agents (gabapentin, ketamine, calcitonin) have not shown consistent efficacy. Neuraxial analgesia has demonstrated both an opioid sparing and analgesic benefit while results have been mixed regarding perineural catheters in the immediate post-amputation setting. However, several early studies of perineural catheters employed sub-optimal techniques (distal surgical placement), and prolonged use of perineural catheters may provide a sustained benefit. Regardless of analgesic technique, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for optimal care. Patient-tailored analgesic regimens utilizing catheter-based techniques are essential in the acute post-amputation phase and should be implemented in all patients undergoing amputation. Future research should focus on improved measurement of acute pain and comparisons of effective analgesic regimens instead of single techniques.
Beloeil, H; Sulpice, L
Recent advances in the management of peri-operative pain principally concern the recognition of the risk of developing pain chronicity. The best identified risk factors for pain chronicity are the presence of pain pre-operatively, pre-operative opioid use, and the intensity of post-operative pain. Ideal management of peri-operative pain in 2015 aims to optimize post-operative pain management, to detect the risk of pain chronicity begins pre-operatively with early detection of risk factors for chronicity. In terms of treatment, the systematic and generous use of morphine has shown its limitations, particularly due to reduced efficacy for movement-related pain. Meanwhile, opioid side effects can be very debilitating for the patient, leading to delay in post-operative rehabilitation, a dose-dependent hyperalgesic effect resulting in both acute and chronic pain, immune modulation that may have a deleterious impact on infectious complications or cancer , and, finally, some question of possible neurotoxicity. Therefore, modern analgesia depends on both intra-operative and post-operative morphine sparing. The goal at the present time is to obtain optimal analgesia that allows rapid rehabilitation without sequelae or chronicity through the use of drugs and/or techniques to avoid the need for opioid medications. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Grifasi, Carlo; Calogero, Armando; Esposito, Anna; Dodaro, Concetta
Epidemiological data show a continuous expansion of elderly population in Europe. Older individuals require more medical services relative to their younger counterparts. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent considerations in regards to preoperative assessment, postoperative outcomes, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness analysis of day surgery in the elderly. This review considered studies that included older patients who were undergoing day surgery general procedures (such as inguinal hernia repair, excision of breast lump, haemorrhoidectomy). The interventions of interest to this review included selection criteria, perioperative care, management of postoperative pain. According to a large number of studies, old age does not constitute a contraindication for elderly to undergo ambulatory surgery but this population may require more careful intraoperative cardiovascular management. Hospitalization of older patients is frequently associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Management of postoperative pain in older patients may be complicated by a number of factors, including a higher risk of age- and disease-related changes in physiology and disease-drug and drug-drug interactions. Early studies evaluating approaches to facilitating the recovery process have demonstrated the benefits of multimodal analgesic techniques. A lot of studies show that even elderly patients can successfully undergo day surgery procedures by implementing evidence-based perioperative care programs, minimizing operative duration and tissue trauma and providing a comfortable setting.
Grifasi, Carlo; Calogero, Armando; Esposito, Anna; Dodaro, Concetta
Epidemiological data show a continuous expansion of elderly population in Europe. Older individuals require more medical services relative to their younger counterparts. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent considerations in regards to preoperative assessment, postoperative outcomes, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness analysis of day surgery in the elderly. This review considered studies that included older patients who were undergoing day surgery general procedures (such as inguinal hernia repair, excision of breast lump, haemorrhoidectomy). The interventions of interest to this review included selection criteria, perioperative care, management of postoperative pain. According to a large number of studies, old age does not constitute a contraindication for elderly to undergo ambulatory surgery but this population may require more careful intraoperative cardiovascular management. Hospitalization of older patients is frequently associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Management of postoperative pain in older patients may be complicated by a number of factors, including a higher risk of age- and disease-related changes in physiology and disease-drug and drug-drug interactions. Early studies evaluating approaches to facilitating the recovery process have demonstrated the benefits of multimodal analgesic techniques. A lot of studies show that even elderly patients can successfully undergo day surgery procedures by implementing evidence-based perioperative care programs, minimizing operative duration and tissue trauma and providing a comfortable setting.
Bucx, M.J.L.; Krijtenburg, P.; Scheffer, G.J.
- An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively,
Bhayani, Neil H; Miller, Jennifer L; Ortenzi, Gail; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Kimchi, Eric T; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F; Gusani, Niraj J
Total pancreatectomy (TP) eliminates the risk and morbidity of pancreatic leak after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, TP is a more extensive procedure with guaranteed endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Previous studies conflict on the net benefit of TP. A comparison of patients undergoing non-emergent, curative-intent TP or PD for pancreatic neoplasia using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project data from 2005-2011 was done. Main outcome measures were mortality and major and minor morbidities. Of the 6,314 (97%) who underwent PD and the 198 (3%) who underwent TP, malignancy was present in 84% of patients. The two groups were comparable at baseline. Mortality was higher after TP (6.1%) than DP (3.1%), p = 0.02. Adjusting for differences on multivariable analysis, TP carried increased mortality (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.3-5.2, p = 0.005). TP was also associated with increased rates of major morbidity (38 vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and blood transfusion (16 vs. 10%, p = 0.01). Infectious and septic complications occurred equally in both groups. The morbidity of a pancreatic fistula can be eliminated by TP. However, based on our findings, TP is associated with increased major morbidity and mortality. TP cannot be routinely recommended for to reduce perioperative morbidity when pancreaticoduodenectomy is an appropriate surgical option.
Asher, Daniel I; Avery, Edwin G
Hypertension affects approximately one third of the U.S. population and is the most common preventable medical reason that surgical cases are postponed or cancelled. However, subtypes of hypertension and their perioperative risks are poorly studied and understood. We will review the natural history and pathophysiology of essential hypertension and discuss the perioperative significance of diastolic blood pressure elevation. There is evidence that elevated preoperative diastolic blood pressures are associated with an increased perioperative risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and increased postoperatively 30-day mortality. However, lower preoperative diastolic blood pressures were found, in one study, to be associated with renal injury. Diastolic hypertension and hypotension both carry perioperative risk. Further study needs to be dedicated to elucidating the risks and developing strategies for acute and chronic management of diastolic blood pressure changes in order to improve perioperative safety.
Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H
ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive
Full Text Available Object: This study was conducted to survey the perioperative complications in a patient more than 70-year-old undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (miTLIF and to examine if the incidence of complications differs from that of younger patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, comparative study was conducted. Patients who underwent miTLIF in our hospital between September 2007 and December 2010 were included and divided into two groups according to age: the elderly group (≥70 and the young group (<70. The perioperative complications of both groups were analyzed and compared. Results: A total of 185 consecutive patients were included. Of the 185 patients, 132 patients were <70 years and 53 patients were more than 70-year-old. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding patient characteristics except for diagnosis. The incidences of comorbidity were similar as well. There were no significant differences between the young and the elderly groups regarding intraoperative (3.79% vs. 9.43%, P = 0.1527, major (0% vs. 3.77%, P = 0.08, minor (24.24% vs. 16.98%, P = 0.28, and total complications (27.27% vs. 28.30%, P = 0.8874. There was no mortality in both groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, the incidences of intraoperative and perioperative major complications in the elderly were higher than that in the young, but the differences did not reach statistical significance.
Jørgensen, Mads E.; Sanders, Robert D.; Køber, Lars
Aims: Beta-blockers vary in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. It is unknown whether specific types are associated with increased perioperative risks. We evaluated perioperative risks associated with beta-blocker subtypes, overall and in patient subgroups. Methods and results: We...... performed a Danish Nationwide cohort study, 2005-2011, of patients treated chronically with beta blocker (atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, propranolol, or other) prior to non-cardiac surgery. Risks of 30-day all-cause mortality (ACM) and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were...... in analyses stratified by age, surgery priority, duration of anaesthesia or surgery risk (all P for interaction >0.05). Conclusion: Risks of ACM and MACE did not systematically differ by beta-blocker subtype. Findings may guide clinical practice and future trials....
Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M
While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.
Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Sharathkumar, Anjali
This study investigated the clinician practices on perioperative anticoagulation in children with prosthetic mechanical heart valves who undergo elective surgeries. An online survey was administered to members of PediHeartNet. The survey consisted of multiple choice questions and clinical scenarios. The study described clinical practice patterns and variables that influence the clinicians' bridging anticoagulation decisions. Ninety-one respondents completed the survey; 68% were affiliated with university settings; 91% were pediatric cardiologists, and 49% had ≥10 years of experience in pediatric cardiology. Approximately one-half of the respondents (54%) independently provided perioperative anticoagulation management to their patients, while 46% utilized cardiac or hematology anticoagulation services. Resources that influenced bridging decisions included hematology experts (20%), American College of Chest Physicians guidelines (34%), and the clinicians' personal experience (56%). In planning for major surgeries, 47% of the respondents hospitalized patients for unfractionated heparin (UFH) and 46% prescribed outpatient low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). For minor surgeries, 58% hospitalized patients for UFH, 22% prescribed outpatient LMWH, and 17% opted out of bridging anticoagulation. Immediately after mitral valve replacement, 23% used bridging anticoagulation with UFH. When LMWH was used, there were no reports of thromboembolic complications. Major bleeding complications were rare and reported by 2% of the respondents. This was the first documentation that clinical practice of bridging perioperative anticoagulation in children with mechanical heart valves varies widely among pediatric cardiac specialists. There is poor adoption of published guidelines and a tendency toward more conservative strategies. Further studies comparing the safety and efficacy of LMWH vs. UFH as perioperative anticoagulation agents in children with mechanical heart valves are needed
Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert
Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Francis Duval
Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dumancić, Jelena; Marković, Asja Stipić
A large number of individuals experiencing anaphylactic reaction to neuromuscular blocking agents have not previously been in contact with them. The search for a substance inducing sensitization to muscle relaxants has led Norwegian and Swedish scientists to pholcodine, a cough suppressant, which is widely used in Europe and worldwide. Ammonium ion is an epitope common to pholcodine and neuromuscular blocking agents and it is the basis of their cross-reactivity. Based on the results of published studies that pointed to a connection of the use of pholcodine and perioperative anaphylactic reaction, pholcodine was withdrawn from the Norwegian market and subsequent research revealed a reduction of anaphylactic reactions in that country. In its latest report, the European Medicines Agency made a decision not to withdraw pholcodine mixtures from the market but it urged further research with the aim to clarify the cross-reactivity between pholcodine and neuromuscular blocking agents.
Carry, P Y; Dubost, J; Roche, C; Baud, A V; Breton, P; Freidel, M; Gueugniaud, P Y
To describe per and postoperative medical complications. Prospective, observational study. Between July and December 1999, 59 patients scheduled for programmed orthognathic surgery were included. Anaesthetic and surgical procedures were standardised including patient information and training of surgical ward' nurses. During perioperative periods (in operative and recovery theater and in surgical ward), all the events were qualified on an anaesthetic spreadsheet for a qualitative analysis (description of events and treatment procedures). Two main complications were described 1) one atelectasia due to blood inhalation during the recovery period and 2) local sepsis in surgical ward. These two events were medically treated and recovered. No need of blood transfusion or stay in ICU were noted. Anaesthetic and surgical cooperation is associated with poor morbidity of this functional surgery performed in young subjects.
Andersen, Cheme; Afshari, Arash
For more than 50 years, hypotonic fluids (crystalloids) have been the standard for maintenance fluid used in children. In the last decade, several studies have evaluated the risk of hyponatremia associated with the use of hypotonic vs isotonic fluids, which has lead to an intense debate. Children...... hyponatremia is higher in children than in adults. It represents an emergency condition, and early diagnosis, prompt treatment and close monitoring are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. The widespread use of hypotonic fluids in children undergoing surgery is a matter of concern and more focus...... on this topic is urgently needed. In this paper, we review the literature and describe the impact of perioperative hyponatremia in children....
Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Olsen, Ida Østrup; Tewes, Marianne
of the longstanding relationship between nursing and technology, it is interesting that few studies with this focus have been performed. Therefore, our research question was: What is the content of perioperative nursing and how do nurses facilitate the interaction between nursing care and technology in highly...... specialized operating rooms in public university hospitals? METHODS: An ethnography involving participant observations and interviews was conducted during a 9-month study period. The participants comprised 24 nurses from 9 different operating wards at 2 university hospitals in different regions of Denmark...... the patients were viewed contributed to the development of three levels of interaction between technology and nursing care: the interaction, declining interaction, and failing interaction levels. CONCLUSION: Nursing practice at the interaction level is characterized by flexibility and excellence, while...
Sakamoto, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Baba, Hideo
The role of perioperative chemotherapy in the management of initially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is still unclear. The EPOC trial [the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983] is an important study that declares perioperative chemotherapy as the standard of care for patients with resectable CRLM, and the strategy is widely accepted in western countries. Compared with surgery alone, perioperative FOLFOX therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) in eligible patients or those with resected CRLM. Overall survival (OS) data from the EPOC trial were recently published in The Lancet Oncology, 2013. Here, we discussed the findings and recommendations from the EORTC 40983 trial. PMID:25713806
Morrison, J D
Perioperative nursing roles continue to rapidly change as we enter the twenty-first century. The need for strong leadership skills, expert clinical skills, creative management, ongoing continuing education, and research continues to grow in every department of surgical services. The clinical nurse specialist plays an important role in addressing each of these needs. Great opportunities exist within the field of nursing for perioperative nurses to expand their practice using their creativity, ideas, and skills. Using the clinical nurse specialist in the perioperative setting can foster creativity, stimulate development of new methods based on research, and maximize the delivery of high quality care by the entire OR staff.
Duceppe, E; Mrkobrada, M; Thomas, S; Devereaux, P J
Among adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery who are at risk of a myocardial infarction, a long-standing question has been whether these patients should receive aspirin throughout the perioperative period. A large (n = 10,010 patients) international trial (POISE-2) demonstrated that perioperative aspirin did not prevent myocardial infarction, and the result was consistent both for patients who had been taking aspirin before the trial (continuation stratum, 4382 patients) and for patients who had not been taking aspirin before the trial (initiation stratum, 5628 patients). Aspirin did, however, increase the risk of major bleeding. Therefore, the best evidence does not support the use of aspirin for the prevention of myocardial infarction in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. In patients who have an indication for long-term aspirin usage and have their aspirin held during the perioperative period, it is important to ensure aspirin is restarted after the high-risk period for bleeding has passed (i.e., 8-10 days after surgery). © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Roelants, Fabienne; Pospiech, Audrey; Momeni, Mona; Watremez, Christine
The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology. PMID:27635132
Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Brzezinski, Philip
The perioperative environment is a complex, high risk environment that requires real-time coordination by all perioperative team members and accurate, up-to-date information for situation assessment and decision-making. There is the need for a "Gestalt" holistic awareness of the perioperative environment to enable synthesis and contextualization of the salient information such as: patient information, case and procedure information, staff information, operative site view, physiological data, resource availability. One potential approach is to augment the medical toolkit with a large screen wall display that integrates and makes accessible information that currently resides in different data systems and care providers. The objectives are to promote safe workflows, team coordination and communication, and to enable diagnosis, anticipation of events, and information flow from upstream to downstream care providers. We used the human factors engineering design process to design and develop a display that provides a common operational picture for shared virtual perioperative team situation awareness to enhance patient safety.
Full Text Available Pregnant Females require special perioperative consideration as females react differently to treatment from physiologic and behavioural standpoints. Thus a standard perioperative assessment plays a crucial role for successful accomplishment of intraoperative and postoperative phase as well as to resist complications due to pregnancy. Each physiologic system is affected in such a way that may or may not have clinical significance for the surgeons. Thus affect of Pregnancy on cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal and endocrinal system have been reviewed. Moreover to decrease the hazards to the developing child, impact of surgery/treatment on the fetus has also been discussed. It was concluded that the goal of the perioperative evaluation of pregnant females is to identify its physiological effects on various systems and provide for the best efficacious perioperative treatment algorithm that shall minimize the patient morbidity.
Taylor, David L
The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dyke, Cornelius; Aronson, Solomon; Dietrich, Wulf; Hofmann, Axel; Karkouti, Keyvan; Levi, Marcel; Murphy, Gavin J; Sellke, Frank W; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; von Heymann, Christian; Ranucci, Marco
.... We propose a universal definition for perioperative bleeding (UDPB) in adult cardiac surgery in an attempt to precisely describe and quantify bleeding and to facilitate future investigation into this difficult clinical problem...
White, Paul F; White, Lisa M; Monk, Terri; Jakobsson, Jan; Raeder, Johan; Mulroy, Michael F; Bertini, Laura; Torri, Giorgio; Solca, Maurizio; Pittoni, Giovanni; Bettelli, Gabriella
As the number of ambulatory surgery procedures continues to grow in an aging global society, the implementation of evidence-based perioperative care programs for the elderly will assume increased importance...
A. Yu. Yakovlev
Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the features of perioperative metabolic disturbances in patients with lung cancer after pulmonectomy and a possibility of their correction with perioperative «Standard» formula sipping and with postoperative intravenous cytoflavin. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the results of a prospective randomized study of the efficiency of correction of metabolic disturbances in patients with lung cancer with perioperative enteral «Standard» formula sipping (5 days before surgery and 12 days after surgery. The study was conducted in 326 men aged 36 to 68 years. Arterial blood metabolic parameters (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate and daily urine urea were estimated. Results. There was an association of preoperative metabolic disturbances with body mass index (BMI. Inclusion of sipping into perioperative therapy did not exert a considerable impact on the cause of postoperative metabolic disturbances. Key words: lung cancer, pul-monectomy, body mass index, sipping, cytoflavin.
Sachidanand J Bharati
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Patients with brainstem tumors have many associated systemic abnormalities and are prone to develop perioperative complications. We studied the problems associated with brainstem tumors and their influence on the postoperative neurological outcome. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of records of patients who underwent surgery for brainstem tumors over a period of 8 years was done. Preoperative variables, perioperative complications and neurological outcome as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale at the time of hospital discharge were noted. Association between perioperative factors and the unfavorable neurological outcome was evaluated. Results: Data of 70 patients were retrieved, 7 patients were excluded from the study because of incomplete data and data analysis was carried out for 63 patients. We found that lower cranial nerve palsies (32% and hydrocephalus (43% were common preoperatively. Various intraoperative problems encountered were hemodynamic instability (56%, major blood loss requiring blood transfusion (40% and venous air embolism (11%, and postoperative problems were meningitis (51%, hypokalemia (38%, chest infection (21%, seizure (11%, deterioration of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, 11%, hyponatremia (8%, hydrocephalus (6%, respiratory distress (3% and operatives site hematoma (3%. Fifty-six (89% patients had favorable outcome at hospital discharge whereas, 7 (11% had an unfavorable outcome. There was no association between pre- and intra-operative factors and the neurological outcome. Deterioration of GCS, chest infection, and the need for reintubation and tracheostomy were associated with unfavorable neurological outcome. Conclusion: Patients of brainstem tumors are at increased risk of perioperative complications. Some of the postoperative complications were associated with unfavorable neurological outcome.
Aliasgar V Moiyadi
Full Text Available Background: Perioperative outcomes following surgery for brain tumors are an important indicator of the safety as well as efficacy of surgical intervention. Perioperative morbidity not only has implications on direct patient care, but also serves as an indicator of the quality of care provided, and enables objective documentation, for comparision in various clinical trials. We document our experience at a tertiary care referral, a dedicated neuro-oncology center in India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety-six patients undergoing various surgeries for intra-axial brain tumors were analyzed. Routine microsurgical techniques and uniform antibiotic policy were used. Navigation/ intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring was not available. The endpoints assessed included immediate postoperative neurological status, neurological outcome at discharge, regional complications, systemic complications, overall morbidity, and mortality. Various risk factors assessed included clinico-epidemiological factors, tumor-related factors, and surgery-related factors. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: Median age was 38 years. 72% had tumors larger than 4 cm. Neurological morbidity, and regional and systemic complications occurred in 16.8, 17.3, and 10.7%, respectively. Overall, major morbidity occurred in 18% and perioperative mortality rate was 3.6%. Although a few of the known risk factors were found to be significant on univariate analysis, none achieved significance on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our patients were younger and had larger tumors than are generally reported. Despite the unavailability of advanced intraoperative aids we could achieve acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Objective recording of perioperative events is crucial to document outcomes after surgery for brain tumors.
Garvey, Lene Heise
Perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare, often life-threatening events, and subsequent investigations to identify the culprit are important to avoid re-exposure. All exposures in the perioperative setting may potentially be the cause of a hypersensitivity reaction, but drugs administered intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may not necessarily be the case in all countries. New and hidden allergens have emerged as causes of perioperative hypersensitivity such as blue dyes, chlorhexidine and excipients. Detailed knowledge of the events at the time of reaction is necessary to identify potential culprits including rare and hidden allergens. Cooperation between allergists and anaesthetists, or other staff present perioperatively, is often needed to identify hidden or even undocumented exposures. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the history of investigation of perioperative hypersensitivity, to describe the differences in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the "hidden allergens" in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fesler-Birch, Diane M
The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational study was to assess for presence and degree of critical thinking skills among perioperative (OR) nurses. Critical thinking has become a multidisciplinary "buzz phrase"; however, critical thinking, reflective thinking, or mental discipline was discussed among educators, as early as 1912. As nurses' roles change in response to the dynamics of managed care and an increase in use of biotechnology in health care, more is expected of nurses in terms of both psychomotor and cognitive skills. Thus, critical thinking may be central to nurses' ability to meet the care expectations of patients and the skill expectations of managers, peers, and themselves. Data collected from 1 university-affiliated medical center, 1 non-university-affiliated medical center, and 3 ambulatory surgicenters. Data were collected over a 12-month period from 2008 to 2009. Convenience sample of 92 OR nurses. The sample comprised nurses with various educational levels for entry into practice: diploma, associate, and bachelor of science in nursing degrees. Subjects' clinical experience ranged from 1 month to 40 years. Administered California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory; Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills of Perioperative Nurses, an investigator-developed tool; and a demographic survey. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and step-wise regression were performed; power of 80% with a medium effect size was calculated. Aggregate (N = 92) for the dependent variable (level of critical thinking)and predictor variables (dispositions) were not significant. The group (medical center 1) indicated that as the level of critical thinking increased, the level of truth increased. Also, as the level of critical thinking increased, the level of open-mindedness decreased. In groups 2, 4, and 5 (surgicenters) coefficient indicated that none of the predictors were significant. A stepwise regression was calculated for group 3 (medical center
Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Bess, Shay; Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Mundis, Gregory M; Sciubba, Daniel M; Ailon, Tamir; Burton, Douglas C; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P
OBJECTIVE The operative management of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has a high complication rate and it remains unknown whether baseline patient characteristics and surgical variables can predict early complications (intraoperative and perioperative [within 6 weeks]). The development of an accurate preoperative predictive model can aid in patient counseling, shared decision making, and improved surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a model based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical factors that can predict if patients will sustain an intraoperative or perioperative major complication. METHODS This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter ASD database. The inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years and the presence of ASD. In total, 45 variables were used in the initial training of the model including demographic data, comorbidities, modifiable surgical variables, baseline health-related quality of life, and coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters. Patients were grouped as either having at least 1 major intraoperative or perioperative complication (COMP group) or not (NOCOMP group). An ensemble of decision trees was constructed utilizing the C5.0 algorithm with 5 different bootstrapped models. Internal validation was accomplished via a 70/30 data split for training and testing each model, respectively. Overall accuracy, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and predictor importance were calculated. RESULTS Five hundred fifty-seven patients were included: 409 (73.4%) in the NOCOMP group, and 148 (26.6%) in the COMP group. The overall model accuracy was 87.6% correct with an AUROC curve of 0.89 indicating a very good model fit. Twenty variables were determined to be the top predictors (importance ≥ 0.90 as determined by the model) and included (in decreasing importance): age, leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, number of decompression levels, number of
More than 500,000 health care workers are exposed to surgical smoke every year. Toxic gases create an offensive odor, small particulate matter causes respiratory complications, and pathogens may be transmitted in the surgical smoke to the surgical team. Previous research notes that perioperative nurses do not consistently follow smoke evacuation recommendations. The purpose of this study was to determine key indicators that are associated with compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Data from a web-based survey completed by 777 nurse members of AORN were analyzed to examine the relationship between the key indicators and compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Major findings were that specific key indicators influencing compliance include increased knowledge and training, positive perceptions about the complexity of the recommendations, and increased specialization, interconnectedness, and leadership support in larger facilities. Education programs can be developed that directly address these key predictors so that a surgical environment free from surgical smoke is promoted. 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a
Piriou, V; Aouifi, A; Lehot, J J
To review the pharmacologic and pathophysiologic information necessary to prescribe beta-blockers (BB) in perioperative medicine. Manual retrieval and electronic research of the literature using MEDLINE (key-words: anesthesia and beta- blocker; surgery and beta-blocker). Cardioselective BB inhibit preferentially beta-1 receptors, inducing a decrease in heart rate and cardiac inotropism leading to reduction of oxygen myocardial consumption. Non-cardioselective BB inhibit also beta-2 receptors, increasing bronchial and peripheral vascular resistances and uterine contractions. However, some BB are also vasodilators (carvedilol, celiprolol, labetalol). Contraindications to BB result logically from their pharmacological effects. Treatment with BB increases membrane beta-receptor density; this explains sympathetic overactivity observed during weaning of treatment. Since the discovery of propranolol in 1964, the use of BB has been controversial in anesthesia. Formerly, the adverse effects of partial sympatholysis during anesthesia and surgery were feared. However, since 1973, experimental and clinical data have suggested a protective hemodynamic effect. Continued administration of BB up to the time of anesthesia has been encouraged except in patients with signs of intolerance such as hypotension or excessive bradycardia.
V. N. Amirdzhanova
Full Text Available The paper considers the joint management of rheumatoid arthritis patients needing endoprosthetic replacement of the large joints of the lower extremities by rheumatologists and orthopedic traumatologists.Due to the fact that there are no conventional standards or guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with rheumatic diseases, adopted by international rheumatology associations, the authors generalize their experience in managing the patients in terms of international approaches and guidelines from different countries. The medical assessment and reduction of cardiovascular risks, the prevention of infectious complications, hemorrhages, and lower extremity deep vein thrombosis, and the specific features of management of patients with osteoporosis are under consideration. The authors' experience in managing the patients receiving antirheumatic therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine, is detailed. Recommendations for managing patients taking glucocorticoids and biologic agents (tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, anti-B-cell therapy, and interleukin-6 receptor inhibitors in the preoperative andpostoperative periods are given.
