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Sample records for sustained major molecular

  1. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  2. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia chromos...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....

  3. MAJOR ISSUES IN BRINGING ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainability is now fast approaching half a century of dedicated work. Although there have been significant breakthroughs, sustainability and its corollary, sustainable development, have proven a tough nut to crack. In our paper, we have started from some fundamental questions, which have yet to be answered and analyzed the implications that stem from these questions. Going past the problem of weakly quantifiable concepts in the definition, a very important issue is that of individual and community preferences. Specifically, these are all short to mid-term lived, while some sustainability problems, particularly those relating to the environment require a significantly longer time period. Another implication is that, given our limited resources, sustainable development would require a careful balance between investments among the three pillars of sustainability, and not follow a maximization policy. Lastly, we conclude that basing our sustainability policies on premises of linear evolution is a dangerous undertaking.

  4. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede Paul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are questions that should be answered in the light of molecular biology and evolution, but with the application of biophysical, physico-chemical, analytical and preparative technologies. As the Section Editor for the molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal, I hope to receive manuscripts that present new approaches aimed at better answering and shedding light upon these fascinating questions related to the chemistry of livings cells.

  5. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world’s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. Objective: In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Conclusion: Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology. PMID:28553577

  6. A Sustainable Energy Laboratory Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable…

  7. Molecular detection and characterization of sustainable intracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre for Biopolymer and Bio-Molecular Research, Athlone College of Technology, Republic of Ireland. ... cells was associated with the elongation of micro-villar extension that ... Keywords: Intracellular contaminants, cell cultures, bacteria culture, pre-clinical studies. ... production work involving culture technology.

  8. Sustainable Digital Environments: What Major Challenges Is Humankind Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of

  9. Molecular connectivity disruptions in males with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajapillai Li; Zhang, Mengru; Yang, Jie; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Parsey, Ramin V; DeLorenzo, Christine

    2018-01-01

    In most positron emission tomography (PET) molecular brain imaging studies, regions of interest have been defined anatomically and examined in isolation. However, by defining regions based on physiology and examining relationships between them, we may derive more sensitive measures of receptor abnormalities in conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD). Using an average of 52 normalized binding potential maps, acquired using radiotracer [ 11 C]-WAY100635 and full arterial input analysis, we identified two molecular volumes of interest (VOIs) with contiguously high serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A ) binding sites: the olfactory sulcus (OLFS) and a band of tissue including piriform, olfactory, and entorhinal cortex (PRF). We applied these VOIs to a separate cohort of 25 healthy control males and 16 males with MDD who received [ 11 C]-WAY100635 imaging. Patients with MDD had significantly higher binding than controls in both VOIs, ( p molecular connectivity, i.e. the correlation between binding of raphe nucleus (RN) 5-HT 1A autoreceptors and post-synaptic receptors in molecular VOIs. Molecular connectivity was significant in healthy controls ( p molecular connectivity allowed identification of MDD cases with high sensitivity (81%) and specificity (88%).

  10. Major ecosystems in China: dynamics and challenges for sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Wei, Wei; Yu, Xiubo; Sun, Ranhao

    2011-07-01

    Ecosystems, though impacted by global environmental change, can also contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of such large scale changes. Therefore, sustainable ecosystem management is crucial in reaching a sustainable future for the biosphere. Based on the published literature and publicly accessible data, this paper discussed the status and trends of forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems in China that play important roles in the ecological integrity and human welfare of the nation. Ecological degradation has been observed in these ecosystems at various levels and geographic locations. Biophysical (e.g., climate change) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., intensive human use) are the main reasons for ecosystem degradation with the latter factors serving as the dominant driving forces. The three broad categories of ecosystems in China have partially recovered from degradation thanks to large scale ecological restoration projects implemented in the last few decades. China, as the largest and most populated developing nation, still faces huge challenges regarding ecosystem management in a changing and globalizing world. To further improve ecosystem management in China, four recommendations were proposed, including: (1) advance ecosystem management towards an application-oriented, multidisciplinary science; (2) establish a well-functioning national ecological monitoring and data sharing mechanism; (3) develop impact and effectiveness assessment approaches for policies, plans, and ecological restoration projects; and (4) promote legal and institutional innovations to balance the intrinsic needs of ecological and socioeconomic systems. Any change in China's ecosystem management approach towards a more sustainable one will benefit the whole world. Therefore, international collaborations on ecological and environmental issues need to be expanded.

  11. Molecular Genotype Identification of Different Chickens: Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.

  12. Green Chemistry and Sustainability: An Undergraduate Course for Science and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…

  13. Incorporating Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment into First-Year Inorganic Chemistry Major Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Marta; Paul, Jared J.; Roeder, Margaret H.

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the scientific community concerns itself with ideas of a sustainable future, very little of this interest and motivation has reached the classroom experience of the average chemistry major, and therefore, it is imperative to expose students to these ideas early in their careers. The focus of most undergraduate chemistry curricula…

  14. Investigating the Molecular Basis of Major Depressive Disorder Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Korf, Jaalp; Ormel, Johan; Kema, Ido P.; den Boer, Johan A.; Kvetnansky, R; Aguilera, G; Goldstein, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O; Sabban, EL; Pacak, K

    2008-01-01

    Genes play a major role in behavioral adaptation to challenging environmental stimuli, but the complexity of their contribution remains unclear. There is growing evidence linking disease phenotypes with genes on the one hand, and the genesis of stress-related disorders like major depression, as a

  15. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reviewing and Updating the Major Molecular Markers for Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Raquel; Cordero, Elvira Alicia Aparicio; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells (SC) are able to self-renew and to differentiate into many types of committed cells, making SCs interesting for cellular therapy. However, the pool of SCs in vivo and in vitro consists of a mix of cells at several stages of differentiation, making it difficult to obtain a homogeneous population of SCs for research. Therefore, it is important to isolate and characterize unambiguous molecular markers that can be applied to SCs. Here, we review classical and new candidate molecular markers that have been established to show a molecular profile for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The commonly cited markers for embryonic ESCs are Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, Rex-1, Dnmt3b, Lin-28, Tdgf1, FoxD3, Tert, Utf-1, Gal, Cx43, Gdf3, Gtcm1, Terf1, Terf2, Lefty A, and Lefty B. MSCs are primarily identified by the expression of CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and HLA-ABC and lack CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD62E, CD62L, CD62P, and HLA-DR expression. HSCs are mainly isolated based on the expression of CD34, but the combination of this marker with CD133 and CD90, together with a lack of CD38 and other lineage markers, provides the most homogeneous pool of SCs. Here, we present new and alternative markers for SCs, along with microRNA profiles, for these cells. PMID:23336433

  17. Molecular identification and population dynamics of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult female mosquito vectors were collected from three villages in a typical rain forest area of Nigeria where no information exists on the major malaria vectors associated with human malaria. Sampling was carried out between January 2004 and January 2005 using pyrethrum and Human landing catch (HLC) techniques.

  18. Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandal, Michael J; Haney, Jillian R; Parikshak, Neelroop N

    2018-01-01

    -based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation...

  19. The inflammatory cytokines: molecular biomarkers for major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlotte; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Powell, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are pleotropic cell signaling proteins that, in addition to their role as inflammatory mediators, also affect neurotransmitter systems, brain functionality and mood. Here we explore the potential utility of cytokine biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Specifically, we explore how genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic information relating to the cytokines might act as biomarkers, aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment selection processes. We advise future studies to investigate whether cytokine biomarkers might differentiate major depressive disorder patients from other patient groups with overlapping clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we invite future pharmacogenetic studies to investigate whether early antidepressant-induced changes to cytokine mRNA or protein levels precede behavioral changes and act as longer-term predictors of clinical antidepressant response.

  20. Molecular evolution of the major chemosensory gene families in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gracia, A; Vieira, F G; Rozas, J

    2009-09-01

    Chemoreception is a crucial biological process that is essential for the survival of animals. In insects, olfaction allows the organism to recognise volatile cues that allow the detection of food, predators and mates, whereas the sense of taste commonly allows the discrimination of soluble stimulants that elicit feeding behaviours and can also initiate innate sexual and reproductive responses. The most important proteins involved in the recognition of chemical cues comprise moderately sized multigene families. These families include odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which are involved in peripheral olfactory processing, and the chemoreceptor superfamily formed by the olfactory receptor (OR) and gustatory receptor (GR) families. Here, we review some recent evolutionary genomic studies of chemosensory gene families using the data from fully sequenced insect genomes, especially from the 12 newly available Drosophila genomes. Overall, the results clearly support the birth-and-death model as the major mechanism of evolution in these gene families. Namely, new members arise by tandem gene duplication, progressively diverge in sequence and function, and can eventually be lost from the genome by a deletion or pseudogenisation event. Adaptive changes fostered by environmental shifts are also observed in the evolution of chemosensory families in insects and likely involve reproductive, ecological or behavioural traits. Consequently, the current size of these gene families is mainly a result of random gene gain and loss events. This dynamic process may represent a major source of genetic variation, providing opportunities for FUTURE specific adaptations.

  1. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  2. Measuring post-secondary stem majors' engagement in sustainability: The creation, assessment, and validation of an instrument for sustainability curricula evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David L., II

    Ongoing changes in values, pedagogy, and curriculum concerning sustainability education necessitate that strong curricular elements are identified in sustainability education. However, quantitative research in sustainability education is largely undeveloped or relies on outdated instruments. In part, this is because no widespread quantitative instrument for measuring related educational outcomes has been developed for the field, though their development is pivotal for future efforts in sustainability education related to STEM majors. This research study details the creation, evaluation, and validation of an instrument -- the STEM Sustainability Engagement Instrument (STEMSEI) -- designed to measure sustainability engagement in post-secondary STEM majors. The study was conducted in three phases, using qualitative methods in phase 1, a concurrent mixed methods design in phase 2, and a sequential mixed methods design in phase 3. The STEMSEI was able to successfully predict statistically significant differences in the sample (n= 1017) that were predicted by prior research in environmental education. The STEMSEI also revealed statistically significant differences between STEM majors' sustainability engagement with a large effect size (.203 ≤ eta2 ≤ .211). As hypothesized, statistically significant differences were found on the environmental scales across gender and present religion. With respect to gender, self-perceived measures of emotional engagement with environmental sustainability was higher with females while males had higher measures in cognitive engagement with respect to knowing information related to environmental sustainability. With respect to present religion, self-perceived measures of general engagement and emotional engagement in environmental sustainability were higher for non-Christians as compared to Christians. On the economic scales, statistically significant differences were found across gender. Specifically, measures of males' self

  3. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  4. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  5. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Yuan, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaotian; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Wang, Chenchen; Cao, Xianghui; Li, Qifeng; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, Simon; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-08-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on coastal ecosystems was carried out in this study. Coasts of the Eastern Atlantic and Western Pacific were hotspots of concentrations of several pollutants, and mostly affected by warming climate. These hotspots shared the same features of large populations, heavy industry and (semi-) closed sea. Estimation of coastal ocean capital, integrated management of land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone, enhancement of integrated global observation system, and coastal ecosystem-based management can play effective roles in promoting sustainable management of coastal marine ecosystems. Enhanced management from the perspective of mitigating pollution and climate change was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Improving the actinides recycling in closed fuel cycles, a major step towards nuclear energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Grandjean, S.; Masson, M.; Bouillis, B.; Warin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the sustainability of nuclear energy is a longstanding road that requires a stepwise approach to successively tackle the following 3 objectives. First of all, optimize the consumption of natural resource to preserve them for future generations and hence guarantee the energetic independence of the countries (no uranium ore is needed anymore). The current twice-through cycle of Pu implemented by France, UK, Japan and soon China is a first step in this direction and already allows the development and optimization of the relevant industrial processes. It also allows a major improvement regarding the conditioning of the ultimate waste in a durable and robust nuclear glass. Secondly, the recycling of americium could be an interesting option for the future with the deployment of FR fleet to save the repository resource and optimize its use by allowing a denser disposal. It would limit the burden towards the future generations and the need for additional repositories before several centuries. Thirdly, the recycling of the whole minor actinides inventory could be an interesting option for the far-future for strongly decreasing the waste long-term toxicity, down to a few centuries. It would bring the waste issue back within the human history, which should promote its acceptance by the social opinion

  8. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  9. Sustainability as a Priority at Major U.S. Department of Energy’s Defense Sites: Surrounding Population Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Greenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is rapidly becoming a widely accepted and desired attitude, as well as a stimulus for both environmentally-conscious individuals and firm behavior. However, does the public interest in sustainability also extend to large U.S. federal agencies? Does the public care about on-site sustainability programs? To answer this question, we surveyed 922 people who live within 50 miles of one of four U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE major facilities: Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Only 14% expressed no interest in DOE’s on-site sustainability efforts. Five percent said that they were interested enough to join a local community group to provide feedback to the DOE; 49% were interested and wanted more information, as well as interaction with the DOE’s site-specific advisory boards or local elected officials. Compared to other DOE on-site activities, respondents rated sustainability as “somewhat important”. Native Americans who live near a site, are familiar with it and self-identify as interested in environmental protection disproportionately belong to the “most interested” category. We conclude that public interest is sufficient to merit outreach by DOE to involve interested and knowledgeable local residents in on-site sustainability plans.

  10. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Zalcberg Renault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging.

  11. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Scholl, Vanesa; Hassan, Rocio; Capelleti, Paola; de Lima, Marcos; Cortes, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging. PMID:23049363

  12. A Framework for Teaching Social and Environmental Sustainability to Undergraduate Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumagim, Alan L.; Cann, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors outline an undergraduate exercise to help students more fully understand the environmental and social justice aspects of business sustainability activities. A simple hierarchical framework, based on Maslow's (1943) work, was utilized to help the students understand, analyze, and judge the vast amount of corporate sustainability…

  13. Practices and Exploration on Competition of Molecular Biological Detection Technology among Students in Food Quality and Safety Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…

  14. Dating the Time of Origin of Major Clades: Molecular Clocks and the Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B.; Peterson, Kevin J.

    Molecular and paleontological data provide independent means of estimating when groups of organisms evolved in the geological past, but neither approach can be considered straightforward. The single most fundamental obstacle to developing an accurate estimate of times of origination from gene sequence data is variation in rates of molecular evolution, both through time and among lineages. Although various techniques have been proposed to circumvent this problem, none unambiguously allow the components of time and rate to be separated. Furthermore, problems of establishing accurate calibration points, correctly rooted phylogenies, and accurate estimates of branch length remain formidable. Conversely, paleontological dates fix only the latest possible time of divergence, and so probabilistic methods are required to set a lower boundary on origination dates. Realistic confidence intervals that take preservational biases into account are only just becoming available. Although molecular and paleontological approaches to dating often agree reasonably well, there are two notable areas of disagreement; when mammal and bird orders originated and when the major phyla originated. The discrepancy in dating bird/mammal ordinal origins probably reflects a global rock-record bias. Paleontological sampling in the Late Cretaceous is still too restricted geographically to draw any firm conclusions about the existence of a pre-Tertiary record for modern orders of bird or mammal from anywhere other than North America. Dating the time of origin of phyla is more complicated, and is confounded by both preservational biases and problems of molecular clock estimation.

  15. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of Cuc m 2, a Major Allergen in Cucumis melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins.

  16. Costs, Benefits and Challenges of Sustainable Livestock Intensification in a Major Deforestation Frontier in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenise Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive livestock production is a major deforestation driver in the Brazilian Amazon. This study presents an assessment of the economic and environmental feasibility of sustainable livestock intensification in São Félix do Xingu municipality, a deforestation frontier with an area of more than 8.5 million hectares, and home to the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Proposed intensification was limited to approximately three animal units per hectare to avoid negative environmental impacts. Transition costs to sustainable cattle intensification were estimated for thirteen pilot farms taking into account adoption of good agriculture practices, pasture maintenance/restoration, and restoration of environmental liabilities. To move to sustainable intensification practices, a mean total annual investment of US$1335/ha ± US$619/ha would be necessary, varying from US$750 to US$2595/ha. Internal rate of return and net present value estimates indicated that the sustainable livestock intensification approach proposed was profitable in farms with more than 400 hectares of pastureland, but not in those where the pasture areas were smaller than 150 hectares. Livestock sustainable intensification also had the potential to promote social and environmental benefits, including a 54% increase in the number of contract workers, improvement of landowners’ managerial skills, and workers’ training, in addition to avoiding emission of 1.9 Mt CO2eq and sequestration of 0.36 Mt CO2eq. We conclude that the sustainable intensification of pasture areas has the potential to prevent further deforestation in the Amazon while generating social and other environmental benefits.

  17. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-01-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances

  18. MAJOR EVENTS IN THE ARAB ORDER: THE DECLINE OF SUSTAINABILITY AND THE TRANSITION TO ECONOMIC RESILIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA IOANA OPREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab world particularities are not solely the ones derived from natural wealth (oil and gas, but are also driven from historical particularities which mark this region, together with specific Islamic politics and economic organizational framework, with deep roots in religious concepts. In a global context, where the rules from the West are the ones leading globalization, the Arab World brings its contribution, even though the Islamic space defines a different socio-economic concept. In the East lies a series of features that place the Arab world in a different plan than the one shown frequently in the discussions about world order, with geopolitical but also economic implications. Conflicts in this region lead to declining sustainable development and trigger the need to strengthen the economic resilience. As the least peaceful region of the contemporary world, Arab World integrated the concept of economic resilience, in order to recover from shocks and continue further development.

  19. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Yuan, J.; Lu, X.; Su, Chao; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Cao, X.; Li, Q.; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, S.R.; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-01-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients,

  20. Practices and exploration on competition of molecular biological detection technology among students in food quality and safety major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-07-08

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  2. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-01

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  3. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  4. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, S; Metzner, K; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    1997-06-01

    A high percentage of birch pollen allergic patients experiences food hypersensitivity reactions after ingestion of several fruits and vegetables. Previous work demonstrated common epitopes on an allergen of Mr 18,000 from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and Bet v 1, the major allergen from birch pollen. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed a sequence identity of 67% with Bet v 1. Here we report the cloning and cDNA sequencing of this cherry allergen. The entire deduced amino acid sequence described a protein of Mr 17,700 with 59.1% identity to Bet v 1. High degrees of identity in the range of 40 to 60% were also found with related allergens from other kinds of tree pollen and plant foods as well as with stress-induced proteins from food plants such as parsley, potato and soya. The coding DNA of the cherry protein was cloned into vector pET-16b and expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) as a His-tag fusion protein. As shown by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular masses of the nonfusion protein and the natural allergen were identical. The fusion protein showed high IgE binding potency when sera from patients allergic to cherry were tested by immunoblotting and enzyme allergosorbent tests. Moreover, it cross-reacted strongly with IgE specific for the natural counterpart and for Bet v 1. The high biological activity of the recombinant fusion protein was further confirmed by the induction of a strong histamine release in basophils from cherry-allergic patients. Since sera from 17/19 of such patients contained IgE against this allergen it was classified as a major allergen and named Pru a 1. Recombinant Pru a 1 mimics most of the allergenic potency of cherry extract and hence could be a useful tool for studying the molecular and immunological properties of pollen related food allergens.

  6. A comparison of functional outcome in patients sustaining major trauma: a multicentre, prospective, international study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H Rainer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. RESULTS: 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17, and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12. Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: -1.2, 3.6 and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: -0.4, 95% CI: -3.2, 2.4 compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: -2.1, 2.8 or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: -0.8, 4.5. CONCLUSION: The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions.

  7. A Comparison of Functional Outcome in Patients Sustaining Major Trauma: A Multicentre, Prospective, International Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Timothy H.; Yeung, Hiu Hung; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Yuen, Kai Y.; Ho, Hiu F.; Kam, Chak W.; Chang, Annice; Poon, Wai S.; Cameron, Peter A.; Graham, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. Summary Background Data Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR). Methods Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12) health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17), and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12). Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: −1.2, 3.6) and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: −0.4, 95% CI: −3.2, 2.4) compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: −2.1, 2.8) or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: −0.8, 4.5). Conclusion The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions. PMID:25157522

  8. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  9. Low molecular mass chitosan as carrier for hydrodynamically balanced system for sustained delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    VERMA, ANURAG; BANSAL, ASHOK K.; GHOSH, AMITAVA; PANDIT, JAYANTA K.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan has become a focus of major interest in recent years due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Although this material has already been extensively investigated in the design of different types of drug delivery systems, it is still little explored for stomach specific drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of low molecular mass chitosan (LMCH) as carrier for a hydrodynamically balanced system (HBS)...

  10. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  11. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Getz, Wayne M

    2011-05-18

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA), DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli). We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN

  12. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getz Wayne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. Results We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli. We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN dS. However, the most likely evolutionary codon models allowed for variable rates of selection across codon sites at both loci and, at the DQA, supported the hypothesis of positive selection acting on specific sites. Conclusions Observations of elevated genetic diversity and trans-species polymorphisms supported the conclusion that balancing selection may be acting on these loci. Furthermore, at the DQA, positive selection was

  13. Molecular cloning of human protein 4.2: A major component of the erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, L.A.; Chien, Shu; Lambert, K.; Chang, Longsheng; Bliss, S.A.; Bouhassira, E.E.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S.; Rybicki, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Protein 4.2 (P4.2) comprises ∼5% of the protein mass of human erythrocyte (RBC) membranes. Anemia occurs in patients with RBCs deficient in P4.2, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining RBC stability and integrity. The authors now report the molecular cloning and characterization of human RBC P4.2 cDNAs. By immunoscreening a human reticulocyte cDNA library and by using the polymerase chain reaction, two cDNA sequences of 2.4 and 2.5 kilobases (kb) were obtained. These cDNAs differ only by a 90-base-air insert in the longer isoform located three codons downstream from the putative initiation site. The 2.4- and 2.5-kb cDNAs predict proteins of ∼77 and ∼80 kDa, respectively, and the authenticity was confirmed by sequence identity with 46 amino acids of three cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides of P4.2. Northern blot analysis detected a major 2.4-kb RNA species in reticulocytes. Isolation of two P4.2 cDNAs implies existence of specific regulation of P4.2 expression in human RBCs. Human RBC P4.2 has significant homology with human factor XIII subunit a and guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Sequence alignment of P4.2 with these two transglutaminases, however, revealed that P4.2 lacks the critical cysteine residue required for the enzymatic crosslinking of substrates

  14. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Adaptation to environmental temperature is a major determinant of molecular evolutionary rates in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussin, Mathieu; Gouy, Manolo

    2011-09-01

    Methods to infer the ancestral conditions of life are commonly based on geological and paleontological analyses. Recently, several studies used genome sequences to gain information about past ecological conditions taking advantage of the property that the G+C and amino acid contents of bacterial and archaeal ribosomal DNA genes and proteins, respectively, are strongly influenced by the environmental temperature. The adaptation to optimal growth temperature (OGT) since the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) over the universal tree of life was examined, and it was concluded that LUCA was likely to have been a mesophilic organism and that a parallel adaptation to high temperature occurred independently along the two lineages leading to the ancestors of Bacteria on one side and of Archaea and Eukarya on the other side. Here, we focus on Archaea to gain a precise view of the adaptation to OGT over time in this domain. It has been often proposed on the basis of indirect evidence that the last archaeal common ancestor was a hyperthermophilic organism. Moreover, many results showed the influence of environmental temperature on the evolutionary dynamics of archaeal genomes: Thermophilic organisms generally display lower evolutionary rates than mesophiles. However, to our knowledge, no study tried to explain the differences of evolutionary rates for the entire archaeal domain and to investigate the evolution of substitution rates over time. A comprehensive archaeal phylogeny and a non homogeneous model of the molecular evolutionary process allowed us to estimate ancestral base and amino acid compositions and OGTs at each internal node of the archaeal phylogenetic tree. The last archaeal common ancestor is predicted to have been hyperthermophilic and adaptations to cooler environments can be observed for extant mesophilic species. Furthermore, mesophilic species present both long branches and high variation of nucleotide and amino acid compositions since the last archaeal

  16. Comparative molecular cytogenetics of major repetitive sequence families of three Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Rabeya; Alam, Sheikh Shamimul; Menzel, Gerhard; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Dendrobium species show tremendous morphological diversity and have broad geographical distribution. As repetitive sequence analysis is a useful tool to investigate the evolution of chromosomes and genomes, the aim of the present study was the characterization of repetitive sequences from Dendrobium moschatum for comparative molecular and cytogenetic studies in the related species Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium aggregatum and representatives from other orchid genera. Methods In order to isolate highly repetitive sequences, a c0t-1 DNA plasmid library was established. Repeats were sequenced and used as probes for Southern hybridization. Sequence divergence was analysed using bioinformatic tools. Repetitive sequences were localized along orchid chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Key Results Characterization of the c0t-1 library resulted in the detection of repetitive sequences including the (GA)n dinucleotide DmoO11, numerous Arabidopsis-like telomeric repeats and the highly amplified dispersed repeat DmoF14. The DmoF14 repeat is conserved in six Dendrobium species but diversified in representative species of three other orchid genera. FISH analyses showed the genome-wide distribution of DmoF14 in D. moschatum, D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum. Hybridization with the telomeric repeats demonstrated Arabidopsis-like telomeres at the chromosome ends of Dendrobium species. However, FISH using the telomeric probe revealed two pairs of chromosomes with strong intercalary signals in D. aphyllum. FISH showed the terminal position of 5S and 18S–5·8S–25S rRNA genes and a characteristic number of rDNA sites in the three Dendrobium species. Conclusions The repeated sequences isolated from D. moschatum c0t-1 DNA constitute major DNA families of the D. moschatum, D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum genomes with DmoF14 representing an ancient component of orchid genomes. Large intercalary telomere-like arrays suggest chromosomal

  17. Effects of low-dose IV ketamine on peripheral and central pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polomano, Rosemary C; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kwon, Kyung H; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Rupprecht, Christine; Goldberg, Cynthia; Gallagher, Rollin M

    2013-07-01

    Examine response patterns to low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine continuous infusions on multiple pain outcomes, and demonstrate effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of ketamine administration on general wards. Retrospective case series of consecutive patients given low-dose IV ketamine continuous infusions. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Nineteen eligible inpatients with neuropathic pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat with inadequate pain control from multimodal analgesia. A 3-day IV infusion of ketamine at doses ≤ 120 μg/kg/h. Daily present (PPI), average (API), and worst (WPI) pain intensity (0-10), global pain relief (GPR) (1 "no relief" to 5 "complete relief"), daily assessments of adverse events, and daily opioid requirements measured during therapy. A significant reduction in PPI (P pain (PLP) (N = 10; P = 0.0436) were observed. Mean percent increase in overall GPR was better for those reporting GPR scores ≤ 3 (N = 13) in the first 24 hours of therapy (P = 0.0153). While not significant, mean opioid requirement (IV morphine equivalents) decreased from 129.9 mgs ± 137.3 on day 1 to 112.14 ± 86.3 24 hours after therapy. Low-dose ketamine infusions for complex combat injury pain were safe and effective, and demonstrated response patterns over time and by baseline pain score stratification and presence or absence of PLP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers : major artifacts due to truncating electrostatic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patra, M.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Falck, E.; Lindqvist, P.; Vattulainen, I.

    2003-01-01

    We study the influence of truncating the electrostatic interactions in a fully hydrated pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer through 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations. The computations in which the electrostatic interactions were truncated are compared to similar simulations using

  19. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  20. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  1. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500380901; GA MŠk(CZ) LG12021 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION * LARGE-SCALE ORGANIZATION * RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  2. Assessment of quality of life and functional outcome in patients sustaining moderate and major trauma: a multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, T H; Yeung, J H H; Cheung, S K C; Yuen, Y K Y; Poon, W S; Ho, H F; Kam, C W; Cattermole, G N; Chang, A; So, F L; Graham, C A

    2014-05-01

    Trauma care systems aim to reduce both death and disability, yet there is little data on post-trauma health status and functional outcome. To evaluate baseline, discharge, six month and 12 month post-trauma quality of life, functional outcome and predictors of quality of life in Hong Kong. Multicentre, prospective cohort study using data from the trauma registries of three regional trauma centres in Hong Kong. Trauma patients with an ISS≥9 and aged≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were the physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Short-Form 36 (SF36) for health status, and the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) for functional outcome. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 September 2010, 400 patients (mean age 53.3 years; range 18-106; 69.5% male) were recruited to the study. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between responders (N=177) and surviving non-responders (N=163). However, there were significant differences between these groups and the group of patients who died (N=60). Only 16/400 (4%) cases reported a GOSE≥7. 62/400 (15.5%) responders reached the HK population norm for PCS. 125/400 (31%) responders reached the HK population norm for MCS. If non-responders had similar outcomes to responders, then the percentages for GOSE≥7 would rise from 4% to 8%, for PCS from 15.5% to 30%, and for MCS from 31% to 60%. Univariate analysis showed that 12-month poor quality of life was significantly associated with age>65 years (OR 4.77), male gender (OR 0.44), pre-injury health problems (OR 2.30), admission to ICU (OR 2.15), ISS score 26-40 (OR 3.72), baseline PCS (OR 0.89), one-month PCS (OR 0.89), one-month MCS (OR 0.97), 6-month PCS (OR 0.76) and 6-month MCS (OR 0.97). For patients sustaining moderate or major trauma in Hong Kong at 12 months after injury<1 in 10 patients had an excellent recovery, ≤3 in 10 reached a physical health status score

  3. Bioinformatic Integration of Molecular Networks and Major Pathways Involved in Mice Cochlear and Vestibular Supporting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Teresa; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2018-01-01

    Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear.org/index.html) and obtained gene expression fold-change between ENHCs and non-epithelial cells (NECs) against HCs for each gene. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) with a log2 fold change between 1 and -1 were discarded. The remaining genes were selected to search for interactions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING platform. Specific molecular networks for ENHCs in the cochlea and the vestibular organs were generated and significant pathways were identified. Results : Between 1723 and 1559 DEG were found in the mouse cochlear and vestibular tissues, respectively. Six main pathways showed enrichment in the supporting cells in both tissues: (1) "Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteases"; (2) "Calcium Transport I"; (3) "Calcium Signaling"; (4) "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling"; (5) "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases"; and (6) "Axonal Guidance Si". In the mouse cochlea, ENHCs showed a significant enrichment in 18 pathways highlighting "axonal guidance signaling (AGS)" ( p = 4.37 × 10 -8 ) and "RhoGDI Signaling" ( p = 3.31 × 10 -8 ). In the vestibular dataset, there were 20 enriched pathways in ENHCs, the most significant being "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling" ( p = 8.71 × 10 -6 ), "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ) and "Calcium Signaling" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ). Among the top ranked networks, the most biologically significant network contained the

  4. Facts and Fiction: The Impact of Hypothermia on Molecular Mechanisms following Major Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous multiple trauma and surgical patients suffer from accidental hypothermia. While induced hypothermia is commonly used in elective cardiac surgery due to its protective effects, accidental hypothermia is associated with increased posttraumatic complications and even mortality in severely injured patients. This paper focuses on protective molecular mechanisms of hypothermia on apoptosis and the posttraumatic immune response. Although information regarding severe trauma is limited, there is evidence that induced hypothermia may have beneficial effects on the posttraumatic immune response as well as apoptosis in animal studies and certain clinical situations. However, more profound knowledge of mechanisms is necessary before randomized clinical trials in trauma patients can be initiated.

  5. First molecular detection of Leishmania major within naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi from a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K; Fakoorziba, M R; Jalali, M; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2012-03-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major notifiable public health problem in many parts of Iran. It is often caused by the zooflagellate parasite Leishmania major which is mainly transmitted by the bites of female phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). The annual incidence of CL in Fars province, southern Iran, was about 108-144 in 2007. The leishmanial infections of wild sandflies that may act as vectors were thus investigated at an endemic focus in this province. In all 330 female Phlebotomus sandflies were screened for the detection of Leishmania-specific kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A two stage nested PCR protocol was used to establish the identity of Leishmania major species in naturally infected sandflies. The L. major kDNA was detected in 18 (5.5%) individual sandflies which belonged to four different Phlebotomus species (Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus salehi, Phlebotomus sergenti and P. major group). For the first time, one naturally infected P. salehi specimen contained the kDNA of the protozoan parasite, L. major, with a main band of 560 base pairs identified using the nested PCR method. It seems most likely therefore that P. salehi is potentially a rare sylvatic vector of L. major parasites in parts of this province. This is the first combined morphological and molecular studies of P. salehi in Iran.

  6. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  7. Mitochondrial molecular clocks and the origin of the major Otocephalan clades (Pisces: Teleostei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    The Otocephala, a clade including ostariophysan and clupeomorph teleosts, represents about a quarter of total fish species diversity, with about 1000 genera and more than 7000 species. A series of recent papers have defended that the origin of this clade and of its major groups may be significantly...... otophysans could have originated before the splitting of the Pangean supercontinent is of extreme importance, since otophysan fishes are among the most useful animal groups for the determination of historical continental relationships. In the present work we examined divergence times for each major...... otocephalan group by an analysis of complete mtDNA sequences, in order to investigate if these divergence times support the hypotheses advanced in recent studies. The complete mtDNA sequences of nine representative non-otocephalan fish species and of twenty-one representative otocephalan species was compared...

  8. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; López-Blanch, Laura; Burguera, Demian; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Irimia, Manuel; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice.

  9. Escitalopram—translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Brian; Taylor, David

    2010-01-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents. PMID:20147575

  10. Escitalopram--translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Brian

    2010-08-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents.

  11. Molecular detection of Leishmania infection due to Leishmania major and Leishmania turanica in the vectors and reservoir host in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azani, Sadegh Mohammadi; Abaie, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina; Mohebai, Mehdi; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zeinali, Mohammad kazem

    2011-02-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out on the vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural areas of Damghan district, Semnan province, central Iran, during 2008-2009. Totally, 6110 sand flies were collected using sticky papers and were subjected to molecular methods for detection of Leishmania parasite. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli was the common species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Polymerase chain reaction technique showed that 24 out of 218 P. papatasi (11%) and 4 out of 62 Phlebotomus caucasicus Marzinovskyi (6.5%) were positive for parasites Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor. Twenty-one rodent reservoir hosts captured using Sherman traps were identified as Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein (95%) and Meriones libycus Lichtenstein (5%). Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animals for amastigote parasites revealed 8 (40%) rodents infected with R. opimus. L. major infection in these animals was then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction against internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci of the parasite followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Further, sequence analysis of 297 bp of ITS1-rDNA loci revealed the presence of L. major and Leishmania turanica in P. papatasi, and L. major in R. opimus. This is the first molecular report of L. major infection in both vectors (P. papatasi and P. caucasicus) and reservoir host (R. opimus) in this region. The results indicated that P. papatas was the primary vector of the disease and circulating the parasite between human and reservoirs, and P. caucasicus could be considered as a secondary vector. Further, our study showed that R. opimus is the most important host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area.

  12. Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago V; Salzano, Francisco M; Mostowska, Adrianna; Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Chies, José A B; Saavedra, Carmen; Nagamachi, Cleusa; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Silva-Júnior, Wilson A; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira

    2006-04-11

    Large differences in relation to dental size, number, and morphology among and within modern human populations and between modern humans and other primate species have been observed. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control, but, the genetic basis of primate tooth variation remains unknown. The PAX9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice, which mainly involves the posterior teeth. To determine whether this gene is polymorphic in humans, we sequenced approximately 2.1 kb of the entire four-exon region (exons 1, 2, 3 and 4; 1,026 bp) and exon-intron (1.1 kb) boundaries of 86 individuals sampled from Asian, European, and Native American populations. We provided evidence that human PAX9 polymorphisms are limited to exon 3 only and furnished details about the distribution of a mutation there in 350 Polish subjects. To investigate the pattern of selective pressure on exon 3, we sequenced ortholog regions of this exon in four species of New World monkeys and one gorilla. In addition, orthologous sequences of PAX9 available in public databases were also analyzed. Although several differences were identified between humans and other species, our findings support the view that strong purifying selection is acting on PAX9. New World and Old World primate lineages may, however, have different degrees of restriction for changes in this DNA region.

  13. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  14. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  15. Three commitments governments should take on to make Sustainable Development Goals the drivers of a major transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voituriez, Tancrede

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the outcome document of the Rio+20 conference, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) mandated an Open Working Group (OWG) to propose a set of sustainable development goals (SDGs), for final adoption at the end of the 68. Session of the UN General Assembly in September 2015. 'The transformation potential of the SDG package is so great that many of the countries involved in the negotiations may not even fully comprehend the possible magnitude, which may be similar to that of the industrial or digital revolutions,' the OWG vice chair reckons. This brief explores tangible options for propelling this transformation. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  17. Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in Five Patients with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Aluri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID characterized by the deficiency of MHC class II molecules. This deficiency affects the cellular and humoral immune response by impairing the development of CD4+ T helper (Th cells and Th cell-dependent antibody production by B cells. Affected children typically present with severe respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients. This is the first report from India wherein we describe the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in five patients with MHC class II deficiency. Our patients presented with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection as the most common clinical presentation within their first year of life and had a complete absence of human leukocyte antigen-antigen D-related (HLA-DR expression on B cells and monocytes. Molecular characterization revealed novel mutations in RFAXP, RFX5, and CIITA genes. Despite genetic heterogeneity, these patients were clinically indistinguishable. Two patients underwent HSCT but had a poor survival outcome. Detectable level of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs were measured in our patients, highlighting that this form of PID may be missed by TREC-based newborn screening program for severe combined immunodeficiency.