Kurup, Viji; Hersey, Denise
There has been an explosion of medical information in the past decade. Current clinical practice demands that anesthesiologists be aware of current treatments and procedures, along with the latest practice standards and guidelines. The need to be able to rapidly retrieve relevant, accurate clinical information at the point of care is now felt more than ever. This review explores the impact of clinical medical librarians, with particular emphasis on their application in the perioperative setting. An increasing number of hospitals are turning to medical librarians to help clinicians improve their information-seeking skills. As a result, the role of medical librarians has expanded dramatically. Most studies evaluating the effectiveness of clinical medical librarian programs support their value in clinical teams, yet the studies rely primarily on descriptive surveys and qualitative data. Anesthesiologists have particular information needs for which the physical library is no longer sufficient. New outcome measures to define the 'success' of clinical medical librarian programs need to be formulated, and economic considerations need to be factored into these programs.
Cata, Juan P; Villarreal, John; Keerty, Dinesh; Thakar, Dilip R; Liu, Diane D; Sood, Anil K; Gottumukkala, Vijaya
To assess the effect of perioperative beta blockers on recurrence and overall survival after non-small cell lung cancer surgery. Retrospective study. Academic medical center. The medical records of patients with stage 1, 2, and 3a non-small cell lung cancer were divided into three different groups: those patients who never received beta blockers perioperatively, those receiving nonselective beta blockers within 60 days of surgery, and those taking selective beta blockers within 60 days of surgery. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival were the main clinical endpoints. Univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the effects of selective beta blockers, nonselective beta blockers, or no beta blockers on recurrence-free survival and overall survival. The analysis included records of 435 patients. Univariate analyses showed that the use of both selective and nonselective beta blockers was associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (P = 0.014) and overall survival (P = 0.009). However, these findings were not sustained after adjusting for possible confounding variables in the multivariate analysis. The hazard ratios for recurrence-free survival (selective beta blockers vs no beta blocker use were: 1.304; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.973 - 1.747; P = 0.075; for nonselective beta blockers vs no beta blockers: 0.989; 95% CI 0.639 - 1.532; P = 0.962. The hazard ratios for overall survival were: selective beta blocker use vs no beta blockers: 1.335; 95% CI 0.966 - 1.846; P = 0.080; nonselective beta blocker use vs no beta blocker use: 1.108; 95% CI 0.678 - 1.812; P = 0.682. Administration of beta blockers during the perioperative period did not improve recurrence-free or overall survival in patients undergoing resection of non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The authors have investigated the perioperative complications after donor nephrectomy integrating the US transplant registry with administrative records from an academic hospital consortium (97 centers, 2008-2012. 14.964 patients were verified as live donors through linkage with the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry. Overall, 16.8% of donors experienced a perioperative complication, including Clavien grade 2 or higher events in 8.8%, Clavien grade 3 or higher in 7.3%, and Clavien grade 4 or higher events in 2.5%. The most common complications were gastrointestinal (4.4%, bleeding (3.0%, respiratory (2.5%, and surgical/anesthesia-related injuries (2.4%. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, African American donors were 26% more likely to experience any perioperative complication and 56% more likely to experience the most severe complications. Other factors associated with increased risk of any perioperative complication, and with the most severe complications included predonation hematologic and psychiatric conditions and more recent years of donation. Donation at centers with the highest annual volume of living donor nephrectomies (>50 cases/year was associated with approximately 45% lower risk of any perioperative complication and of the most severe complications. Donors who underwent robotic nephrectomy were twice as likely to experience severe perioperative complications (adjusted odds ratio 2.07 for Clavien grade 4 or higher events. To conclude, the authors found that while one in six US living kidney donors experienced a perioperative complication, the most severe complications were infrequent, affecting only 2.5% of donors.
Geraldo Carvalho Jr
Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.
Rozec, B; Cinotti, R; Le Teurnier, Y; Marret, E; Lejus, C; Asehnoune, K; Blanloeil, Y
Stroke is a well-described postoperative complication, after carotid and cardiac surgery. On the contrary, few studies are available concerning postoperative stroke in general non-cardiac non-carotid surgery. The high morbid-mortality of stroke justifies an extended analysis of recent literature. Systematic review. Firstly, Medline and Ovid databases using combination of stroke, cardiac surgery, carotid surgery, general non-cardiac non-carotid surgery as keywords; secondly, national and European epidemiologic databases; thirdly, expert and French health agency recommendations; lastly, reference book chapters. In cardiac surgery, with an incidence varying from 1.2 to 10% according to procedure complexity, stroke occurs peroperatively in 50% of cases and during the first 48 postoperative hours for the others. The incidence of stroke after carotid surgery is 1 to 20% according to the technique used as well as operator skills. Postoperative stroke is a rare (0.15% as mean, extremes around 0.02 to 1%) complication in general surgery, it occurs generally after the 24-48th postoperative hours, exceptional peroperatively, and 40% of them occurring in the first postoperative week. It concerned mainly aged patient in high-risk surgeries (hip fracture, vascular surgery). Postoperative stroke was associated to an increase in perioperative mortality in comparison to non-postoperative stroke operated patients. Postoperative stroke is a quality marker of the surgical teams' skill and has specific onset time and induces an increase of postoperative mortality. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Bräuer, A; Perl, T; Uyanik, Z; English, M J M; Weyland, W; Braun, U
Reduction of heat losses from the skin by thermal insulation is used to avoid perioperative hypothermia. However, there is little information about the physical properties of various insulating materials used in the operating room. The following insulation materials were tested using a validated manikin: cotton surgical drape tested in two and four layers; Allegiance drape; 3M Steri-Drape; metallized plastic sheet; Thermadrape Barkey thermcare 1 tested in one and two layers; hospital duvet tested in one and two layers. Heat loss from the surface of the manikin can be described as: Q(*);= h.DeltaT.A where Q(*); is heat flux, h is the heat exchange coefficient, DeltaT is the temperature gradient between the environment and surface and A is the area covered. The heat flux per unit area (Q(*); A(-1)) and surface temperature were measured with nine calibrated heat-flux transducers. The environmental temperature was measured using a thermoanemometer. DeltaT was varied and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs Qdot; A(-1). The reciprocal of h defines the insulation. The insulation value of air was 0.61 Clo. The insulation values of the materials varied between 0.17 Clo (two layers of cotton surgical drapes) to 2.79 Clo (two layers of hospital duvet). There are relevant differences between various insulating materials. The best commercially available material designed for use in the operating room (Barkey thermcare 1) can reduce heat loss from the covered area by 45% when used in two layers. Given the range of insulating materials available for outdoor activities, significant improvement in insulation of patients in the operating room is both possible and desirable.
Rossi, L; Carbonieri, E; Fabbri, A; Franchi, G; Gerosa, G; Silvestre, G; Castello, C; Casarotto, D; Zardini, P
In order to evaluate perioperative electrical cardiac disturbances and ST segment changes, 42 patients (38 M, 4 F, aged 57 +/- 6 ys) were studied using 24-hour Holter monitoring before, during and after coronary bypass surgery. In the 4-6 hours before cardioplegic arrest, 38% of patients had ST segment changes. No patient and malignant arrhythmias. The injection of cold cardioplegic solution was followed by bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and isoelectric line within 2-4 minutes. After aortic declamping, 30 patients were defibrillated. Impulse formation and conduction disturbances, found in 55% of patients, solved themselves in 1 to 60 minutes. Bundle branch block continued in just 4 cases. A total of 59% of patients had ST segment elevation for 14 +/- 14 minutes and 19% had ST segment depression for 19 +/- 20 minutes. Successive transient ST segment changes were detected in 38% of patients. Sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred during 2 ischemic episodes. Impulse formation and conduction disturbances were not related to the duration of cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation, but were more frequent and lasted longer in patients with incomplete revascularization. Transient ST segment depression far from aortic declamping correlated with preclamping ischemia. Transient ST segment elevation correlated with incomplete revascularization. We concluded that ECG signs of intraoperative damage were reversible. Moreover, perioperative transitory ischemia was frequent but could be prevented by coronary active drug administration. On the other hand incomplete revascularization was associated with electrical disturbances and ischemia.
Page, E; Akiboye, F; Jackson, S; Kerry, C; Round, R; Rayman, G
To determine whether a handheld 'perioperative passport' could improve the experience of perioperative care for people with diabetes and overcome some of the communication issues commonly identified in inpatient extracts. Individuals with diabetes undergoing elective surgery requiring at least an overnight stay were identified via a customized information technology system. Those allocated to the passport group were given the perioperative passport before their hospital admission. A 26-item questionnaire was completed after surgery by 50 participants in the passport group (mean age 69 years) and by 35 participants with diabetes who followed the usual surgical pathway (mean age 70 years). In addition, the former group had a structured interview about their experience of the passport. The prevalence of those who reported having received prior information about their expected diabetes care was 35% in the control group vs 92% in the passport group (Phospital (Pdischarge (P≤0.001). The mean length of hospital stay was shorter in the passport group, although the difference did not reach significance (4.4 vs 6.5 days; P<0.058). Content analysis indicated that the passport was well liked and innovative. Our data indicate that the perioperative passport is effective in both informing and involving people in their diabetes care throughout the perioperative period. © 2017 Diabetes UK.
Burkitt, Kelly H; Mor, Maria K; Jain, Rajiv; Kruszewski, Matthew S; McCray, Ellesha E; Moreland, Michael E; Muder, Robert R; Obrosky, David Scott; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wilson, Mark A; Fine, Michael J
To assess the role of a Toyota production system (TPS) quality improvement (QI) intervention on appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic therapy and in length of hospital stay (LOS) among surgical patients. Pre-post quasi-experimental study using local and national retrospective cohorts. We used TPS methods to implement a multifaceted intervention to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a Veterans Affairs surgical unit, which led to a QI intervention targeting appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy was defined as selection of the recommended antibiotic agents for a duration not exceeding 24 hours from the time of the operation. The local computerized medical record system was used to identify patients undergoing the 25 most common surgical procedures and to examine changes in appropriate antibiotic therapy and LOS over time. Overall, 2550 surgical admissions were identified from the local computerized medical records. The proportion of surgical admissions receiving appropriate perioperative antibiotics was significantly higher (P <.01) in 2004 after initiation of the TPS intervention (44.0%) compared with the previous 4 years (range, 23.4%-29.8%) primarily because of improvements in compliance with antibiotic therapy duration rather than appropriate antibiotic selection. There was no statistically significant decrease in LOS over time. The use of TPS methods resulted in a QI intervention that was associated with an increase in appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy among surgical patients, without affecting LOS.
Holte, Kathrine; Bardram, Linda; Wettergren, André
Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review aiming to examine the perioperative and the long...
American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) joint consensus statement on perioperative fluid management within an enhanced recovery pathway for colorectal surgery.
Thiele, Robert H; Raghunathan, Karthik; Brudney, C S; Lobo, Dileep N; Martin, Daniel; Senagore, Anthony; Cannesson, Maxime; Gan, Tong Joo; Mythen, Michael Monty G; Shaw, Andrew D; Miller, Timothy E
Enhanced recovery may be viewed as a comprehensive approach to improving meaningful outcomes in patients undergoing major surgery. Evidence to support enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) is strong in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. There is some controversy about the adoption of specific elements in enhanced recovery "bundles" because the relative importance of different components of ERPs is hard to discern (a consequence of multiple simultaneous changes in clinical practice when ERPs are initiated). There is evidence that specific approaches to fluid management are better than alternatives in patients undergoing colorectal surgery; however, several specific questions remain. In the "Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) Fluids" workgroup, we developed a framework broadly applicable to the perioperative management of intravenous fluid therapy in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery within an ERP. We discussed aspects of ERPs that impact fluid management and made recommendations or suggestions on topics such as bowel preparation; preoperative oral hydration; intraoperative fluid therapy with and without devices for goal-directed fluid therapy; and type of fluid.
Culp, Jeffrey A; Palis, Ross I; Castells, Mariana C; Lucas, Sean R; Borish, Larry
This article presents a case report of perioperative anaphylaxis in a previously nonallergic 44-year-old man undergoing cervical spine surgery. After receiving general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol, lidocaine, fentanyl, rocuronium, and sevoflurane and cefazolin for prophylaxis, the patient developed hypotension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, and generalized erythema. A serum tryptase concentration was markedly elevated 2 hours after the anaphylactic episode. Initial prick and intradermal skin tests (excluding skin testing for unavailable benzylpenicilloyl polylysine) and IgE immunoassays for penicillin and cefazolin were negative. However, repeat prick skin testing for cefazolin 6 weeks after anaphylaxis was positive. Although anaphylaxis to cephalosporins is rare, it remains a potential cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. All cases of perioperative anaphylaxis require a workup to identify the offending agent and to avoid future reactions. Skin testing regimens for several commonly implicated drugs used for general anesthesia are available and are described.
Johnson, Fay; Logsdon, Patty; Fournier, Kim; Fisher, Sandra
Communication breakdown is the leading cause of reported sentinel events in the perioperative setting. Barriers to optimal communication include noise, stress, multitasking, and rapid turnover between procedures. AORN has identified communication during personnel changes (ie, hand offs) as a point of vulnerability for the surgical patient. A standardized hand-off method provides an opportunity for personnel to ask and answer questions and should be available in the perioperative setting. At one facility, the standardization of hand-off reporting resulted in the development of new hand-off tools specific to the perioperative environment. A standardized reporting method enabled health care providers to address communication barriers and to maintain their focus on the patient during critical moments (eg, shift changes), thereby improving patient safety. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate and describe, among the members of the Brazilian Glaucoma Society (BGS, the practices regarding the perioperative management of anticoagulants (warfarin and aspirin use in patients scheduled for glaucoma surgery. METHODS: The active members of the Brazilian Glaucoma Society answered a questionnaire evaluating different aspects of their current perioperative management of glaucomatous patients taking warfarin or aspirin. RESULTS: A total of 52 participants returned a complete questionnaire. Warfarin or aspirin was routinely interrupted prior to glaucoma surgery by 82.7% of the respondents. The majority of the surgeons who discontinued these medications reported doing so 7 days prior to surgery and resumed their use the day after the procedure. Almost half of our interviewees reported hemorrhagic complications that could be related to anticoagulant therapy. A large number of the surgeons (86.5% preferred a particular surgical technique for anticoagulated patients; however, most of them (88.5% do not change the anesthetic planning in such patients. Finally, the majority of the participants (90.4% refer their anticoagulated patients to a preoperative appointment with a cardiologist or a general practitioner before the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Brazilian Glaucoma Society members participating in this study interrupt either warfarin or aspirin prior to glaucoma surgery. Although there is scant information available in the literature to offer definitive guidance, most participants from the Brazilian Glaucoma Society seem to share the same opinion when it comes to perioperative management of anticoagulant users.
Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Mahmood, Feroze; Hess, Philip E; Shnider, Marc; Mitchell, John D; Jones, Stephanie B; Mashari, Azad; Wong, Vanessa; Matyal, Robina
Understanding of the workflow of perioperative ultrasound (US) examination is an integral component of proficiency. Workflow consists of the practical steps prior to executing an US examination (eg, equipment operation). Whereas other proficiency components (ie, cognitive knowledge and manual dexterity) can be tested, workflow understanding is difficult to define and assess due to its contextual and institution-specific nature. The objective was to define the workflow components of specific perioperative US applications using an iterative process to reach a consensus opinion. Expert consensus, survey study. Tertiary university hospital. This study sought expert consensus among a focus group of 9 members of an anesthesia department with experience in perioperative US. Afterward, 257 anesthesia faculty members from 133 academic centers across the United States were surveyed. A preliminary list of tasks was designed to establish the expectations of workflow understanding by an anesthesiology resident prior to clinical exposure to perioperative US. This list was modified by a focus group through an iterative process. Afterwards, a survey was sent to faculty members nationwide, and Likert scale ratings for each task were obtained and reviewed during a second round. Consensus among members of the focus group was reached after 2 iterations. 72 participants responded to the nationwide survey (28%), and consensus was reached after the second round (Cronbach's α = 0.99, ICC = 0.99) on a final list of 46 workflow-related tasks. Specific components of perioperative US workflow were identified. Evaluation of workflow understanding may be combined with cognitive knowledge and manual dexterity testing for assessing proficiency in perioperative US. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hulst, A. H.; Hermanides, J.; DeVries, J. H.; Preckel, B.
We thank Dr Brown and Dr Paul for their insightful commentary on our study(1) and the subject of perioperative continuation of metformin, stressing again the importance of perioperative hyperglycaemia and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM)
Full Text Available Statins belong to a specific group of drugs that have been described for their ability to control hyperlipidemia as well as for other pleiotropic effects such as improving vascular endothelial function, inhibition of oxidative stress pathways, and anti-inflammatory actions. Accumulating clinical evidence strongly suggests that statins also have a beneficial effect on perioperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this review aims to present all recent and pooled data on statin treatment in the perioperative setting as well as to highlight considerations regarding their indications and therapeutic application.
Full Text Available Cold urticaria consists of an allergic immune response to cold temperatures with symptoms ranging from pruritic wheals to life-threatening angioedema, bronchospasm, or anaphylactic shock. Adequate planning to maintain normothermia perioperatively is vital due to impaired hypothalamic thermoregulation and overall depression of sympathetic outflow during deep sedation and general anesthesia. This case report describes the successful perioperative management of a 45-year-old female with a history of cold urticaria undergoing a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease and discusses how to appropriately optimize the care of these patients.
Jørgensen, B G; Qvist, N
Allogenic blood transfusion carries the risk of immunological and non-immunological adverse effects. Consequently, blood transfusion should be limited to situations where alternatives are not available. This article reviews current by available alternative strategies that reduce the need...... for perioperative allogenic blood transfusion. The effectiveness of a number of these alternatives needs to be documented and potential adverse effects clarified. The acceptance of a lower haemoglobin level as the transfusion trigger value is perhaps the most important factor in reducing the need for peri......-operative allogenic blood transfusion...
Sipples, Rebecca; Taylor, Richard; Kirk-Walker, Deborah; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Bakitas, Marie
To explore the opportunities to incorporate palliative care into perioperative oncology patient management and education strategies for surgical oncology nurses. Articles related to palliative care and surgical oncology to determine the degree of integration, gaps, and implications for practice. Although evidence supports positive patient outcomes when palliative care is integrated in the perioperative period, uptake of palliative care into surgical settings is slow. Palliative care concepts are not adequately integrated into surgical and nursing education. With appropriate palliative care education and training, surgical oncology nurses will be empowered to foster surgical-palliative care collaborations to improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gandhi, Ajay; Husain, Mubassher; Salhiyyah, Kareem; Raja, Shahzad G.
A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Does perioperative furosemide usage reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in cardiac surgery patients?’ Forty-seven papers were found using the reported search, of which 10 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Current best available evidence to resolve the issue includes a systematic review and nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The systematic review of seven RCTs and one observational study has demonstrated that in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery, a more consistent and sustained diuresis is produced by a continuous infusion of furosemide compared with intermittent bolus doses of furosemide. However, there does not appear to be a significant difference in the total urine output or a change in serum electrolyte levels when furosemide is administered as a continuous infusion compared with intermittent bolus doses. Three RCTs recruiting neonatal and paediatric patients after open heart surgery also validated the safety and efficacy of furosemide infusion as well as intermittent bolus doses. Two of the five RCTS in adult cardiac surgery patients showed that furosemide infusion was associated with a reduced need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), while two RCTs failed to show any benefit and one reported an increased incidence of renal impairment. We conclude that continuous furosemide infusion in the perioperative period promotes a gentle and sustained diuresis in cardiac surgery patients. The evidence supporting the benefit of this strategy in terms of reducing the need for RRT is weak. At the same time, current best available evidence, albeit from small RCTs, suggests that the timely introduction of continuous furosemide infusion does not increase the incidence
ten Broecke, P. W. C.; de Hert, S. G.; Mertens, E.; Adriaensen, H. F.
BACKGROUND: Many preoperative factors can influence perioperative mortality in cardiac surgery. Because the perioperative use of beta-blocking agents may reduce perioperative cardiac complications in non-cardiac surgery, we considered the possibility that beta-blocking agents could improve survival
Conlin, Frederick; Connelly, Neil R; Eaton, Michael P; Broderick, Patrick J; Friderici, Jennifer; Adler, Adam C
The advent of portable ultrasound machines in recent years has led to greater availability of focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) in the perioperative and critical care setting. To our knowledge, its use in the perioperative setting among anesthesiologists remains undefined. We sought to assess the use of FoCUS by members of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) in clinical practice, to identify variations in its application, to outline limits to its use, and to understand the level of training of physicians using this technology. A 26-question anonymous and voluntary online survey assessing the participants' training level with FoCUS, frequency of use, and opinions regarding incorporating it into residency training and developing a pathway to basic certification. The survey was distributed to the members of the SCA via email. The survey was completed by 379 of 3660 members of the SCA (10%). Of the respondents, the majority (67%) had completed a cardiovascular anesthesiology fellowship with 58% identifying their practice as academic, while 37% stated they were in private practice, and 6% were military/Veterans Administration. Most (84%) of the respondents practiced in North America. Eighty-one percent reported familiarity with FoCUS, while 47% stated they use it in their clinical practice. Those practicing in North America were significantly less likely to utilize FoCUS in their practice as compared to other respondents. With regard to training and certification, 88% believe FoCUS education should be integrated into residency training programs and 74% believe there should be a pathway to basic certification for FoCUS. While most cardiovascular anesthesiologists are familiar with FoCUS, a minority have integrated it into their practice. Roadblocks such as lack of training, the fear of missing diagnoses, lack of resources, and the lack of a formal certification process must be addressed to allow for more widespread use of perioperative cardiac
Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo de; Salomão, Alberto Bicudo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Diniz, Breno Nadaf
Multimodal protocol of perioperative care may enhance recovery after surgery. Based on evidence these new routines of perioperative care changed conventional prescriptions in surgery. To evaluate the results of a multimodal protocol (ACERTO protocol) in elderly patients. Non-randomized historical cohort study was performed at the surgical ward of a tertiary university hospital. One hundred seventeen patients aged 60 and older were submitted to elective abdominal operations under either conventional (n = 42; conventional group, January 2004-June 2005) or a fast-track perioperative protocol named ACERTO (n = 75; ACERTO group, July 2005-December 2007). Main endpoints were preoperative fasting time, postoperative day of re-feeding, volume of intravenous fluids, length of hospital stay and morbidity. The implantation of the ACERTO protocol was followed by a decrease in both preoperative fasting (15 [8-20] vs 4 [2-20] hours, P<0.001) and postoperative day of refeeding (1st [1st-10th] vs 0 [0-5th] PO day; P<0.01), and intravenous fluids (10.7 [2.5-57.5] vs 2.5 [0.5-82] L, P<0.001). The changing of protocols reduced the mean length of hospital stay by 4 days (6[1-43] vs 2[1-97] days; P = 0.002) and surgical site infection rate by 85.7% (19%; 8/42 vs 2.7%; 2/75, P<0.001; relative risk = 1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.39). Per-protocol analysis showed that hospital stay in major operations diminished only in patients who completed the protocol (P<0.01). The implementation of multidisciplinary routines of the ACERTO protocol diminished both hospitalization and surgical site infection in elderly patients submitted to abdominal operations.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to describe our institutional experience, primarily with general anesthesiologists consulting with cardiac anesthesiologists, caring for left ventricular assist device (LVAD patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the population of patients with LVADs at a single institution undergoing noncardiac procedures between 2009 and 2014. Demographic, perioperative, and procedural data collected included the type of procedure performed, anesthetic technique, vasopressor requirements, invasive monitors used, anesthesia provider type, blood product management, need for postoperative intubation, postoperative disposition and length of stay, and perioperative complications including mortality. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics for categorical variables are presented as frequency distributions and percentages. Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and range when applicable. Results: During the study, 31 patients with LVADs underwent a total of 74 procedures. Each patient underwent an average of 2.4 procedures. Of the total number of procedures, 48 (65% were upper or lower endoscopies. Considering all procedures, 81% were performed under monitored anesthesia care (MAC. Perioperative care was provided by faculty outside of the division of cardiac anesthesia in 62% of procedures. Invasive blood pressure monitoring was used in 27 (36% procedures, and a central line, peripherally inserted central catheter or midline was in place preoperatively and used intraoperatively for 38 (51% procedures. Vasopressors were not required in the majority (65; 88% of procedures. There was one inhospital mortality secondary to multiorgan failure; 97% of patients survived to discharge after their procedure. Conclusion: At our institution, LVAD patients undergoing noncardiac procedures most frequently require endoscopy. These procedures can frequently be done
Desborough, Michael J; Oakland, Kathryn; Brierley, Charlotte; Bennett, Sean; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Stanworth, Simon J; Estcourt, Lise J
Background Blood transfusion is administered during many types of surgery, but its efficacy and safety are increasingly questioned. Evaluation of the efficacy of agents, such as desmopressin (DDAVP; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), that may reduce perioperative blood loss is needed. Objectives To examine the evidence for the efficacy of DDAVP in reducing perioperative blood loss and the need for red cell transfusion in people who do not have inherited bleeding disorders. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2017, issue 3) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases (all searches to 3 April 2017). Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials comparing DDAVP to placebo or an active comparator (e.g. tranexamic acid, aprotinin) before, during, or immediately after surgery or after invasive procedures in adults or children. Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results We identified 65 completed trials (3874 participants) and four ongoing trials. Of the 65 completed trials, 39 focused on adult cardiac surgery, three on paediatric cardiac surgery, 12 on orthopaedic surgery, two on plastic surgery, and two on vascular surgery; seven studies were conducted in surgery for other conditions. These trials were conducted between 1986 and 2016, and 11 were funded by pharmaceutical companies or by a party with a commercial interest in the outcome of the trial. The GRADE quality of evidence was very low to moderate across all outcomes. No trial reported quality of life. DDAVP versus placebo or no treatment Trial results showed considerable heterogeneity between surgical settings for total volume of red cells transfused (low
Shamji, Mohammed F; Parker, Stephen; Cook, Chad; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brown, Christopher; Isaacs, Robert E
Spinal fusion is performed in patients ranging from young and healthy to aged and frail. Although recent population trends in the United States are toward obesity, no large-scale study has evaluated how body habitus affects mortality, complications, and resource utilization for lumbar spine fusion. Such information is important for patient selection and to confirm the safety of such procedures in this population. Data for 244 170 patients who underwent thoracolumbar or lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disease between 1988 and 2004 were collected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, and subjects were grouped by surgical approach and body habitus. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated group effects on selected postoperative complications, length of stay, resource utilization, and discharge disposition. This study confirms that body habitus affects perioperative morbidity sustained by patients undergoing thoracolumbar or lumbar spine fusion. Demographic heterogeneity exists for race, geography, and number of diseased levels among body habitus groups, prompting application of multivariate logistic regression for outcomes. For all approaches, higher body mass index associated with increased transfusion requirements and likelihood of discharge to assisted living. Furthermore, morbidly obese patients undergoing posterior fusion sustained more wound complications and postoperative infections. This nationwide study describes inpatient complications encountered during fusion surgery in patients who are obese. For a given surgical approach, patients with higher body mass index sustain increased transfusion requirements and utilize more resources during thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fusion. Nevertheless, the findings of equivalent mortality, length of stay, and other complication rates suggest that patients who are obese remain safe surgical candidates.