  18. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida de Lucio

    Full Text Available The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country.In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and β-giardin (BG genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed.Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%, AII (15.3%, BIII (4.0%, AI (0.8%, and AIII (0.8%. Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys

  19. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  20. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  1. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  3. Molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel major Japanese cedar pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Aki, Tsunehiro; Shimada, Yayoi; Rikimaru, Satoshi; Onishi, Nobukazu; Babiker, Elfadil Elfadl; Oiso, Isao; Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal pollinosis in Japan. Protease activity in the pollen grains may trigger pro-allergic responses but no such proteases have yet been identified as pollen allergens. We report the molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel C. japonica pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family. We focused on the C. japonica pollen allergen spot No. 63 (CPA63, 47.5% IgE binding frequency) on our 2-dimensional IgE immunoblot map. The internal amino acid sequences were determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Full-length cpa63 cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Recombinant CPA63 (r-CPA63) was expressed using the baculovirus-insect cell culture system and its IgE binding capacity was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteolytic activity of r-CPA63 was also assessed using a putative mature enzyme produced upon autolysis. cpa63 cDNA encoded a 472 amino acid polypeptide showing about 40% sequence identity to members of the plant atypical aspartic protease family. ELISA showed that r-CPA63 was recognized by IgE antibodies in the serum of 58% (18/31) of Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. We also demonstrated an aspartic protease-like enzyme activity of the putative mature r-CPA63. We have identified the first plant aspartic protease allergen from Japanese cedar pollen. The availability of the CPA63 sequence and its recombinant allergen production system are useful not only for pharmaceutical applications but also for further examination of the role of protease activity in the pathogenesis of cedar pollinosis. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Molecular Tools for Monitoring the Ecological Sustainability of a Stone Bio-Consolidation Treatment at the Royal Chapel, Granada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Jroundi

    Full Text Available Biomineralization processes have recently been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain. While this promising method has demonstrated its efficacy regarding strengthening of the stone, little is known about its ecological sustainability.Here, we report molecular monitoring of the stone-autochthonous microbiota before and at 5, 12 and 30 months after the bio-consolidation treatment (medium/long-term monitoring, employing the well-known molecular strategy of DGGE analyses. Before the bio-consolidation treatment, the bacterial diversity showed the exclusive dominance of Actinobacteria (100%, which decreased in the community (44.2% after 5 months, and Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24% and Chloroflexi (25.56% appeared. After 12 months, Gamma-proteobacteria vanished from the community and Cyanobacteria (22.1% appeared and remained dominant after thirty months, when the microbiota consisted of Actinobacteria (42.2% and Cyanobacteria (57.8% only. Fungal diversity showed that the Ascomycota phylum was dominant before treatment (100%, while, after five months, Basidiomycota (6.38% appeared on the stone, and vanished again after twelve months. Thirty months after the treatment, the fungal population started to stabilize and Ascomycota dominated on the stone (83.33% once again. Members of green algae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae appeared on the stone at 5, 12 and 30 months after the treatment and accounted for 4.25%, 84.77% and 16.77%, respectively.The results clearly show that, although a temporary shift in the bacterial and fungal diversity was observed during the first five months, most probably promoted by the application of the bio-consolidation treatment, the microbiota tends to regain its initial stability in a few months. Thus, the treatment does not seem to have any negative side effects on the stone-autochthonous microbiota over that time. The molecular strategy employed here is suggested

  6. Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2014-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species.

  7. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meleady, Paula

    2011-07-24

    Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp) over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis) and LC-MS\\/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3) that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  8. Dynamic Contraction of the Positive Column of a Self-Sustained Glow Discharge in Molecular Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Contraction of the gas discharge, when current contracts from a significant volume of weakly ionized plasma into a thin arc channel, was attracted attention of scientists for more than a century. Studies of the contraction (also called constriction) mechanisms, besides carrying interesting science, are of practical importance, especially when contraction should be prevented. A set of time-dependent two-dimensional equations for the non-equilibrium weakly-ionized nitrogen/ air plasma is formulated. The process is described by a set of time-dependent continuity equations for the electrons, positive and negative ions; gas and vibrational temperature; by taking into account the convective heat and plasma losses by the transverse flux. Transition from the uniform to contracted state was analyzed. It was shown that such transition experiences a hysteresis, and that the critical current of the transition increases when the pressure (gas density) drops. Possible coexistence of the contracted and uniform state of the plasma in the discharge where the current flows along the density gradient of the background gas was discussed. In this talk the problems related to the dynamic contraction of the current channel inside a quasineutral positive column of a self-sustained glow discharge in molecular gas in a rectangular duct with convection cooling will be discussed. Study presented in this talk was stimulated by the fact that there are large number of experiments on the dynamic contraction of a glow discharge in nitrogen and air flows and a many of possible applications. Similar processes play a role in the powerful gas-discharge lasers. In addition, the problem of dynamic contraction in the large volume of non-equilibrium weakly ionized plasma is closely related to the problem of streamer to leader transitions in lightning and blue jets.

  9. Low Molecular Weight Glucosamine/L-lactide Copolymers as Potential Carriers for the Development of a Sustained Rifampicin Release System: Mycobacterium Smegmatis as a Tuberculosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Jorge Alejandro

    Tuberculosis, a highly contagious disease, ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease, and remains a major global health problem. In 2013, 9 million new cases were diagnosed and 1.5 million people died worldwide from tuberculosis. This dissertation aims at developing a new, ultrafine particle-based efficient antibiotic delivery system for the treatment of tuberculosis. The carrier material to make the rifampicin (RIF)-loaded particles is a low molecular weight star-shaped polymer produced from glucosamine (molecular core building unit) and L-lactide (GluN-LLA). Stable particles with a very high 50% drug loading capacity were made via electrohydrodynamic atomization. Prolonged release (>14 days) of RIF from these particles is demonstrated. Drug release data fits the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, which suggests the occurrence of a modified diffusion-controlled RIF release mechanism, and is also supported by differential scanning calorimetry and drug leaching tests. Cytotoxicity tests on Mycobacterium smegmatis showed that antibiotic-free GluN-LLA and polylactides (PLA) (reference material) particles did not show any significant anti-bacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values obtained for RIF-loaded particles showed 2- to 4-fold improvements in the anti-bacterial activity relative to the free drug. Cytotoxicity tests on macrophages indicated an increment in cell death as particle dose increased, but was not significantly affected by material type or particle size. Confocal microscopy was used to track internalization and localization of particles in the macrophages. GluN-LLA particles led to higher uptakes than the PLA particles. In addition, after phagocytosis, the GluN-LLA particles stayed in the cytoplasm and the particles showed a favorable long term drug release effect in killing intracellular bacteria compared to free RIF. The studies presented and discussed in this dissertation

  10. Two Years after Molecular Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Majority on Cholesterol-Lowering Treatment but a Minority Reaches Treatment Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Roeland; Kindt, Iris; Verhoeven, Sjoerd B. J.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Vissers, Maud N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hutten, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of premature cardiovascular disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be profoundly reduced by cholesterol-lowering therapy, and current guidelines for FH advocate ambitious low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. In the present study, we determined whether these goals are reflected in current clinical practice once FH has been diagnosed. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2008, we sent questionnaires to all subjects (aged 18–65 years) who were molecularly diagnosed with FH in the year 2006 through the screening program in the Netherlands. Of these 1062 subjects, 781 completed the questionnaire (46% males; mean age: 42±12 years; mean LDL-C at molecular diagnosis (baseline): 4.1±1.3 mmol/L). The number of persons that used cholesterol-lowering therapy increased from 397 (51%) at baseline to 636 (81%) after diagnosis. Mean treated LDL-C levels decreased significantly to 3.2±1.1 mmol/L two years after diagnosis. Only 22% achieved the LDL-C target level of ≤2.5 mmol/L. Conclusions/Significance The proportion of patients using cholesterol-lowering medication was significantly increased after FH diagnosis through genetic cascade screening. The attained LDL-C levels were lower than those reported in previous surveys on medication use in FH, which could reflect the effect of more stringent lipid target levels. However, only a minority of the medication users reached the LDL-C target. PMID:20169164

  11. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  12. Major bleeding risks of different low-molecular-weight heparin agents: a cohort study in 12 934 patients treated for acute venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, N; Biedermann, J S; van der Meer, F J M; Cannegieter, S C; Wiersma, N; Vermaas, H W; Reitsma, P H; Kruip, M J H A; Lijfering, W M

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Low-molecular-weight-heparins (LMWH) kinetics differ which may result in different bleeding risks. A cohort of 12 934 venous thrombosis patients on LMWH was followed until major bleeding. The absolute major bleeding risk was low among patients registered at the anticoagulation clinic. Once-daily dosing was associated with a lower bleeding risk as compared with twice-daily. Background Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are considered members of a class of drugs with similar anticoagulant properties. However, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between LMWHs differ, which may result in different bleeding risks. As these agents are used by many patients, small differences may lead to a large effect on numbers of major bleeding events. Objectives To determine major bleeding risks for different LMWH agents and dosing schedules. Methods A cohort of acute venous thrombosis patients from four anticoagulation clinics who used an LMWH and a vitamin K antagonist were followed until they ceased LMWH treatment or until major bleeding. Exposures were classified according to different types of LMWHs and for b.i.d. and o.d. use. Cumulative incidences for major bleeding per 1000 patients and risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for study center. Results The study comprised 12 934 patients with a mean age of 59 years; 6218 (48%) were men. The cumulative incidence of major bleeding was 2.5 per 1000 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.5). Enoxaparin b.i.d. or o.d. was associated with a relative bleeding risk of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.2-17.5) compared with nadroparin o.d. In addition, a nadroparin b.i.d. dosing schedule was associated with a 2.0-fold increased major bleeding risk (95% CI, 0.8-5.1) as compared with a nadroparin o.d. dosing schedule. Conclusions Absolute major bleeding rates were low for all LMWH agents and dosing schedules in a large unselected cohort. Nevertheless, twice-daily dosing with nadroparin appeared to be associated with an increased

  13. Frontiers for research on the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria: fundamentals for sustainability: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Barny, Marie-Anne; Berge, Odile; Kinkel, Linda L; Lacroix, Christelle

    2017-02-01

    Methods to ensure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. However, in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant-pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only climate, but also biodiversity, the geographical distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes. Hence, knowledge of the ecology of plant pathogens will play an increasingly important role in the anticipation and response to disease emergence. Here, we present our opinion on the major challenges facing the study of the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria. We argue that the discovery of markedly novel insights into the ecology of plant-pathogenic bacteria is most likely to happen within a framework of more extensive scales of space, time and biotic interactions than those that currently guide much of the research on these bacteria. This will set a context that is more propitious for the discovery of unsuspected drivers of the survival and diversification of plant-pathogenic bacteria and of the factors most critical for disease emergence, and will set the foundation for new approaches to the sustainable management of plant health. We describe the contextual background of, justification for and specific research questions with regard to the following challenges: Development of terminology to describe plant-bacterial relationships in terms of bacterial fitness. Definition of the full scope of the environments in which plant-pathogenic bacteria reside or survive. Delineation of pertinent phylogenetic contours of plant-pathogenic bacteria and naming of strains

  14. An overview of the molecular and epidemiological features of HIV-1 infection in two major cities of Bahia state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Amanda Gm; Oliveira, Isabele B; Carneiro, Diego C; Alcantara, Luiz Cj; Monteiro-Cunha, Joana P

    2017-06-01

    The high mutation rate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has created a public health challenge because the use of antiretroviral drugs can generate selective pressure that drives resistance in these viruses. The aim of this work was to characterise the molecular and epidemiological profile of HIV in Bahia, Brazil. DNA sequences from regions of HIV gag, pol, and env genes were obtained from previous studies performed in this area between 2002 and 2012. Their genotype and drug-resistance mutations were identified using bioinformatics tools. Clinical and epidemiological data were analysed. Among 263 individuals (46.4% male), 97.5% were asymptomatic and 49.1% were receiving treatment. Most of the individuals were 31 to 40 years old (36.9%) and infected through heterosexual contact (40.7%). The predominant genotype was B (68.1%) followed by BF recombinants (18.6%). Among the individuals infected with either F or BF genotypes, 68.4% were women and 76.8% were infected through heterosexual transmission. The prevalence of associated mutations conferring antiretroviral resistance was 14.2%, with 3.8% of all mutations conferring resistance to protease inhibitors, 9.43% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 8.5% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Drug resistance was higher in individuals receiving treatment (26.1%) than in the drug-naïve (4.3%) individuals. This study will contribute to the understanding and monitoring of HIV epidemic in this Brazilian region.

  15. Genome-Wide Transcription and Functional Analyses Reveal Heterogeneous Molecular Mechanisms Driving Pyrethroids Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Mulamba, Charles; Djouaka, Rousseau; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Murielle J; Ishak, Intan H; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-06-07

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vector, An. funestus is increasingly reported across Africa, threatening the sustainability of pyrethroid-based control interventions, including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Managing this problem requires understanding of the molecular basis of the resistance from different regions of the continent, to establish whether it is being driven by a single or independent selective events. Here, using a genome-wide transcription profiling of pyrethroid resistant populations from southern (Malawi), East (Uganda), and West Africa (Benin), we investigated the molecular basis of resistance, revealing strong differences between the different African regions. The duplicated cytochrome P450 genes ( CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b ) which were highly overexpressed in southern Africa are not the most upregulated in other regions, where other genes are more overexpressed, including GSTe2 in West (Benin) and CYP9K1 in East (Uganda). The lack of directional selection on both CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in Uganda in contrast to southern Africa further supports the limited role of these genes outside southern Africa. However, other genes such as the P450 CYP9J11 are commonly overexpressed in all countries across Africa. Here, CYP9J11 is functionally characterized and shown to confer resistance to pyrethroids and moderate cross-resistance to carbamates (bendiocarb). The consistent overexpression of GSTe2 in Benin is coupled with a role of allelic variation at this gene as GAL4-UAS transgenic expression in Drosophila flies showed that the resistant 119F allele is highly efficient in conferring both DDT and permethrin resistance than the L119. The heterogeneity in the molecular basis of resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides in An. funestus populations throughout sub-Saharan African should be taken into account in designing resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Riveron et al.

  16. Genome-Wide Transcription and Functional Analyses Reveal Heterogeneous Molecular Mechanisms Driving Pyrethroids Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Mulamba, Charles; Djouaka, Rousseau; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Murielle J.; Ishak, Intan H.; Wondji, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vector, An. funestus is increasingly reported across Africa, threatening the sustainability of pyrethroid-based control interventions, including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Managing this problem requires understanding of the molecular basis of the resistance from different regions of the continent, to establish whether it is being driven by a single or independent selective events. Here, using a genome-wide transcription profiling of pyrethroid resistant populations from southern (Malawi), East (Uganda), and West Africa (Benin), we investigated the molecular basis of resistance, revealing strong differences between the different African regions. The duplicated cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b) which were highly overexpressed in southern Africa are not the most upregulated in other regions, where other genes are more overexpressed, including GSTe2 in West (Benin) and CYP9K1 in East (Uganda). The lack of directional selection on both CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in Uganda in contrast to southern Africa further supports the limited role of these genes outside southern Africa. However, other genes such as the P450 CYP9J11 are commonly overexpressed in all countries across Africa. Here, CYP9J11 is functionally characterized and shown to confer resistance to pyrethroids and moderate cross-resistance to carbamates (bendiocarb). The consistent overexpression of GSTe2 in Benin is coupled with a role of allelic variation at this gene as GAL4-UAS transgenic expression in Drosophila flies showed that the resistant 119F allele is highly efficient in conferring both DDT and permethrin resistance than the L119. The heterogeneity in the molecular basis of resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides in An. funestus populations throughout sub-Saharan African should be taken into account in designing resistance management strategies. PMID:28428243

  17. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  18. RhoA/ROCK pathway is the major molecular determinant of basal tone in intact human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.

  19. The high molecular weight dipeptidyl peptidase IV Pol d 3 is a major allergen of Polistes dominula venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Hilger, Christiane; Eberlein, Bernadette; Pascal, Mariona; Kuehn, Annette; Revets, Dominique; Planchon, Sébastien; Pietsch, Gunilla; Serrano, Pilar; Moreno-Aguilar, Carmen; de la Roca, Federico; Biedermann, Tilo; Darsow, Ulf; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2018-01-22

    Hymenoptera venom allergy can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated patients. Polistes dominula is an important elicitor of venom allergy in Southern Europe as well as in the United States. Due to its increased spreading to more moderate climate zones, Polistes venom allergy is likely to gain importance also in these areas. So far, only few allergens of Polistes dominula venom were identified as basis for component-resolved diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to broaden the available panel of important Polistes venom allergens. The 100 kDa allergen Pol d 3 was identified by mass spectrometry and found to be a dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Recombinantly produced Pol d 3 exhibited sIgE-reactivity with approximately 66% of Polistes venom-sensitized patients. Moreover, its clinical relevance was supported by the potent activation of basophils from allergic patients. Cross-reactivity with the dipeptidyl peptidases IV from honeybee and yellow jacket venom suggests the presence of exclusive as well as conserved IgE epitopes. The obtained data suggest a pivotal role of Pol d 3 as sensitizing component of Polistes venom, thus supporting its status as a major allergen of clinical relevance. Therefore, Pol d 3 might become a key element for proper diagnosis of Polistes venom allergy.

  20. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Capak, P.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yun, M. S.; Bertoldi, F.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.