Philip J. Peyton
Full Text Available Minimally invasive measurement of cardiac output as a central component of advanced haemodynamic monitoring has been increasingly recognised as a potential means of improving perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing major surgery. Methods based upon pulmonary carbon dioxide elimination are among the oldest techniques in this field, with comparable accuracy and precision to other techniques. Modern adaptations of these techniques suitable for use in the perioperative and critical are environment are based on the differential Fick approach, and include the partial carbon dioxide rebreathing method. The accuracy and precision of this approach to cardiac output measurement has been shown to be similar to other minimally invasive techniques. This paper reviews the underlying principles and evolution of the method, and future directions including recent adaptations designed to deliver continuous breath-by-breath monitoring of cardiac output.
Study Objective: Surgical paients have been known to benefit immensely from psychological interventions. This study set out to assess the pre and postoperative anxiety levels and depression and the effect of cognitive therapy among Nigerian surgical patients. The effects of gender and educational status on perioperative ...
These children may have craniofacial abnormalities and reactive airway disease that may complicate perioperative care. Controversy surrounds the use of sedative premedication as it can affect the evaluation of neurological status, and anaesthetic drug metabolism can be substantially altered by anticonvulsant therapy.2–4.
the acute onset of short-lived severe depression following her third exposure to ondansetron for doxorubicin-induced nausea while concurrently taking a selective 5-HT3 or serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. The following is a report of a severe depressive incident following peri-operative ondansetron ...
Chwalisz, Bart; Gilbert, Aubrey L; Gittinger, John W
Perioperative vision loss (POVL) may cause devastating visual morbidity. A prompt anatomical and etiologic diagnosis is paramount to guide management and assess prognosis. Where possible, steps should be undertaken to minimize risk of POVL for vulnerable patients undergoing high-risk procedures. We review the specific risk factors, pathophysiology, and management and prevention strategies for various etiologies of POVL.
Objective: Intraoperative cardiac arrests are not uncommon and are related to both surgical and anaesthetic factors. This study aimed to examine the factors which predispose to a periopeartive cardiac arrest, to assess the appropriateness of therapy and the outcome. Materials and Methods: All perioperative cardiac arrests ...
Bevinetto, Cara M; Kaye, Alan D
Angelman syndrome arises by one of 4 genetic mechanisms. Patients often have craniofacial abnormalities, vagal hypertonia, skeletal muscle atrophy or underdevelopment, a history of seizure disorders, and pharmacodynamic unpredictability. Its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment options, and perioperative anesthetic considerations are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Shilpa; Szmuszkovicz, Jacqueline R.
The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children. PMID:29064445
Operating a diabetic patient presents a challenge to both the surgeons and the Anaesthetists alike. Perioperative morbidity and mortality are greater in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. The problems of managing diabetics who undergo surgery are associated with its attendant period of starvation and the metabolic effects ...
Using methylene blue for perioperative localization of the hydrocele sac in boys. O. A. Sowande, T. A. Olajide. Paediatric Surgery Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University/Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife,. Osun State, Nigeria. Correspondence to: Dr. O. A. Sowande, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Obafemi Awolowo ...
Wetterslev, Jørn; Juul, Anne Benedicte
randomized trials. However, confidence intervals of the intervention effects in the meta-analyses are wide, leaving room for both benefits and harms. The largest observational study performed suggests that perioperative beta-blockade is associated with higher mortality in patients with low cardiac risk...
Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Lingard, Shirley; Ball, Sharon
Nurses' recognition of their own level of skills and abilities (ie perceived competence) is a prerequisite for ensuring they can practice in a safe manner. The demand for competence, in the operating room, may vary between clinical environments. It is, however, unclear what competency levels migrating nurses need in order to be deemed safe. This paper describes Canadian and Australian nurses' levels of perceived perioperative competence and discusses these results in the context of nurse migration. A survey was distributed to operating room nurses in six hospital sites (three in Canada and three in Australia). Perioperative competence was measured with a 40-item self-report survey which consisted of six domain subscales: foundational knowledge and skills; leadership; collaboration; proficiency; empathy; and professional development. Non-parametric tests were used to describe differences between groups based on country of origin, years of experience and specialty qualifications. Canadian and Australian nurses reported their overall competency levels as high across all domains. Significant differences were found, between countries, in three of the six competency domains; foundational knowledge and skills (p < .001), collegiality (p = .023), and empathy (p < .0001). Describing perioperative competence cross-nationally represents the first step in generating international dialogue around educational preparation for migrating nurses. The increasing global mobility of nurses makes it imperative to further standardise, with an international perspective, knowledge and practice expectations in perioperative settings.
Christiansen, I S; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H
INTRODUCTION: The Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC) investigated 89 adult patients with suspected perioperative cefuroxime-associated hypersensitivity reactions between 2004 and 2013. The goals were to determine if the time to index reaction after cefuroxime exposure could be used to impli...
perioperative anxiety and depression among Nigerian surgical patients. *H. 0. ... surgery."2 The recognition of this factor has culminated in an increased research in this area.“ Preoperatively, many surgical patients manifest a heightened level of anxiety} 6 They are often - ..... of postoperative cosmetic surgery patients. Plasj.
Garvey, Lene Heise
and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may...
Gentry, Melanie B
ANNUAL PERFORMANCE evaluations can be difficult to prepare and may rely, in part, on anecdotal information. PERIOPERATIVE RNs at CHRISTUS St Patrick Hospital, Lake Charles, La, developed and implemented a peer evaluation as part of nurses' annual performance evaluations. THE EVALUATION FORMS created were considered to be useful and fair by both staff members and managers.
Kotler, Howard S
To construct a reliable, accurate, and easy-to-use handheld computer database that facilitates the point-of-care acquisition of perioperative text and image data specific to rhinoplasty. A user-modified database (Pendragon Forms [v.3.2]; Pendragon Software Corporation, Libertyville, Ill) and graphic image program (Tealpaint [v.4.87]; Tealpaint Software, San Rafael, Calif) were used to capture text and image data, respectively, on a Palm OS (v.4.11) handheld operating with 8 megabytes of memory. The handheld and desktop databases were maintained secure using PDASecure (v.2.0) and GoldSecure (v.3.0) (Trust Digital LLC, Fairfax, Va). The handheld data were then uploaded to a desktop database of either FileMaker Pro 5.0 (v.1) (FileMaker Inc, Santa Clara, Calif) or Microsoft Access 2000 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, Wash). Patient data were collected from 15 patients undergoing rhinoplasty in a private practice outpatient ambulatory setting. Data integrity was assessed after 6 months' disk and hard drive storage. The handheld database was able to facilitate data collection and accurately record, transfer, and reliably maintain perioperative rhinoplasty data. Query capability allowed rapid search using a multitude of keyword search terms specific to the operative maneuvers performed in rhinoplasty. Handheld computer technology provides a method of reliably recording and storing perioperative rhinoplasty information. The handheld computer facilitates the reliable and accurate storage and query of perioperative data, assisting the retrospective review of one's own results and enhancement of surgical skills.
Introduction: Globally, increasing consideration has been given to the assessment of patient satisfaction as a method of monitor of the quality of health care provision in the health institutions. Perioperative patient satisfaction has been contemplated to be related with the level of postoperative pain intensity, patients' ...
management of hypertension and post myocardial infarction.4-6. Are lipophilic beta-blockers preferable for peri-operative cardioprotection? Implications from a limited systematic review of the efficacy of atenolol and metoprolol in preventing in-hospital ventricular fibrillation following acute myocardial infarction.
Balakas, Karen; Gallaher, Carol S; Tilley, Carra
Pediatric perioperative nurses care for a wide variety of children and adolescents, some of whom have special developmental or behavioral needs. Providing care for this vulnerable population can be challenging because they may not express their level of pain or anxiety through behaviors commonly observed in typically developing children. This quality improvement project was conducted to enhance perioperative care delivered to children with challenging behaviors and to their families. A screening tool to individualize the plan of care was developed to identify specific behaviors, triggers, and communication patterns of these children prior to hospitalization. Interventions were identified to address these behaviors that could be used by nurses, child life specialists, and occupational therapists. Partnering with parents and other members of the interprofessional healthcare team has resulted in best practice care planning for these children, ensuring a much more successful perioperative experience for patients and families. Findings from parent surveys demonstrate that by using the tool, nurses and other team members are able to minimize stressors and implement interventions specific to the child. As a result, the adaptive care planning tool has expanded beyond the perioperative area and is now being used by direct care nurses, support staff, nurse practitioners, and physicians across the organization.
van Haelst, I.M.M.
Intraoperative hemodynamic changes and loss of blood with the associated risk of allogeneic blood transfusion are risk factors for complications in surgical patients. The use of medication in the perioperative period may influence these risk factors and consequently the frequency of complications.
Full Text Available The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children.
Jones, Douglas W; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Brooke, Benjamin S; Conrad, Mark F; Goodney, Philip P; Wyers, Mark C; Stone, David H
Controversy persists surrounding the perceived bleeding risk associated with perioperative clopidogrel use in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass (LEB). The purpose of this study was to examine the LEB bleeding risk and clinical sequelae associated with clopidogrel. All LEBs in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2008 to 2014 were studied. The exposure was perioperative clopidogrel. Primary outcomes were blood transfusion, estimated blood loss ≥500 mL, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, major cardiac events, respiratory complications, infectious complications, and in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze patients on the basis of clopidogrel use and its association with outcomes. Nonparametric test for trend and Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to analyze association of clopidogrel use with blood transfusion and secondary outcomes. Among the LEB cohort (N = 9179), 28% (n = 2544) were taking clopidogrel and 72% (n = 6635) were not. Patients taking clopidogrel were more likely to have coronary disease, prior coronary intervention, abnormal findings on stress test, and aspirin use (P blood transfusion (38% vs 24%; P blood loss ≥500 mL (21% vs 12%; P blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.1; P 2-unit blood transfusion (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; P blood transfusion amount revealed no remaining effect of clopidogrel on major cardiac events (OR, 1.1; P = .4) or respiratory complications (OR, 1.0; P = .8). Perioperative clopidogrel use in LEB surgery is associated with increased blood loss and blood transfusion. Associated clinical sequelae include increased cardiac and pulmonary complications. Accordingly, surgeons should consider discontinuation of perioperative clopidogrel when it is clinically appropriate unless it is strongly indicated at the time of LEB. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a convenient screening method that can predict perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE and identify patients at risk of fatal perioperative pulmonary embolism (PE. METHODS: Patients hospitalized for gynecological abdominal surgery (n = 183 underwent hematology tests and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT to detect VTE. All statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software program (PASWV19.0J. RESULTS: The following risk factors for VTE were identified by univariate analysis: plasmin-alpha2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, and prolonged immobility (all p<0.001; age, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC, malignancy, hypertension, past history of VTE, and hormone therapy (all p<0.01; and hemoglobin, transverse tumor diameter, ovarian disease, and menopause (all p<0.05. Multivariate analysis using these factors revealed that PIC, age, and transverse tumor diameter were significant independent determinants of the risk of VTE. We then calculated the incidence rate of perioperative VTE using PIC and transverse tumor diameter in patient groups stratified by age. In patients aged ≤40 years, PIC ≥1.3 µg/mL and a transverse tumor diameter ≥10 cm identified the high-risk group for VTE with an accuracy of 93.6%. For patients in their 50 s, PIC ≥1.3 µg/mL identified a high risk of VTE with an accuracy of 78.2%. In patients aged ≥60 years, a transverse tumor diameter ≥15 cm (irrespective of PIC or PIC ≥1.3 µg/mL identified the high-risk group with an accuracy of 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new screening criteria for VTE risk that are based on PIC, transverse tumor diameter, and age. Our findings suggest the usefulness of these criteria for predicting the risk of perioperative VTE and for identifying patients with a high risk of fatal perioperative PE.
Arnold, Brook; Elliott, Anila; Laohamroonvorapongse, Dean; Hanna, John; Norvell, Daniel; Koh, Jeffrey
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are an increasingly common patient population in the perioperative setting. Children with ASD present with abnormal development in social interaction, communication, and stereotyped patterns of behavior and may be more prone to elevated perioperative anxiety. The perioperative experience for these patients is complex and presents a unique challenge for clinicians. The aim of the current study was to provide a further understanding of the premedication patterns and perioperative experiences of children with ASD in comparison to children without ASD. Using a retrospective cohort study design, medical records were evaluated for patients with and without ASD undergoing general anesthesia for dental rehabilitation from 2006-2011. The following objectives were measured and compared: (i) premedication patterns and (ii) complications, pain, anesthetic type, PACU time, and time to discharge. To compare categorical variables, the chi-square test was used. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to control for potential confounding as a result of baseline differences between the two groups. A total of 121 ASD patients and 881 non-ASD patients were identified. When controlling for age, weight, and gender, children in the ASD group were more likely to have nonstandard premedication types (P < 0.0001), while children without ASD were more likely to have standard premedication types (P < 0.0001). No significant group differences were identified in regards to the other outcome measures. Other than a significant difference in the premedication type and route, we found that children with ASD seemed to have similar perioperative experiences as non-ASD subjects. It was especially interesting to find that their postoperative period did not pose any special challenges. There is much to be learned about this unique patient population, and a more in-depth prospective evaluation is warranted to help better delineate the best
Alvarez, Mavis Dora
Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...
System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...
Clayton, Judy; Isaacs, Anton Neville; Ellender, Isabel
To explore the lived experiences of perioperative nurses in a multicultural operating theatre in Melbourne, Australia. Multiculturalism has become the norm in the health workforce of several developed countries due mostly to immigration. Within an operating theatre setting where good communication is paramount, the presence of nurses and doctors from multiple cultures and different training backgrounds could pose a major challenge. Using a qualitative research methodology underpinned by phenomenology, we interviewed fourteen nurses from different sections of an operating theatre. From the lived experiences of the participants, difficulties in communication emerged as the major theme. Difficulties in communication affected patient care and the working atmosphere. In addition, social integration appeared to improve communication. Addressing the needs of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in the operating theatre continues to be challenging. However, developing a sense of camaraderie and fostering good relationships between staff through regular social gatherings can improve communication and the working atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Litta, P; Fabris, A M; Breda, E; Bartolucci, C; Conte, L; Saccardi, C; Nappi, L
Laparoscopic treatment of early-stage endometrial cancer is the gold standard to reduce perioperative morbidity. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for endometrial cancer and anesthesiological and surgical complications. The authors' aim was to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on perioperative parameters and complications in laparoscopically-treated patients with endometrial cancer. A consecutive series of patients affected by endometrial cancer and their demographic and clinicopathological data were collected. Patients were divided in 41 non-obese (BMI obese (BMI >or= 30) groups. All patients had been preoperatively evaluated with hysteroscopic procedures and toraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) and had been submitted to laparoscopic radical hysterectomy according to Querleu-Morrow, pelvic lymphadenectomy, peritoneal washing, and bilateral adnexectomy. There was no statistically significant difference in blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, and hospital stay between the groups, but there was a trend towards a lengthening of surgical time in the obese women. There were no major intraoperative and postoperative complications. This study demonstrates that laparoscopic approach is feasible and safe in obese women evaluating the anesthesiological risk.
Helm, Melissa C; Simon, Kathleen; Higgins, Rana; Kindel, Tammy L; Gould, Jon C
Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following surgery. This study explores the impact of a perioperative complication on the risk of VTE after bariatric surgery. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset (2012-2014). The 17 most common perioperative complications were analyzed by multivariate regression analysis to determine the effect of complications on the risk of VTE. The postoperative incidence of VTE was 0.5% (n = 59,424 bariatric surgeries). The average time to diagnosis of VTE was 11.6 days. 80% of VTE events occurred after discharge. A major complication occurred prior to VTE in 22.6% of patients. The more complications experienced by an individual patient, the more likely they were to experience VTE. Unadjusted thirty-day mortality increased 13.89-fold following VTE (p bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available Anesthesiologists and intensivists are encountering increasing number of diabetic patients in daily clinical practice. Majority of such patients may require insulin injections for control of hyperglycemia. Advancements in diabetes management have led to usage of newer insulin injections ranging from human insulin and insulin analogs to glucagon-like peptides-1 analogs. The adequacy of glycemic control and successful outcome with such therapeutic interventions depends upon the adoption of correct injection techniques and procedures. Peri-operative and critically ill diabetic patients are highly prone to develop acute complications of diabetes if appropriate therapeutic strategies are not formulated and implemented. As such, the in-depth knowledge and awareness about various injection technique guidelines is essential from the patient care and healthcare provider′s perspective in the operative and critical care settings. This description is an abridged version of the Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique and their significance in peri-operative period and critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU. These insulin injection techniques are based on evidence-based recommendations and are meant to improve the management of diabetes by the attending staff and physicians in operative and critical care arenas.
through a psoriatic plaque is only done when absolutely necessary. Outcomes of surgery. There is paucity of data of outcomes and complications of orthopaedic procedures performed in patients with psoriasis. Majority of these studies are small and retrospective. Postoperative infection stands out as a prominent concern.
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Background: This study was undertaken with the main objectives of determining the incidence, the associated factors and the early outcome of postoperative pyrexia and documenting the use of perioperative antibiotic therapy in the elective major surgical patient. Methods: This was a 5months prospective study carried out ...
This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.
Guan, Guoqi; Zang, Jing
The effect of perioperative injection of Lucentis on intraoperative bleeding in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was systematically evaluated using a meta-analysis. Reports of surgical eye treatment with and without perioperative intravitreal injection of Lucentis in Medline, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China Academic Journals Full-text Database were included in the study. A meta-analysis was performed on all included literature. A computerized search was performed in the above databases. In addition, relevant books, journals, and conference proceedings and their bibliographies were manually searched. Published literature was screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction was performed on included studies. RevMan5.2 software was used for the statistical analyses. Dichotomous variables are presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The major indicator was the occurrence of intraoperative retinal hemorrhaging during vitrectomy. A total of seven studies were included in the analysis. The treatment group included 159 eyes and control group included 149 eyes. The amount of intraoperative bleeding in the treatment group (perioperative Lucentis injection) was significantly lower than that in the control group (OR, 56.93; 95% CI: 21.81-148.57, P < 0.01). Intravitreal Lucentis injection before a vitrectomy significantly reduced intraoperative bleeding in PDR patients.
Grunert, Klaus G
Consumers have, through their food choices, a major role in bringing about more sustainable food production. However, this presupposes that differences in sustainability are communicated to consumers. Even if food products are eco-labelled and consumers are motivated to support sustainability......, a number of potential barriers may prevent consumers from using the information to make sustainable choices. Six such barriers are discussed in this paper....
Sharma, Tankamani; Hönle, Wolfgang; Handschu, René; Adler, Werner; Goyal, Tarun; Schuh, Alexander
The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in perioperative complication rate in total hip, bipolar hemiarthroplasties and total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson disease in trauma and elective surgery in our Musculoskeletal Center during a period of 10 years. Between 2006 and 2016, 45 bipolar hemiarthroplasties in trauma surgery, 15 total knee and 19 total hip arthroplasties in patients with Parkinson's disease were performed. We divided the patients in two groups. Group I included trauma cases (45) and group II elective surgery cases (34). Complications were documented and divided into local minor and major complications and general minor and major complications. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical evaluation. In both groups, there was one local major complication (p > 0.05): In group I, there was one case of loosening of a K-wire which was removed operatively. In group II, there was one severe intraarticular bleeding requiring puncture of the hematoma. In group I, there were 38 general complications; in group II, there were 17 general complications. There was no statistical difference in complication rate (p > 0.05). Total hip arthroplasty, bipolar hemiarthroplasties and knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson disease is possible in elective and trauma surgery. Complication rate is higher in comparison with patients not suffering from Parkinson disease, but there is no difference in complication rate in elective and trauma surgery. Nevertheless, early perioperative neurological consultation in patients with Parkinson disease is recommended to minimize complications and improve early outcomes after arthroplasty.
Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J
; and safety. Compared with placebo, melatonin reduced the standardised mean difference (95% CI) pre-operative anxiety score by 0.88 (0.44-1.33) and postoperative pain score by 1.06 (0.23-1.88). The magnitude of effect was unreliable due to substantial statistical heterogeneity, with I(2) 87% and 94......We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction......%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements....
Educators today need innovative teaching strategies to meet the learning needs of the multigenerational population of perioperative nurses. Emerging technologies, such as YouTube, the world's largest video-sharing web site, can be used as a component of an active learning strategy that can appeal to a broad group of nurses along the novice-to-expert proficiency continuum. Using video clips can be a useful method to engage learners and promote critical thinking, decision making, and creativity. YouTube videos can be used to teach skills or as a platform for discussion. Learners also can create and upload their own videos to educate others. Increased engagement and active learning can lead the perioperative nurse to a deeper understanding of the educational material. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I
IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...
Ramos, Juan A; Brull, Sorin J
The number of patients with noncardiac implantable electronic devices is increasing, and the absence of perioperative management standards, guidelines, practice parameters, or expert consensus statements presents clinical challenges. A 69-year-old woman presented for latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. The patient had previously undergone implantation of a spinal cord stimulator, a gastric pacemaker, a sacral nerve stimulator, and an intrathecal morphine pump. After consultation with device manufacturers, the devices with patient programmability were switched off. Bipolar cautery was used intraoperatively. Postoperatively, all devices were interrogated to ensure appropriate functioning before home discharge. Perioperative goals include complete preoperative radiologic documentation of device component location, minimizing electromagnetic interference, and avoiding mechanical damage to implanted device components.
Full Text Available Modern surgery is faced with the emergence of newer “risk factors” and the challenges associated with identifying and managing these risks in the perioperative period. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome pose unique challenges in the perioperative setting. Recent studies have identified some of the specific risks arising from caring for such patients in the surgical setting. While all possible postoperative complications are not yet fully established or understood, the prevention and management of these complications pose even greater challenges. Pulmonary hypertension with its changing epidemiology and novel management strategies is another new disease for the surgeon and the anesthesiologist in the noncardiac surgical setting. Traditionally most such patients were not considered surgical candidates for any required elective surgery. Our review discusses these disease entities which are often undiagnosed before elective noncardiac surgery.
Eric S. Schwenk
Full Text Available Interscalene nerve block impairs ipsilateral lung function and is relatively contraindicated for patients with lung impairment. We present a case of an 89-year-old female smoker with prior left lung lower lobectomy and mild to moderate lung disease who presented for right shoulder arthroplasty and insisted on regional anesthesia. The patient received a multimodal perioperative regimen that consisted of a continuous interscalene block, acetaminophen, ketorolac, and opioids. Surgery proceeded uneventfully and postoperative analgesia was excellent. Pulmonary physiology and management of these patients will be discussed. A risk/benefit discussion should occur with patients having impaired lung function before performance of interscalene blocks. In this particular patient with mild to moderate disease, analgesia was well managed through a multimodal approach including a continuous interscalene block, and close monitoring of respiratory status took place throughout the perioperative period, leading to a successful outcome.
Timm, Fanny P; Houle, Timothy T; Grabitz, Stephanie D
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patients with migraine are at increased risk of perioperative ischemic stroke and whether this may lead to an increased hospital readmission rate. DESIGN: Prospective hospital registry study. SETTING: Massachusetts General Hospital and two satellite campuses between...... January 2007 and August 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 124 558 surgical patients (mean age 52.6 years; 54.5% women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was perioperative ischemic stroke occurring within 30 days after surgery in patients with and without migraine and migraine aura. The secondary outcome...... was hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery. Exploratory outcomes included post-discharge stroke and strata of neuroanatomical stroke location. RESULTS: 10 179 (8.2%) patients had any migraine diagnosis, of whom 1278 (12.6%) had migraine with aura and 8901 (87.4%) had migraine without aura. 771 (0...
Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar
Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.
Acar, H Volkan
Acupuncture has been used in the Far East for more than 2000 years. Since the early 1970s, this technique has been gaining popularity among Western medical community. A number of studies suggest that its mechanism of effect can be explained in biomedical terms. In this context, a number of transmitters and modulators including beta-endorphin, serotonin, substance P, interleukins, and calcitonin gene-related peptide are released. For that reason, acupuncture can be used in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Studies showed that acupuncture may have beneficial effect in perioperative period. It relieves preoperative anxiety, decreases postoperative analgesic requirements, and decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review article, we examine perioperative use of acupuncture for a variety of conditions. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La pregabalina es un análogo estructural del ácido γ-aminobutírico (GABA, por lo que se cree que pudiese tener un rol en el manejo del dolor agudo. Ha sido utilizada en el contexto perioperatorio, pero existe controversia en relación a su real utilidad clínica. MÉTODOS Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos 21 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 77 ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que el uso de pregabalina perioperatoria en cirugías mayores probablemente no produce una disminución clínicamente importante del dolor postoperatorio agudo. Si bien podría disminuir las náuseas y vómitos postoperatorios y el requerimiento de opioides, produce también un aumento en la sedación.
May 8, 2003 ... Poldermans in 1999 randomized high-risk patients (presence of both clinical risk factors and dobutamine inducible wall motion abnormalities) undergoing abdominal and infrainguinal vascular surgery to β-adrenoceptor blockade from one week prior to surgery until 30 days postoperatively.25 This study ...
Jordan, Aubrey L; Rojnica, Marko; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter; Langerman, Alexander
Family members are important in the perioperative care of surgical patients. During the perioperative period, communication about the patient occurs between surgeons and family members. To date, however, surgeon-family perioperative communication remains unexplored in the literature. Surgeons were recruited from the surgical faculty of an academic hospital to participate in an interview regarding their approach to speaking with family members during and immediately after an operative procedure. An iterative process of transcription and theme development among 3 researchers was used to compile a well-defined set of qualitative themes. Thirteen surgeons were interviewed and described what informs their communication, how they practice surgeon-family perioperative communication, and how the skills integral to perioperative communication are taught. Surgeons saw perioperative communication with family members as having a special role of providing support and anxiety alleviation that is distinct from the role of communication during clinic or postoperative visits. Wide variability exists in how interviewed surgeons practice perioperative communication, including who communicates with the family, and the frequency and content of the communication. Surgeons universally reported that residents' instruction in perioperative communication with families was lacking. Surgeons recognize perioperative communication with family members to be a part of their role and responsibility to the patient. However, during the perioperative period, they also acknowledge an independent responsibility to alleviate family members' anxieties. This independent responsibility supports the existence of a distinct "surgeon-family relationship." Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen
To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Perrino, A C; Luther, M A; Phillips, D B; Levin, F L
To develop a multimedia perioperative recordkeeper that provides: 1. synchronous, real-time acquisition of multimedia data, 2. on-line access to the patient's chart data, and 3. advanced data analysis capabilities through integrated, multimedia database and analysis applications. To minimize cost and development time, the system design utilized industry standard hardware components and graphical. software development tools. The system was configured to use a Pentium PC complemented with a variety of hardware interfaces to external data sources. These sources included physiologic monitors with data in digital, analog, video, and audio as well as paper-based formats. The development process was guided by trials in over 80 clinical cases and by the critiques from numerous users. As a result of this process, a suite of custom software applications were created to meet the design goals. The Perioperative Data Acquisition application manages data collection from a variety of physiological monitors. The Charter application provides for rapid creation of an electronic medical record from the patient's paper-based chart and investigator's notes. The Multimedia Medical Database application provides a relational database for the organization and management of multimedia data. The Triscreen application provides an integrated data analysis environment with simultaneous, full-motion data display. With recent technological advances in PC power, data acquisition hardware, and software development tools, the clinical researcher now has the ability to collect and examine a more complete perioperative record. It is hoped that the description of the MPR and its development process will assist and encourage others to advance these tools for perioperative research.