    2008-12-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z = 4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS J100054+023436 (hereafter J1000+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The 12CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km s-1, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km s-1, and a CO luminosity of 3.2 × 1010 L⊙. Comparison to the 3.3 σ detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J = 4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6 × 1010 M⊙ assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blueshifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1 × 1011 M⊙ is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Lyα emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties for lower redshift (z ~ 2) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and thus is very likely one of the long sought after high-redshift (z > 4) objects of this population. The large CO(4-3) line width taken together with its highly disturbed rest-frame UV geometry suggest an ongoing major merger about a billion years after the big bang. Given its large star formation rate (SFR) of >1000 M⊙ yr-1 and molecular gas content this object could be the precursor of a "red and dead" elliptical observed at a redshift of z = 2. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  3. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  4. Molecular Modeling and Structural Stability of Wild-Type and Mutant CYP51 from Leishmania major: In Vitro and In Silico Analysis of a Laboratory Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Keighobadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and a major public health in the most countries. Leishmania major is the most common cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the Leishmania parasites, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sterols, has been identified as an attractive target for development of new therapeutic agents. In this study, the sequence and structure of CYP51 in a laboratory strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER of L. major were determined and compared to the wild-type strain. The results showed 19 mutations including seven non-synonymous and 12 synonymous ones in the CYP51 sequence of strain MRHO/IR/75/ER. Importantly, an arginine to lysine substitution at position of 474 resulted in destabilization of CYP51 (ΔΔG = 1.17 kcal/mol in the laboratory strain; however, when the overall effects of all substitutions were evaluated by 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation, the final structure did not show any significant changes (p-value < 0.05 in stability parameter of the strain MRHO/IR/75/ER compared to the wild-type protein. The energy level for the CYP51 of wild-type and MRHO/IR/75/ER strain were −40,027.1 and −39,706.48 Kcal/mol respectively. The overall Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD deviation between two proteins was less than 1 Å throughout the simulation and Root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF plot also showed no substantial differences between amino acids fluctuation of the both protein. The results also showed that, these mutations were located on the protein periphery that neither interferes with protein folding nor with substrate/inhibitor binding. Therefore, L. major strain MRHO/IR/75/ER is suggested as a suitable laboratory model for studying biological role of CYP51 and inhibitory effects of sterol 14α-demethylase inhibitors.

  5. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  6. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Iran: ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 Emerges as the Major Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Goudarzi, Hossein; Sá Figueiredo, Agnes Marie; Udo, Edet E; Fazeli, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different patient populations is a major public health concern. This study determined the prevalence and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in hospitalized patients in ICU of hospitals in Tehran. A total of 70 MRSA isolates were collected from patients in eight hospitals. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The presence of toxin encoding genes and the vancomycin resistance gene were determined by PCR. The MRSA isolates were further analyzed using multi-locus sequence, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing. The MRSA prevalence was 93.3%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (97.1%) to ampicillin and penicillin. The rate of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested was 30% to 71.4%. Two isolates belonging to the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) had intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The majority of MRSA isolates (24.3%) were associated with the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone; the other MRSA clones were ST859-SCCmec IV/t969 (18.6%), ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (17.1%), and ST291-SCCmec IV/t030 (8.6%). The circulating MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals were genetically diverse with a relatively high prevalence of the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on MRSA to better elucidate the distribution of existing MRSA clones and detect emergence of new MRSA clones.

  8. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of molecular brain changes associated with environmental stress in rodent models compared to human major depressive disorder: A proteomic systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David Alan; Gottschalk, Michael Gerd; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wesseling, Hendrik; Cooper, Jason David; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-11-25

    Rodent models of major depressive disorder (MDD) are indispensable when screening for novel treatments, but assessing their translational relevance with human brain pathology has proved difficult. Using a novel systems approach, proteomics data obtained from post-mortem MDD anterior prefrontal cortex tissue (n = 12) and matched controls (n = 23) were compared with equivalent data from three commonly used preclinical models exposed to environmental stressors (chronic mild stress, prenatal stress and social defeat). Functional pathophysiological features associated with depression-like behaviour were identified in these models through enrichment of protein-protein interaction networks. A cross-species comparison evaluated which model(s) represent human MDD pathology most closely. Seven functional domains associated with MDD and represented across at least two models such as "carbohydrate metabolism and cellular respiration" were identified. Through statistical evaluation using kernel-based machine learning techniques, the social defeat model was found to represent MDD brain changes most closely for four of the seven domains. This is the first study to apply a method for directly evaluating the relevance of the molecular pathology of multiple animal models to human MDD on the functional level. The methodology and findings outlined here could help to overcome translational obstacles of preclinical psychiatric research.

  10. Characterization of majority and minority carrier deep levels in p-type GaN:Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy using deep level optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.; Caudill, J.; Ringel, S. A.; Corrion, A.; Poblenz, C.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Deep level defects in p-type GaN:Mg grown by molecular beam epitaxy were characterized using steady-state photocapacitance and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). Low frequency capacitance measurements were used to alleviate dispersion effects stemming from the deep Mg acceptor. Use of DLOS enabled a quantitative survey of both deep acceptor and deep donor levels, the latter being particularly important due to the limited understanding of minority carrier states for p-type GaN. Simultaneous electron and hole photoemissions resulted in a convoluted deep level spectrum that was decoupled by emphasizing either majority or minority carrier optical emission through control of the thermal filling time conditions. In this manner, DLOS was able to resolve and quantify the properties of deep levels residing near both the conduction and valence bandedges in the same sample. Bandgap states through hole photoemission were observed at E v +3.05 eV, E v +3.22 eV and E v +3.26 eV. Additionally, DLOS revealed levels at E c -3.24 eV and E c -2.97 eV through electron emission to the conduction band with the former attributed to the Mg acceptor itself. The detected deep donor concentration is less than 2% of activated [Mg] and demonstrates the excellent quality of the film

  11. Treating the Synapse in Major Psychiatric Disorders: The Role of Postsynaptic Density Network in Dopamine-Glutamate Interplay and Psychopharmacologic Drugs Molecular Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Tomasetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine-glutamate interplay dysfunctions have been suggested as pathophysiological key determinants of major psychotic disorders, above all schizophrenia and mood disorders. For the most part, synaptic interactions between dopamine and glutamate signaling pathways take part in the postsynaptic density, a specialized ultrastructure localized under the membrane of glutamatergic excitatory synapses. Multiple proteins, with the role of adaptors, regulators, effectors, and scaffolds compose the postsynaptic density network. They form structural and functional crossroads where multiple signals, starting at membrane receptors, are received, elaborated, integrated, and routed to appropriate nuclear targets. Moreover, transductional pathways belonging to different receptors may be functionally interconnected through postsynaptic density molecules. Several studies have demonstrated that psychopharmacologic drugs may differentially affect the expression and function of postsynaptic genes and proteins, depending upon the peculiar receptor profile of each compound. Thus, through postsynaptic network modulation, these drugs may induce dopamine-glutamate synaptic remodeling, which is at the basis of their long-term physiologic effects. In this review, we will discuss the role of postsynaptic proteins in dopamine-glutamate signals integration, as well as the peculiar impact of different psychotropic drugs used in clinical practice on postsynaptic remodeling, thereby trying to point out the possible future molecular targets of “synapse-based” psychiatric therapeutic strategies.

  12. Dasatinib rapidly induces deep molecular response in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients who achieved major molecular response with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by imatinib therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiseki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Chikashi; Takezako, Naoki; Ohwada, Akira; Kumagai, Takashi; Nishiwaki, Kaichi; Horikoshi, Akira; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Takano, Hina; Kouzai, Yasuji; Tanaka, Junji; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2017-10-01

    With the introduction of imatinib, a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to inhibit BCR-ABL1 kinase, the outcome of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) has improved dramatically. However, only a small proportion of CP-CML patients subsequently achieve a deep molecular response (DMR) with imatinib. Dasatinib, a second-generation TKI, is more potent than imatinib in the inhibition of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase in vitro and more effective in CP-CML patients who do not achieve an optimal response with imatinib treatment. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether switching the treatment from imatinib to dasatinib can induce DMR in 16 CP-CML patients treated with imatinib for at least two years who achieved a major molecular response (MMR) with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts. The rates of achievement of DMR at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after switching to dasatinib treatment in the 16 patients were 44% (7/16), 56% (9/16), 63% (10/16) and 75% (12/16), respectively. The cumulative rate of achieving DMR at 12 months from initiation of dasatinib therapy was 93.8% (15/16). The proportion of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells in peripheral lymphocytes increased after switching to dasatinib. In contrast, the proportion of regulatory T cells decreased during treatment. The safety profile of dasatinib was consistent with previous studies. Switching to dasatinib would be a therapeutic option for CP-CML patients who achieved MMR but not DMR by imatinib, especially for patients who wish to discontinue TKI therapy.

  13. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  14. Influence of the Compositional Grading on Concentration of Majority Charge Carriers in Near-Surface Layers of n(p)-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The capacitive characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures based on the compositionally graded Hg1-xCdxTe created by molecular beam epitaxy have been experimentally investigated in a wide temperature range (8-77 K). A program has been developed for numerical simulation of ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in the low-frequency and high-frequency approximations. The concentrations of the majority carriers in the near-surface semiconductor layer are determined from the values of the capacitances in the minima of low-frequency C-V curves. For MIS structures based on p-Hg1-xCdxTe, the effect of the presence of the compositionally graded layer on the hole concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer, determined from capacitive measurements, has not been established. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the concentration of holes in the near-surface layer largely depends on the type of dielectric coating and the regimes of its application. For MIS structures based on n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) without a graded-gap layer, the electron concentration determined by the proposed method is close to the average concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The electron concentration in the near-surface semiconductor layer of the compositionally graded n-Hg1-x Cd x Te (x = 0.22-0.23) found from the minimum capacitance value is much higher than the average electron concentration determined by the Hall measurements. The results are qualitatively explained by the creation of additional intrinsic donor-type defects in the near-surface compositionally graded layer of n-Hg1-x Cd x Te.

  15. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Keers, Robert; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Carboni, Lucia; Domenici, Enrico; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2014-05-07

    Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of 'reactive' and 'endogenous' depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic 'stress' protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model 'reactive' depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of 'endogenous' depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. In the mouse 'reactive' model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the 'endogenous' rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Our results suggest that 'endogenous' and 'reactive' subtypes of depression are associated with largely

  16. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  17. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  18. Molecular chemistry in humic Ferralsols from Brazilian Cerrado and forest biomes indicates a major contribution from black carbon in the subsoil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, F.A.; Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.; Vidal-Torrado, P.

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) stability plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The molecular characterisation of soil OM may contribute to an understanding of the feedback mechanisms between soil OM and climate. Umbric Ferralsols with humic properties (humic Ferralsols) are characterised by

  19. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  20. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  1. Direct molecular versus culture-based assessment of Gram-positive cocci in biopsies of patients with major abscesses and diabetic foot infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T. Stappers (Mark H. T.); F. Hagen (Ferry); P. Reimnitz (Peter); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J.F. Meis (Jacques F.); I.C. Gyssens (Inge)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMajor abscesses and diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are predominant subtypes of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and are mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and β-hemolytic streptococci. This study evaluates the potential benefit of direct pathogen-specific

  2. Direct molecular versus culture-based assessment of Gram-positive cocci in biopsies of patients with major abscesses and diabetic foot infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, M.H.T.; Hagen, F.; Reimnitz, P.; Mouton, J.W.; Meis, J.F.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Major abscesses and diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are predominant subtypes of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and are mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci. This study evaluates the potential benefit of direct pathogen-specific real-time

  3. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  4. Sustainability in the food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2011-01-01

    Consumers have, through their food choices, a major role in bringing about more sustainable food production. However, this presupposes that differences in sustainability are communicated to consumers. Even if food products are eco-labelled and consumers are motivated to support sustainability...

  5. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  6. Morphological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus theinensis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting an Indian major carp, Labeo bata in a cold water wetland in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-09-01

    A myxozoan parasite belonging to the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the gill lamellae of Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) inhabiting Ranjit Sagar Wetland in Northern parts of Punjab, India. Histopathology of the infected gills indicated lamellar distortion due to the presence of plasmodia. The intensity of infection was recorded to be moderate as indicated by gill plasmodial index (GPI = 2). The plasmodia were microscopic, ovoid, creamish white, 2.0-4.0 mm in diameter containing 300-400 number of myxospores. The myxospores were broadly pyriform in shape, measuring 8.27 × 4.41 µm, having a prominent pore at the anterior end. The polar capsule was pyriform in shape, measuring 4.15 × 4.10 µm, containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of myxospore body making 6-7 turns. At molecular level, the analysis of 18S rDNA sequence of T. theinensis n. sp. demonstrated maximum homogeneity of 99 % with T. filli (KR340464) as only 2 gaps were found due to the difference of the last 20 base pairs at the 3' end of T. theinensis n. sp. The current study emphasizes the need for caution when dealing with members of species complex.

  7. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  8. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  9. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  10. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  11. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  12. Molecular Characterization of Barrier Properties in Follicle-Associated Epithelium of Porcine Peyer's Patches Reveals Major Sealing Function of Claudin-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Radloff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pig represents a preferred model for the analysis of intestinal immunology. However, the barrier of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE covering porcine Peyer's patches (PP has not yet been characterized in detail. This study aimed to perform this characterization in order to pave the way toward an understanding of the functional contribution of epithelial barrier properties in gut immunology. Porcine tissue specimens were taken from the distal small intestine in order to obtain electrophysiological data of PP FAE and neighboring villous epithelium (VE, employing the Ussing chamber technique. Transepithelial resistance (TER and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured, and tissues were morphometrically compared. In selfsame tissues, expression and localization of major tight junction (TJ proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 were analyzed. PP FAE specimens showed a higher TER and a lower apparent permeability for sodium fluorescein than VE. Immunoblotting revealed an expression of all claudins within both epithelia, with markedly stronger expression of the sealing TJ protein claudin-4 in PP FAE compared with the neighboring VE. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression and localization of all claudins in both PP FAE and VE, with stronger claudin-4 abundance in PP FAE. The results are in accordance with the physiological function of the FAE, which strongly regulates and limits antigen uptake determining a mandatory transcellular route for antigen presentation, highlighting the importance of this structure for the first steps of the intestinal immune response. Thus, this study provides detailed insights into the specific barrier properties of the porcine FAE covering intestinal PP, at the interface of intestinal immunology and barriology.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of rhesus monkey platelet glycoprotein Ibα, a major ligand-binding subunit of GPIb-IX-V complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Shen, Yang; Shi, Meimei; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2014-05-01

    Through binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF), platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex, initiates platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to exposed VWF or elevated fluid-shear stress. There is little data regarding non-human primate platelet GPIbα. This study cloned and characterized rhesus monkey (Macaca Mullatta) platelet GPIbα. DNAMAN software was used for sequence analysis and alignment. N/O-glycosylation sites and 3-D structure modelling were predicted by online OGPET v1.0, NetOGlyc 1.0 Server and SWISS-MODEL, respectively. Platelet function was evaluated by ADP- or ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Rhesus monkey GPIbα contains 2,268 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 755 amino acids. Rhesus monkey GPIbα nucleotide and protein sequences share 93.27% and 89.20% homology respectively, with human. Sequences encoding the leucine-rich repeats of rhesus monkey GPIbα share strong similarity with human, whereas PEST sequences and N/O-glycosylated residues vary. The GPIbα-binding residues for thrombin, filamin A and 14-3-3ζ are highly conserved between rhesus monkey and human. Platelet function analysis revealed monkey and human platelets respond similarly to ADP, but rhesus monkey platelets failed to respond to low doses of ristocetin where human platelets achieved 76% aggregation. However, monkey platelets aggregated in response to higher ristocetin doses. Monkey GPIbα shares strong homology with human GPIbα, however there are some differences in rhesus monkey platelet activation through GPIbα engagement, which need to be considered when using rhesus monkey platelet to investigate platelet GPIbα function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainability protects resources for future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the steps necessary to provide livable urban centers for future generations through sustainable development, or sustainability. To illustrate this concept, nonsustainable cities and sustainable cities are compared. Sustainable city projects for several major US cites are reviewed.

  15. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  16. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  17. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  18. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017.For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran.In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  19. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  20. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... of these problem areas. Among the cases discussed are: Norway’s carbon compensation scheme for air travel; Madrid’s high-occupancy vehicle lanes; London’s congestion charge scheme; market-based instruments such as eco-labelling for cars; and taxation. The book identifies opportunities for actors...

  1. Managing Transportation Infrastructure for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyemi, Edward O.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.

    Major requirements for operationalization of the concept of sustainable development in urban transportation infrastructure operations management are presented. In addition, it is shown that the current approach to management is incompatible with the requirements for sustainable urban development.

  2. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  3. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  4. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  5. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  6. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  7. Governance for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSustainable development is rapidly moving from the periphery to the mainstream of politics, business, and science. Over the past several years, a strong consensus has started to emerge that some of the major global problems can only be overcome through large-scale concerted action.

  8. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable Internat......-scale mobilization of major bioenergy resources through five case studies that determine the factors critical to their sustainable mobilization....

  9. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  10. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  11. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  12. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  13. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  14. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  16. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  17. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  18. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  19. Sustainability and specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Society depends heavily on its major universities and independent research organisations for new ideas. Arguable, sustainable use of the planet will require conceptual paradigms unprecedented in human history. Educational systems, especially major universities and research organisations, must produce students in all phases of the educational continuum who are capable of transdisciplinary activities. A much larger group of such students will be required to implement these new undertakings. Until the perception of the need for transdisciplinary education becomes widespread, nothing significant is likely to happen. One major obstacle is the lack of employment for transdisciplinary individuals. A commitment to sustainable use of the planet will provide employment and make better use of increasingly scarce resources.

  20. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  1. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction molecular mechanisms for better exploitation of bio-control agents to enhance sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Kumari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are well-known bio-control agents which promote the plant growth and suppress the pathogen infection. The beneficial effects are attributed to the production of phytohormones, antibiotics, siderophores and secondary metabolites (SM. Trichodermin and Harzianum A, SMs have documented anti-fungal activities as well. Tri5 gene encodes for trichodiene synthase (TS contains a terpene fold and involved at the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules. Furthermore, domain analysis of proteins from diverse organisms showed that the terpene fold has functional diversity with diverse applications in agriculture, medicine and applied biotechnology. These proteins can be classified into single and multi-domains based on their structures. It was observed that multi-domain proteins carry additional helices which may regulate the catalytic efficiency. Further, activity enhancing mutations with potentially higher catalytic activities were screened. In an offshoot to the above work, we have analyzed binding of Trichodermin with the 25S rRNA that constitutes the petidyltransferase centre (PTC. The trichodermin resistance protein (60S ribosomal protein L3 was reported to overcome the inhibitory effects of trichothecene compounds. Normal mode analysis and MD of trichodermin resistance protein and 25S consisting of PTC showed that the W-finger region of the protein may move towards 25S rRNA and may block the binding pocket of the trichodermin. These results may lead to develop strategies for higher TS activity and the mechanism of action of these molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions. These may be further exploited for enhancing the efficiency of these biotechnological agents used in sustainable agriculture.