Keegan, Mark T.; Goldberg, Michael E.; Torjman, Marc C.; Coursin, Douglas B
Patients with dysglycemia related to known or unrecognized diabetes, stress hyperglycemia, or hypoglycemia in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin routinely require care during the perioperative period or critical illness. Recent single and multicenter studies, a large multinational study, and three meta-analyses evaluated the safety of routine tight glycemic control (80–110 mg/dl) in critically ill adults. Results led to a call for more modest treatment goals (initiation of insulin a...
Roxburgh, Campbell S; Horgan, Paul G; McMillan, Donald C
Within the tumor microenvironment, non-specific innate immune responses can suppress adaptive cytotoxic immunity and hence promote tumor progression. Surgery and trauma provokes high-grade, non-specific inflammatory responses that suppress cell-mediated immunity. Here, the surgical resection of neoplastic lesions is considered in the context of antitumor immunity, providing the rationale for development of perioperative interventions to maintain the immunological competence of the host.
Uciteli, Alexandr; Neumann, Juliane; Tahar, Kais; Saleh, Kutaiba; Stucke, Stephan; Faulbrück-Röhr, Sebastian; Kaeding, André; Specht, Martin; Schmidt, Tobias; Neumuth, Thomas; Besting, Andreas; Stegemann, Dominik; Portheine, Frank; Herre, Heinrich
Medical personnel in hospitals often works under great physical and mental strain. In medical decision-making, errors can never be completely ruled out. Several studies have shown that between 50 and 60% of adverse events could have been avoided through better organization, more attention or more effective security procedures. Critical situations especially arise during interdisciplinary collaboration and the use of complex medical technology, for example during surgical interventions and in perioperative settings (the period of time before, during and after surgical intervention). In this paper, we present an ontology and an ontology-based software system, which can identify risks across medical processes and supports the avoidance of errors in particular in the perioperative setting. We developed a practicable definition of the risk notion, which is easily understandable by the medical staff and is usable for the software tools. Based on this definition, we developed a Risk Identification Ontology (RIO) and used it for the specification and the identification of perioperative risks. An agent system was developed, which gathers risk-relevant data during the whole perioperative treatment process from various sources and provides it for risk identification and analysis in a centralized fashion. The results of such an analysis are provided to the medical personnel in form of context-sensitive hints and alerts. For the identification of the ontologically specified risks, we developed an ontology-based software module, called Ontology-based Risk Detector (OntoRiDe). About 20 risks relating to cochlear implantation (CI) have already been implemented. Comprehensive testing has indicated the correctness of the data acquisition, risk identification and analysis components, as well as the web-based visualization of results.
Nayara de Castro Pereira; Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini; Vanessa de Brito Poveda
Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. METHOD Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. RESULTS The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000) and after the surgery (p=0.007), the length of h...
Rekha Das; Upendra Hansda
Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT). They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and u...
Dr Fodor Gergely
Aspiration of the gastric contents, blood loss and fluid replacement are important factors of perioperative morbidity. Respiratory effects are among the most critical changes related to their morbidity. In the present thesis, an animal model was established for the separate investigation of the mechanical properties of the left and the right lung. The use of a double-lumen ET tube allowed the independent introduction of the forcing signal to each lung, allowing characterization of the cha...
Le, Catherine; Guppy, Kern H; Axelrod, Yekaterina V; Hawk, Mark W; Silverthorn, James; Inacio, Maria C; Akins, Paul T
The overall benefits of craniectomy must include procedural risks from cranioplasty. Cranioplasty carries a high risk of surgical site infections (SSI) particularly with antibiotic resistant bacteria. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a cranioplasty bundle on peri-operative complications. The authors queried a prospective, inpatient neurosurgery database at Kaiser Sacramento Medical Center for craniectomy and cranioplasty over a 7 year period. 57 patients who underwent cranioplasties were identified. A retrospective chart review was completed for complications, including surgical complications such as SSI, wound dehiscence, and re-do cranioplasty. We measured cranioplasty complication rates before and after implementation of a peri-operative bundle, which consisted of peri-operative vancomycin (4 doses), a barrier dressing through post-operative day (POD) 3, and de-colonization of the surgical incision using topical chlorhexidine from POD 4 to 7. The rate of MRSA colonization in cranioplasty patients is three times higher than the average seen on ICU admission screening (19% vs. 6%). The cranioplasty surgical complication rate was 22.8% and SSI rate was 10.5%. The concurrent SSI rate for craniectomy was 1.9%. Organisms isolated were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (4), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (1), Propionibacterium acnes (1), and Escherichia coli (1). Factors associated with SSI were peri-operative vancomycin (68.6% vs. 16.7%, p=0.0217). Complication rates without (n=21) and with (n=36) the bundle were: SSI (23.8% vs. 2.8%, p=0.0217) and redo cranioplasty (19% vs. 0%, p=0.0152). Bundle use did not affect rates for superficial wound dehiscence, seizures, or hydrocephalus. The cranioplasty bundle was associated with reduced SSI rates and the need for re-do cranioplasties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nicoleta Stoicea MD, PhD
Full Text Available Methylphenidate is frequently prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and other sleep disorders requiring psychostimulants. Our report is based on 2 different clinical experiences of patients with chronic methylphenidate use, undergoing general anesthesia. These cases contrast different strategies of taking versus withholding the drug treatment on the day of surgery. From the standpoint of anesthetic management and patient safety, the concerns for perioperative methylphenidate use are mainly related to cardiovascular stability and possible counteraction of sedatives and anesthetics.
Patel, Priyesh N; Jayawardena, Asitha D L; Walden, Rachel L; Penn, Edward B; Francis, David O
Objective To identify and clarify current evidence supporting and disputing the effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic use for common otolaryngology procedures. Data Sources PubMed, Embase (OVID), and CINAHL (EBSCO). Review Methods English-language, original research (systematic reviews/meta-analyses, randomized control trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies, or case series) studies that evaluated the role of perioperative antibiotic use in common otolaryngology surgeries were systematically extracted using standardized search criteria by 2 investigators independently. Conclusions Current evidence does not support routine antibiotic prophylaxis for tonsillectomy, simple septorhinoplasty, endoscopic sinus surgery, clean otologic surgery (tympanostomy with tube placement, tympanoplasty, stapedectomy, and mastoidectomy), and clean head and neck surgeries (eg, thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, salivary gland excisions). Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for complex septorhinoplasty, skull base surgery (anterior and lateral), clean-contaminated otologic surgery (cholesteatoma, purulent otorrhea), and clean-contaminated head and neck surgery (violation of aerodigestive tract, free flaps). In these cases, antibiotic use for 24 to 48 hours postoperatively has shown equal benefit to longer duration of prophylaxis. Despite lack of high-quality evidence, the US Food and Drug Administration suggests antibiotic prophylaxis for cochlear implantation due to the devastating consequence of infection. Data are inconclusive regarding postoperative prophylaxis for nasal packing/splints after sinonasal surgery. Implications for Practice Evidence does not support the use of perioperative antibiotics for most otolaryngologic procedures. Antibiotic overuse and variability among providers may be due to lack of formal practice guidelines. This review can help otolaryngologists understand current evidence so they can make informed decisions about
Hugo F. Alrøe
Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.
Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle
There is a growing concern about the role of human factor issues and their effect on patient safety and clinical outcomes of care. Problems with disruptive behaviors negatively affect communication flow and team dynamics, which can lead to adverse events and poor quality outcomes. A 25-question survey tool was used to assess the status and significance of disruptive behaviors around perioperative services in a large metropolitan academic medical center. Results were analyzed and compared with those from a national databank to identify areas of concern and opportunities for improvement. Disruptive behaviors were a common occurrence in the perioperative setting. These types of behaviors were most prevalent in attending surgeons. Disruptive behaviors increased levels of stress and frustration, which impaired concentration, impeded communication flow, and adversely affected staff relationships and team collaboration. These events were perceived to increase the likelihood of medical errors and adverse events and to compromise patient safety and quality of care. Disruptive behaviors in the perioperative arena have a significant impact on team dynamics and communication flow, which can have a negative impact on patient care. Organizations need to recognize the prevalence and significance of disruptive behaviors and develop policies and processes to address the issue. Key areas of focus include recognition and awareness, organizational and cultural commitment, implementation of appropriate codes of behavior policies and procedures, and provision of education and training programs to discuss contributing factors and tools to build effective communication and team collaboration skills.
Steenhagen, Elles; van Vulpen, Jonna K; van Hillegersberg, Richard; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D
Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review encompasses the current literature on nutrition in the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative phases of esophageal cancer. Both established interventions and potential novel targets for nutritional management are discussed. Expert commentary: To ensure an optimal pre-operative status and to reduce peri-operative complications, it is key to assess nutritional status in all pre-operative esophageal cancer patients and to apply nutritional interventions accordingly. Since esophagectomy results in a permanent anatomical change, a special focus on nutritional strategies is needed in the post-operative phase, including early initiation of enteral feeding, nutritional interventions for post-operative complications, and attention to long-term nutritional intake and status. Nutritional aspects of pre-optimization and peri-operative management should be incorporated in novel Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programs for esophageal cancer.
Santoso, Joseph T; Barton, Ginny; Riedley-Malone, Shannon; Wan, Jim Y
Obesity is a significant risk factor in developing endometrial cancer. As obesity is becoming more endemic, we wish to evaluate the impact of obesity on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing uterine cancer surgery. We analyzed our prospective database on patients with endometrial cancer who underwent abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic/aortic lymphadenectomy by one gynecologic oncologist. Information regarding race, age, body mass index (BMI), lymph node counts, staging, and estimated blood loss were analyzed against patient's weight category. Weight category was divided as follows: Normal weight (BMI obese (BMI 30 to obesity (BMI ≥ 35). Between April 2003 and December 2009, 233 patients were recruited prospectively. This study found no difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested patient (P = 0.0539) or length of hospital stay (P = 0.4234) in patients with a normal BMI versus that of an overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. However, estimated blood loss (P = 0.01) and operative time (P = 0.0015) were greater as BMI increased. African American patients were more morbidly obese than Caucasian patients. Furthermore, younger patients tend to be more obese across all races. Finally, obesity did not affect perioperative complications (P = 0.78). Obesity increases surgical blood loss and operative time. However, obesity does not affect length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes harvested, or perioperative complications in uterine cancer staging surgery.
Hofer, Ira S; Gabel, Eilon; Pfeffer, Michael; Mahbouba, Mohammed; Mahajan, Aman
Extraction of data from the electronic medical record is becoming increasingly important for quality improvement initiatives such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists Perioperative Surgical Home. To meet this need, the authors have built a robust and scalable data mart based on their implementation of EPIC containing data from across the perioperative period. The data mart is structured in such a way so as to first simplify the overall EPIC reporting structure into a series of Base Tables and then create several Reporting Schemas each around a specific concept (operating room cases, obstetrics, hospital admission, etc.), which contain all of the data required for reporting on various metrics. This structure allows centralized definitions with simplified reporting by a large number of individuals who access only the Reporting Schemas. In creating the database, the authors were able to significantly reduce the number of required table identifiers from >10 to 3, as well as to correct errors in linkages affecting up to 18.4% of cases. In addition, the data mart greatly simplified the code required to extract data, making the data accessible to individuals who lacked a strong coding background. Overall, this infrastructure represents a scalable way to successfully report on perioperative EPIC data while standardizing the definitions and improving access for end users.
Davis, Yeta; Perham, Marjorie; Hurd, Alicia M; Jagersky, Ronald; Gorman, William J; Lynch-Carlson, Diane; Senseney, Deborah
The purpose of this study was to determine the needs and experiences of patients and family members throughout the entire perioperative experience. Using a descriptive study design, a convenience sample of patients and family members were surveyed about their needs and how well those needs were met during the perioperative period. Survey questions were adapted from valid and reliable patient and family needs surveys. Rank order of patient and family needs were determined based on average item scores. A total of 68 patients and 63 family members were surveyed over an 8-month period. Patient needs with the highest scores were related to pain and/or nausea management, having information about the condition after surgery, and treatment with respect and dignity. Family member needs with the highest scores were related to communication with the surgeon after the procedure, opportunities to ask questions and address concerns with hospital staff, and receiving information about the surgical procedure itself before coming to the hospital. Patients and family members perceived that their needs were met most of the time. Results of this survey identify the needs of patients and family members throughout the perioperative time period. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Alice L Yu,1 Michaela Kaiser,1 Markus Schaumberger,1 Elisabeth Messmer,1 Daniel Kook,1 Ulrich Welge-Lussen2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen, Germany Purpose: In this study, we assessed the outcome of penetrating keratoplasties using organ-cultured corneal tissues at the University Eye Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. The goal was to identify perioperative and postoperative risk factors that may affect graft survival.Patients and methods: The medical records of 377 patients who underwent a penetrating keratoplasty between 2001 and 2011 were reviewed. Organ-cultured corneal tissue was obtained from the eye bank of Ludwig-Maximilians-University. Perioperative and postoperative risk factors for graft failure were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results: The 5-year overall survival rate of penetrating keratoplasties was 68%. Graft failure occurred in 26% of patients. High-risk keratoplasties, such as repeat penetrating keratoplasties and emergency penetrating keratoplasties, as well as postoperative conditions, such as glaucoma, retinal surgery, suture problems, persistent epithelial defect, infectious keratitis, and graft rejection, were significantly associated with graft failure in the multivariate analyses.Conclusion: This study showed a similar graft-survival rate as demonstrated in previous studies. In addition, a number of perioperative and postoperative risk factors were identified in this specific patient population. Keywords: penetrating keratoplasty, graft failure, risk factor, cornea bank
D. B. Borisov
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of various perioperative analgesia modes during total hip joint replacement (THR. Subjects and methods. A randomized controlled trial enrolled 90 patients who were divided into 3 groups according to the choice of a perioperative analgesia mode on day 1: general sevofluorane anesthesia, by switching to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl (PCA, GA group, a combination of general and spinal bupiva-caine anesthesia, by switching to PCA with fentanyl (SA group, a combination of general and epidural ropivacaine anesthesia with continuous postoperative epidural ropivacaine infusion (EA group. All the patients received non-opi-oid analgesics after surgery. Results. Prolonged epidural block ensures better postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and a less need for opioids than other analgesia modes (p<0.05. With neuroaxial block, the preoperative need for sympatomimetics is much higher than that in the GA group (p<0.05. There is also a trend toward a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and postoperative nausea and vomiting in the SA and EA groups. There are no differences in the frequency of hemotransfusion and postoperative complications and the length of hospital stay. Conclusion. Prolonged epidural block provides excellent perioperative analgesia during THR, but the risk-benefit ratio needs to be carefully assessed when an analgesia mode is chosen.
Maeno, M; Sakuyama, M; Motoyama, S; Matsuo, H
The objectives of this research were to examine the current status of perioperative treatment among foreigners, to elucidate the health status/outcome disparities that contribute to ethnic differences, and to recommend counter-measures to rectify these ethnic disparities. The authors identified 36 non-Japanese and 111 Japanese females who underwent gynecological surgery from 2004 to 2009 at a single institution. Electronic medical records were reviewed and telephone survey was conducted in order to obtain patient background, preoperative, operative, and postoperative data. The non-Japanese group showed significantly larger number of uninsured, shorter length of stay (LOS), higher rate of emergency surgery, and higher cases of spinal anesthesia. There were significant differences in length of residency in Japan and LOS among four foreign countries. Seventy-nine percent of patients contacted by phone understood informed consent from doctors, 73.7% understood explanation in operating room (OR), and 84.2% understood explanation from anesthesiologists. This research was the first survey of the ethnic disparities in perioperative management among foreign patients treated in Osaka. The authors have demonstrated differences in operative method, emergency surgery, anesthesia, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) due to the difference in disease structure, language, and culture. It is recommended that the barriers between non-Japanese patients and medical staff are rectified during the perioperative period when mutual understanding is needed the most.
Full Text Available Laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR involves surgical correction of a stenotic airway with cartilage interpositional grafting, followed by either placement of a tracheostomy and an intraluminal stent (two-stage LTR or placement of an endotracheal tube with postoperative sedation and mechanical ventilation for an extended period of time (single-stage LTR. With single-stage repair, there may be several perioperative challenges including the provision of adequate sedation, avoidance of the development of tolerance to sedative and analgesia agents, the need to use neuromuscular blocking agents, the maintenance of adequate pulmonary toilet to avoid perioperative nosocomial infections, and optimization of postoperative respiratory function to facilitate successful tracheal extubation. We review the perioperative management of these patients, discuss the challenges during the postoperative period, and propose recommendations for the prevention of reversible causes of extubation failure in this article. Optimization to ensure a timely tracheal extubation and successful weaning of mechanical ventilator, remains the primary key to success in these surgeries as extubation failure or the need for prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation can lead to failure of the graft site, the need for prolonged Pediatric Intensive Care Unit care, and in some cases, the need for a tracheostomy to maintain an adequate airway.
Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projectsâ€™ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.
... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Dam, van Y.K.
In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the
Piegeler, T; Beck-Schimmer, B
Gastrointestinal malignancies largely contribute to cancer related deaths in the United States, with colorectal cancer representing the 3rd place of the ten leading entities of mortality due to cancer for both females and males. The majority of patients with GI tumors has to undergo surgery (either as a curative or palliative intervention) and are therefore also in need for a proper general and/or regional anesthesia. Recent findings have suggested that the type of anesthesia administered might have an impact on cancer recurrence and metastasis and thus this new field in the anesthesia world has become a largely studied topic. This review highlights current concepts and summarizes the evidence for an impact of the type of anesthesia on patient outcome after cancer surgery, suggesting the perioperative period might be a "window of opportunity" which should not be missed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Rasmussen, L
Recent reports on the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral occlusion have been conflicting. Therefore, we reviewed 51 cases identified, among 675 consecutive carotid endarterectomies. A perioperative mortality of 2% and a permanent morbidity rate of 16% was observed...... severe strokes when compared to patients with only minor reduction in CPP. In addition, the internal carotid artery blood flow following endarterectomy was significantly higher in the low pressure group (P less than 0.02). No patients were lost during follow-up, for a mean of 34 months. The cumulative....... Compared with a complication rate of about 5% previously reported from this institution, this clearly indicates contralateral carotid occlusion as a major risk factor in carotid surgery. Though not statistically significant, patients with severely reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) had suffered more...
Tengberg, L. T.; Bay-Nielsen, M.; Bisgaard, T.
Background: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery carries a very high risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a massive healthcare burden. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a standardized multidisciplinary perioperative protocol in patients undergoing AHA surgery....... Methods: The AHA study was a prospective single-centre controlled study in consecutive patients undergoing AHA surgery, defined as major abdominal pathology requiring emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy including reoperations after elective gastrointestinal surgery. Consecutive patients were included...... after initiation of the AHA protocol as standard care. The intervention cohort was compared with a predefined, consecutive historical cohort of patients from the same department. The protocol involved continuous staff education, consultant-led attention and care, early resuscitation and high...
Thomas, Pascal Alexandre; Berbis, Julie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Bernard, Alain; Jougon, Jacques; Porte, Henri; Alifano, Marco; Dahan, Marcel
Nutritional assessment is not included yet as a major recommendation in lung cancer guidelines. The purpose of this study was thus to assess the influence on surgical outcome of the nutritional status of patients with primary lung cancer undergoing lobectomy. We queried Epithor, the national clinical database of the French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, and identified a retrospective cohort of 19 635 patients having undergone lobectomy for a primary lung cancer in the years 2005-11. Their nutritional status was categorized according to the WHO definition: underweight (BMI cancer. In underweight patients, in addition to preoperative rehabilitation including a nutritional program, attention should be given to aggressive prophylactic respiratory therapy in the perioperative period, and specific intraoperative actions to prevent prolonged air leaks and bronchial stump dehiscence.
The complexity of the perioperative care process has resulted in a suboptimal use of resources, quality problems and a relatively high incidence of errors. In an attempt to optimize resources, patient safety, and quality, multimodal, multidisciplinary standardization of the care process has become an increasingly recognized goal. The anaesthesiologist as perioperative clinician plays a pivotal role in the development and implementation of standardized perioperative care. Historically, however, a significant portion of perioperative care has relied upon anecdotal information that represents an amalgam of any individual anaesthesiologist's collective influences and experiences. Current status of standardized perioperative care and different factors that influence successful implementation of guidelines, fast track surgery programs and clinical pathways are described. Although recent literature indicates that standardization of perioperative care improves efficiency, quality, and patient satisfaction, implementation of standardized care is difficult since resistance is still enormous.
In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006), a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. ...
Ferrando, Carlos; Soro, Marina; Canet, Jaume; Unzueta, Ma Carmen; Suárez, Fernando; Librero, Julián; Peiró, Salvador; Llombart, Alicia; Delgado, Carlos; León, Irene; Rovira, Lucas; Ramasco, Fernando; Granell, Manuel; Aldecoa, César; Diaz, Oscar; Balust, Jaume; Garutti, Ignacio; de la Matta, Manuel; Pensado, Alberto; Gonzalez, Rafael; Durán, M Eugenia; Gallego, Lucia; Del Valle, Santiago García; Redondo, Francisco J; Diaz, Pedro; Pestaña, David; Rodríguez, Aurelio; Aguirre, Javier; García, Jose M; García, Javier; Espinosa, Elena; Charco, Pedro; Navarro, Jose; Rodríguez, Clara; Tusman, Gerardo; Belda, Francisco Javier
Postoperative pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications are common problems that increase morbidity and mortality in surgical patients, even though the incidence has decreased with the increased use of protective lung ventilation strategies. Previous trials have focused on standard strategies in the intraoperative or postoperative period, but without personalizing these strategies to suit the needs of each individual patient and without considering both these periods as a global perioperative lung-protective approach. The trial presented here aims at comparing postoperative complications when using an individualized ventilatory management strategy in the intraoperative and immediate postoperative periods with those when using a standard protective ventilation strategy in patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery. This is a comparative, prospective, multicenter, randomized, and controlled, four-arm trial that will include 1012 patients with an intermediate or high risk for postoperative pulmonary complications. The patients will be divided into four groups: (1) individualized perioperative group: intra- and postoperative individualized strategy; (2) intraoperative individualized strategy + postoperative continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); (3) intraoperative standard ventilation + postoperative CPAP; (4) intra- and postoperative standard strategy (conventional strategy). The primary outcome is a composite analysis of postoperative complications. The Individualized Perioperative Open-lung Ventilatory Strategy (iPROVE) is the first multicenter, randomized, and controlled trial to investigate whether an individualized perioperative approach prevents postoperative pulmonary complications. Registered on 5 June 2014 with identification no. NCT02158923 .
Lan, Roy H; Kamath, Atul F
Medical evaluation pre-operatively is an important component of risk stratification and potential risk optimization. However, the effect of timing prior to surgical intervention is not well-understood. We hypothesized that total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients seen in pre-operative evaluation closer to the date of surgery would experience better perioperative outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 167 elective THA patients to study the relationship between the number of days between pre-operative evaluation (range, 0-80 days) and surgical intervention. Patients' demographics, length of stay (LOS), ICU admission frequency, and rate of major complications were recorded. When pre-operative evaluation carried out 4 days or less before the procedure date, there was a significant reduction in LOS (3.91 vs. 4.49; p=0.03). When pre-operative evaluation carried out 11 days or less prior to the procedure date, there was a four-fold decrease in rate of intensive care admission (p=0.04). Furthermore, the major complication rate also significantly reduced (ppre-operative evaluation took place 30 days or less before the procedure date compared to more than 30 days prior, there were no significant changes in the outcomes. From this study, pre-operative medical evaluation closer to the procedure date was correlated with improved selected peri-operative outcomes. However, further study on larger patient groups must be done to confirm this finding. More study is needed to define the effect on rare events like infection, and to analyze the subsets of THA patients with modifiable risk factors that may be time-dependent and need further time to optimization.
Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning
This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...
Heckmann, Maura; Beauchesne, Michelle A
Identifying existing practices is a first step in the creation of developmentally and culturally effective teaching materials for children and families. This national survey queried two groups to explore current pediatric perioperative education practices: 81 nurses from a perioperative pediatric specialty association and 30 administrators representing leading children's hospitals within the United States. The aim was to improve perioperative care through the design of educational materials from the child's perspective.
Wallace, Arthur W; Au, Selwyn; Cason, Brian A
The 1996 atenolol study provided evidence that perioperative β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockade) reduced postsurgical mortality. In 1998, the indications for perioperative β-blockade were codified as the Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction protocol and implemented at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California. The present study analyzed the association of the pattern of use of perioperative β-blockade with perioperative mortality since introduction of the Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction protocol. Epidemiologic analysis of the operations undertaken since 1996 at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center was performed. The pattern of use of perioperative β-blockade was divided into four groups: None, Addition, Withdrawal, and Continuous. Logistic regression, survival analysis, and propensity analysis were performed. A total of 38,779 operations were performed between 1996 and 2008. In patients meeting Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction indications for perioperative β-blockade, Addition is associated with a reduction in 30-day (odds ratio [OR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.83; P = 0.006) and 1-yr mortality (OR, 0.64; 95%, CI 0.51 to 0.79; P < 0.0001). Continuous is associated with a reduction in 30-day (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.98; P = 0.04) and 1-yr mortality (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.0; P = 0.05). Withdrawal is associated with an increase in 30-day (OR 3.93, 95% CI, 2.57 to 6.01; P less than 0.0001) and 1-yr mortality (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.58; P < 0.0001). Perioperative β-blockade administered according to the Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction protocol is associated with a reduction in 30-day and 1-yr mortality. Perioperative withdrawal of β-blockers is associated with increased mortality.
Lotfi Fatemi Seyed Naser
Full Text Available Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common anesthesia-related complication in patients undergoing surgery. This could possibly lead to several clinical consequences, which adversely affect the surgery outcome, particularly in high risk patient. The combination of anesthetic drugs and cold operating room environment are among the most common predisposing factors of perioperative hypothermia. The aim of this comprehensive literature review is to describe the importance, monitoring techniques, potential complications, appropriate pharmacologic interventions and modalities to manage perioperative hypothermia.