  2. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  3. Participation in a Year-Long CURE Embedded into Major Core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory Courses Results in Gains in Foundational Biological Concepts and Experimental Design Skills by Novice Undergraduate Researchers†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A.; Marcello, Matthew R.; Crispo, Erika; Buraei, Zafir; Strahs, Daniel; Isaacson, Marisa; Jaworski, Leslie; Lopatto, David; Zuzga, David

    2017-01-01

    This two-year study describes the assessment of student learning gains arising from participation in a year-long curriculum consisting of a classroom undergraduate research experience (CURE) embedded into second-year, major core Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology (CMB) laboratory courses. For the first course in our CURE, students used micro-array or RNAseq analyses to identify genes important for environmental stress responses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The students were tasked with creating overexpressing mutants of their genes and designing their own original experiments to investigate the functions of those genes using the overexpression and null mutants in the second CURE course. In order to evaluate student learning gains, we employed three validated concept inventories in a pretest/posttest format and compared gains on the posttest versus the pretest with student laboratory final grades. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory for both years of this study and gains on the Genetics Concept Assessment (GCA). We also demonstrated a correlation between students earning lower grades in the Genetics laboratory and gains on the Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) for year 1 of the study. Students furthermore demonstrated significant gains in identifying the variable properties of experimental subjects when assessed using the Rubric for Experimental (RED) design tool. Results from the administration of the CURE survey support these findings. Our results suggest that a year-long CURE enables lower performing students to experience greater gains in their foundational skills for success in the STEM disciplines. PMID:28904646

  4. Another cat and mouse game: Deciphering the evolution of the SCGB superfamily and exploring the molecular similarity of major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse ABP using computational approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageat, Patrick; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian secretoglobin (SCGB) superfamily contains functionally diverse members, among which the major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) display similar subunits. We searched for molecular similarities between Fel d 1 and ABP to examine the possibility that they play similar roles. We aimed to i) cluster the evolutionary relationships of the SCGB superfamily; ii) identify divergence patterns, structural overlap, and protein-protein docking between Fel d 1 and ABP dimers; and iii) explore the residual interaction between ABP dimers and steroid binding in chemical communication using computational approaches. We also report that the evolutionary tree of the SCGB superfamily comprises seven unique palm-like clusters, showing the evolutionary pattern and divergence time tree of Fel d 1 with 28 ABP paralogs. Three ABP subunits (A27, BG27, and BG26) share phylogenetic relationships with Fel d 1 chains. The Fel d 1 and ABP subunits show similarities in terms of sequence conservation, identical motifs and binding site clefts. Topologically equivalent positions were visualized through superimposition of ABP A27:BG27 (AB) and ABP A27:BG26 (AG) dimers on a heterodimeric Fel d 1 model. In docking, Fel d 1-ABP dimers exhibit the maximum surface binding ability of AG compared with that of AB dimers and the several polar interactions between ABP dimers with steroids. Hence, cat Fel d 1 is an ABP-like molecule in which monomeric chains 1 and 2 are the equivalent of the ABPA and ABPBG monomers, respectively. These findings suggest that the biological and molecular function of Fel d 1 is similar to that of ABP in chemical communication, possibly via pheromone and/or steroid binding. PMID:29771985

  5. Another cat and mouse game: Deciphering the evolution of the SCGB superfamily and exploring the molecular similarity of major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse ABP using computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Rajesh; Pageat, Patrick; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian secretoglobin (SCGB) superfamily contains functionally diverse members, among which the major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) display similar subunits. We searched for molecular similarities between Fel d 1 and ABP to examine the possibility that they play similar roles. We aimed to i) cluster the evolutionary relationships of the SCGB superfamily; ii) identify divergence patterns, structural overlap, and protein-protein docking between Fel d 1 and ABP dimers; and iii) explore the residual interaction between ABP dimers and steroid binding in chemical communication using computational approaches. We also report that the evolutionary tree of the SCGB superfamily comprises seven unique palm-like clusters, showing the evolutionary pattern and divergence time tree of Fel d 1 with 28 ABP paralogs. Three ABP subunits (A27, BG27, and BG26) share phylogenetic relationships with Fel d 1 chains. The Fel d 1 and ABP subunits show similarities in terms of sequence conservation, identical motifs and binding site clefts. Topologically equivalent positions were visualized through superimposition of ABP A27:BG27 (AB) and ABP A27:BG26 (AG) dimers on a heterodimeric Fel d 1 model. In docking, Fel d 1-ABP dimers exhibit the maximum surface binding ability of AG compared with that of AB dimers and the several polar interactions between ABP dimers with steroids. Hence, cat Fel d 1 is an ABP-like molecule in which monomeric chains 1 and 2 are the equivalent of the ABPA and ABPBG monomers, respectively. These findings suggest that the biological and molecular function of Fel d 1 is similar to that of ABP in chemical communication, possibly via pheromone and/or steroid binding.

  6. Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, adsorption mechanism and properties as drug delivery system for sustained release of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Chen, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and magnetism bi-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) based on Fe3O4-encapsulating carbon nanospheres were prepared by free radical polymerization, and applied to selective adsorption and controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from an aqueous solution. Characterization results show that the as-synthesized TMMIPs have an average diameter of about 150 nm with a typical core-shell structure, and the thickness of the coating layer is approximately 50 nm. TMMIPs also displayed obvious magnetic properties and thermo-sensitivity. The adsorption results show that the prepared TMMIPs exhibit good adsorption capacity (up to 96.53 mg/g at 25 °C) and recognition towards 5-FU. The studies on 5-FU loading and release in vitro suggest that the release rate increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, adsorption mechanisms were explored by using a computational analysis to simulate the imprinted site towards 5-FU. The interaction energy between the imprinted site and 5-FU is -112.24 kJ/mol, originating from a hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces and a hydrophobic interaction between functional groups located on 5-FU and a NIPAM monomer. The electrostatic potential charges and population analysis results suggest that the imprinted site of 5-FU can be introduced on the surface of TMMIPs, confirming their selective adsorption behavior for 5-FU. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. De-escalation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with stable major molecular response (DESTINY): an interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E; Polydoros, Fotios; Apperley, Jane F; Milojkovic, Dragana; Pocock, Christopher; Smith, Graeme; Byrne, Jenny L; de Lavallade, Hugues; O'Brien, Stephen G; Coffey, Tony; Foroni, Letizia; Copland, Mhairi

    2017-07-01

    Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is feasible for some patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with deep molecular responses; however, patients with stable major molecular response (MMR), but not MR4, have not been studied, nor has the effect of treatment de-escalation rather than outright cessation. We aimed to examine the effects of treatment de-escalation as a prelude to complete cessation, not only in patients with MR4 or greater, but also in those with MMR but not MR4. We did this interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial at 20 hospitals in the UK. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase who had received TKI for 3 years or more and were either in stable MR4 (BCR-ABL1:ABL1 ratio 0·1%) on two consecutive samples. The primary endpoint of this interim analysis was the proportion of patients who lost MMR on de-escalation and regained MMR on TKI resumption. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985. Between Dec 16, 2013 and April 10, 2015, we enrolled 174 patients into the MMR cohort (n=49) or the MR4 cohort (n=125). During the 12 months of half-dose therapy, 12 patients (7%) had molecular recurrence, all of whom regained MMR within 4 months of full-dose TKI resumption (median time to recovery 77 days). Recurrence was significantly lower in the MR4 cohort (three [2%; 90% CI 0·2-4·8] of 121 evaluable patients) than in the MMR cohort (nine [19%; 90% CI 9·5-28·0] of 48 evaluable patients; hazard ratio 0·12, 90% CI 0·04-0·37; p=0·0007), but was unrelated to previous TKI or TKI therapy duration. Adverse events (eg, lethargy, diarrhoea, rash, and nausea) improved during the first 3 months of de-escalation, though not thereafter. 16 serious adverse events were reported, including one fatality due to worsening pre-existing peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a patient who had received only imatinib. TKI de

  8. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanowires and their sustainability for optoelectronic applications. Comparing Au- and self-assisted growth methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Steffen

    2011-09-28

    In this work the synthesis of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is investigated. A comparison between Au- and self-assisted VLS growth is at the centre of this thesis. While the Au-assisted method is established as a versatile tool for nanowire growth, the recently developed self-assisted variation results from the exchange of Au by Ga droplets and thus eliminates any possibility of Au incorporation. By both methods, we achieve nanowires with epitaxial alignment to the Si(111) substrates. Caused by differences during nanowire nucleation, a parasitic planar layer grows between the nanowires by the Au-assisted method, but can be avoided by the self-assisted method. Au-assisted nanowires grow predominantly in the metastable wurtzite crystal structure, while their self-assisted counterparts have the zincblende structure. All GaAs nanowires are fully relaxed and the strain arising from the lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si of 4.1 % is accommodated by misfit dislocations at the interface. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires are generally found to have vertical and non-polar side facets, while tilted and polar nanofacets were described for Au-assisted GaAs nanowires. We employ VLS nucleation theory to understand the effect of the droplet material on the lateral facets. Optoelectronic applications require long minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature. We fabricate GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires and analyse them by transient photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results are 2.5 ns for the self-assisted nanowires as well as 9 ps for the Au-assisted nanowires. By temperature-dependent PL measurements we find a characteristic activation energy of 77 meV that is present only in the Au-assisted nanowires. We conclude that most likely Au is incorporated from the droplets into the GaAs nanowires and acts as a deep, non-radiative recombination centre.

  10. A molecular phylogenetic and fruit evolutionary analysis of the major groups of the paleotropical woody bamboos (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) based on nuclear ITS, GBSSI gene and plastid trnL-F DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Qi; Yang, Jun-Bo; Peng, Zhen-Hua; Gao, Jian; Yang, Yu-Ming; Peng, Sheng; Li, De-Zhu

    2008-09-01

    This study presented the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the major clades of woody bamboos of the Old World tropics based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences (ITS, GBSSI and trnL-F). Sequence data from 53 species, representing 17 paleotropical woody bamboo genera, were analyzed using the maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. All examined ingroup taxa were clustered into two clades, i.e., the Bambusinae+Dinochloa clade and the Melocanninae clade. The former clade included Bambusa, Bonia, Dendrocalamus, Dendrocalamopsis, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Molecalamus, Neomicrocalamus, Neosinocalamus, Oxytenanthera s. str. (sensu stricto), Racemobambos and Thyrsostachys. The Melocanninae clade consisted of Cephalostachyum, Leptocanna (better treated as part of Cephalostachyum), Melocanna, Pseudostachyum and Schizostachyum s. str. The subtribe Racemobambosinae and tribes Dendrocalameae and Oxytenanthereae were not supported and may be better placed in subtribe Bambusinae. The ovary characters seemed to be good criteria to distinguish these two clades. The reconstruction of ancestral fruit characters indicated that the bacoid caryopsis, namely, fleshy or berry-like fruits, was found to be scattered in three lineages of the examined paleotropical woody bamboos. Fruit characters are thus not reliable indicators of phylogeny and bacoid caryopsis likely represents a specialization for particular ecological conditions.

  11. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  12. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  13. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  14. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  15. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  16. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  19. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  20. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  1. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  2. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  3. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  4. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  5. IKEA: Global sourcing and sustainable leather initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yan; Jia, Fu; Gong, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Aims: the aim of this teaching case is to illustrate the Sustainable Global Sourcing (SGS) practices of IKEA influenced by its Global Sourcing (GS) strategy and structure aspects through a case study of the sustainable leather initiative.Scope: this study is developed though 20 face-to-face interviews with IKEA managers in both Sweden and China, covering all the major SGS-related departments i.e. purchasing,sustainability, IWAY, and competence center (sustainable project team).Contribution: w...

  6. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  7. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  8. Sustainable venture capital – catalyst for sustainable start-up success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To address global sustainability challenges, major investments are required in sustainable businesses that deliver triple bottom line results. Although interest in sustainable businesses is on the rise, these businesses are not yet widespread. Venture capital investment has a key role to play in the

  9. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  10. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman L. Kh. M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.

  11. Mathematics for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John; Jamshidi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Designed for the 21st century classroom, this textbook poses, refines, and analyzes questions of sustainability in a quantitative environment. Building mathematical knowledge in the context of issues relevant to every global citizen today, this text takes an approach that empowers students of all disciplines to understand and reason with quantitative information. Whatever conclusions may be reached on a given topic, this book will prepare the reader to think critically about their own and other people’s arguments and to support them with careful, mathematical reasoning. Topics are grouped in themes of measurement, flow, connectivity, change, risk, and decision-making. Mathematical thinking is at the fore throughout, as students learn to model sustainability on local, regional, and global scales. Exercises emphasize concepts, while projects build and challenge communication skills. With no prerequisites beyond high school algebra, instructors will find this book a rich resource for engaging all majors in the...

  12. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... of pigs, processing of pork and pork consumption, is used to analyse the scenarios. The results reveal major opportunities for reductions in cost as well as in CO2 equivalent emissions if a European sector perspective is taken and some chain activities are relocated to other countries. However......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  13. Becoming more sustainable: concepts and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirages, D C [Maryland Univ., Dep. of Government and Politics, Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The automobile and associated mobility system have had a major economic and ecological impact on human societies. The industrial revolution, during which the internal combustion engine has played a major role, has shaped secular, materialistic societies and associated consumption patterns that cannot be sustained in a future world of eight billion people. Creating a more sustainable world means maximizing human satisfaction while minimizing human impact on nature. Becoming more sustainable is best envisioned as a continuing process in which constraints and possibilities change over time and space. The sustainable process raises major controversies including how to define and measure progress, how to apportion wealth among generations, and between free trade and environmental preservation. Sustainable mobility implies major changes in approaches to transportation including stressing psychological rather than physical mobility, designing speciality vehicles for emerging niches, and placing special emphasis on mass transit systems for emerging megacities. (author) 17 refs.

  14. Premises of Sustainable Development on Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors want to highlight the opportunity on rural areas and development in termsof durability. The content of sustainable development offers to local communities real and lasting solutions.In this sense for a community to be truly sustainable, it must adopt a holistic approach, taking into accountshort-term environmental and economic sustainability of natural and cultural resources. The authors believethat a sustainable community among its objectives to include their major environmental issues, povertyeradication, improvement of quality of life, developing and maintaining an effective and viable localeconomies, leading to a global vision of sustainable development of all sectors of the community.

  15. Sustainable rural development and communicative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Langvad, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach that is ......Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach...

  16. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  17. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  18. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  19. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  20. Accountability of FCS Education to a Sustainability Ethos: Focus on Sustainable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Beth; Hustvedt, Gwendolyn; Kang, Jiyun

    2014-01-01

    The American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences' (AAFCS) brand, "creating healthy and sustainable families," implies accountability in promoting sustainable consumer behavior. This study compared students majoring in family and consumer sciences (FCS) and its specializations to those majoring in other fields on constructs of…

  1. Transforming Innovation for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Leach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.

  2. Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Housing Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major steps include 5 star standards in the state of Victoria, with rebates for sustainable products including solar hot water system, photovoltaic panels, rainwater tanks, grey water tanks and insulation. In addition phasing out of incandescent light bulbs is also encouraged. A number of house energy rating tools have ...

  3. Clean energy for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2002-01-01

    The question of energy in developing countries is now taking an increasingly significant place on the agenda of the major international forums. It is to be a central issue at the UN Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg next August. (author)

  4. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  5. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  6. Sustainability ethics: tales of two cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Two small isolated Pacific islands colonized by Polynesians experienced quite different fates - Easter Island suffered a major ecological collapse, while Tikopia appears to have attained sustainability. Both events occurred before European contact and provide valuable evidence in the discussion of sustainability ethics.

  7. The Shifting Politics of Sustainable Seafood Consumerism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Roheim, C.A.

    2018-01-01

    Seafood has emerged as a key testing ground for understanding the role of different value chain actors in driving sustainability. The conventional view, developed in the late 1990s, is that sustainable seafood is driven by the choices and practices of consumers in major importing markets, such as

  8. Policy Priorities In Rural Women Empowerment Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The female gender can not be sidelined while discussing issues of poverty and food security. In like manner, equitability can not be divorced from sustainability as it is one major issue in sustainability. History has revealed that Nigerian women are not always allowed by men to exert themselves fully. Some encumbrances ...

  9. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  10. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  11. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  12. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  13. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  14. Sustainable cities and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.; Pepping, G.

    1999-01-01

    This book starts out with the optimistic perspective that modern cities can indeed play a strategic role in the necessary pathway to sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the opportunities offered by local energy and environmental initiatives. Our study aims to demonstrate that an urban sustainability policy has many socio-economic benefits, while it also seeks to identify the critical success and failure factors of sustainable city innovations. After a comprehensive review of various opportunities and experiences, attention is focused particularly on renewable energy resources which may offer new potential for the active involvement of local authorities. The study also highlights major impediments regarding the adoption and implementation of renewable energies, in particular, the development of advanced energy-environmental technology in a world dominated by natural (public) monopolies and/or monopolistic competition elements. In this context both theoretical and empirical elements are discussed, as well as institutional aspects. The theory and methodology is tested by a thorough empirical investigation into local renewable energy initiatives in three European countries, viz. Greece, Italy and The Netherlands. Based on an extensive data base, various statistical models are estimated in order to identify the key elements and major driving forces of sustainable development at the city level. And finally, the study is concluded with a long list of applicable and operational policy guidelines for urban sustainability. These lessons are largely based on meta-analytic comparative studies of the various initiatives investigated. (orig.)

  15. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  16. Sustaining Design and Production Resources. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schank, John F; Riposo, Jessie; Birkler, John; Chiesa, James

    2005-01-01

    ... the nation's forces do not deteriorate to the point at which they cannot support defence requirements. An important factor in ensuring the sustainability of the industrial base is the scheduling of major weapon system acquisition programmes...

  17. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  18. Lifelong learning networks for sustainable regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron; Ruelle, Christine; Valkering, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable regional development is a participatory, multi-actor process, involving a diversity of societal stakeholders, administrators, policy makers, practitioners and scientific experts. In this process, mutual and collective learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and

  19. Sub-Saharan Africa: Sustainability Risk Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Bakhtina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Africa is a rising star - one of the most desirable investment destinations in the world. Nonetheless, economic growth is uneven among African countries, and many obstacles must be overcome in order to realize the full potential of opportunity. To achieve long-term sustainable investment results, and ultimately progress towards Sustainable Development goals, many risks must be isolated, analyzed, and mitigated. This paper introduces the concept of Sustainability Risk, identifying a set of major risk components for Sub-Saharan Africa and building an integral measure to quantify the degree of remoteness of the forty-six Sub-Saharan Africa countries from the total set of threats considered. The countries are separated into distinct groups with similar characteristics in terms of Sustainability Risk, and an analysis for potential decision-making, based on the visualization of the countries' position in relation to the major sustainability threats, is performed for each group. The research identifies risks with maximum impacts.