Tan, Wei Shen; Lamb, Benjamin W; Khetrapal, Pramit; Tan, Mae-Yen; Tan, Melanie El; Sridhar, Ashwin; Cervi, Elizabeth; Rodney, Simon; Busuttil, Gerald; Nathan, Senthil; Hines, John; Shaw, Greg; Mohammed, Anna; Baker, Hilary; Briggs, Timothy P; Klein, Andrew; Richards, Toby; Kelly, John D
To assess the prevalence of preoperative anemia and the impact of preoperative anemia and blood transfusion requirement on 30- and 90-day complications in a cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC). IRARC was performed on 166 patients between June 2011 and March 2016. Prospective data were collected for patient demographics, clinical and pathologic characteristics, perioperative variables, transfusion requirements, and hospital length of stay. Thirty- and 90-day complications were classified according to the modified Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Clavien-Dindo system. Preoperative anemia was common (43.4%) and greatest in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (48.6%) (p blood transfusion (p = 0.001). Blood transfusion required in 20.4% of patients with intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion rate was 10.2% and 13.9%, respectively. The 30-day all complication rate and 30-day major complication rate were 55.4% and 15.7%, respectively, while 90-day all complication rate and 90-day major complication rate were 65.7% and 19.3%, respectively. Intraoperative blood transfusion was not associated with increased complications, but postoperative blood transfusion requirement was independently associated with perioperative morbidity: all 30-day complications (p = 0.003), all 90-day complications (p = 0.009), and 90-day major complications (p = 0.004). The presence of preoperative anemia in patients undergoing iRARC is not associated with increased surgical risk, although preoperative anemic patients were significantly more likely to require blood transfusion. Blood transfusion requirement and specifically postoperative blood transfusion are independently associated with perioperative morbidity and are an important factor for the optimization of postoperative outcomes.
Martin-McDonald, K; McIntyre, P; Hegney, D
Within an 8-month period, an unprecedented and historical first in Queensland, Australia, the perioperative nurses were members of teams involved in the surgical separation of two sets of conjoined twins. Little is known about the (dis)stress that some of these perioperative nurses experienced nor how best to support them during such experiences. The aim of this paper is to report on the qualitative study that explored the experiences of those perioperative nurses involved in the surgical separation of cojoined twins and from their stories propose recommendations to support perioperative nurses who are confronted with such workplace experiences. Using a narrative methodology, nine perioperative nurses shared their stories of being involved in the surgical separation of conjoined twins in Australia. Narrative and thematic analyses were conducted and recommendations to support perioperative nurses through workplace (dis)stress were identified. Participants validated the findings and recommendations. The analyses revealed the themes of professionalism, teamwork, 'them vs. us' and emotional loads. The sensationalism around the rarity of conjoined twins brought an intensive intrusiveness from the world media. As a result, secrecy within the hospital about the conjoined twin cases created divisions between those perioperative nurses on the teams and those not. The processes and outcomes of the two surgical cases were in contrast to each other. For some perioperative nurses this caused distress. It is essential that professional support is offered in a way in which the perioperative nurse can take it up without fear of negative judgement.
Full Text Available Gilbert's syndrome is a hereditary condition with the genetic mutation of the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, characterized by intermittent jaundice in the absence of hemolysis or underlying liver disease. These patients develop jaundice when subjected to fasting, stress and exercise. Majority of anaesthetics are metabolized by liver. Anaesthesia, surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB can act as triggers to hepatic injury. The successful perioperative management of an adult congenital heart disease patient for atrial septal defect closure under cardiopulmonary bypass was discussed in this report.
Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch
Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...
Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús
Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in
Agarwal, Shvetank; Bean, Matthew G; Hata, J Steven; Castresana, Manuel R
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a condition that is characterized as a transient ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and is usually triggered by an acute medical illness or intense physical or emotional stress. Multiple cases of perioperative TCM (pTCM) have been reported from around the world, but a qualitative analysis of these cases has not yet been done. For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for case reports and case series of pTCM published from 1966 to April 2015 with the objective being to evaluate whether differences in demographics, clinical features and outcomes exist between pTCM and nonperioperative (npTCM), as well as to attempt to identify any predictors of the severe form of pTCM, which requires mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices or leads to death. A total of 93 articles describing 102 cases were retrieved and reviewed. The findings were compared with the analysis of the International Takotsubo Registry by Templin et al and a systematic review of mainly non-perioperative TCM (npTCM) by Gianni et al. Although we were unable to identify definitive risk factors for pTCM, our review suggests that pTCM appears to occur in younger patients and with a lower likelihood of ST segment elevations and T-wave abnormalities than in npTCM. No demographic or clinical factors were identified that were predictive of more severe outcomes. As TCM in general can be a life-threatening event, it would therefore be prudent to consider pTCM within a differential diagnosis in any patient who decompensates in the perioperative period.
Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina
The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.
Lunn, T H; Kehlet, H
Glucocorticoids are frequently used to prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and may be part of multimodal analgesic regimes. The objective of this review was to evaluate the overall benefit vs. harm of perioperative glucocorticoids in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery. A wide......-analysis was performed. In conclusion, in addition to PONV reduction with low-dose systemic glucocorticoid, this review supports high-dose systemic glucocorticoid to ameliorate post-operative pain after hip and knee surgery. However, large-scale safety and dose-finding studies are warranted before final recommendations....
Arnold, T; Shelbourne, K D
Rehabilitation programs have progressed alongside surgical advances in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A perioperative program has been successfully used at our clinic for more than 10 years to reduce postoperative complications and return patients to activity safely and quickly. The four-phase program starts at the time of injury and preoperatively includes aggressive swelling reduction, hyperextension exercises, gait training, and mental preparation. Goals after surgery are to control swelling while regaining full knee range of motion. After quadriceps strengthening goals are reached, patients can shift to sport-specific exercises.
Chen, Zhihao; Hee, Hwan Ing; Ng, Soon Huat; Teo, Ju Teng; Yang, Xiufeng; Wang, Dier
We have demonstrated a highly sensitive microbend fiber optic sensor for perioperative pediatric vital signs monitoring that is free from direct contact with skin, cableless, electromagnetic interference free and low cost. The feasibility of our device was studied on infants undergoing surgery and 10 participants ranging from one month to 12 months were enrolled. The sensor was placed under a barrier sheet on the operating table. All patients received standard intraoperative monitoring. The results showed good agreement in heart rate and respiratory rate between our device and the standard physiological monitoring when signals are clean.
cocktail and I was out. Perioperative Experiences 42 Other than the guy not being able to get the IV started, everything went smooth. There was a student...apple sauce and drinking water and that’s not healthy and I was like, I can’t eat anything else. Yes, they were very kind, I have to admit, and my aunt...just getting my cocktail mix. Just hooking me up to the ... after he stuck my IV in there and put it in there, that was it. So, I just remember lying
Yaung, Jill; Arabia, Francisco A; Nurok, Michael
Advanced heart failure continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality despite improvements in pharmacologic therapy. High demand for cardiac transplantation and shortage of donor organs have led to an increase in the utilization of mechanical circulatory support devices. The total artificial heart is an effective biventricular assist device that may be used as a bridge to transplant and that is being studied for destination therapy. This review discusses the history, indications, and perioperative management of the total artificial heart with emphasis on the postoperative concerns.
Rygård, Sofie Louise; Holst, Lars Broksø; Perner, Anders
The critical care and perioperative settings are high consumers of blood products, with multiple units and different products often given to an individual patient. The recommendation of this review is always to consider the risks and benefits for a specific blood product for a specific patient in a specific clinical setting. Optimize patient status by treating anemia and preventing the need for red blood cell transfusion. Consider other options for correction of anemia and coagulation disorders and use an imperative non-overtransfusion policy for all blood products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Nicolai Bo
This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...
Brasileiro, Bernardo Ferreira; de Bragança, Rafaella Mariana Fontes; Van Sickels, Joseph Edward
Third molar removal is usually accompanied by a high degree of patient anxiety. Lack of knowledge about the procedure is a major contributor to this anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the perioperative perceptions of patients who underwent extraction of third molars to assess their concerns during the surgical experience. Issues related to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of the experience were assessed with the purpose of identifying the most frequent questions and misconceptions. Data were assessed to correlate the influence of previous experience with extraction(s) with the appropriate knowledge of third molar surgery, as well as knowledge variations as to the age and gender of the patients. The sample was composed of 67 patients (43 female patients and 24 male patients) divided into 2 groups: The first had some previous experience with extractions (25 patients), and the second had no experience (42 patients). The most frequent questions regarded the number of teeth to be extracted (65.4%), and the most prevalent misconception was about medications before surgery (28.4%). Patients with a previous history of dental extractions had more questions about use of medication before surgery (P = .03). Patients without previous experience with extraction had more concerns about anesthesia techniques (P = .02) or the number of teeth that would be removed during the same procedure (P = .02). Other questions and misconceptions were not different between these groups. Patients with a history of tooth extraction and those without it presented different patterns of knowledge about third molar surgery. Both groups of patients needed detailed perioperative instructions about the procedure. These results may provide oral and maxillofacial surgeons with useful information about patients' knowledge throughout the surgical process. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Bryan G. Maxwell
Full Text Available Background. Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders are often active in patients with multiple comorbidities and a short natural life expectancy, but limited information exists as to how often these patients undergo high-risk operations and of the perioperative outcomes in this population.Methods. Using comprehensive inpatient administrative data from the Public Discharge Data file (years 2005 through 2010 of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes a dedicated variable recording DNR status, we identified cohorts of DNR patients who underwent major cardiac or thoracic operations and compared themto age- and procedure-matched comparison cohorts. The primary study outcome was in-hospital mortality.Results. DNR status was not uncommon in cardiac (n = 2,678, 1.1% of all admissions for cardiac surgery, age 71.6 ± 15.9 years and thoracic (n = 3,129, 3.7% of all admissions for thoracic surgery, age 73.8 ± 13.6 years surgical patient populations. Relative to controls, patients who were DNR experienced significantly greater inhospital mortality after cardiac (37.5% vs. 11.2%, p < 0.0001 and thoracic (25.4% vs. 6.4% operations. DNR status remained an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality onmultivariate analysis after adjustment for baseline and comorbid conditions in both the cardiac (OR 4.78, 95% confidence interval 4.21–5.41, p < 0.0001 and thoracic (OR 6.11, 95% confidence interval 5.37–6.94, p < 0.0001 cohorts.Conclusions. DNR status is associated with worse outcomes of cardiothoracic surgery even when controlling for age, race, insurance status, and serious comorbid disease. DNR status appears to be a marker of substantial perioperative risk, and may warrant substantial consideration when framing discussions of surgical risk and benefit, resource utilization, and biomedical ethics surrounding end-of-life care.
Merceds Susan Mandell
Full Text Available Transplantation is a young medical specialty that has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Anesthesiologists, surgeons and hepatologists are all essential partners in the process of determining patient outcome. Each specialty has made landmark improvements in patient outcome. However, there is still variability in practice patterns in each of the 3 major specialties. This review will use a historic perspective to explore the unique forces that shaped specific transplant practices and those that gave rise to differences in perioperative practices. Anesthesiologists and surgeons have made significant improvements in the management of blood loss, and coagulation monitoring and intervention. This has improved operative survival and early patient outcome. Perioperative survival has improved despite a worldwide shortage of donor organs and a trend to transplant sicker patients. A smaller pool of donor organs is required to meet the needs of an expanding waiting list. The innovations to reduce deaths on the transplant wait list are reviewed along with their impact on overall patient outcome. The evolving organ shortage is the pinnacle point in shaping future transplant practices. Currently, institutional-specific practices may be reinforced by the informal “tutorship” that is used to train physicians and by the resources available at each site of practice. However, there is evidence that specific intraoperative practices such as the use of a low central venous pressure, selection of vasopressors and certain surgical techniques can modify patient outcome. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the good or the bad associated with each practice prevails and in what unique circumstance.
Enesel, Mircea Bogdan; Acalovschi, Iurie; Grosu, Vasile; Sbarcea, Adriana; Rusu, Catrinel; Dobre, Adrian; Weiss, Thomas; Zarkovic, Neven
It is assumed that perioperative immunomodulation of cancer patients can attenuate cellular and humoral deficiencies thus improving their overall health status. Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) anticancer drugs are likely candidates for such adjuvant therapy, because they do not have major adverse side-effects but have dual desirable activities; immune-modulating effects and relatively selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells. We used the aqueous extract Isorel, which is produced from the entire plant and is validated for batch consistency. The study involved 70 cancer patients, divided into two groups: Isorel-treated group of 40 patients who received Isorel for 2 pre- and 2 post-operative weeks (1 esophageal, 16 gastric, 2 pancreatic and 21 colorectal carcinomas) and the age- and sex-matched control group of 30 patients that did not receive Isorel (2 esophageal, 9 gastric, 3 pancreatic, 1 ileac and 15 colorectal carcinomas). Blood samples were obtained to study parameters of the immune system before the surgery and the drug administration (DO) and on the postoperative days 1 and 14 (D1, D14). The overall health status was evaluated after 60 days by the Kamofsky Performance Index and by the Analogic Scale of Anxiety. The results were compared by Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA test. Isorel significantly attenuated the immuno-suppressive effects of surgery observed for the Isorel-treated group, increasing the number of NK cells, the T and B cells, in particular T-helper cells, complement, IgA, IgG and IgM values also in comparison to the respective D0 values. Both the Kamofsky status and the Anxiety Scale improved remarkably in Isorel-treated patients in comparison to the control. The results of this study indicate that perioperative use of the mistletoe drug Isorel can improve immune competence and the overall health status of cancer patients undergoing surgery.
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Humans must acknowledge that the biosphere is the essential support for all living organisms. In order to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must proceed beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism, homocentrism, and biocentrism to ecocentrism. National states, with present policies, are a major obstacle to sustainable use of the planet. However, there is some evidence that the individual has increasing sovereignty at the expense of both nation states and the environment. Still, the primary obstacle to sustainability is inherent in the present system of sovereign nation states. The basic question is how much sovereignty must nation-states and individuals relinquish to preserve the health of Earth's biospheric life support system. A free and open exchange of thoughts on this subject is long overdue. To acheive sustainable use of the planet, humankind must view its identity within the context of the interdependent web of life.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Liver disease is usually accompanied with a decline in systemic vascular resistance (SVR. We decided to assess effects of the peri-operative terlipressin infusion on liver donor liver transplantation recipients with respect to haemodynamics and renal parameters. Methods: After Ethical Committee approval for this prospective randomised controlled study, 50 recipients were enrolled and allotted to control (n = 25 or terlipressin group (n = 25 with simple randomisation method. Terlipressin was infused at 1.0 μg/kg/h and later titrated 1.0-4.0 μg/kg/h to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP >65 mmHg and SVR index 0.05 and was sustained post-operatively. Conclusion: Terlipressin improved SVR and MAP with less need for catecholamines particularly post-reperfusion. Terlipressin reduced PPV without hepatic artery vasoconstriction and improved post-operative UOP.
Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg
that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...
Villarreal Herrera, Georgina
Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability
Grindsted, Thomas Skou
. Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....
Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent
of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...
Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert
Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…
Winters, H.; Tielemans, H.J.P.; Sprangers, P.N.; Ulrich, D.J.O.
BACKGROUND: Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) is a supermicrosurgical procedure that involves the anastomosis of a functional lymphatic channel to a venule. Although peri-operative care might be an important contributor to the success of this technique, evidence about optimal peri-operative care
O'Brien, Frank J
It is established that blood transfusions will promote sensitization to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens, increase time spent waiting for transplantation and may lead to higher rates of rejection. Less is known about how perioperative blood transfusion influence patient and graft outcome. This study aims to establish if there is an association between perioperative blood transfusion and graft or patient survival.
Hofer, SOP; Dhar, BK; Robinson, PH; Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Nicolai, JPA
A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to investigate perioperative complications in pharyngeal flap surgery in one institution using inferiorly and superiorly based flaps. In this fashion the current practice of surgical technique based on local findings and perioperative care, through
Seim, Andreas R; Sandberg, Warren S
To review the current state of anesthesiology for operative and invasive procedures, with an eye toward possible future states. Anesthesiology is at once a mature specialty and in a crisis--requiring breakthrough to move forward. The cost of care now approaches reimbursement, and outcomes as commonly measured approach perfection. Thus, the cost of further improvements seems ready to topple the field, just as the specialty is realizing that seemingly innocuous anesthetic choices have long-term consequences, and better practice is required. Anesthesiologists must create more headroom between costs and revenues in order to sustain the academic vigor and creativity required to create better clinical practice. We outline three areas in which technological and organizational innovation in anesthesiology can improve competitiveness and become a driving force in collaborative efforts to develop the operating rooms and perioperative systems of the future: increasing the profitability of operating rooms; increasing the efficiency of anesthesia; and technological and organizational innovation to foster improved patient flow, communication, coordination, and organizational learning.
Malaspinas, Iliona; Petak, Ferenc; Chok, Lionel; Perrin, Anne; Martin, Anne-Laure; Beghetti, Maurice; Habre, Walid
To assess the profile of changes in airway and respiratory tissue mechanics within a follow-up study performed in children with mitral valve disease, before and after surgical valve repair. Perioperative measurements in a prospective, consecutive cross-sectional study. University hospital, tertiary care teaching hospital The study comprised 24 children with congenital or post-rheumatic mitral valve insufficiency. Input impedance of the respiratory system during spontaneous breathing was measured before and 5 days and 3 weeks after mitral valve surgery. In addition, airway and respiratory tissue mechanics and pulmonary arterial pressure were assessed with the patient under general anesthesia preoperatively and immediately postoperatively. Respiratory tissue elastance and changes in airway measurements were estimated from forced oscillatory impedance data by fitting an appropriate model. Relating airway and respiratory tissue mechanics to previously established reference values obtained in age-matched healthy control patients revealed abnormal respiratory function (135±6.2% and 148±13% in respiratory elastance and resistance, respectively; pMitral valve disease in children leads to abnormal airway and respiratory tissue mechanics. Even though surgical repair of mitral insufficiency alleviates abnormal airway function, residual lung tissue stiffening may persist even weeks after the surgery, contributing to a sustained impairment in lung function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Angioedema is a rare condition which manifests as sudden localised, non-pitting swelling of certain body parts including skin and mucous membranes. It is vital that anaesthesiologists understand this condition, as it may present suddenly in the perioperative period with airway compromise. To identify literature for this review, the authors searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases for English language articles covering a 10-year period, 2006 through 2016. Angioedema can be either mast-cell mediated or bradykinin-induced. Older therapies for histaminergic symptoms are well known to anaesthesiologists (e.g., adrenaline, anti-histamines and steroids, whereas older therapies for bradykinin-induced symptoms include plasma and attenuated androgens. New classes of drugs for bradykinin-induced symptoms are now available, including anti-bradykinin, plasma kallikrein inhibitor and C1 esterase inhibitors. These can be used prophylactically or as rescue medications. Anaesthesiologists are in a unique position to coordinate perioperative care for this complex group of patients.
Daradkeh, S; Shennak, M; Abu-Khalaf, M
Management of common bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic surgery is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety, feasibility, success rate and short-term results of the selective use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective study comprising 300 consecutive patients with either symptomatic or complicated gallbladder stones was performed between January 1994 and November 1996. Depending on clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic criteria, 73 patients (24.3%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy. The procedure was successful in 71 patients (97%) either preoperatively in 62 patients (21%) or postoperatively in 9 patients (3%). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was positive in 37 cases (52%), endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction was performed in 35 cases and endoscopic sphincterotomy alone was performed in 2 cases for benign papillary stenosis. The overall predictive value for the presence of common bile duct stone was 52%, the predictive value for patients with jaundice, dilated common bile duct together with elevated liver enzymes was 73.3%. Complications of perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were encountered in 4 patients (5.5%) with no mortality. We conclude that the combination of perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a useful approach for the management of choledochocholelithiasis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of antibiotics prophylaxis in the prevention and reduction in the incidence of surgical site infection is widespread. This study evaluates the appropriateness of the prescription of antibiotics prophylaxis prior to surgery amongst hospitalized patients in the geographic area of Avellino, Caserta, and Naples (Italy and the factors associated with a poor adherence. METHODS: A sample of 382 patients admitted to 23 surgical wards and undergoing surgery in five hospitals were randomly selected. RESULTS: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was appropriate in 18.1% of cases. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with hypoalbuminemia, with a clinical infection, with a wound clean were more likely to receive an appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared with patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA score ≥4, those with a score of 2 were correlated with a 64% reduction in the odds of having an appropriate prophylaxis. The appropriateness of the timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration was observed in 53.4% of the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that such appropriateness was more frequent in older patients, in those admitted in general surgery wards, in those not having been underwent an endoscopic surgery, in those with a higher length of surgery, and in patients with ASA score 1 when a score ≥4 was chosen as the reference category. The most common antibiotics used inappropriately were ceftazidime, sultamicillin, levofloxacin, and teicoplanin. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions are needed to improve perioperative appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.
John, M; Ford, J; Harper, M
Since the adverse consequences of accidental peri-operative hypothermia have been recognised, there has been a rapid expansion in the development of new warming equipment designed to prevent it. This is a review of peri-operative warming devices and a critique of the evidence assessing their performance. Forced-air warming is a common and extensively tested warming modality that outperforms passive insulation and water mattresses, and is at least as effective as resistive heating. More recently developed devices include circulating water garments, which have shown promising results due to their ability to cover large surface areas, and negative pressure devices aimed at improving subcutaneous perfusion for warming. We also discuss the challenge of fluid warming, looking particularly at how devices' performance varies according to flow rate. Our ultimate aim is to provide a guide through the bewildering array of devices on the market so that clinicians can make informed and accurate choices for their particular hospital environment. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Full Text Available Objective To observe the perioperative complications for metastatic cervical tumor, and explore their possible risk factors. Methods From January 2012 to January 2016, 57 patients undergoing surgery for cervical spine metastasis were retrospectively analyzed, who were followed-up for at least 12 months or until death. Data collected included pain (a 10-point visual analogue scale, VAS, Karnofsky performance status score, neurologic status according to Frankel scale, perioperative complications, postoperative mortality and so on. Results The VAS score decreased significantly postoperation (P300ml were significant risk factors for the complication. Multivariable analysis showed that iIntraoperative blood loss >300ml and preoperative Karnofsky score <60 were the independent predictors for the complication. Conclusions Surgical management for cervical spinal metastasis is effective in terms of neurological recovery, pain control, and performance status recovery. However, the surgery had a high risk of complications that special attention should be paid to. Furthermore, complications might be related to preoperative Karnofsky score and intraoperative blood loss. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.18
Gillies, Michael A; Sander, Michael; Shaw, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Myburgh, John; Aldecoa, Cesar; Jammer, Ib; Lobo, Suzana M; Pritchard, Naomi; Grocott, Michael P W; Schultz, Marcus J; Pearse, Rupert M
Surgical treatments are offered to more patients than ever before, and increasingly to older patients with chronic disease. High-risk patients frequently require critical care either in the immediate postoperative period or after developing complications. The purpose of this review was to identify and prioritise themes for future research in perioperative intensive care medicine. We undertook a priority setting process (PSP). A panel was convened, drawn from experts representing a wide geographical area, plus a patient representative. The panel was asked to suggest and prioritise key uncertainties and future research questions in the field of perioperative intensive care through a modified Delphi process. Clinical trial registries were searched for on-going research. A proposed "Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome" (PICO) structure for each question was provided. Ten key uncertainties and future areas of research were identified as priorities and ranked. Appropriate intravenous fluid and blood component therapy, use of critical care resources, prevention of delirium and respiratory management featured prominently. Admissions following surgery contribute a substantial proportion of critical care workload. Studies aimed at improving care in this group could have a large impact on patient-centred outcomes and optimum use of healthcare resources. In particular, the optimum use of critical care resources in this group is an area that requires urgent research.
Carless, Paul A; Stokes, Barrie J; Moxey, Annette J; Henry, David A
Background Public concerns regarding the safety of blood have prompted reconsideration of the use of allogeneic blood (blood from an unrelated donor) transfusion and a range of techniques designed to minimise transfusion requirements. Objectives To examine the efficacy of desmopressin acetate (1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin) in reducing peri-operative blood loss and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients who do not have congenital bleeding disorders. Search methods We identified studies by searching CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), the Internet (to May 2008), and bibliographies of published articles. Selection criteria Controlled parallel-group trials in which adult patients scheduled for non-urgent surgery were randomised to desmopressin (DDAVP) or to a control group that did not receive DDAVP treatment. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they reported data on the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusion or the volume of blood transfused. Data collection and analysis Primary outcomes were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the amount of blood transfused. Other outcomes measured were: blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, post-operative complications (thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke), mortality, and length of hospital stay. Treatment effects were pooled using a random-effects model. Main results Nineteen trials that included a total of 1387 patients reported data on the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion. DDAVP did not significantly reduce the risk of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion (relative risk (RR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.06). However, the use of DDAVP significantly reduced total blood loss (weighted mean difference (WMD) −241.78 ml, 95% CI −387.55 to −96.01 ml). Although DDAVP appeared to reduce the overall volume of allogeneic blood
Effect of general anesthesia in patients with cerebral palsy at the turn of the new millennium: a population-based study evaluating perioperative outcome and brief overview of anesthetic implications of this coexisting disease.
Wass, C Thomas; Warner, Mary E; Worrell, Gregory A; Castagno, Julie A; Howe, Melinda; Kerber, Kimberly A; Palzkill, Jenna M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Cascino, Gregory D
The severity of preoperative cerebral palsy appears to correlate directly with postoperative complications. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the frequency of perioperative morbidity and mortality in cerebral palsy patients undergoing anesthesia. This was accomplished by undertaking a systematic review of the Mayo Database. The risk for perioperative adverse events was 63.1% (95% confidence interval 59.8%-66.5%). However, it deserves clarification that hypothermia and clinically significant yet non-life-threatening hypotension represented the majority (80%) of these complications. When these 2 events are excluded, the rate of adverse perioperative events was 13.1% (95% confidence interval 10.8%-15.5%). Risk factors associated with increased risk included American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score exceeding 2, history of seizures, upper airway hypotonia, general surgery procedures, and adults. Our findings are useful to counsel patients with cerebral palsy, their caregivers, and their guardians regarding the risk of general anesthesia.
Clough, G. Wayne; Chameau, Jean-Lou; Carmichael, Carol
In this article, the authors state that one of the major challenges facing the human race is charting a course for the future that allows economic growth while protecting the fragile planet. The authors discuss the role that higher education must play to help create a vibrant economy and high quality of life, while sustaining natural resources.…
Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003
Recopilación de observaciones sobre anidamiento, cría y ecología general, así como algunos datos morfométricos, del Pico picapinos (Dendrocopos major, llamado Dryobates major por el autor), realizadas en numerosas salidas de campo a diferentes enclaves de las provincias de Valladolid, a orillas del Pisuerga, y Zamora, entre el 23 de junio de 1947 y el 4 de octubre de 1952. Compilation of nesting, breeding and general ecology observations, as well as some morphometric data, of the Great Spo...