  20. What is Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Farrington

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability as a policy concept has its origin in the Brundtland Report of 1987. That document was concerned with the tension between the aspirations of mankind towards a better life on the one hand and the limitations imposed by nature on the other hand. In the course of time, the concept has been re-interpreted as encompassing three dimensions, namely social, economic and environmental. The paper argues that this change in meaning (a obscures the real contradiction between the aims of welfare for all and environmental conservation; (b risks diminishing the importance of the environmental dimension; and (c separates social from economic aspects, which in reality are one and the same. It is proposed instead to return to the original meaning, where sustainability is concerned with the well-being of future generations and in particular with irreplaceable natural resources—as opposed to the gratification of present needs which we call well-being. A balance needs to be found between those two, but not by pretending they are three sides of the same coin. Although we use up natural resources at the expense of future generations, we also generate capital (including knowledge which raises future well-being. A major question is to what extent the one compensates for the other. This debate centres around the problem of substitutability, which has been cast into a distinction between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ sustainability. It is argued that these two do not need to be in opposition but complement one another.

  1. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  3. Sustainability aspects of biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, L.; Cel, W.; Wójcik Oliveira, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, world development depends on the energy supply. The use of fossil fuels leads to two threats: depletion of resources within a single century and climate changes caused by the emission of CO2 from fossil fuels combustion. Widespread application of renewable energy sources, in which biofuels play a major role, is proposed as a counter-measure. The paper made an attempt to evaluate to what extent biofuels meet the criteria of sustainable development. It was shown that excessive development of biofuels may threaten the sustainable development paradigms both in the aspect of: intergenerational equity, leading to an increase of food prices, as well as intergenerational equity, resulting in degradation of the environment. The paper presents the possibility of sustainable biofuels production increase.

  4. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  5. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  6. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  7. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  8. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  9. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  10. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, R.; Khoshnava, S. M.; Lamit, H.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development.

  11. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, R; Khoshnava, S M; Lamit, H

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Przychodzeń

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to is to provide insights on implementing corporate social responsibility for sustainability (CSRS concept and show how it differs from basic corporate social responsibility (CSR. Methodology: The paper discusses major issues with references to existing literature and real business cases from S&P500 consumer discretionary sector. Findings: The main fi nding of this paper is that CSRS could provide the company with a competitive advantage as a growing number of consumers become more sustainable conscious. It could also help to overcome the increasing consumers’ skepticism towards corporate social responsibility practices. Finally, it can also be seen as a step forward in defi ning what types of corporate activities are associated with desirable social and environmental gains. Research limitations: Our sample was restricted to the U.S. fi rms from the consumer discretionary sector. Therefore, conclusions should not be generalized to other markets. Our study is based on the analysis of environmental and social responsibility statements and assumes that they accurately represent corporate commitment in majority of the cases. Practical implications: CSRS offers corporations the opportunity to use their unique skills, culture, values, resources, and management capabilities to lead social progress by making sustainability part of its internal corporate logic. Originality: The paper raises the importance of the different conditions necessary for making sustainable development concept an important part of corporate strategy.

  13. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  14. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  15. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  16. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  17. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  18. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  19. Sustainable Table | Welcome to Sustainable Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Seafood Industrial Agriculture Industrial Livestock Production Antibiotics Hormones rBGH Animal , safeguarding animal welfare and supporting local communities. Questions to Ask Asking questions is the best way Livestock Husbandry Sustainable Crop Production Innovative Agriculture New Farmers Organic Agriculture Local

  20. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  1. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  2. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  3. Developing a framework for sustainability governance in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadowcroft, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa (Canada). School of Public Policy and Adminstration; Farrell, K.N. [Belfast Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Governance, Public Policy and Social Research; Spangenberg, J. [Sustainable Europe Research Inst., Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable development represents a major governance challenge of the 21st century. If societal development trajectories are to be realigned on to more sustainable pathways major changes will be required to existing processes and practices of governance. This essay considers the nature of these changes and discusses implications for social science research. (author)

  4. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  5. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  6. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  7. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  8. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  9. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  10. Minimal residual disease and normalization of the bone marrow after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon2b in polycythemia vera. A report on molecular response patterns in seven patients in sustained complete hematological remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe; de Stricker, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is characterized by the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation in virtually all patients. Several studies have shown that the JAK2V617F mutational load decreases during treatment with alpha-interferon 2. We report on molecular and histomorphological bone marrow responses in seven...

  11. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  12. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  13. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  15. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  16. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  17. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  18. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  19. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  20. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  1. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  2. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  3. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. Hybrid CMOS/Molecular Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M. R.; Rose, G. S.; Ziegler, M. M.

    CMOS silicon technologies are likely to run out of steam in the next 10-15 years despite revolutionary advances in the past few decades. Molecular and other nanoscale technologies show significant promise but it is unlikely that they will completely replace CMOS, at least in the near term. This chapter explores opportunities for using CMOS and nanotechnology to enhance and complement each other in hybrid circuits. As an example of such a hybrid CMOS/nano system, a nanoscale programmable logic array (PLA) based on majority logic is described along with its supplemental CMOS circuitry. It is believed that such systems will be able to sustain the historical advances in the semiconductor industry while addressing manufacturability, yield, power, cost, and performance challenges.

  6. Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

    2010-09-15

    Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

  7. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  8. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  9. Philippine Tourism: Evolution towards Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilapil-Añasco Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippine tourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972; 2] martial law era (1972-1986; 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000; and 4] 21st century era (2001-present. The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippine tourism.

  10. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  11. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  12. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  13. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  14. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  15. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Use of ICT for sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P.; Alam, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The world is experiencing an unfettered growth in terms of development but shrinking the way these developments are leading to the societal, economic and environmental changes and chaos. Sustainability is the answer and needs to be addressed effectively. ICT (Information and Communications Technology) has revolutionized the way things can change. This paper deals with sustainable transportation. Sustainable transport system is a sub topic of a bigger issue “Sustainable Development”. So what does this imply? ICT, can indeed enable the designing of smarter cities that offer a better quality of life for their residents while being more sustainable and cost effective. It is not just the citizens of a country but also the government that can gain benefit from initiatives and meet the objectives faster. This paper digs into the traditional transport systems and the sustainable transport system which we thrive for. Green vehicles/Electric Vehicles/Driverless cars/Hybrid vehicles are the need of the hour. This paper extensively explores the issues and inventions that can lead to sustainable transportation. It further explores the problems associated with them and their solutions. These solutions cover the major aspects of sustainability like meticulous planning, correct usage of ICT and a well drafted and implemented governance framework.

  17. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  18. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRĂGAN (SÂNTĂMARIAN OANA RALUCA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the strategic implication of corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development for the banking sector. A few years ago, banks did not give much importance to the social and environmental problems. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the banking system. In this context, the development of a bank management system based on sustainable principles is one of the current challenges. For this purpose this paper focuses on issues such as the importance and advantages of implementing sustainability bank management, international standards regarding sustainable banking management such as: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. In addition, we have developed a practical case study about the implementation of sustainable banking management; the case study presents Romanian Commercial Bank as an example of good practice in the Romanian banking sector.

  19. Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment tool - Sustainable Effective Design criteria in the Portuguese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria de Fátima; Mateus, Ricardo; Bragança, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Tools and methods to improve current practices and quality in the healthcare building sector are necessary to support decision-making at different building life cycle phases. Furthermore, Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA) Methods are based on criteria organised into different levels, such as categories and indicators. These criteria highlight aspects of significant importance when designing and operating a sustainable healthcare building. To bring more objectivity to the sustainability assessments, the standardisation bodies (CEN and ISO) proposed core indicators that should be used in the evaluation of the environmental, societal and economic performances of buildings. Nevertheless, relying on state of the art analysis, it is possible to conclude that there are aspects of major importance for the operation of healthcare buildings that are not considered in the HBSA methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the context of sustainability assessment methods in the field of healthcare buildings and to present a proposal for the incorporation of Sustainable-Effective Design (SED) criteria in a new HBSA method. The used research method is innovative since in the development of the list of sustainability criteria it considers the opinion of main healthcare buildings' stakeholders, the existing healthcare assessment methods and the ISO and CEN standardisation works in the field of the methods to assess the sustainability of construction works. As a result, the proposed method is composed of fifty-two sustainability indicators that cover the different dimensions of the sustainability concept to support decision making during the design of a new or retrofitted healthcare building in urban areas. - Highlights: •A new system to assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings is presented. •We propose a method to develop the list of sustainability indicators for hospitals. •We propose a new concept – Sustainable-Effective Design (SED

  20. Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new City Sustainability Index (CSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koichiro; Christodoulou, Aris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss conceptual requirements for a City Sustainability Index (CSI) and to review existing major sustainability indices/indicators in terms of the requirements. The following indices are reviewed: Ecological Footprint (EF), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Dashboard of Sustainability (DS), Welfare Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, City Development Index, emergy/exergy, Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), Environmental Policy Index (EPI), Living Planet Index (LPI), Environmentally-adjusted Domestic Product (EDP), Genuine Saving (GS), and some applications of composite indices or/and multivariate indicators to local or regional context as case studies. The key conceptual requirements for an adequate CSI are: (i) to consider environmental, economic and social aspects (the triple bottom line of sustainability) from the viewpoint of strong sustainability; (ii) to capture external impacts (leakage effects) of city on other areas beyond the city boundaries particularly in terms of environmental aspects; (iii) to create indices/indicators originally for the purpose of assessing city sustainability; and (iv) to be able to assess world cities in both developed and developing countries using common axes of evaluation. Based on the review, we conclude that it is necessary to create a new CSI that enables us to assess and compare cities' sustainability performance in order to understand the global impact of cities on the environment and human life as compared with their economic contribution. In the future, the CSI will be able to provide local authorities with guidance toward sustainable paths. - Highlights: ► We derive the four key requirements for a new City Sustainability Index (CSI) system. ► First, the triple bottom line must be considered in terms of strong sustainability. ► Second, environmental leakage effects beyond city boundaries should

  1. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Alikhan, S.; Steed, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  2. Toward sustainable energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasztor, J. (United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1990-01-01

    All energy systems have adverse as well as beneficial impacts on the environment. They vary in quality, quantity, in time and in space. Environmentally sensitive energy management tries to minimize the adverse impacts in an equitable manner between different groups in the most cost-effective ways. Many of the enviornmental impacts of energy continue to be externalized. Consequently, these energy systems which can externalize their impacts more easily are favoured, while others remain relatively expensive. The lack of full integration of environmental factors into energy policy and planning is the overriding problem to be resolved before a transition towards sustainable energy futures can take place. The most pressing problem in the developing countries relates to the unsustainable and inefficient use of biomass resources, while in the industrialized countries, the major energy-environment problems arise out of the continued intensive use of fossil fuel resources. Both of these resource issues have their role to play in climate change. Although there has been considerable improvement in pollution control in a number of situations, most of the adverse impacts will undoubtedly increase in the future. Population growth will lead to increased demand, and there will also be greater use of lower grade fuels. Climate change and the crisis in the biomass resource base in the developing countries are the most critical energy-environment issues to be resolved in the immediate future. In both cases, international cooperation is an essential requirement for successful resolution. 26 refs.

  3. Role of Biocatalysis in Sustainable Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Roger A; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the principles and metrics of green chemistry and sustainable development, biocatalysis is both a green and sustainable technology. This is largely a result of the spectacular advances in molecular biology and biotechnology achieved in the past two decades. Protein engineering has enabled...... successfully been applied, for example, in the industrial synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In addition to the use of protein engineering, other aspects of biocatalysis engineering, such as substrate, medium, and reactor engineering, can be utilized to improve the efficiency and cost...

  4. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  5. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  6. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  7. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  8. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  9. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  10. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  11. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  12. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  13. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  14. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  15. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  16. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  17. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk]. [nl

  18. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk] [nl

  19. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  20. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catălina

    2012-01-01

    The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admi...

  1. Towards a Sustainable Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Patuel Chust, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of ecology in the last decades has led many architects to rethink their construction proposals to make them more respectful of the environment and sustainability. The present article analyzes the legislation, conferences and international declarations (Earth Summit, Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future, Introduction to Sustainable Design) that have advocated the practice of a more ecological architecture. Also examined ...

  2. Achieving deeper molecular response is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on imatinib front-line therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Morisset, Stéphane; Fort, Marie-Pierre; Schmitt, Anna; Etienne, Madeleine; Hayette, Sandrine; Lippert, Eric; Bureau, Caroline; Tigaud, Isabelle; Adiko, Didier; Marit, Gérald; Reiffers, Josy; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Sustained imatinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia patients can result in complete molecular response allowing discontinuation without relapse. We set out to evaluate the frequency of complete molecular response in imatinib de novo chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients, to identify base-line and under-treatment predictive factors of complete molecular response in patients achieving complete cytogenetic response, and to assess if complete molecular response is associated with a better outcome. A random selection of patients on front-line imatinib therapy (n=266) were considered for inclusion. Complete molecular response was confirmed and defined as MR 4.5 with undetectable BCR-ABL transcript levels. Median follow up was 4.43 years (range 0.79–10.8 years). Sixty-five patients (24%) achieved complete molecular response within a median time of 32.7 months. Absence of spleen enlargement at diagnosis, achieving complete cytogenetic response before 12 months of therapy, and major molecular response during the year following complete cytogenetic response was predictive of achieving further complete molecular response. Patients who achieved complete molecular response had better event-free and failure-free survivals than those with complete cytogenetic response irrespective of major molecular response status (95.2% vs. 64.7% vs. 27.7%, P=0.00124; 98.4% vs. 82.3% vs. 56%, P=0.0335), respectively. Overall survival was identical in the 3 groups. In addition to complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response, further deeper molecular response is associated with better event-free and failure-free survivals, and complete molecular response confers the best outcome. PMID:24362549

  3. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  4. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  5. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  6. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  7. Coal and sustainable development: utilities and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Reflecting its continuing focus on coal and sustainable development, the CIAB surveyed its Members about their attitudes to sustainable development and to obtain information on sustainable development activities within their organisations. The survey revealed that awareness of the importance of sustainable development has increased significantly in the past three years, with a clear majority of respondents seeing it as aligning with their commercial objectives. Reducing emissions from coal use is seen as the key priority, although the importance of this relative to other priorities varies on a regional basis depending on local circumstances. While a large majority of respondents recognised the importance of sustainable development and its increasing influence on decision-making within the coal industry, there was a wide range in the extent of activities. Some organisations have embarked on broad initiatives to better align their practices to sustainable development priorities. The range of activities suggests an evolutionary process - one that commences with a sole internal focus on economic priorities for the business, and then broadens to include local environmental issues and the community. Leading organisations are now moving to look more at global issues, to recognise and share the responsibility for the social and environmental impacts of producing and using their products, and to better engage stakeholders. 4 figs.

  8. Global achievements in sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Motavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification and development of sustainable land management is urgently required because of widespread resource degradation from poor land use practices. In addition, the world will need to increase food production to meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population without major environmental degradation. Ongoing climate change and its impacts on the environment is an additional factor to consider in identifying and developing sustainable land use practices. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 provide a background to the need for sustainable land management, (2 identify some of its major components, and (3 discuss some examples of sustainable land management systems that are being practiced around the world. Some common components of this type of management are: (1 understanding the ecology of land management, (2 maintenance or enhancement of land productivity, (3 maintenance of soil quality, (4 increased diversity for higher stability and resilience, (5 provision of economic and ecosystem service benefits for communities, and (6 social acceptability. Several examples of sustainable land management systems are discussed to illustrate the wide range of systems that have been developed around the world including agroforestry, conservation agriculture, and precision agricultural systems. Improved technology, allowing for geater environmental measurement and for improved access and sharing of information, provides opportunities to identify and develop more sustainable land management practices and systems for the future.

  9. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  10. Energy for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Considerations about 'post-Kyoto' targets and other ways to achieve the objectives of the Protocol are critical. Scientific evidence presented by the IPCC in its third assessment in 2002 clearly indicates the need not only to implement the Protocol, but also to agree on further emission reductions in the medium term in order to keep changes in the world's climate at a manageable level. UNEP's Energy Programme addresses the environmental consequences of energy production and use, such as global climate change and local air pollution. UNEP assists decision makers in government and the private sector to make better, more informed energy choices, which fully integrate environmental and social costs. Since UNEP is not an implementing organization, its role as facilitator is core. The majority of UNEP's energy activities link to mitigation - the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - but these are generally accompanied by broader objectives related to energy and sustainable development. This includes climate change mitigation, but not as the sole objective since many of UNEP's partners in developing countries have more immediate development objectives. UNEP's main programmes are: The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project, that provides solar and wind resource data and geographic information assessment tools to public and private sector executives who are involved in energy market development; A new Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded programme aiming at promoting industrial energy efficiency through a cleaner production/environmental management system framework. A parallel programme, Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme (EMPRESS), supports energy efficiency efforts in Eastern and Central Europe; The Mediterranean Renewable Energy Programme promotes the financing of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean basin; The Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) seeks to develop new sustainable energy enterprises

  11. Energy for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Klaus [United Nations Environment Programme (Kenya)

    2003-09-01

    Considerations about 'post-Kyoto' targets and other ways to achieve the objectives of the Protocol are critical. Scientific evidence presented by the IPCC in its third assessment in 2002 clearly indicates the need not only to implement the Protocol, but also to agree on further emission reductions in the medium term in order to keep changes in the world's climate at a manageable level. UNEP's Energy Programme addresses the environmental consequences of energy production and use, such as global climate change and local air pollution. UNEP assists decision makers in government and the private sector to make better, more informed energy choices, which fully integrate environmental and social costs. Since UNEP is not an implementing organization, its role as facilitator is core. The majority of UNEP's energy activities link to mitigation - the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions - but these are generally accompanied by broader objectives related to energy and sustainable development. This includes climate change mitigation, but not as the sole objective since many of UNEP's partners in developing countries have more immediate development objectives. UNEP's main programmes are: The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project, that provides solar and wind resource data and geographic information assessment tools to public and private sector executives who are involved in energy market development; A new Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded programme aiming at promoting industrial energy efficiency through a cleaner production/environmental management system framework. A parallel programme, Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme (EMPRESS), supports energy efficiency efforts in Eastern and Central Europe; The Mediterranean Renewable Energy Programme promotes the financing of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean basin; The Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) seeks to develop new

  12. MAJOR MOLECULAR GENETIC DRIVERS IN SPORADIC PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene, first identified as the source of pathogenic germline mutations in patients with familial endocrinopathies, is found in a substantial fraction of non-familial parathyroid adenomas.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-06

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  15. PUBLIC DEBT ANALYSIS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DASCALU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of public debt, in terms of sustainability and vulnerability indicators, under a functioning market economy. The problems encountered regarding the high level of public debt or the potential risks of budgetary pressure converge to the idea that sustainability of public finances should be a major challenge for public policy. Thus, the policy adequate to address public finance sustainability must have as its starting point the overall strategy of the European Union, as well as the economic development of Member States, focusing on the most important performance components, namely, reducing public debt levels, increasing productivity and employment and, last but not the least, reforming social security systems. In order to achieve sustainable levels of public debt, the European Union Member States are required to establish and accomplish medium term strategic budgetary goals to ensure a downward trend in public debt.