Partridge, Judith S L; Collingridge, Geraint; Gordon, Adam Lee; Martin, Finbarr C; Harari, Danielle; Dhesi, Jugdeep K
national reports have highlighted deficiencies in care provided to older surgical patients and suggested a role for innovative, collaborative, inter-specialty models of care. The extent of geriatrician-led perioperative services in the UK (excluding orthogeriatric services) has not previously been described. This survey describes current services and explores barriers to further development. an electronic survey was sent to clinical leads for geriatric medicine at all 161 acute NHS health care trusts in the UK. Reminders were sent on three occasions over an 8-week period. The survey examined preoperative and postoperative care and organisational issues. Responses were analysed descriptively. there were 130 respondents (80.7%). One-third (38) of respondents described providing some geriatric medicine input in older surgical patients. Preoperative services existed in 15 (12%), where 14 provided risk assessment and 13 preoperative optimisation. Twenty-six respondents (20%) delivered care postoperatively, of them 10 took a reactive approach, 11 a proactive approach and 5 provided a combination of reactive and proactive care. Barriers to establishing perioperative geriatric medicine services included funding, workforce issues and a lack of inter-specialty collaboration. a national appetite exists to provide geriatrician-led services to older surgical patients yet the majority of existing services remain reactive and do not use comprehensive geriatric assessment as an organising principle. This survey suggests that funding for geriatricians in perioperative care has not yet been universally established. Future efforts should focus on dissemination of experiential knowledge and published resources, collaboration with commissioners and empirical research to overcome the barriers described. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yamato, Yu; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Aota, Yoichi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Iida, Takahiro; Ueyama, Kazumasa; Uno, Koki; Kanemura, Tokumi; Kawakami, Noriaki; Kotani, Toshiaki; Takaso, Masashi; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Masato; Taneichi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Taichi; Hosoe, Hideo; Mochida, Joji; Shimizu, Takachika; Yonezawa, Ikuho; Watanabe, Kota; Matsumoto, Morio
Recently, corrective fusion surgery for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has become common in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the status of surgeries for ASD in Japan, focusing on perioperative complications. A nationwide multicenter survey gathering information on surgically treated ASD patients was conducted by the committee for Adult Spinal Deformity of the Japanese Scoliosis Society. This study was a review of retrospectively collected data from 18 spine scoliosis centers belonging to the Japanese Scoliosis Society. Patients who underwent corrective fusion surgery for ASD between 2011 and 2013 were included. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical data, and complications were investigated. A total of 1192 patients (mean age, 57.7 years) were included in this study. Of these, 611 patients were aged less than 65 years and 581 patients were aged 65 years or greater. The age distribution had two peaks, in the third and eighth decades. Deformities caused by degeneration represented 67% of the pathology in patients aged over 65 years; however, non-degenerative disease such as adult idiopathic scoliosis and syndromic or congenital deformity represented over 60% of pathology in patients aged less than 65 years. The iatrogenic deformity and reoperation rates were both less than 3%. The mean operation time and estimated blood loss were 370 min and 1642 ml, respectively. Major perioperative complications occurred in 160 patients (14.5%). The incidence of complications was significantly higher in patients aged over 65 years, including neurological deficits, hemorrhagic shock, hematoma, heart failure, and surgical site infection (p deformity due to the occurrence of degeneration and vertebral fractures, as well as a higher incidence of peri-and postoperative complications. Efforts to reduce perioperative complications are therefore imperative, especially for elderly ASD patients in our aging society. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Vermeulen, Mechteld A.R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Dietetics and Nutritional Sciences, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buijsman, René, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Siroen, Michiel P.C., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poll, Marcel C.G. van de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Boelens, Petra G., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Dejong, Cornelis H.C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Schaik, Cors van, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Mark B.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Paul A.M. van, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Background: Quantification of abdominal blood flow is essential for a variety of gastrointestinal and hepatic topics such as liver transplantation or metabolic flux measurement, but those need to be performed during surgery. It is not clear whether Duplex Doppler Ultrasound during surgery or MRI before surgery is the tool to choose. Objective: To examine whether preoperative evaluation of abdominal blood flow using MRI could prove to be a useful and reliable alternative for the perioperative sonographic approach. Methods: In this study portal and renal venous flow and hepatic arterial flow were sequentially quantified by preoperative MRI, preoperative and perioperative Duplex Doppler Ultrasound (DDUS). 55 Patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were studied and methods and settings were compared. Additionally, average patient population values were compared. Results: Mean (±SD) plasmaflow measured by perioperative DDUS, preoperative DDUS and MRI, respectively was 433 ± 200/423 ± 162/507 ± 96 ml/min (portal vein); 96 ± 70/74 ± 41/108 ± 91 ml/min (hepatic artery); 248 ± 139/201 ± 118/219 ± 69 ml/min (renal vein). No differences between the different settings of DDUS measurement were detected. Equality of mean was observed for all measurements. Bland Altman Plots showed widespread margins. Hepatic arterial flow measurements correlated with each other, but portal and renal venous flow correlations were absent. Conclusions: Surgery and method (DDUS vs. MRI) do not affect mean flow values. Individual comparison is restricted due to wide range in measurements. Since MRI proves to be more reliable with respect to inter-observer variability, we recommend using mean MRI results in experimental setups.
P N Dogra
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perioperative outcome of the first 190 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy performed at our center from July 2006 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: Operative and recovery data for men with localized prostate cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at our center were reviewed. All surgeries were performed using the 4-arm da Vinci-S surgical robot. Preoperative data included age, body mass index (BMI, prostate specific antigen (PSA level, prostate weight, biopsy Gleason score and TNM staging, while operative and recovery data included total operative time, estimated blood loss, complications, hospital stay and catheter time. These parameters were evaluated for the safety and efficacy of this procedure in our center. Results: The mean age of our patients was 65 ± 1.2 years. The mean BMI was 25.20 ± 2.88 and the median PSA was 14.8 ng/ml. Majority of our patients belonged to clinical stage T2 (51.58%. The mean total operative time was 166.44 ± 11.5 min. Six patients required conversion to open procedure and there was one rectal injury. The median estimated blood loss was 302 ± 14.45 ml and the median duration of hospital stay was 4 days. The overall margin positivity rate was 12.63%. Conclusion: Despite our limited robotic surgery experience, our perioperative outcome and complication rate is comparable to most contemporary series. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP is easy to learn and provides the patient with the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with minimal perioperative morbidity.
Apers, J A; Wens, C; van Vlodrop, V; Michiels, M; Ceulemans, R; van Daele, G; Jacobs, I
A growing number of revision procedures are to be expected in bariatric surgery after failed restrictive procedures such as failed adjustable gastric banding (AGB) or vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). Conversion to revisional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (ReLRYGBP) has been advocated as the procedure of choice. The results of ReLRYGBP were reviewed in a retrospective chart review. A subgroup analysis compared perioperative results after VBG and after AGB. A second subgroup analysis compared perioperative results of ReLRYGBP immediately after AGB removal and after a delay as a two-step procedure. Between 2003 and 2009, ReLRYGBP was performed for 107 patients. Of these 107 operations, 21 were performed after failed VBG and 86 after failed AGB. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 42 kg/m(2). The causes of failure were mainly insufficient weight loss or reflux disease-related symptoms. During a median follow-up period of 44 months, there was no mortality, and morbidity was 34 %, including late complications. Major early complications occurred in 11 % of the cases (n = 12). Conversions and major early complications occurred significantly more frequently after VBG than after AGB (p 0.5). The perioperative outcomes of ReLRYGBP are worse after VBG than after AGB. The ReLRYGBP operation can be performed safely as a one-step procedure after AGB removal.
Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim
This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...
Reitan Andersen, Kirsti
The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía
Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...
Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.
Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector
Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Society depends heavily on its major universities and independent research organisations for new ideas. Arguable, sustainable use of the planet will require conceptual paradigms unprecedented in human history. Educational systems, especially major universities and research organisations, must produce students in all phases of the educational continuum who are capable of transdisciplinary activities. A much larger group of such students will be required to implement these new undertakings. Until the perception of the need for transdisciplinary education becomes widespread, nothing significant is likely to happen. One major obstacle is the lack of employment for transdisciplinary individuals. A commitment to sustainable use of the planet will provide employment and make better use of increasingly scarce resources.
Millan, J.; Smyser, C.
The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.
Dafne Eva Corrêa Brandão
Full Text Available This integrative review aimed at analyzing evidences available in literature regarding stress levels in nursing teams during the perioperative period. Primary studies were searched in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL and LILACS. Included studies were grouped into the following thematic categories: stress level in the workplace and stress factors (n=8 and stress coping strategies used by the nursing staff (n=6. Evidence suggests that stress in the workplace worsens the health of the nursing team, provoking undesirable effects both in the professional and personal lives of these professionals. The assessment of working conditions to identify the main stressing factors and the implementation of individual and organizational measures to reduce nursing teams stress may increase productivity and workers’ satisfaction, improving the assistance quality offered to surgical patients.
Poveda-Jaramillo, R; Castro-Arias, H D; Vallejo-Zarate, C; Ramos-Hurtado, L F
The use of implantable cardiac devices in people of all ages is increasing, especially in the elderly population: patients with pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy devices regularly present for surgery for non-cardiac causes. This review was made in order to collect and analyze the latest evidence for the proper management of implantable cardiac devices in the perioperative period. Through a detailed exploration of PubMed, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), ClinicalKey, Cochrane (Ovid), the search software UpToDate, textbooks and patents freely available to the public on Google, we selected 33 monographs, which matched the objectives of this publication. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT. They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.
Das, Rekha; Hansda, Upendra
Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT). They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.
Preoperative evaluation of infectious diseases in patients for elective and non-elective surgery is important for the anesthesiologists not only to rule out the patient's state of illness, but also to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in healthcare settings. To prevent transmission of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, Center for Disease Control published guidelines that consist of standard precaution and transmission-based precautions. In the face of exposure to known infectious diseases, certain post exposure prophylaxis has been established, especially against exposure to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. There are also growing interests in perioperative prevention of surgical site infection, since World Health Organization has published surgical safety checklist with the slogan "Safe surgery saves life". Anesthesiologists need to have knowledge on the prevention of surgical site infection especially on antibiotic prophylaxis, because it starts in the operating room.
Batista, Thales Paulo; de Mendonça, Lucas Marques; Fassizoli-Fonte, Ana Luiza
Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and a main cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Surgery remains the mainstay for cure and is considered for all patients with potentially curable disease. However, despite the fact that surgery alone usually leads to favorable outcomes in early stage disease, late diagnosis usually means a poor prognosis. In these settings, multimodal therapy has become the established treatment for locally advanced tumors, while the high risk of locoregional relapse has favored the inclusion of radiotherapy in the comprehensive therapeutic strategy. We provide a critical, non-systematic review of gastric cancer and discuss the role of perioperative radiation therapy in its treatment. PMID:25992221
Selimen, Deniz; Andsoy, Isil Isik
Holism is the philosophy of understanding people by addressing factors that affect people in all situations. The goal of holistic nursing is to help patients integrate appropriate self-care into their lives. By providing holistic care, the perioperative nurse can help surgical patients experience fewer problems (eg, surgical trauma, pain, anesthetic complications), reach discharge more quickly, attain satisfaction with health care, and more easily resume normal activities. Holistic nursing may include the use of music, guided imagery, therapeutic massage, play therapy, touch therapy, and communication skills. Successful surgery for the patient means not only recovering but regaining physical, mental, and spiritual health as a whole. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Platt, R; Zucker, J R; Zaleznik, D F; Hopkins, C C; Dellinger, E P; Karchmer, A W; Bryan, C S; Burke, J F; Wikler, M A; Marino, S K
The effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis against wound infections following breast surgery was investigated by meta-analysis of published data from a randomized clinical trial and an observational data set, which included a total of 2587 surgical procedures, including excisional biopsy, lumpectomy, mastectomy, reduction mammoplasty and axillary node dissection. There were 98 wound infections (3.8%). Prophylaxis was used for 44% (1141) of these procedures, cephalosporins accounted for 986 (86%) of these courses of antibiotics. Prophylaxis prevented 38% of infections, after controlling for operation type, duration of surgery and participation in the randomized trial (Mantel-Haenszel Odds Ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.95, P = 0.03). There was no significant variation in efficacy according to operation type or duration. We conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduces the risk of postoperative wound infection following these commonly performed breast procedures.
Søballe, Kjeld; Troelsen, Anders
are detached, and the femoral nerve and vessels are protected by the iliopsoas and sartorius muscles. This approach is safe, minimizes blood loss and transfusion requirements, is associated with a short duration of surgery, and allows for optimal correction of the acetabular fragment. Follow-ups (range, 3......, or any surgical procedure, should be characterized by few complications, minimized surgical trauma, and no compromise of long-term surgical results. A minimally invasive transsartorial approach using fluoroscopy and an approximately 7-cm skin incision has been developed for performing PAO. No muscles...... (local infiltration analgesia), and a progressive mobilization and exercise program. The transsartorial approach coupled with a specific perioperative management program has proved successful for PAO surgery....
Jessen Lundorf, Luise; Korvenius Nedergaard, Helene; Møller, Ann Merete
Background: Acute postoperative pain is still an issue in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Postoperative pain and side effects of analgesic treatment, in particular those of opioids, need to be minimized. Opioid-sparing analgesics, possibly including dexmedetomidine, seem a promising avenue...... by which to improve postoperative outcomes. Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine the analgesic efficacy and opioid-sparing effect of perioperative dexmedetomidine for acute pain after abdominal surgery in adults. Secondary aims were to establish effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea...... surgery in adults. Trials included one of the following outcomes: amount of 'rescue' opioid, postoperative pain, time to 'rescue' analgesia, participants requiring 'rescue' analgesia, postoperative sedation, PONV, time to first passage of flatus and stool or time to first out-of-bed mobilization. Data...
Dupanovic, Mirsad; Krebill, Ron; Dupanovic, Iris; Nachtigal, John; Rockford, Melissa; Orr, Walter
Morbidly obese patients are traditionally hospitalised following bariatric surgery. However, laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is amenable for ambulatory care. We hypothesised that the majority of patients can receive an ambulatory LAGB and that both surgical and anaesthetic perioperative factors will significantly affect non-ambulatory LAGB outcomes. Medical records of 201 consecutive LAGB patients performed at the University of Kansas Medical Centre during a 3-y period were reviewed. Demographic, medical, laboratory, anaesthetic, intraoperative and postoperative data were collected. Factors associated with non-ambulatory outcomes were identified and analysed using logistic regression, and a classification tree analysis was used to rank the descriptive model factor to the non-ambulatory outcome. Average patient age was 43.4±11.4 years, and average body mass index was 48.2±10.3 kg m2-1. A total of 155 patients (77.1%; 95% confidence interval, 71%-83%; pambulatory outcomes. Obstructive sleep apnoea was not associated with a non-ambulatory outcome (p=0.83). The majority of patients received an ambulatory LAGB. Meticulous laparoscopic surgical technique with the least feasible number of access ports and multimodal analgesic technique aimed at reduction of postoperative opioid consumption are the most important factors for a successful ambulatory LAGB outcome.
.24, P<0.001; cardiac, RR =3.61, CI =2.60–4.99, P<0.001; and major vascular; RR =3.05, CI =2.22–4.18, P<0.001, respiratory or cardiovascular comorbidities (RR =1.95, CI =1.60–2.38, P<0.001 and RR =1.38, CI =1.11–1.72, P=0.004, respectively, and patients in shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR =2.62, CI =2.07–3.33, P<0.001. Conclusion: The perioperative incidence of cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery was high and associated with multiple factors such as young age (≤2 years old, cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities, increasing ASA physical status classification, preoperative shock, and surgery site. Perioperative care providers, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses, should be prepared to manage promptly this high risk group of surgical patients. Keywords: risk factors, retrospective cohort, anesthetic care, perioperative cardiac arrest, emergency surgery
Ma, Hong; Tang, Jun; White, Paul F; Zaentz, Alan; Wender, Ronald H; Sloninsky, Alexander; Naruse, Robert; Kariger, Robert; Quon, Raymond; Wood, Dennis; Carroll, Brendan J
Non-opioid analgesics have become increasingly popular as part of a multimodal regimen for pain management in the ambulatory setting. We designed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of perioperative administration of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib on patient outcome after inguinal herniorrhaphy procedures. Sixty consenting outpatients undergoing elective hernia repair surgery were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: control (vitamin C, 500 mg) or rofecoxib (rofecoxib, 50 mg). The first oral dose of the study medication was administered 30-40 min before entering the operating room, and a second dose of the same medication was given on the morning of the first postoperative day. Recovery times, postoperative pain scores, the need for "rescue" analgesics, and side effects were recorded at 1- to 10-min intervals before discharge from the recovery room. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 36 h, 7 days, and 14 days after surgery to assess postdischarge pain, analgesic requirements, resumption of normal activities, as well as patient satisfaction with their postoperative pain management. Rofecoxib significantly decreased the early recovery times, leading to an earlier discharge home after surgery (88 +/- 30 vs 126 +/- 44 min, P outpatient hernia surgery. However, perioperative use of rofecoxib failed to improve recovery end points in the postdischarge period. Rofecoxib (50 mg per os), given before and after surgery, was effective in improving postoperative pain management, as well as the speed and quality of recovery after outpatient inguinal herniorrhaphy. However, it failed to accelerate the postdischarge resumption of normal activities of daily living.
Platt, R; Zaleznik, D F; Hopkins, C C; Dellinger, E P; Karchmer, A W; Bryan, C S; Burke, J F; Wikler, M A; Marino, S K; Holbrook, K F
We assessed the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery in a randomized, double-blind trial of 1218 patients undergoing herniorrhaphy or surgery involving the breast, including excision of a breast mass, mastectomy, reduction mammoplasty, and axillary-node dissection. The prophylactic regimen was a single dose of cefonicid (1 g intravenously) administered approximately half an hour before surgery. The patients were followed up for four to six weeks after surgery. Blinding was maintained until the last patient completed the follow-up and all diagnoses of infection had been made. The patients who received prophylaxis had 48 percent fewer probable or definite infections than those who did not (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.84; P = 0.01). For patients undergoing a procedure involving the breast, infection occurred in 6.6 percent of the cefonicid recipients (20 of 303) and 12.2 percent of the placebo recipients (37 of 303); for those undergoing herniorrhaphy, infection occurred in 2.3 percent of the cefonicid recipients (7 of 301) and 4.2 percent of the placebo recipients (13 of 311). There were comparable reductions in the numbers of definite wound infections (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio, 0.49), wounds that drained pus (risk ratio, 0.43), Staphylococcus aureus wound isolates (risk ratio, 0.49), and urinary tract infections (risk ratio, 0.40). There were also comparable reductions in the need for postoperative antibiotic therapy, non-routine visits to a physician for problems involving wound healing, incision and drainage procedures, and readmission because of problems with wound healing. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with cefonicid is useful for herniorrhaphy and certain types of breast surgery.
Langerman, Alexander; Ham, Sandra A; Pisano, Jennifer; Pariser, Joseph; Hohmann, Samuel F; Meltzer, David O
To assess hospital- and physician-level variation in pattern of perioperative antibiotic use for laryngectomy and the relationship between pattern of antibiotic use and surgical site infection (SSI), wound dehiscence, and antibiotic-induced complications. Retrospective analysis of University HealthSystem Consortium data. Academic medical centers and affiliated hospitals. Elective admissions for laryngectomy from 2008 to 2011 and associated 30-day readmissions were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression models. There were 439 unique antibiotic regimens (agents and duration) identified over the first 4 days of the 1865 admissions included in this study. Ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin + metronidazole, and clindamycin were the most common agents given on the day of surgery. Clindamycin was independently associated with higher odds of SSI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.31-6.49]), wound dehiscence (OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 2.07-5.64), and antibiotic-induced complications (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.59-5.67) when given alone; it was also associated with higher odds of SSI (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.43-5.05) and antibiotic-induced complications (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.04-4.64) when given with other agents. These effects were stronger in a subsample of high-volume physicians and hospitals. There is substantial variability in perioperative antibiotic strategies for laryngectomy. Clindamycin was associated with much higher odds of short-term complications as compared to other common regimens. Based on these data, clinical trials should be planned to firmly establish the most effective and cost-effective antibiotic management for laryngectomy and determine potential alternatives to clindamycin for penicillin-allergic patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Alison A. Nielsen
Full Text Available Purpose : To propose an optimal perioperative pain management clinical care pathway for interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic cancer based on our interdepartmental experience. Material and methods : We conducted a retrospective review of 23 women who underwent 32 interstitial brachytherapy procedures for gynecological cancers, analyzing patient demographics, type of anesthetic, medications, postoperative pain scores, adverse events, and delays in discharge. We measured the association of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV with hydromorphone use, and postoperative pain scores and total narcotic administration with type of anesthesia. Results : In 91% of patients postoperative pain was managed with an epidural infusion plus, as needed (PRN, IV or patient controlled analgesia (PCA narcotics. The most common postoperative adverse event was PONV (53%, followed by delirium (22%. Hospital discharge was delayed, at least by one night, in 26% of patients. Use of a basal rate on the PCA was associated with all cases of delayed discharge from over-sedation and PONV. The use of 5 mg or more of intravenous (IV hydromorphone during the first 24-hours postoperatively was associated with PONV (p = 0.01. Use of a basal PCA was associated with delirium (p = 0.03. Postoperative pain scores were not significantly associated with the type of anesthesia. Conclusions : Interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy requires a multidisciplinary effort for optimal perioperative management. Our study outlines the appropriate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthesia clinical care pathway. Decreased narcotic use during hospitalization and utilization of a patient-directed infusion may decrease side effects and allow for a more efficient hospital discharge.
Full Text Available Alan David Kaye,1 Olutoyin J Okanlawon,2 Richard D Urman21Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston MA, USAAbstract: Clinical performance feedback is an important component of the ongoing development and education of health care practitioners. For physicians, feedback about their clinical practice and outcomes is central to developing both confidence and competence at all stages of their medical careers. Cultural and financial infrastructures need to be in place, and the concept of feedback needs to be readily embraced and encouraged by clinical leadership and other stakeholders. The "buy-in" includes the expectation and view that feedback occurs on a routine basis, and those engaged in the process are both encouraged to participate and held accountable. Feedback must be part of an overarching quality improvement and physician education agenda; it is not meant to be an isolated, fragmented initiative that is typically undermined by lack of resources or systemic barriers to gaining improvement within programs. Effective feedback should be an integral part of clinical practice. Anesthesiologists and other perioperative physicians are identifying specialty-specific indicators that can be used when creating a broader quality improvement agenda. Placing a more immediate formal feedback strategy that focuses on goal-oriented behavior is rapidly becoming a mainstay. Physicians may use their individual feedback reports for reflection and designing personal development plans as lifelong learners and leaders in improving patient care.Keywords: physician education, outcomes measurement, performance improvement, anesthesiology
Henry, David A; Carless, Paul A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Stokes, Barrie J; Fergusson, Dean A; Ker, Katharine
Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have led to the development of a range of interventions to minimise blood loss during major surgery. Anti-fibrinolytic drugs are widely used, particularly in cardiac surgery, and previous reviews have found them to be effective in reducing blood loss, the need for transfusion, and the need for re-operation due to continued or recurrent bleeding. In the last few years questions have been raised regarding the comparative performance of the drugs. The safety of the most popular agent, aprotinin, has been challenged, and it was withdrawn from world markets in May 2008 because of concerns that it increased the risk of cardiovascular complications and death. Objectives To assess the comparative effects of the anti-fibrinolytic drugs aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA), and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) on blood loss during surgery, the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and adverse events, particularly vascular occlusion, renal dysfunction, and death. Search methods We searched: the Cochrane Injuries Group’s Specialised Register (July 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) 1950 to July 2010, EMBASE (Ovid SP) 1980 to July 2010. References in identified trials and review articles were checked and trial authors were contacted to identify any additional studies. The searches were last updated in July 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-fibrinolytic drugs in adults scheduled for non-urgent surgery. Eligible trials compared anti-fibrinolytic drugs with placebo (or no treatment), or with each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. This version of the review includes a sensitivity analysis excluding trials authored by Prof. Joachim Boldt. Main results This review summarises data from 252 RCTs that recruited over 25,000 participants. Data from
Bick, Julian S; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Myler, Conrad S; Shaw, Andrew D; McEvoy, Matthew D
Credible methods for assessing competency in basic perioperative transesophageal echocardiography examinations have not been reported. The authors' objective was to demonstrate the collection of real-world basic perioperative transesophageal examination performance data and establish passing scores for each component of the basic perioperative transesophageal examination, as well as a global passing score for clinical performance of the basic perioperative transesophageal examination using the Angoff method. National Board of Echocardiography (Raleigh, North Carolina) advanced perioperative transesophageal echocardiography-certified anesthesiologists (n = 7) served as subject matter experts for two Angoff standard-setting sessions. The first session was held before data analysis, and the second session for calibration of passing scores was held 9 months later. The performance of 12 anesthesiology residents was assessed via the new passing score grading system. The first standard-setting procedure resulted in a global passing score of 63 ± 13% on a basic perioperative transesophageal examination. The global passing score from the second standard-setting session was 73 ± 9%. Three hundred seventy-one basic perioperative transesophageal examinations from 12 anesthesiology residents were included in the analysis and used to guide the second standard-setting session. All residents scored higher than the global passing score from both standard-setting sessions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the collection of real-world anesthesia resident basic perioperative transesophageal examination clinical performance data is possible and that automated grading for competency assessment is feasible. The authors' findings demonstrate at least minimal basic perioperative transesophageal examination clinical competency of the 12 residents.