  16. Radical Sustainable Innovation of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Berker, Thomas; Koch-Ørvad, Nina

    2017-01-01

    by high degrees of newness in the entire life cycle. RSI should offer significant enhancements of known benefits, entirely new benefits, or substantial cost reductions, leading to the transformation of existing markets, the creation of sustainable growth, and global sustainability. Thus, if buildings were....../could be radically new. How to evaluate radicality is a major challenge. It is tentatively proposed, to use standards for sustainable office buildings. Standards are developed to accelerate the sustainable development but has to some extent come to constrain possibilities of radical innovation. As the criteria...... of newness is incorporated in standards, going beyond them, could be viewed as radical. Empirically a selection of international cases of office buildings with very high scores of BREEAM, LEED and DGNB are examined. Six selected cases were analysed more in detail, one of them, Geelens...

  17. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  18. A thermodynamic perspective on technologies in the Anthropocene : analyzing environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    Technologies and sustainable development are interrelated from a thermodynamic perspective, with industrial ecology (IE) as a major point of access for studying the relationship in the Anthropocene. To offer insights into the potential offered by thermodynamics in the environmental sustainability

  19. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  20. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  1. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green...

  2. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  3. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  4. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  5. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  6. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  7. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  8. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  9. Gut microbiota sustains hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1......In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1...

  10. Sustainable economic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Bennis, M.; Verbruggen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces four scenarios for sustainable economic structures in the Netherlands for 2030. The aim of this paper is to provide possible answers to what a sustainable future might look like in terms of alternative economic structures. To this end, an empirical economy-ecology model is

  11. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  12. Leading Sustainability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katie

    2016-01-01

    What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…

  13. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  14. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  15. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  16. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  17. Sustaining the wild equals sustaining the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G

    1994-01-01

    Sustainable development and carrying capacity are concepts that denote meeting society's needs without compromising the survival of future generations. The United States and other industrialized countries are pursuing a self-destructive course when fueling their economies by consuming their capital and degrading and depleting their resource base. Maximum exploitation of all resources has been the guiding ethic without paying respect to the environmental consequences. A sustainable society is still possible if strong political leadership and an ecologically literate society with an environmental ethic evolves. In the 1990s the world's population is calculated to increase to 6.3 billion people, the population of the United States already exceeds its carrying capacity and neither of these population increases are sustainable in the long run. In 1916 the US had 98 million people, and in 1994 it had about 260 million and it is still growing. The consequences are already obvious: the National Park System had just 358,000 visitors in 1916, 33 million in 1950, 172 million in 1970, and over 270 million in 1993. Often economists are an impediment to a sustainable economy because they fail to factor in the accumulated environmental deficit or annual cost of environmental deterioration when measuring annual economic output. Fortunately, in the US a conservation ethic is beginning to develop that will eventually become a strong social, political, and economic force. For instance, Wisconsin has mandated environmental education in every school from kindergarten through 12th grade. Such a program will provide the moral and political support to move the country to a sustainable economy. Even losing nations have recovered from World War II, but there is no recovery from destroyed ecosystems.

  18. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  19. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  20. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  1. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  2. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  3. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  4. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălina Sitnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admit the importance of sustainability for the competitive advantage of the companies they manage. Currently, companies have great opportunities to support build a sustainable global economy, becoming one of the solutions to the most pressing societal challenges. Whether it is about reducing pollution, global warming, reducing use of water resources and other limited resources or ensuring a better work environment for employees throughout the supply chain, there are many things that companies can and should do.

  5. What is sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, Stefan [Department of Sustainability Sciences, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Department of Economics, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Quaas, Martin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    While economists have been contributing to the discussion of various aspects of sustainability for decades, it is just recently that the term 'sustainability economics' was used explicitly in the ecological, environmental, and resource economics community. Yet, the contributions that use the term 'sustainability economics' do not refer to any explicit definition of the term, and are not obviously joined by common or unifying characteristics, such as subject focus, methodology, or institutional background. The question thus arises: what is 'sustainability economics'? In this essay, we systematically define and delineate 'sustainability economics' in terms of its normative foundation, aims, subject matter, ontology, and genuine research agenda. (author)

  6. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  7. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  8. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  9. [The challenges of sustainable development in healthcare facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, François; Muret, Jane; Pauchard, Jean-Claude

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare and medical-social facilities have a major responsibility within society, that of the quality of care, but also that of developing a system of sustainable and socially-responsible health. This system must meet the three pillars which constitute such an approach: economic, social and environmental sustainability. Innovation remains central to the sustainable evolution of practices and the first results are now visible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards Sustainability-driven Innovation through Product Service Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of anthropogenic impacts on the planet has lead to efforts to reduce negative environmental impacts in product development for several decades. Benefits to companies who focus on sustainability initiatives have been put forth more recently, leading to many efforts to incorporate sustainability considerations in their product innovation processes. The majority of current sustainability considerations in industry constrain design space by emphasizing reduced material and en...

  11. Sustainable tourist development in Italian holiday destinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cracolici, M.F.; Cuffero, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that tourism, will become a major activity in a modern welfare state, which will have serious consequences for environmental sustainability. This issue calls for an assessment of the pros and cons of the ecological efficiency of tourism. We propose an overall efficiency indicator

  12. Virtual learning networks for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development is a participatory, multi-actor process. In this process, learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and integrate a diversity of perspectives and types of knowledge and expertise in order to arrive at innovative, jointly supported solutions. Virtual

  13. Business models for sustainable energy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van den Buuse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Business-led approaches to accessing energy in development countries are becoming key factors to sustainable market development. Given the major challenges in this market, companies will blend commercial and donor-funded activities, while simultaneously finding innovative ways to bring renewable

  14. Fociss for an effective sustainable innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John J. Hageman; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development will be a major driving force for new developments in businesses. Most companies are very much aware of that but find it difficult to translate this insight into concrete actions. An often observed obstacle is that most, particularly SME's, find it difficult to evaluate how

  15. Sustainable development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kuz’menkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units (ATU refers to the main directions of Russian Federation state policy to ensure the security of the national economy to meet the vital needs of people and the preservation of such a possibility for the future generations. The article describes and analyzes the factors that have the most significant impact on the level of ATE development. The dynamics of the gross output of agriculture in Russia and its critical evaluation are presents. It was revealed that the development of the region is the basis of the national economy security. At present, the concept of “sustainable development” in Russia is relevant and the role of regions in the sustainable development of the Russian Federation is constantly increasing. Stability of self-financing of the regional economy is achieved through conducting effective fiscal, financial, credit, tax and price policy, establishment of equal inter-budgetary relations with the federal center, the development of the securities market, increasing the volume of exports. Conducted research allowed: to identify the main factors influencing the sustainable development of Russia regions. The reasons for the backlog of economy of the Smolensk region of the nationwide growth rate and direction of their elimination are examined. Formation of the forecast of domestic agriculture development in the period up to 2020 should be based on the priority position of the industry in the agricultural sector, which is determined by its decisive role in meeting the population’s needs for basic food products. Prospective volumes of production of major agricultural products are based on the need to meet the challenges provided by the Russian Federation Government Decree.

  16. The Sustainability Cycle and Loop: models for a more unified understanding of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Laura; Duffy, Alex; Whitfield, R I

    2014-01-15

    In spite of the considerable research on sustainability, reports suggest that we are barely any closer to a more sustainable society. As such, there is an urgent need to improve the effectiveness of human efforts towards sustainability. A clearer and more unified understanding of sustainability among different people and sectors could help to facilitate this. This paper presents the results of an inductive literature investigation, aiming to develop models to explain the nature of sustainability in the Earth system, and how humans can effectively strive for it. The major contributions are two general and complementary models, that may be applied in any context to provide a common basis for understanding sustainability: the Sustainability Cycle (S-Cycle), and the Sustainability Loop (S-Loop). Literature spanning multiple sectors is examined from the perspective of three concepts, emerging as significant in relation to our aim. Systems are shown to provide the context for human action towards sustainability, and the nature of the Earth system and its sub-systems is explored. Activities are outlined as a fundamental target that humans need to sustain, since they produce the entities both needed and desired by society. The basic behaviour of activities operating in the Earth system is outlined. Finally, knowledge is positioned as the driver of human action towards sustainability, and the key components of knowledge involved are examined. The S-Cycle and S-Loop models are developed via a process of induction from the reviewed literature. The S-Cycle describes the operation of activities in a system from the perspective of sustainability. The sustainability of activities in a system depends upon the availability of resources, and the availability of resources depends upon the rate that activities consume and produce them. Humans may intervene in these dynamics via an iterative process of interpretation and action, described in the S-Loop model. The models are briefly

  17. The Microbiome and Sustainable Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing prevalences, morbidity, premature mortality and medical needs associated with non-communicable diseases and conditions (NCDs) have reached epidemic proportions and placed a major drain on healthcare systems and global economies. Added to this are the challenges presented by overuse of antibiotics and increased antibiotic resistance. Solutions are needed that can address the challenges of NCDs and increasing antibiotic resistance, maximize preventative measures, and balance healthcare needs with available services and economic realities. Microbiome management including microbiota seeding, feeding, and rebiosis appears likely to be a core component of a path toward sustainable healthcare. Recent findings indicate that: (1) humans are mostly microbial (in terms of numbers of cells and genes); (2) immune dysfunction and misregulated inflammation are pivotal in the majority of NCDs; (3) microbiome status affects early immune education and risk of NCDs, and (4) microbiome status affects the risk of certain infections. Management of the microbiome to reduce later-life health risk and/or to treat emerging NCDs, to spare antibiotic use and to reduce the risk of recurrent infections may provide a more effective healthcare strategy across the life course particularly when a personalized medicine approach is considered. This review will examine the potential for microbiome management to contribute to sustainable healthcare. PMID:27417751

  18. Pluralism in Search of Sustainability: Ethics, Knowledge and Methdology in Sustainability Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Isgren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Science is an emerging, transdisciplinary academic field that aims to help build a sustainable global society by drawing on and integrating research from the humanities and the social, natural, medical and engineering sciences. Academic knowledge is combined with that from relevant actors from outside academia, such as policy-makers, businesses, social organizations and citizens. The field is focused on examining the interactions between human, environmental, and engineered systems to understand and contribute to solutions for complex challenges that threaten the future of humanity and the integrity of the life support systems of the planet, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, and land and water degradation. Since its inception in around the year 2000, and as expressed by a range of proponents in the field, sustainability science has become an established international platform for interdisciplinary research on complex social problems [1]. This has been done by exploring ways to promote ‘greater integration and cooperation in fulfilling the sustainability science mandate’ [2]. Sustainability science has thereby become an extremely diverse academic field, yet one with an explicit normative mission. After nearly two decades of sustainability research, it is important to reflect on a major question: what critical knowledge can we gain from sustainability science research on persistent socio-ecological problems and new sustainability challenges?

  19. Interpreting sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  20. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  1. Domestic artefacts: sustainability in the context of indian middle class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Vatrapu, R.; Evers, Vanessa; Akhilesh, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has become one of the important research topics in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). However, the majority of work has focused on the Western culture. In this paper, we explore sustainable household practices in the developing world. Our research draws on the results from

  2. The legal status of sustainable development in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development underpins environmental governance in all jurisdictions, but its legal status is still controversial. The major problem which Nigerian courts and policy-makers will continue to face when implementing and enforcing sustainable development in environmental governance is whether it is a moral or ...

  3. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  4. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  5. HPV: Molecular pathways and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-04-05

    Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them. Moreover, the Wnt/β-catenin/Notch and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways are deregulated in various cancers, and have also been implicated in HPV-induced cancers. These are basically related to the "cancer hallmarks," and include sustaining proliferative signals, the evasion of growth suppression and immune destruction, replicative immortality, inflammation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as genome instability, resisting cell death, and deregulation of cellular energetics. These information could eventually aid in identifying or developing new diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers, and may contribute to design more effective targeted therapeutics and treatment strategies. Although surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cure more than 90% of women with early stage cervical cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer mortality. Numerous efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent years, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E5, E6, and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and overexpressed in most of the cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction

  6. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  7. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  9. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  10. Sustainable development - an entrepreneur's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrni, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with in this paper: prizing the environment, inducing change, getting the right mix, energy and market place, financing sustainable development, trade and sustainable development, managing corporate change, the Sulzer strategy for sustainable development. (author)

  11. Analyse that! : understanding sustainable design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den G.J.W.; Wit, de M.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the analysis of sustainable building projects. Sustainable technology measures can easily be misinterpreted, consequently leading to unsustainable building solutions. Our research and educations aims at discovering new approaches for sustainable design. For building

  12. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  13. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  14. Social influence on sustainable consumption : Evidence from a behavioural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; van Stroe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Although social influence on consumers’ behaviour has been recognized and documented, the vast majority of empirical consumer studies about sustainable products considers mainly, if not only, individual characteristics (socio-demographic attributes, individual environmental attitudes, etc.), to

  15. Measuring Longitudinal Student Performance on Student Learning Outcomes in Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann E.; Formisano, Paul; Nordyke, Shane; Sayre, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the student learning outcomes (SLOs) for a sustainability major, evaluate faculty incorporation of the SLOs into the courses in the sustainability major curriculum and measure student performance on the SLOs from entry into the major to the senior capstone course. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  17. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  18. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Sustainable development strategy 2001-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The planned strategies and actions that Environment Canada (EC) will take to promote sustainable development with the goal to preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment and its renewable resources were described. EC's challenge regarding sustainable development is to integrate environmental, economic and social considerations into their federal environmental policies and programs. This report described how EC plans to implement their agenda based on four major themes which include: (1) knowledge for decision making, (2) incentives, (3) partnerships and sustainable communities, and (4) managing for sustainable development. A federal framework on sustainable communities will be developed jointly with other government departments and partners with the objective of developing action plans. EC will measure and report on its performance in implementing its sustainable development strategy on an annual basis to identify any corrective measures during the three year period of the strategy. This report also included an issue scan, a consultation summary, and a review of the department's long term results against performance indicators. tab., figs

  1. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  2. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  3. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  4. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  5. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  6. Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.

  7. Sustainable roadway lighting seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and conduct a half-day educational seminar on sustainable : roadway lighting at three locations within New York State: Rochester, New York City, and Albany. : Primary attendees were engineers from the New ...

  8. Sustainable Practices Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better sustainability means more environmentally conscious and efficient businesses and communities. EPA helps modify the way we consume energy, deal with waste, and grow our economy through programs such as Energy Star, E3, Smart Growth, and WaterSense.

  9. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive......Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...

  10. Teaching sustainable design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.; Knuckles, A.; Le Noble, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sustainable design is inclusive, holistic and integrative. It require humility and guts, caring and a certain degree of stubbornness. It helps to do it cooperatively in a group. Human interest in sustainability has gained a great deal of impetus over the last several years as the problems of the late 20th and the early 21st century have become clearer. Design for sustainability broadens and integrates many previously separate design concerns to create a unified approach that is both compelling and ripe with new possibilities. Ecosystem regeneration, ecological land use planning, biometric design, regional environmental and economic viability, natural landscape maintenance, resource optimization, integrated infrastructure system, neotraditional and pedestrian oriented urban design, passive solar architecture, appropriate technology, renewable building materials, healthy buildings, and the aesthetics of place; are a few of these design concerns that, when welded together, can create sustainability.

  11. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    , supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  12. Education for Sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESD (education for sustainable development) planning and implementation, and regular ... between the environment and socio-economic issues of poverty and ..... capacity to make informed decisions (T7) and a sense of responsibility (T9), ...

  13. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  14. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  15. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  16. Energy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  17. Strategic sustainability performance plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In October 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514 that sets sustainability : goals for Federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in environmental, energy and : economic performance. The Executive Order requires Federal agen...

  18. Biorefinery Sustainability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...

  19. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) is defined and developed through integration and expansion of business excellence modeling and sustainability thought. The intent is to enable simple yet reliable enterprise assessment of triple bottom line (TBL) performance...... and produce actionable enterprise foresight that can enable next best practices and sources of sustainable competitive advantage through innovation. Methodology: Key elements of SEE are identified from various business excellence and sustainability reporting sources, including the Global Reporting Initiative...... assessment approach similar in structure to those behind established excellence awards are developed that enable enterprise assessment of progress toward SEE. The resulting assessment is delivered in a highly consumable, combined narrative and graphic format referred to as a SEE NEWS Report. Practical...

  20. Fur and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla; Tanderup, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    interviews and observations at the premises of Kopenhagen Fur, as well as with stakeholders and collaborate partners in Denmark and in China. The definition of sustainability in the report must be seen as related to Design School Kolding's research umbrella of Sustainable Futures - a term chosen to unite...... practices around retail and communication (by Else Skjold, PhD in user studies and business management). On the basis of these four sub-projects, the report concludes the following: Currently, fur is placed very centrally in the moral debates around sustainability, as fur farming highligts environmental...... sustainability within the garment sector at large, and to define its own unique position for the future. With a departure in the the four sub-projects, the report lists a line of recommendations for how it would be possible to develop and revitalise traditional and current practices around fur design...

  1. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  2. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  3. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  4. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  5. Involving citizens in sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541......Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541...

  6. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability, an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies that are related to sustainability and sustainable development. To genuinely wrap our brains around the impact that our actions have on the sustainability of our planet, we must first understand something of the big picture and have a firm grasp of the terminology. To help further clarify the elusive term ‘sustainability,’ without attempting to provide an exact definition, this paper outlines various, inter-related concepts and basic practices and approaches that are being used in the name of sustainability, including: traditional end-of-pipe control strategies, life cycle, environmental sustainability, urban sustainability, industrial ecology, business sustainability, sustainable supply chain systems, sustainability indicators and metrics, green chemistry and green engineering, design for the environment, sustainable buildings, eco-tourism, and renewable and sustainable energy and fuels.

  7. Innovating for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry.......The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry....

  8. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    OpenAIRE

    John Lu; Marc Chorney; Lowell Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are curren...

  9. Business travel and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  10. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  11. Sustainable development. Uncertain futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Ch.; Sciama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The last 30 years show that the human being did not dominate the Nature. After an introduction on the historical relations between the human and the environment, the authors present the different research ways (irrigation with recovery, renewable energies, new agriculture,...). They show that science is not always the enemy of the sustainable development. The third part presents the constraints that the society puts on the way of the sustainable development, which explain the limitations of the progress. (A.L.B.)

  12. Sustainability, accounting and reporting

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, Kashi

    2011-01-01

    The topic of business sustainability is multidisciplinary in nature, and its complexity calls for putting in place a wide variety of research approaches, such as action research, case studies, surveys, model development etc. The papers presented in this ebook represent a comprehensive overview of recent advances in this area of accounting and reporting research. It contains six papers, covering how leasing can increase environmental benefits, CSR, developing social, environmental and economic indicators for SMEs, sustainability reporting and reputation risk and others.