Leong, Katharina Brigitte Margarethe Siew Lan; Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; van der Wal, Raymond A; Wolff, Andre P
This study was carried out to improve patient safety in the operating theatre by the introduction of perioperative briefing and debriefing, which focused on an optimal collaboration between surgical team members. A prospective intervention study with one pretest and two post-test measurements: 1 month before and 4 months and 2.5 years after the implementation of perioperative briefing and debriefing, respectively. Operating theatres of a tertiary care hospital with 875 beds in the Netherlands. All members of five surgical teams participated in the perioperative briefing and debriefing. The implementation of perioperative briefing and debriefing from July 2012 to January 2014. The primary outcome was changes in the team climate, measured by the Team Climate Inventory. Secondary outcomes were the experiences of surgical teams with perioperative briefing and debriefing, measured with a structured questionnaire, and the duration of the briefings, measured by an independent observer. Two and a half years after the introduction of perioperative briefing and debriefing, the team climate increased statistically significant (p≤0.05). Members of the five surgical teams strongly agreed with the positive influence of perioperative briefing and debriefing on clear agreements and reminding one another of the agreements of the day. They perceived a higher efficiency of the surgical programme with more operations starting on time and less unexpectedly long operation time. The perioperative briefing took less than 4 min to conduct. Perioperative briefing and debriefing improved the team climate of surgical teams and the efficiency of their work within the operating theatre with acceptable duration per briefing. Surgical teams with alternating team compositions have the most benefit of briefing and debriefing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise
Subramani, Yamini; Wong, Jean; Nagappa, Mahesh; Chung, Frances
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Untreated OSA can lead to about a 2-fold increase in medical expenses, mainly because of cardiovascular morbidity. OSA is highly prevalent in the surgical population, with an increased risk of perioperative complications. This article describes the perioperative and long-term social and economic benefits of preoperative screening for OSA. Screening patients to identify high-risk OSA is important to decrease the adverse outcomes and associated health care costs in the perioperative period. Screening for OSA is particularly relevant because most patients are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is characterized by asymmetric hypertrophy of the interventricular septum causing intermittent obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Because Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease, it may present to the anesthesiologist more often than anticipated, sometimes in undiagnosed form during routine preoperative visit. Surgery and anesthesia often complicate the perioperative outcome if adequate monitoring and proper care are not taken. Therefore, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology, hemodynamic changes and anesthetic implications is needed for successful perioperative outcome. We hereby describe the perioperative management of three patients with Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for different surgical procedures.
Cai, Lei; Li, Yan; Sun, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Wang, Wen-Bin; Feng, Fan; Xu, Guang-Hui; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Wei
One-lung ventilation (OLV) anesthesia intubation route is often used in patients undergoing thoracoscopic-esophagectomy in semi-prone position. Recently, the two-lung ventilation (TLV) approach becomes popular. However, limited studies have compared the two ventilation approaches in parallel. Here, we report a single-center, retrospective study of comparing TLV and OLV approach in patients undergoing thoracoscopic-esophagectomy in semi-prone position. From January 2013 to November 2014, 147 patients were enrolled into the current study and were given thoracoscopic-esophagectomy in semi-prone position either by OLV or TLV. Intraoperative respiratory functional data and perioperative surgical parameters of the two approaches were collected and analyzed. Of the 147 patients, 64 patients received OLV and 83 patients received TLV, and all of them were successfully under gone thoracoscopic procedures without conversion to open thoracotomy. There was no incidence of major intraoperative complications or perioperative death. There were no statistically different in postoperative respiratory complications, either. However, TLV approach resulted in better intraoperative respiratory function (PaCO2, PaO2, SaO2), shorter preparation time for anesthesia induction, less blood loss, shorter thoracoscopic operating time and less postoperative hospital stay (Pventilation approach (P>0.05). This study demonstrated that TLV intubation approach is superior to OLV approach during the thoracoscopic-esophagectomy in semi-prone position. According to this, TLV approach is a technically feasible, convenient and safe anesthesia induction approach for esophageal cancer surgery.
(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history
The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...
Faruq Ibnul Haqi
Full Text Available Social sustainability and sustainable urban developments are major challenges across the world both developed and developing countries. In general there is a conflict between the approach of sustainable development and social sustainability in the urban context. The concept of sustainability brings a key framework for extensive literature on urban design, architecture and planning. Nevertheless there is a considerable overlap between the social dimensions of sustainability and the theories or notions, for instance the ‘sustainable societies’ that are highlighted in the midst of other aspects: social equity and justice. Such society is widely expected to offer a situation for long-term social relations and activities which are sustainable, inclusive and equitable in a wider perception of the term (environmentally, socially and economically. The method adopted to address this aim involves a content analysis of available academic literature, with focus on the planning sustainable development, built environment, social sustainability, and urban planning fields. The findings demonstrate that in spite of some opposing evidence, many studies have confirmed that there has been displacement of the debate on the term of ‘sustainability’ from ‘ecological and environmental aspects into social and economic aspects’. It is related to how the community feel safe and comfortable living in their own communities, how have they felt of proud of the place where they live. The aim of the paper is to improve our understanding of current theories and practices of planning sustainable development and discuss whether the approach of sustainable development aligns with social sustainability objectives.
(Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt
Beydler, Kathy Williams
Many responsibilities of perioperative professionals involve concrete tasks that require high technical competence. Emotional intelligence, referred to as EQ, which involves the ability to relate to and influence others, may also be important for perioperative professionals. High EQ has been linked to higher performance in the workplace, higher job satisfaction, lower turnover intentions, and less burnout. Perioperative professionals who demonstrate a combination of technical skills and EQ could be more attuned to the humanity of health care (ie, providing more holistic care for the patient). Perioperative nurses who value providing holistic care for their patients may possess many of the elements of EQ. Leaders who recognize the importance of their own EQ and actively assist staff members to enhance and develop their EQ competency may help to create a competitive advantage by establishing a workforce of nurses who possess strong technical skills and high EQ. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Noack, Morten Westergaard; Klein, Mads
Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication of colorectal surgery. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins, and preliminary studies have suggested that perioperative statin treatment may be associated with reduced risk of anastomotic leakage....
Burke, Siun M
Patient outcome after lumbar discectomy for radicular low back pain is variable and the benefit is inconsistent. Many patients continue to experience pain 3 months after surgery. Pregabalin, a membrane stabilizer, may decrease perioperative central sensitization and subsequent persistent pain.
Hanart, Christophe; Khalife, Maher; de Villé, Andrée; Otte, Florence; de Hert, Stefan; van der Linden, Philippe
OBJECTIVE: To compare 4% albumin with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 in terms of perioperative blood loss and intraoperative fluid requirements in children undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. SETTING: Single University Hospital. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients
Loozen, C. S.; Kortram, K.; Kornmann, V. N. N.; van Ramshorst, B.; Vlaminckx, B.; Knibbe, C. A. J.; Kelder, J. C.; Donkervoort, S. C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P.; Ponten, J. E. H.; van Geloven, A. A. W.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Bos, W. J. W.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Gouma, D. J.; van Santvoort, H. C.; Boerma, D.
Many patients who have surgery for acute cholecystitis receive postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, with the intent to reduce infectious complications. There is, however, no evidence that extending antibiotics beyond a single perioperative dose is advantageous. This study aimed to determine the
Jessen Lundorf, Luise; Korvenius Nedergaard, Helene; Møller, Ann Merete
Acute postoperative pain is still an issue in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Postoperative pain and side effects of analgesic treatment, in particular those of opioids, need to be minimized. Opioid-sparing analgesics, possibly including dexmedetomidine, seem a promising avenue by which to improve postoperative outcomes. Our primary aim was to determine the analgesic efficacy and opioid-sparing effect of perioperative dexmedetomidine for acute pain after abdominal surgery in adults.Secondary aims were to establish effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), gastrointestinal function and mobilization, together with the side effect profile of dexmedetomidine. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and reference lists of articles to May 2014. We searched the Science Citation Index, ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials, and we contacted pharmaceutical companies to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. We applied no language restrictions. We reran the search in May 2015 and found nine studies of interest. We will deal with the studies of interest when we update the review. We included randomized, controlled trials of perioperative dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other drug during abdominal surgery in adults. Trials included one of the following outcomes: amount of 'rescue' opioid, postoperative pain, time to 'rescue' analgesia, participants requiring 'rescue' analgesia, postoperative sedation, PONV, time to first passage of flatus and stool or time to first out-of-bed mobilization. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility. We retrieved full trial reports if necessary, and we extracted relevant data from the included studies using a data collection form and assessed risk of bias. We
Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.
The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.
New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...
Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle
Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.
This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.
Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich
Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.
Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.
Kristensen, Niels Heine
Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...
dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
Boivin, Ariane; Antonelli, Richard; Sethna, Navil F
In past decades, Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have been living longer and as the disease advances, patients experience multisystemic deterioration. Older patients often require gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support. For optimizing the perioperative care, a practice of multidisciplinary team can better anticipate, prevent, and manage possible complications and reduce the overall perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to review our experience with perioperative care of adolescent and young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy undergoing gastrostomy by various surgical approaches in order to identify challenges and improve future perioperative care coordination to reduce morbidity. We retrospectively examined cases of gastrostomy tube placement in patients of ages 15 years and older between 2005 and 2016. We reviewed preoperative evaluation, anesthetic and surgical management, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients were identified; 1 had open gastrostomy, 3 laparoscopic gastrostomies, 5 percutaneous endoscopic guided, and 3 radiologically inserted gastrostomy tubes. All patients had preoperative cardiac evaluation with 6 patients demonstrating cardiomyopathy. Nine patients had preoperative pulmonary consultations and the pulmonary function tests reported forced vital capacity of ≤36% of predicted. Eight patients were noninvasive positive pressure ventilation dependent. General anesthesia with tracheal intubation was administered in 8 patients, and intravenous sedation in 4 patients; 1 received sedation supplemented with regional anesthesia and 3 received deep sedation. One patient had a difficult intubation that resulted in trauma and prolonged tracheal intubation. Three patients developed postoperative respiratory complications. Two patients' procedures were postponed due to inadequate preoperative evaluation and 1 because of disagreement between anesthesia and procedural services as to the optimal
Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter
The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA).......The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...
Patel, Sephalie; Hafez, Osama; Sexton, Wade J; Edwards, David A
Intrathecal ziconotide is used for the treatment of chronic pain and is delivered by an implanted drug delivery device. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with the perioperative management of the pump as well as the potential adverse events related to continued ziconotide infusion during general anesthesia. A case is presented demonstrating the perioperative management of an intrathecal drug delivery device infusing ziconotide in a patient presenting for radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and ileal conduit diversion.
Patel, Sephalie; Hafez, Osama; Sexton, Wade J; Edwards, David A
Intrathecal ziconotide is used for the treatment of chronic pain and is delivered by an implanted drug delivery device. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with the perioperative management of the pump as well as the potential adverse events related to continued ziconotide infusion during general anesthesia. A case is presented demonstrating the perioperative management of an intrathecal drug delivery device infusing ziconotide in a patient presenting for radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and ileal conduit diversion.
Full Text Available In the literary review frequency, risk factors, reasons and mechanisms of perioperative complications occurrence are submitted at thorax and abdominal interventions, including common data, cardiovascular complications, data about massive blood loss, condition of respiratory system, hemostasiologic complications; reasons of complications development are specified, consequences of inadequate anesthesia are named, mechanisms of perioperative complications development and consequence of a protein-power failure are considered
Møller, M H; Adamsen, S; Thomsen, R W
Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) remain substantial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal and multidisciplinary perioperative care protocol on mortality in patients with PPU.......Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) remain substantial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal and multidisciplinary perioperative care protocol on mortality in patients with PPU....
Lillemor Lindwall; Iréne von Post
Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how the basic concepts, human being, health, suffering, caring and culture appear in perioperative practice in order to obtain an understanding of the concepts in practice.Methods: A hermeneutic text interpretation of results from ten previous studies and reports from perioperative research meetings with co-researchers was conducted in order to gain an understanding ofthe concepts in practice.Results: The basic concepts were understood as; The human b...
Weingarten, Toby N; Hofer, Ryan E; Ahle, Barrett J; Kemp, Keri M; Nkwonta, Jacinta A; Narr, Bradly J; Pardanani, Animesh; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj
Patients with polycythemia vera (PV) have historically been considered to be at high risk for perioperative hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. However, no recent studies have compared these outcomes between treated PV patients and patients without PV undergoing similar procedures. Patients with PV who underwent surgery with anesthesia from June 1, 2006, to May 31, 2011, were randomly matched (sex, age, type of surgical procedure, surgical year) at a ratio of 1:4 with control patients without PV. Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for surgical duration, preoperative hemoglobin, platelet count, and cardiovascular disease was used to assess the association between PV and blood product transfusions, thromboembolism, and other major cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. Fifty-six PV patients who underwent 79 surgeries were matched with 312 controls. During hospitalization, 35 (44.3%) and 82 (25.9%) PV and control patients, respectively, were transfused with blood products. PV patients were at increased risk for transfusion intraoperatively (odds ratio [OR], 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-10.57; p = 0.001) and during hospitalization (OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.84-10.31; p < 0.001). The likelihood of thromboembolic complications and/or other major complications did not differ between the two study groups (thromboembolic-OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.39-6.02, p = 0.540; other major complications-OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.93-4.96, p = 0.073). Medically managed PV patients had an increased likelihood of receiving blood products perioperatively. Given the low number of observed thromboembolic events, we cannot make definitive conclusions regarding the association between PV and thromboembolism. © 2015 AABB.
Watterson, Colin; Beacher, Nicholas
Data sourcesCochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coagulopathies Trials Register, a regularly updated database informed by trials identified within electronic databases including MEDLINE. Further defined searches were undertaken in PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Additional hand searching of relevant journals and books of conference proceedings was undertaken.Study selectionRandomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in people of all ages with haemophilia or VWD undergoing oral or dental procedures using antiﬁbrinolytic agents (tranexamic acid (TXA) or epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA)) to prevent perioperative bleeding compared to no intervention with or without placebo.Data extraction and synthesisTwo authors independently assessed identified publications for inclusion based on defined selection criteria. The two authors performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments using standardised forms and the Cochrane risk of bias tools. A third author, deemed to have particular subject expertise, verified eligibility of inclusion.ResultsOne randomised, double-blinded placebo controlled trial and one quasi-randomised trial were included. A total of 59 participants with haemophilia undergoing dental extraction were involved. Both trials evidenced a notable reduction in post-operative bleeding following dental extraction when either TXA or EACA were used, in addition to routine preoperative factor replacement, when compared to placebo. The number of post-operative bleeds, amount of blood loss and the need for additional clotting factors were reduced in the groups receiving antifibrinolytic therapy. No eligible trials in people with VWD were identified.ConclusionsLow quality evidence exists to support the use of adjuvant antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce perioperative bleeding in patients with haemophilia undergoing dental extraction. The limited number of trials
Martins, Pamela Rafaela; Fonseca, Lígia Fahl; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini
Developing and validating a scale to assess perioperative thirst discomfort. A methodological research conducted in 2014 and 2015 at the surgical center of a public hospital in the north of Paraná, Brazil. The scale was developed after literature review, followed by face and content validation, and reliability assessment through its internal consistency and inter-observer equivalence. Seven items make up the scale: dry mouth; dry lips; thick tongue; thick saliva; dry throat, bad taste and desire to drink water. The content validity index for attributes and items was 0.98, and the reliability index was 1 for the scale attributes and items. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91 and inter-rater equivalence was 1, as measured by weighted kappa coefficient. ThePerioperative Thirst Discomfort Scaleshowed high content and reliability indexes. Elaborar e validar uma escala para avaliação do desconforto da sede perioperatória. Pesquisa metodológica realizada em 2014 e 2015, no centro cirúrgico de um hospital público do norte do Paraná. A escala foi elaborada após revisão bibliográfica, seguida de validação aparente e de conteúdo e avaliação da fidedignidade através de sua consistência interna e da equivalência inter observadores. Sete itens compuseram a escala: boca seca; lábios ressecados; língua grossa; saliva grossa; garganta seca; gosto ruim e vontade de beber água. O índice de validade de conteúdo para atributos e itens foi de 0,98, e o índice de fidedignidade foi de 1 para os atributos e itens da escala. A consistência interna avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91, e a equivalência interobservadores foi de 1, medida pelo coeficiente de kappa ponderado. A escala de desconforto da sede perioperatóriademonstrou altos índices de validade de conteúdo e fidedignidade.
the anxiety of major reconstructive surgery, a lengthy rehabilitation period, decreased ... repair, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital stay, .... or ICU. There were no perioperative deaths. Two patients (5%) had Strasberg type C injuries, 6 (14%) type E1 injuries, 33 (75%) type E2 injuries, 2 (5%) type E3 injuries.
Doi, Seiko; Iwai, Akiko; Mito, Saori; Utsumi, Tsukasa; Shinoki, Keiji; Nakashita, Chisako; Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Andshohei
Dysphagia is usually a major problem for the elderly to go home after a surgical treatment for the bone fracture of the thigh bone cervix or trochanter part in the leg. We analyzed each clinical course with regard to a change of the oral intake and the nutritional status, the activity of daily living(ADL)and a nutritional management and the place after the patient was discharged. According to our results, about 20% of the patients among those surgical cases were pointed with dysphagia, and there were many cases that ADL was ultimately gotten worse. We took care of disphagia by doing a best practice of changing in feedings and deglutition function. However, some of the patients with the problem finally moved to another elderly health care institute against their primary wishes to go home. Furthermore, 55% of the disphagia patients became dementia. It seems that dementia might be a high risk factor of disphagia. We should do more better job for managing disphargia during a peri-operative period just after admission.
Schuberth, John M; Patel, Sandeep; Zarutsky, Eugene
Although functional and clinical outcomes after total ankle arthroplasty have been promising, a steep learning curve has been recognized. In addition, the performance of concomitant hindfoot realignment procedures is controversial. The purpose of this study was to report on a single surgeon's experience with the first 50 total ankle arthroplasty procedures. We wanted to define the characteristics of the learning curve and whether the rate of complications was increased in patients who required complex reconstruction for preexistent foot and ankle deformities. This was a retrospective study of 50 cases with an average follow-up of 24.2 months. The patient population consisted of 18 men and 30 women with an average age of 57.6 years. Twenty-six percent of the cases had concomitant bony realignment procedures, while 20% had prior history of major hindfoot corrective procedures. There were 19 cases with intraoperative malleolar fractures, 12 cases that exhibited some degree of malalignment, and 6 cases of syndesmotic nonunion, and 8 ankles required early component revision. Minor wound complications that resolved with local wound care occurred in 9 cases, while 1 patient had a major wound complication requiring flap coverage. Each of these complications, other than wound complications, decreased with the surgeon's experience. Our results also indicate that the performance of major realignment procedures at the same time of implant arthroplasty is not associated with an increased incidence of complications. The results of this study suggest that total ankle arthroplasty is associated with a learning curve. Perioperative complications may potentially decrease with surgeon experience.
Blomberg, Ann-Catrin; Bisholt, Birgitta; Nilsson, Jan; Lindwall, Lillemor
The aim of this study was to describe operating theatre nurses' (OTNs') perceptions of caring in perioperative practice. A qualitative descriptive design was performed. Data were collected with interviews were carried out with fifteen strategically selected operating theatre nurses from different operating theatres in the middle of Sweden. A phenomenographic analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings show that operating theatre nurses' perceptions of caring in perioperative practice can be summarised in one main category: To follow the patient all the way. Two descriptive categories emerged: To ensure continuity of patient care and keeping a watchful eye. The operating theatre nurses got to know the patient and as a result became responsible for the patient. They protected the patient's body and preserved patient dignity in perioperative practice. The findings show different aspects of caring in perioperative practice. OTNs wanted to be more involved in patient care and follow the patient throughout the perioperative nursing process. Although OTNs have the ambition to make the care in perioperative practice visible, there is today a medical technical approach which promotes OTNs continuing to offer care in secret. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Park, Hyeong Min; Park, Sang-Jae; Shim, Jae Ryong; Lee, Eung Chang; Lee, Seung Duk; Han, Sung-Sik; Kim, Seoung Hoon
We designed the study to clarify the prognostic significance of perioperative (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary cancers.This study retrospectively analyzed 244 periampullary cancer patients (pancreatic cancer, 124 patients; bile duct cancer, 63 patients; and ampullary cancer, 57 patients) treated by PD from June 2001 to June 2010 at the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCC2017-0106).A total of 112 (46%) of 244 patients had received transfusion (preoperative, 5%; intraoperative, 17%; and postoperative, 37%). The 5-year survival rate of patients without perioperative transfusion was 36%, whereas that of patients with a transfusion was 25% (P = .04). Perioperative transfusion and intraoperative transfusion were found to be independent poor prognostic factors [relative risk (RR): 1.52 and 1.95, respectively]. The independent factors associated with perioperative transfusion were being female, operation time >420 minutes, portal vein (PV) resection, and preoperative serum hemoglobin (Hb) < 12 mg/dL. As the amount of perioperative transfusion increased, overall survival (OS) decreased.Perioperative transfusion, especially intraoperative transfusion was an independent prognostic factor for survival after PD. Therefore, for patients with periampullary cancer, intraoperative bleeding and operation time should be minimized and preoperative anemia corrected.
Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.
Charles E. Woodall
Full Text Available Background. Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is being practiced routinely with favorable results at many centers. We sought to determine if tumor histology is a powerful surrogate marker for perioperative morbidity. Methods. Seventy three consecutive patients managed operatively were reviewed from our prospectively maintained database. Results. Adenocarcinoma (AC was present in 52 (71% and squamous cell (SCC in 21 (29%. The use of neoadjuvant therapy was similar for the AC (34.62% and SCC (42.86% groups. The SCC group had a higher incidence of prior pulmonary disease than the AC group (23.8% versus 5.8%, resp.; =.03. SCC patients were more likely to have a prolonged ICU stay than AC patients (=.004 despite similar complication rates, EBL, and prognostic nutritional index. The SCC group did, however, experience higher grades of complications (=.0053. Conclusions. Presence of SCC was the single best predictor of prolonged ICU stay and more severe complications as defined by this study. Only a past history of pulmonary disease was different between the two histologic subgroups.
Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B
Surgeons are the physicians with the highest rates of documented disruptive behavior. We hypothesized that a unified conceptual model of disruptive surgeon behavior could be developed based on specific individual and system factors in the perioperative environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 operating room staff of diverse occupations at a single institution. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Participants described episodes of disruptive surgeon behavior, personality traits of perpetrators, environmental conditions of power, and situations when disruptive behavior was demonstrated. Verbal hostility and throwing or hitting objects were the most commonly described disruptive behaviors. Participants indicated that surgical training attracts and creates individuals with particular personality traits, including a sense of shame. Interviewees stated this behavior is tolerated because surgeons have unchecked power, have strong money-making capabilities for the institution, and tend to direct disruptive behavior toward the least powerful employees. The most frequent situational stressors were when something went wrong during an operation and working with unfamiliar team members. Each factor group (ie, situational stressors, cultural conditions, and personality factors) was viewed as being necessary, but none of them alone were sufficient to catalyze disruptive behavior events. Disruptive physician behavior has strong implications for the work environment and patient safety. This model can be used by hospitals to better conceptualize conditions that facilitate disruptive surgeon behavior and to establish programs to mitigate conduct that threatens patient safety and employee satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Onorati, Francesco; Renzulli, Attilio; De Feo, Marisa; Galdieri, Nicola; Santè, Pasquale; Mastroroberto, Pasquale; Bilotta, Massimo; Cotrufo, Maurizio
To assess whether routine postoperative enoximone infusion compared with dobutamine improved clinical and biochemical results after coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective nonrandomized study. Data collection was blinded to the choice of inotrope. Double-institutional clinical investigation. Two hundred sixteen consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization between May 2000 and December 2002. Seventy-two patients underwent myocardial revascularization and were treated with enoximone, 5 microg/kg/min (group A). They were compared in a ratio of 1:2 to 144 patients treated with dobutamine at the same dose (group B) after aortic cross-clamp removal. The groups proved to be homogenous in preoperative and intraoperative characteristics. Hospital outcome, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, further inotropic support, and biochemical markers of ischemia were compared. Subsets of patients with comorbidities and total arterial revascularization were analyzed. Perioperative myocardial infarction, postoperative low-output syndrome, intra-aortic balloon pump, atrial fibrillation, ST-segment changes, postoperative echocardiographic findings, and intensive care and hospital durations were similar between groups. In the postoperative course, more patients belonging to group A maintained low-dose inotropic support, whereas more patients belonging to group B required higher doses. Troponin I and creatine kinase-MB values were higher in patients of group B, especially when subgroups with diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, or total arterial revascularization were included. Postoperative enoximone reduced troponin I release and need for inotropic support in patients undergoing on-pump myocardial revascularization. Subgroup data were confirmed in diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and total arterial revascularization.
Bretschneider, C E; Bensen, Jeannette T; Geller, Elizabeth J; Gehrig, Paola A; Wu, Jennifer M; Doll, Kemi M
For women with gynecologic cancer, the impact of surgery on sexual interest and desire in the immediate and later postoperative period is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to report the perioperative trends of changing sexual interest and desire in a cohort of women undergoing surgery for suspected gynecologic malignancies. This is an ancillary analysis of a cohort study analyzing health-related outcomes in women who underwent primary surgical management of a suspected gynecologic malignancy between 10/2013 and 10/2014. Subjects completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sexual Function and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PROMIS-SFQ) preoperatively and questions on sexual interest and desire at one, three, and six months postoperatively. Bivariate tests and multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. Of 231 women who completed a baseline PROMIS-SFQ, 187 (81%) completed one-month, 170 (74%) three-month, and 174 (75%) six-month follow-up interviews. Following surgery, 71% of enrolled subjects were diagnosed with a malignancy. Women age women age >55 (-5.5±1.0 vs -2.3±0.9, p=0.02). In a multivariable analysis, age women of all ages (-5.6, 95% CI: -9.6, -1.5). This study provides new data regarding the timing and magnitude of changes in sexual interest following gynecologic oncology procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Competence to practise in the perioperative environment requires specialist knowledge (Gillespie and Hamlin, 2009). Newly qualified staff in this environment can experience difficulty in making the transition into practice (Stratton, 2011) and often feel overwhelmed by the skills required (Callaghan, 2010). Simulation-based learning techniques are increasingly used by practice educators specifically within these environments (Cato and Murray, 2010) to aid with acquisition of skills, emergency care delivery, general post-registration development and also as a standardised indicator of 'competence' (Bullock et al, 2008; Cato and Murray, 2010). This article will consider the impact of this educational strategy on the learner's lifelong development following registration, and its position in relation to the widely accepted learning paradigms of Benner's 'Novice to Expert' and Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs'. Through discussion of the nature of education in the practice setting, the reader will be prompted to reconsider the actual value of simulation-based learning in the post-registration arena and how this may be used to redefine simulation in the clinical setting.
Borsook, David; Kussman, Barry D.; George, Edward; Becerra, Lino R.; Burke, Dennis W.
Objective Nerve damage takes place during surgery. As a consequence, significant numbers (10–40%) of patients experience chronic neuropathic pain termed surgically induced neuropathic pain (SNPP). Background The initiating surgery and nerve damage set off a cascade of events that includes both pain and an inflammatory response, resulting in ‘peripheral’ and ‘central sensitization’, with the latter resulting from repeated barrages of neural activity from nociceptors. In affected patients these initial events produce chemical, structural and functional changes in the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous (CNS) systems. The maladaptive changes in damaged nerves lead to peripheral manifestations of the neuropathic state – allodynia, sensory loss, shooting pains etc., that can manifest long after the effects of the surgical injury have resolved. The CNS manifestations that occur are termed ‘centralization of pain’ and affect sensory, emotional and other (e.g., cognitive) systems as well as contributing to some of the manifestations of the chronic pain syndrome (e.g., depression). Conclusions Currently there are no objective measures of pain in the peri-operative period. As such intermittent pain or continuous may take place during and after surgery. New technologies including direct measures of specific brain function of nociception and new insights into preoperative evaluation of patients including genetic predisposition appear to provide initial opportunities for decreasing the burden of SNPP until treatments with high efficacy and low side effects that either prevent or treat pain are discovered. PMID:23059501
Zippel, Douglas; Markel, Gal; Shapira-Frommer, Roni; Ben-Betzalel, Guy; Goitein, David; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Nissan, Aviram; Schachter, Jacob; Schneebaum, Schlomo
Stage III malignant melanoma is a heterogeneous disease where those cases deemed marginally resectable or irresecatble are frequently incurable by surgery alone. Targeted therapy takes advantage of the high incidence of BRAF mutations in melanomas, most notably the V600E mutation. These agents have rarely been used in a neoadjuvant setting prior to surgery. Thirteen consecutive patients with confirmed BRAFV600E regionally advanced melanoma deemed marginally resectable or irrresectable, were treated with BRAF inhibiting agents, prior to undergoing surgery. The primary outcome measures were a successful resection and pathological response. Disease-free survival was a secondary outcome measure. Overall, 12/13 patients showed a marked clinical responsiveness to medical treatment, enabling a macroscopically successful resection in all cases. Four patients had a complete pathological response with no viable tumor evident in the resected specimens and eight patients showed evidence of minimally residual tumor with extensive tumoral necrosis and fibrosis. One patient progressed and died before surgery. At a median follow up of 20 months, 10 patients remain free of disease. Perioperative treatment with BRAF inhibiting agents in BRAFV600E mutated Stage III melanoma patients facilitates surgical resection and affords satisfactory disease free survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nayara de Castro Pereira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. METHOD Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. RESULTS The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000 and after the surgery (p=0.007, the length of hospital stay (p=0.000, blood transfusion (p=0.013, nasogastric tube (p=0.001 and nasojejunal tube (p=0,003, postoperative admission at ICU (p=0.002, postoperative death (p=0.000 and length of preoperative fasting (p=0.000. CONCLUSION The length of fasting is associated with complications that affect the quality of the patients’ postoperative recovery and nurses’ work. The nursing team should be alert to this aspect and being responsible for overseeing the patients’ interest, should not permit the unnecessary extension of fasting.
in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten
The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...
Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were
Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran
International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large......This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable......-scale mobilization of major bioenergy resources through five case studies that determine the factors critical to their sustainable mobilization....
in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths......Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...
ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....
Wallace, Arthur W; Au, Selwyn; Cason, Brian A
The Atenolol study of 1996 provided evidence that perioperative β-blockade reduced postsurgical mortality. In 1998, the indications for perioperative β-blockade were codified as the Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction protocol and implemented at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The current study tested the following hypothesis: Is there a difference in mortality rates between patients receiving perioperative atenolol and metoprolol? Epidemiologic analysis of the operations performed at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center since 1996 was performed. High-risk inpatients with perioperative β-blockade were divided into two groups: patients who received perioperative atenolol only and those who received metoprolol only. Patients who switched between the two chronic oral β-blocker medications were excluded. IV administration of β-blockers was ignored. Propensity matching analysis was used to correct for population differences in risk factors. There were 38,779 operations performed from 1996 to 2008, with 24,739 inpatient procedures. Based on analysis of inpatient medication use, 3,787 patients received atenolol only (1,011) or metoprolol only (2,776). Thirty-day mortality (atenolol 1% vs. metoprolol 3%, P < 0.0008) and 1-yr mortality (atenolol 7% vs. metoprolol 13%, P < 0.0001) differed between the two β-blockers. Analysis based on inpatient and outpatient β-blocker use showed a similar pattern. Propensity matching that corrected for multiple cardiac risk factors found an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1 [95% CI 1.5-2.9], P < 0.0001 for increased 1-yr mortality with metoprolol for inpatient use. Perioperative β-blockade using atenolol is associated with reduced mortality compared with metoprolol.
Murray, Meghan T; Corda, Rozelle; Turcotte, Rebecca; Bacha, Emile; Saiman, Lisa; Krishnamurthy, Ganga
A lack of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines for neonates undergoing cardiac surgery has resulted in a wide variation in practice. We sought to do the following: (1) Determine the safety of a perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis protocol for neonatal cardiac surgery as measured by surgical site infections (SSIs) rates before and after implementation of the protocol; and (2) evaluate compliance with selected process measures for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. This quasi-experimental study included all cardiac procedures performed on neonates from July 2009 to June 2012 at a single center. An interdisciplinary task force developed a standardized perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in the fourth quarter of 2010. The SSI rates were compared in the preintervention (July 2009 to December 2010) versus the postintervention periods (January 2011 to June 2012). Compliance with process measures (appropriate drug, dose, timing, and discontinuation of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis) was compared in the 2 periods. During the study period, 283 cardiac procedures were performed. The SSI rates were similar in the preintervention and postintervention periods (6.21 vs 5.80 per 100 procedures, respectively). Compliance with the 4 process measures significantly improved postintervention. Restricting the duration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis after neonatal cardiac surgery to 48 hours in neonates with a closed sternum and to 24 hours after sternal closure was safe and did not increase the rate of SSIs. Compliance with selected process measures improved in the postintervention period. Additional multicenter studies are needed to develop national guidelines for perioperative prophylaxis for this population. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.
Mahajan, Aman; Islam, Salim D; Schwartz, Michael J; Cannesson, Maxime
Many methods used to improve hospital and perioperative services productivity and quality of care have assumed that the hospital is essentially a factory, and therefore, that industrial engineering...
Lynn, Andrew; Brownie, Sonya
The aim of this study was to obtain Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistants' views about their emerging new role in contemporary nursing practice in Australia. Internationally advanced practice nursing has led to a range of specialist roles aimed at delivering higher quality, efficient nursing care. In 2005 an Australian university developed the Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistant graduate education and training program to provide nurses with an opportunity to gain advanced practice knowledge and extended skills specifically in the perioperative setting. This study was a qualitative research design that used online surveys and in-depth interviews to explore the issues and challenges associated with the introduction of the (currently non-accredited) Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistant role in Australia. Experienced Australia perioperative nurses who had undertaken graduate education and training in this field were recruited for this study. Data were collected between August and October 2011. An inductive thematic analysis was used to interpret the findings. Eighteen nurses completed the online survey and six were interviewed (n = 24). Nurses cited their commitment to professional development and the delivery of high quality patient care, along with surgeons' encouragement for them to complete specialist clinical training, as key reasons for undertaking Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistant education and training. The Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistant role led to greater job satisfaction and autonomy, and assisted nurses to better meet the needs of patients, surgeons and clinical perioperative teams. Without formal recognition of the Perioperative Nurse Surgeon's Assistant role its future in the Australian health care system is under threat.
Heideveld-Chevalking, Anita J; Calsbeek, Hiske; Damen, Johan; Gooszen, Hein; Wolff, André P
The reduction of perioperative harm is a major priority of in-hospital health care and the reporting of incidents and their causes is an important source of information to improve perioperative patient safety. We explored the number, nature and causes of voluntarily reported perioperative incidents in order to highlight the areas where further efforts are required to improve patient safety. Data from the Hospital Incident Management System (HIMS), entered in the period from July 2009 to July 2012, were analyzed in a Dutch university hospital. Employees in the perioperatve field filled out a semi-structured digital form of the reporting system. The risk classification of the reported adverse events and 'near misses' was based on the estimated patient consequences and the risk of recurrence, according to national guidelines. Predefined reported incident causes were categorized as human, organizational, technical and patient related. In total, 2,563 incidents (1,300 adverse events and 1,263 'near-miss' events) were reported during 67,360 operations. Reporters were anesthesia, operating room and recovery nurses (37%), ward nurses (31%), physicians (17%), administrative personnel (5%), others (6%) and unmentioned (3%). A total of 414 (16%) adverse events had patient consequences (which affected 0,6% of all surgery patients), estimated as catastrophic in 2, very serious in 34, serious in 105, and marginally serious in 273 cases. Shortcomings in communication was the most frequent reported type of incidents. Non-compliance with Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs: instructions, regulations, protocols and guidelines) was reported with 877 (34%) of incident reports. In total, 1,194 (27%) voluntarily reported causes were SOP-related, mainly human-based (79%) and partially organization-based (21%). SOP-related incidents were not associated with more patient consequences than other voluntarily reported incidents. Furthermore 'mistake or forgotten' (15%) and 'communication
Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J
Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two
To address global sustainability challenges, major investments are required in sustainable businesses that deliver triple bottom line results. Although interest in sustainable businesses is on the rise, these businesses are not yet widespread. Venture capital investment has a key role to play in the
Tolstrup, Rikke; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Lundbech, Liselotte; Thomassen, Niels; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild
In order to improve the surgical treatment of rectal cancer, robot-assisted laparoscopy has been introduced. The robot has gained widespread use; however, the scientific basis for treatment of rectal cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether robot-assisted laparoscopic rectal resection cause less perioperative pain than standard laparoscopic resection measured by the numerical rating scale (NRS score) as well as morphine consumption. Fifty-one patients were randomized to either laparoscopic or robot-assisted rectal resection at the Department of Surgery at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark. The intra-operative analgetic consumption was recorded prospectively and registered in patient records. Likewise all postoperative medicine administration including analgesia was recorded prospectively at the hospital medical charts. All morphine analogues were converted into equivalent oral morphine by a converter. Postoperative pain where measured by numeric rating scale (NRS) every hour at the postoperative care unit and three times a day at the ward. Opioid consumption during operation was significantly lower during robotic-assisted surgery than during laparoscopic surgery (p=0.0001). However, there were no differences in opioid consumption or NRS in the period of recovery. We found no differences in length of surgery between the two groups; however, ten patients from the laparoscopic group underwent conversion to open surgery compared to one from the robotic group (p=0.005). No significant difference between groups with respect to complications where found. In the present study, we found that patients who underwent rectal cancer resection by robotic technique needed less analgetics during surgery than patients operated laparoscopically. We did, however, not find any difference in postoperative pain score or morphine consumption postoperatively between the robotic and laparoscopic group.
Borenstein, Todd R; Anand, Kapil; Li, Quanlin; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is commonly pursued for patients with painful arthritis. Outpatient TAA are increasingly common and have been shown to decrease costs compared to inpatient surgery. However, there are very few studies examining the safety of outpatient TAA. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive patients who received outpatient TAA to identify complication rates. The medical records of 65 consecutive outpatient TAA from October 2012 to May 2016 with a minimum 6-month follow-up were reviewed. All patients received popliteal and saphenous blocks prior to surgery and were managed with oral pain medication postoperatively. All received a STAR total ankle. Demographics, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, and perioperative complications including wound breakdown, infection, revision, and nonrevision surgeries were observed. Mean follow-up was 16.6 ± 9.1 months (range, 6-42 months). There were no readmissions for pain control and 1 patient had a wound infection. The overall complication rate was 15.4%. One ankle (1.5%) had a wound breakdown requiring debridement and flap coverage. This patient thrombosed a popliteal artery stent 1 month postop. The 1 ankle (1.5%) with a wound infection occurred in a patient with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and rheumatoid arthritis. This study demonstrates the safety of outpatient TAA. The combination of regional anesthesia and oral narcotics provided a satisfactory experience with no readmissions for pain control and 1 wound infection. The 1 wound breakdown complication (1.5%) was attributed to arterial occlusion and not outpatient management. Level IV, retrospective case series.
Park, So-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Karm, Myong-Hwan
In the field of orofacial surgery, a red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) is occasionally required during double jaw and oral cancer surgery. However, the question remains whether the effect of RBCT during the perioperative period is beneficial or harmful. The answer to this question remains challenging. In the field of orofacial surgery, transfusion is performed for the purpose of oxygen transfer to hypoxic tissues and plasma volume expansion when there is bleeding. However, there are various risks, such as infectious complications (viral and bacterial), transfusion-related acute lung injury, ABO and non-ABO associated hemolytic transfusion reactions, febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease, transfusion associated circulatory overload, and hypersensitivity transfusion reaction including anaphylaxis and transfusion-related immune-modulation. Many studies and guidelines have suggested RBCT is considered when hemoglobin levels recorded are 7 g/dL for general patients and 8-9 g/dL for patients with cardiovascular disease or hemodynamically unstable patients. However, RBCT is occasionally an essential treatment during surgeries and it is often required in emergency cases. We need to comprehensively consider postoperative bleeding, different clinical situations, the level of intra- and postoperative patient monitoring, and various problems that may arise from a transfusion, in the perspective of patient safety. Since orofacial surgery has an especially high risk of bleeding due to the complex structures involved and the extensive vascular distribution, measures to prevent bleeding should be taken and the conditions for a transfusion should be optimized and appropriate in order to promote patient safety.
Bozkurt, Fatma; Kaya, Safak; Gulsun, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Deveci, Özcan; Dayan, Saim; Hoşoglu, Salih
In the light of international experience and guidelines and in order to improve the quality of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP), various hospitals have set up their own multidisciplinary healthcare teams and have evaluated the density of PAP through close supervision and interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare the density, quality, and cost of PAP before and after an intervention implemented at our hospital in order to increase the quality of PAP. PAP was monitored using a form prepared in line with the international guidelines, which was completed by the infection control nurse under the supervision of the infectious diseases specialist. In order to reduce the frequent errors in our PAP procedures, an intervention was implemented, and the period before this intervention (January-April 2011) was compared with the post-intervention period 1 year later (January-April 2012). The density of PAP was calculated according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) methodology. A total of 2398 patients received PAP during this period. The most frequently used antibiotic before and after the intervention was cefazolin. Its use further increased after the intervention (pDDD/100 procedures=3.1 DDD/procedure to 162.1 DDD/100 procedures=1.6 DDD/procedure. The quality of PAP may be improved through better compliance with healthcare guidelines, close supervision, and training activities. Also, surgical site infections and the cost of PAP may be reduced through more appropriate antibiotic use, thus contributing to the national healthcare budget. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gin, Greg E; Ruel, Nora H; Kardos, Steven V; Sfakianos, John P; Uchio, Edward; Lau, Clayton S; Yuh, Bertram E
Evidence for the use of perioperative chemotherapy (PC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is largely derived from level I evidence for invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). There has been an increase in PC for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, as it has disseminated into clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to not only analyze trends in the utilization of PC in UTUC, but also assess factors associated with its use in a large cancer registry database. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with UTUC who underwent extirpative surgery from 2004 to 2013. Predictors of receiving PC were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Temporal trends in the utilization of PC were also analyzed using a general analysis of variance linear model. From 2004 to 2013, there was significant increase in PC for UTUC from 9.6% to 13.8% (P = 0.0003). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased from 0.7% to 2.1% (P = 0.0018), whereas adjuvant chemotherapy remained relatively stable at 11.3%. Significant predictors of receiving PC on multivariate analysis were private insurance, ureter as the primary site, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated grade, lymphovascular invasion, positive margins, clinical T3 or T4 disease, nodal metastasis, and reporting from an academic research program. Patients who were≥70 years old,>50 miles to treatment center, had tumor in the kidney, or had an increased Charlson-Deyo Score were significantly less likely to receive PC. Over the time period studied, there has been an increase in the use of PC, primarily from increased administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Its use is mostly associated with advanced pathologic characteristics. The study also highlights key demographic and socioeconomic differences that can help identify barriers to receiving PC and aid in making improvements in delivery of health care to patients with UTUC. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Whittemore, Kenneth R; Dornan, Briana K; Dargie, Jenna M; Zhou, Guangwei
Obtaining hearing thresholds is an important step in the evaluation of a child with otitis media because decreased hearing in the presence of a chronic middle ear effusion factors into the decision to place tympanostomy tubes (TTs). To provide evidence regarding appropriate use of perioperative hearing evaluations in conjunction with TTs. Case series with medical record review of all patients aged 0 to 24 years who received TTs at a tertiary pediatric care facility from June 1, 2010, through June 1, 2011. Medical records were abstracted by 1 researcher for surgical, audiometric, tympanometric, clinical, and patient demographic data. The data analysis was performed between December 1, 2014, and June 1, 2015. Audiometric data were examined to determine the number of patients with hearing loss preoperatively and postoperatively, with the intention to describe the population with no prior hypothesis regarding results. Of 2274 patients identified, 910 (40.0%) were female. Median (interquartile range) age at TT placement was 2.62 (1.48-4.94) years. A total of 1757 (77.3%) underwent audiometric evaluation preoperatively, 1742 (76.6%) postoperatively, and 1395 (61.3%) both preoperatively and postoperatively; 170 (7.5%) had no audiometric testing. Within 1 year after surgery, 271 (11.9%) of patients had evidence of nonfunctional tubes. Postoperatively, 19.9% (347 of the 1742 patients who received a postoperative evaluation) had hearing loss. In all, 89 (3.9%) patients had a permanent sensorineural hearing loss, and 15 (0.66%) had a persistent conductive hearing loss. A postoperative audiometric examination should be performed in children who have hearing loss when evaluated before TT placement to determine whether resolution of the hearing loss was obtained.
Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...
Sahlmann, Bianca; Meinders, Antje; Larmann, Jan; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Aper, Thomas; Rustum, Saad; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Theilmeier, Gregor; Teebken, Omke E.
Objective Precise perioperative risk stratification is important in vascular surgery patients who are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) peri- and postoperatively. In clinical practice, the patient’s perioperative risk is predicted by various indicators, e.g. revised cardiac index (RCRI) or modifications thereof. Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) are stratified into a higher risk category. We hypothesized that Copeptin as a novel biomarker for hemodynamic stress could help to improve the prediction of perioperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing vascular surgery including patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods 477 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal aortic, peripheral arterial or carotid surgery from June 2007 to October 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Primary endpoint was 30-day postoperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Results 41 patients reached the primary endpoint, including 63.4% aortic, 26.8% carotid, and 9.8% peripheral surgeries. Linear regression analysis showed that RCRI (PCopeptin (PCopeptin level change (P= .001) were associated with perioperative MACE, but CKD remained independently associated with MACE and Copeptin levels. Multivariate regression showed that increased Copeptin levels added risk predictive information to the RCRI (P= .003). Especially in the intermediate RCRI categories was Copeptin significantly associated with the occurrence of MACE. (PCopeptin was significantly associated with CKD stages (PCopeptin measurements could not predict MACE in patients with more severe CKD stages. Conclusion Preoperative Copeptin loses its risk predictive potential for perioperative MACE in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing vascular surgery. PMID:25875814
Berlin, Ana; Kunac, Anastasia; Mosenthal, Anne C
Patients with postoperative complications are often subjected to prolonged life-sustaining treatment based on erroneous assumptions about their goals of care. Shared decision making (SDM) is an evidence-based approach that helps ensure patients' wishes and values are honored in their course of treatment. Perioperative palliative care can help create goal-concordant trajectories of care for high risk, seriously ill, or complicated patients, through sophisticated prognostication, higher-level communication, and recommendations based on the best available evidence and patients' stated goals and priorities. Here, we present a surgeon-to-surgeon consultative model that surmounts many barriers to perioperative palliative care consultation and, as illustrated in the cases presented herein, offers profound and unique benefits for patients, families, and surgeons alike. While the support of a surgical colleague with palliative care skills can be helpful postoperatively in the setting of unanticipated outcomes or prolonged recovery, it is particularly beneficial when accessed preoperatively for the purposes of goal-concordant decision making and advance care planning. We encourage both individuals and professional societies to develop and expand the niche for surgeons interested in assisting with goal setting and SDM for patients on a consultative basis, particularly in the preoperative period.
Suliman L. Kh. M.
Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.
Hunt, R; Hoffman, C M; Emani, S; Trenor, C C; Emani, S M; Faraoni, D; Kimchi-Sarfaty, C; Ibla, J C
Essentials Perioperative thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital heart disease. Neonates and infants undergoing repair of congenital heart lesions were prospectively followed. Elevated von Willebrand factor (VWF) to ADAMTS-13 activity ratios typified the postoperative period. Thrombosis was associated with preoperative VWF activity and cryoprecipitate transfusion SUMMARY: Background The surgical repair of congenital heart malformations is frequently complicated by perioperative thrombosis of unclear etiology. An imbalance between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and ADAMTS-13 is an emerging variable in thrombosis. Objectives To describe perioperative changes to VWF, ADAMTS-13 and NETosis, and evaluate clinical and biochemical associations with postoperative thrombosis. Methods Neonates and infants undergoing palliation or definitive surgical repair of congenital heart malformations were recruited (n = 133). Preoperative and postoperative plasma levels of VWF, ADAMTS-13 and markers of NETosis were determined. Patients were followed for up to 30 days for the occurrence of thrombosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables associated with thrombosis. Results We identified significant postoperative increases in VWF activity, VWF level, DNA-histone complexes and cell-free DNA with an overall decrease in ADAMTS-13 activity. Patients experiencing postoperative thrombotic events (9%) were characterized by surgery performed at a lower intraoperative temperature, higher preoperative lactic acid levels, and higher preoperative VWF activity and level. A multivariate logistic regression model identified preoperative VWF activity (odds ratio (OR) 8.39 per IU mL-1 , 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-40.55) and transfusion of cryoprecipitate (OR 1.10 per mL kg-1 , 95% CI 1.03-1.17) as being associated with thrombosis. Conclusions Pediatric patients undergoing surgical repair of congenital
Breuer, J-P; Langelotz, C; Paquet, P; Weimann, A; Schwenk, W; Bosse, G; Spies, C; Bauer, H
Insufficient nutrition in surgical patients increases perioperative morbidity, mortality, length of stay and therapy costs. Therefore, guidelines declare the integration of nutrition into the overall management as one of the key aspects of perioperative care. This study was conducted to evaluate the current clinical practice of clinical nutrition in surgical departments in Germany. In 2009 German Surgical Society (DGCH) members in leading positions were surveyed with a standardised online questionnaire concerning their perioperative nutritional routines in elective surgery. From the addressed physicians n = 156 (6.24 %) answered. Of those, 86.9 % consider the nutritional status of their patients. Only 6 % use standardised nutritional screening tools. Short preoperative fasting for solid and liquid food is practiced by 65 % and 40 %, respectively. After the operation, 65 % allow intake of clear fluids on the day of surgery and 78 % initiate solid food on the day of surgery or the first postoperative day. Oral nutritional supplements are given only "sometimes" or "rarely" by 53.9 % of the respondents. The low response rate may imply the dilemma that the evidence-based benefit of perioperative nutrition does not meet sufficient interest. Even in case of a positive selection of "pro-nutrition respondents", standardised preoperative malnutrition screening is also rare. Aspects such as shorter perioperative fasting are already practiced more progressively. However, still greater efforts are needed to promote guideline-based clinical nutrition in surgical care in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hawkes Eliza A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is often advocated in patients with resectable pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC. Our study aims to evaluate peri-operative chemotherapy in patients with metastastic CRC undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods Patients treated for CRC who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy by a single surgeon were identified. Outcome measures included survival, peri-operative complications, radiological and histological evidence of chemotherapy-induced lung toxicities. Results Between 1997 and 2009, 51 eligible patients were identified undergoing a total of 72 pulmonary resections. Thirty-eight patients received peri-operative chemotherapy, of whom 9 received an additional biological agent. Five-year overall survival rate was 72% in the whole cohort - 74% and 68% in those who received peri-operative chemotherapy (CS and those who underwent surgery alone (S respectively. Five-year relapse free survival rate was 31% in the whole cohort - 38% and ≤18% in CS and S groups respectively. Only 8% had disease progression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There were no post-operative deaths. Surgical complications occurred in only 4% of patients who received pre-operative chemotherapy. There was neither radiological nor histological evidence of lung toxicity in resected surgical specimens. Conclusions Peri-operative chemotherapy can be safely delivered to CRC patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Survival in this selected group of patients was favourable.
Seijger, Chris; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; van Tatenhove, J.; Otter, Henriëtte
Although the central challenges of sustainable development are well-known, sustainability science has been slow in contributing to effective and feasible solutions for sustainable development. Turning knowledge into action for sustainable development therefore remains a major challenge for
Seijger, C.; Dewulf, G.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Otter, H.S.
Although the central challenges of sustainable development are well-known, sustainability science has been slow in contributing to effective and feasible solutions for sustainable development. Turning knowledge into action for sustainable development therefore remains a major challenge for
Pirages, D.C. [Maryland Univ., Dep. of Government and Politics, Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda, College Park, MD (United States)
The automobile and associated mobility system have had a major economic and ecological impact on human societies. The industrial revolution, during which the internal combustion engine has played a major role, has shaped secular, materialistic societies and associated consumption patterns that cannot be sustained in a future world of eight billion people. Creating a more sustainable world means maximizing human satisfaction while minimizing human impact on nature. Becoming more sustainable is best envisioned as a continuing process in which constraints and possibilities change over time and space. The sustainable process raises major controversies including how to define and measure progress, how to apportion wealth among generations, and between free trade and environmental preservation. Sustainable mobility implies major changes in approaches to transportation including stressing psychological rather than physical mobility, designing speciality vehicles for emerging niches, and placing special emphasis on mass transit systems for emerging megacities. (author) 17 refs.
Mehta, Jaideep H; Cattano, Davide; Brayanov, Jordan B; George, Edward E
Monitoring the adequacy of spontaneous breathing is a major patient safety concern in the post-operative setting. Monitoring is particularly important for obese patients, who are at a higher risk for post-surgical respiratory complications and often have increased metabolic demand due to excess weight. Here we used a novel, noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) to monitor ventilation in both obese and non-obese orthopedic patients throughout their perioperative course, in order to develop better monitoring strategies. We collected respiratory data from 62 orthopedic patients undergoing elective joint replacement surgery under general anesthesia using a bio-impedance based RVM with an electrode PadSet placed on the thorax. Patients were stratified into obese (BMI ≥ 30) and non-obese cohorts and minute ventilation (MV) at various perioperative time points was compared against each patient's predicted minute ventilation (MVPRED) based on ideal body weight (IBW) and body surface area (BSA). The distributions of MV measurements were also compared across obese and non-obese cohorts. Obese patients had higher MV than the non-obese patients before, during, and after surgery. Measured MV of obese patients was significantly higher than their MVPRED from IBW formulas, with BSA-based MVPRED being a closer estimate. Obese patients also had greater variability in MV post-operatively when treated with standard opioid dosing. Our study demonstrated that obese patients have greater variability in ventilation post-operatively when treated with standard opioid doses, and despite overall higher ventilation, many of them are still at risk for hypoventilation. BSA-based MVPRED formulas may be more appropriate than IBW-based ones when estimating the respiratory demand of obese patients. The RVM allows for the continuous and non-invasive assessment of respiratory function in both obese and non-obese patients.