  13. Phylogenomic analyses and molecular signatures for the class Halobacteria and its two major clades: a proposal for division of the class Halobacteria into an emended order Halobacteriales and two new orders, Haloferacales ord. nov. and Natrialbales ord. nov., containing the novel families Haloferacaceae fam. nov. and Natrialbaceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Naushad, Sohail; Baker, Sheridan

    2015-03-01

    The Halobacteria constitute one of the largest groups within the Archaea. The hierarchical relationship among members of this large class, which comprises a single order and a single family, has proven difficult to determine based upon 16S rRNA gene trees and morphological and physiological characteristics. This work reports detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic studies on >100 halobacterial (haloarchaeal) genomes containing representatives from 30 genera to investigate their evolutionary relationships. In phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of 32 conserved proteins, using both neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood methods, two major clades (clades A and B) encompassing nearly two-thirds of the sequenced haloarchaeal species were strongly supported. Clades grouping the same species/genera were also supported by the 16S rRNA gene trees and trees for several individual highly conserved proteins (RpoC, EF-Tu, UvrD, GyrA, EF-2/EF-G). In parallel, our comparative analyses of protein sequences from haloarchaeal genomes have identified numerous discrete molecular markers in the form of conserved signature indels (CSI) in protein sequences and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) that are found uniquely in specific groups of haloarchaea. Thirteen CSIs in proteins involved in diverse functions and 68 CSPs that are uniquely present in all or most genome-sequenced haloarchaea provide novel molecular means for distinguishing members of the class Halobacteria from all other prokaryotes. The members of clade A are distinguished from all other haloarchaea by the unique shared presence of two CSIs in the ribose operon protein and small GTP-binding protein and eight CSPs that are found specifically in members of this clade. Likewise, four CSIs in different proteins and five other CSPs are present uniquely in members of clade B and distinguish them from all other haloarchaea. Based upon their specific clustering in phylogenetic trees for different gene

  14. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  15. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  16. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  17. Digital Gaming and Sustainable Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Vassigh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The American building industry is one of the major consumers of energy. Buildings use 39% of thetotal energy consumed in the United States, significantly impacting national energy demand andcontributing to global warming. The vast majority of architectural practice in US leads to construction of buildings with a little concern to sustainability leading to environmental degradation. Although the bulk of architecture practice continues to produce unsustainable buildings, there is growing stream of exemplary models of sustainable design. Examining the success of suchpractices leads into two a two-folded finding; first that achieving sustainable design is closelylinked to “integrated Design”1 - a type of practice in which various disciplines involved in building design work together to achieve efficiency and other synergetic benefits. Second is that theadvances in computing and simulation algorithms are paving the way to achieve “integrateddesign”. These technologies are enabling the designers to collaborate, visualize, foresee, andmodify building performance with relatively high accuracy. They are increasing used to analyze complex systems to achieve streamlined structures, reduce dependence on mechanical systems, produce more effective construction processes, and reduce waste.If such practices were to become widespread, the architectural education needs to be restructured.The traditional American architectural curriculum that is based on a schism between“design” and “technology” is inherently in conflict with the principal of integration. Though largescalereform of architectural curricula is a complex, ongoing, and difficult debate; producing teaching tools that can simulate integrated design can impact and promote an understanding of sustainable practice in architecture. The proposed paper will present the progress of a multi-disciplinary team of faculty who arecollectively working on the completion, implementation and evaluation

  18. Sustainable Elastomers from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-07-18

    Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). Plant oils are widely used for fabricating thermoset elastomers. We use abundant biomass, such as plant oils, cellulose, rosin acids, and lignin, to develop elastomers covering a wide range of structure-property relationships in the hope of delivering better performance. In this Account, recent progress in preparing monomers and TPEs from biomass is first reviewed. ABA triblock copolymer TPEs were obtained with a soft middle block containing a soybean-oil-based monomer and hard outer blocks containing styrene. In addition, a combination of biobased monomers from rosin acids and soybean oil was formulated to prepare triblock copolymer TPEs. Together with the above-mentioned approaches based on block copolymers, multigraft copolymers with a soft backbone and rigid side chains are recognized as the first-generation and second-generation TPEs, respectively. It has been recently demonstrated that multigraft copolymers with a rigid backbone and elastic side chains can also be used as a novel architecture of TPEs. Natural polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, are utilized as a stiff, macromolecular backbone. Cellulose/lignin graft copolymers with side chains containing a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate exhibited excellent elastic properties. Cellulose graft copolymers with biomass-derived polymers as side chains were

  19. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  20. Contribution of Nuclear Science in Agriculture Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural systems employ natural processes to achieve acceptable levels of productivity and food quality while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Sustainable agriculture must nurture healthy co systems and support the sustainable management of land, water and natural resources, while ensuring world food security. To be sustainable, agriculture must meet the needs of present and future generations for its products and services, while ensuring profitability, environmental health and social and economic equity. The global transition to sustainable food and agriculture will require major improvements in the efficiency of resource use, in environmental protection and in systems resilience. In Mediterrane an environments, crops are grown mainly in the semiarid and sub-humid are as. In arid and semiarid are as dry land farming, techniques are of renewed interest in the view of sustain ability. They are aimed to increase water accumulation in the soil, reduce runoff and soil evaporation losses, choose species and varieties able to make better use of rainwater, and rationalize fertilization plans, sowing dates, and weed and pest control. Fertilization plans should be based on well-defined principles of plant nutrition, soil chemistry, and chemistry of the fertilizer elements. Starting from the calculation of nutrient crop uptake (based on the actually obtainable yield), dose calculation must be corrected by considering the relation ship between the availability of the trace elements in soil and the main physical and chemical parameters of the soil (ph, organic matter content, mineralization rate, C/N, ratio of solubilization of phosphorus, active lime content, presence of antagonist ions, etc.). In the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Soil and Water Research Department, nuclear techniques including radio and stable isotopes in addition to

  1. Project IMPACT: a report on barriers and facilitators to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasinsky, Margaret; Goldman, Howard H; Unützer, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Project IMPACT is a collaborative care intervention to assist older adults suffering from major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Qualitative research methods were used to determine the barriers and facilitators to sustaining IMPACT in a primary care setting. Strong evidence supports the program's sustainability, but considerable variation exists in continuation strategies and operationalization across sites. Sustainability depended on the organizations' support of collaborative care models, the availability of staff trained in the intervention, and funding. The intervention's success was the most important sustainability factor, as documented by outcome data and through the "real world" experience of treating patients with this intervention.

  2. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  3. Sustainable IT and IT for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua

    Energy and sustainability have become one of the most critical issues of our generation. While the abundant potential of renewable energy such as solar and wind provides a real opportunity for sustainability, their intermittency and uncertainty present a daunting operating challenge. This thesis aims to develop analytical models, deployable algorithms, and real systems to enable efficient integration of renewable energy into complex distributed systems with limited information. The first thrust of the thesis is to make IT systems more sustainable by facilitating the integration of renewable energy into these systems. IT represents the fastest growing sectors in energy usage and greenhouse gas pollution. Over the last decade there are dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of IT systems, but the efficiency improvements do not necessarily lead to reduction in energy consumption because more servers are demanded. Further, little effort has been put in making IT more sustainable, and most of the improvements are from improved "engineering" rather than improved "algorithms". In contrast, my work focuses on developing algorithms with rigorous theoretical analysis that improve the sustainability of IT. In particular, this thesis seeks to exploit the flexibilities of cloud workloads both (i) in time by scheduling delay-tolerant workloads and (ii) in space by routing requests to geographically diverse data centers. These opportunities allow data centers to adaptively respond to renewable availability, varying cooling efficiency, and fluctuating energy prices, while still meeting performance requirements. The design of the enabling algorithms is however very challenging because of limited information, non-smooth objective functions and the need for distributed control. Novel distributed algorithms are developed with theoretically provable guarantees to enable the "follow the renewables" routing. Moving from theory to practice, I helped HP design and implement

  4. Molecular taxonomic, epidemiological and population genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The major limitation to the profitable and sustainable production of D. alata is its susceptibility to anthracnose disease. The availability of resistant varieties could potentially form the cornerstone of an integrated management strategy for yam ...

  5. Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections: Complete Collection, Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compendium of Environmental Sustainability Indicator Collections, Version 1.1 contains 426 indicators for 239 countries from five major environmental...

  6. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  7. The Multi-Sector Sustainability Browser (MSSB): A Tool for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSSB is the first and only decision support tool containing information from scientific literature and technical reports that can be used to develop and implement sustainability initiatives. The MSSB is designed to assist individuals and communities in understanding the impacts that the four key dimensions of sustainability - Land Use, Buildings and Infrastructure, Transportation, and Materials Management - can have on human health, the economy, the built environment and natural environments. The MSSB has the following capabilities: a. Displays and describes linkages between the four major sustainability concepts (Land Use, Buildings and Infrastructure, Transportation, and Materials Management) and their subordinate concepts. b. Displays and lists literature sources and references (including weblinks where applicable) providing information about each major sustainability concept and its associated subordinate concepts. c. Displays and lists quantitative data related to each major sustainability concept and its associated subordinate concepts, with weblinks where applicable.The MSSB serves as a ‘visual database’, allowing users to: investigate one or more of the four key sustainability dimensions; explore available scientific literature references, and; assess potential impacts of sustainability activities. The MSSB reduces the amount of time and effort required to assess the state of sustainability science and engineering research pertaining

  8. Delineating a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lester R

    1996-01-01

    The expression Develop Sustainable of wide use today in day is used among national political leaders and among environmentalists. The sustainable economy from the environmental point of view is that that obeys the basic principles or laws of the sustainability; principles so real as those of the aerodynamic one or those of the thermodynamic. If somebody intends, for example, to design an airplane, it will have to be adjusted to the aerodynamic principles and to print to the apparatus a certain stability degree so that it can fly. In the same way, an economic system environmentally sustainable it must respond to the balance principles if it doesn't want to be condemned to the failure. The fundamental laws or sustainability principles are as rigorous as the aerodynamic laws. The society can violate these laws in the short term; but not long term. As well as an airplane can lose height in a brief lapse without falling; the economy can violate the principles of the sustainability in the short term without collapsing. Among of the sustainability principles figure the following: long term; the extinction of species cannot exceed the evolution of the species; the soil erosion cannot exceed the soils formation; the destruction of forests cannot exceed the regeneration of the forests; the emissions of carbon cannot exceed the fixation of carbon; the fishing cannot exceed the regenerative capacity of the banks of fish and, in the human land, the morbidity cannot exceed the mortality. The author also speaks of the disappearance of species, ozone layer, stability of the climate, earth, water fertilizers and alimentary systems among others

  9. A Global Perspective on the Sustainable Performance of Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyin Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, particularly in developing countries, is a major strategy for development. However, major concerns accompany it, such as air pollution, habitat destruction, and loss of arable land. In responding to these challenges, governments throughout the world have been implementing various policy mechanisms to guide the practice of urbanization towards sustainable development. It appears that there is little research investigating the outcomes of those efforts in implementing sustainable urbanization strategies. This paper provides a profile of sustainable urbanization from a global perspective. Data used for this research cover 111 countries and are collected from the World Bank database and the United Nation database. A ranking list of sustainable performance of urbanization between these countries is produced and discussed. The study suggests that countries at different stages of urbanization have achieved different levels of sustainable performance. The research results provide significant references for future study in the field of urbanization from a global perspective.

  10. The Role of Nuclear Energy in Establishing Sustainable Energy Paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2001-10-01

    This study juxtaposes the major facts and arguments about nuclear energy and its potential role in establishing sustainable energy paths. The notion of sustainability has a strong normative character and can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Therefore, also the sustainability of energy supply technologies possesses a normative nature. This paper analyses what the major dimensions are that ought to be addressed when nuclear energy technology is compared, in sustainability terms, with its fossil-fuelled and renewable counterparts. It is assessed to what extent energy supply portfolios including nuclear energy are more, or less, sustainable in comparison to those that exclude this technology. It is indicated what this inventory of collected facts and opinions means for both policy and research regarding nuclear energy in the case of the Netherlands. 32 refs

  11. Assessment of Molecular Modeling & Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-01-03

    This report reviews the development and applications of molecular and materials modeling in Europe and Japan in comparison to those in the United States. Topics covered include computational quantum chemistry, molecular simulations by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, mesoscale modeling of material domains, molecular-structure/macroscale property correlations like QSARs and QSPRs, and related information technologies like informatics and special-purpose molecular-modeling computers. The panel's findings include the following: The United States leads this field in many scientific areas. However, Canada has particular strengths in DFT methods and homogeneous catalysis; Europe in heterogeneous catalysis, mesoscale, and materials modeling; and Japan in materials modeling and special-purpose computing. Major government-industry initiatives are underway in Europe and Japan, notably in multi-scale materials modeling and in development of chemistry-capable ab-initio molecular dynamics codes.

  12. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Handayani, Diah; Burhan, Erlina; Yunus, Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks. New advances in the molecular detection of TB, including the faster and simpler nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have resulted in a shorter time for diagnosis and, therefore, faster TB treatments. In this review, we explored the current findings on molecular diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB to see how this advancement could be integrated into public health systems in order to control TB.

  14. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested. PMID:28773272

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  16. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  17. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges of Integrating Affordable and Sustainable Housing in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Jamaludin, S. Z. H.; Mahayuddin, S. A.; Hamid, S. H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Developing countries including Malaysia have begun to comprehend the needs for affordable and sustainable housing development. The majority of the population is still aspiring for a comfortable, safe and reasonably priced house. Households in the low-middle income range face difficulties to find housing that can satisfy their needs and budget. Unfortunately, most of the housing development programs are considering affordability rather than sustainable aspects. Furthermore, developers are more interested in profit and neglect sustainability issues. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the challenges in integrating affordable housing and sustainable practices in Malaysia. This paper is produced based on an extensive literature review as a basis to develop strategies of integrated affordable and sustainable housing in Malaysia. The challenges are divided into four sections, namely market challenges, professional challenges, societal challenges and technological challenges. The outcomes of this paper will assist in the decision making involving housing development and in enhancing quality of life for sustainable communities.

  19. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  20. Is sustainability certification for biochar the answer to environmental risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette L. Cowie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to make a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change, and enhancement of plant production. However, in order for biochar to fulfill this promise, the industry and regulating bodies must take steps to manage potential environmental threats and address negative perceptions. The potential threats to the sustainability of biochar systems, at each stage of the biochar life cycle, were reviewed. We propose that a sustainability framework for biochar could be adapted from existing frameworks developed for bioenergy. Sustainable land use policies, combined with effective regulation of biochar production facilities and incentives for efficient utilization of energy, and improved knowledge of biochar impacts on ecosystem health and productivity could provide a strong framework for the development of a robust sustainable biochar industry. Sustainability certification could be introduced to provide confidence to consumers that sustainable practices have been employed along the production chain, particularly where biochar is traded internationally.

  1. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  2. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  3. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  4. Sustainability in coastal tourism development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.

    2018-01-01

    explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development....

  5. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  6. Molecular ecology of microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep

  7. Sustainable development and the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is a perception in some quarters that the continued development of the coal and minerals industries is incompatible with sustainability. Yet a future without mining is clearly a very long way off. This article outlines some of the initiatives being taken by the coal industry to overcome the adverse perceptions and demonstrate that coal has an important future to play. Industries in the future will be assessed not only on their economic performance, as in the past, but also on their environmental and social performance - that is, their contribution to sustainable development. In this context, sustainable development is now part of mainstream business thinking in many major corporations. Apart from identifying improvement opportunities, the process should also result in a better understanding of mining industry role by non-mining stake holders. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  8. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  9. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  10. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S.

    2014-01-01

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  11. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  12. OPG 2000 Sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A major Ontario-based electricity generator, Ontario Power Generation Inc.'s main business focuses on the generation and sale of electricity to the Ontario wholesale market and interconnected markets in the surrounding provinces and states. By reducing the impact on the environment, by creating long-term shareholder value, and through community involvement, Ontario Power Generation Inc. is attempting to achieve sustainability. Shareholders are kept informed of the progress in meeting environmental, financial, and community and stakeholder goals every year by means of this report. The company's assets included five nuclear generating stations, six fossil-fuelled generating stations and 69 hydroelectric stations as of December 31, 2000, the end of the period covered by this report. Approximately 25,800 MW of total available capacity is available to local distribution companies and municipal utilities, large direct industrial customers, and Hydro One. The report begins with a discussion, between the Chief Executive Officer and the Vice-President of Sustainable Development, of the company's environmental goals. A brief section is devoted to the company's vision, followed by a section detailing the priorities. The company's performance is presented next, with a breakdown by sector, namely air, water, land. The topic of green power is presented, as well as a section on community. Value, including a brief discussion of the Auditor's review is then included. tabs., figs

  13. Benchmarking Sustainability Practices Use throughout Industrial Construction Project Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for sustainability studies in building and infrastructure construction, the sustainability issues in industrial construction remain understudied. Further, few studies evaluate sustainability and benchmark sustainability issues in industrial construction from a management perspective. This study presents a phase-based benchmarking framework for evaluating sustainability practices use focusing on industrial facilities project. Based on the framework, this study quantifies and assesses sustainability practices use, and further sorts the results by project phase and major project characteristics, including project type, project nature, and project delivery method. The results show that sustainability practices were implemented higher in the construction and startup phases relative to other phases, with a very broad range. An assessment by project type and project nature showed significant differences in sustainability practices use, but no significant difference in practices use by project delivery method. This study contributes to providing a benchmarking method for sustainability practices in industrial facilities projects at the project phase level. This study also discusses and provides an application of phase-based benchmarking for sustainability in industrial construction.

  14. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  15. Nuclear and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Balle, St.; Barandas, Ch.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Bellefontaine, E.; Bernard, H.; Bouhand, M.H.; Bourg, D.; Bourgoignon, F.; Bourlat, Y.; Brunet, F.; Buclet, N.; Buquet, N.; Caron, P.; Cartier, M.; Chagneau, E.; Charles, D.; Chateau, G.; Collette, P.; Collignon, A.; Comtesse, Ch.; Crammer, B.; Dasnias, J.; Decroix, G.; Defoy, B.; Delafontaine, E.; Delcroix, V.; Delerue, X.; Demet, M.; Dimmers, G.; Dodivers, S.; Dubigeon, O.; Eimer, M.; Fadin, H.; Foos, J.; Ganiage, D.; Garraud, J.; Girod, J.P.; Gourod, A.; Goussot, D.; Guignard, C.; Heloury, J.; Hondermarck, B.; Hurel, S.; Jeandron, C.; Josse, A.; Lagon, Ch.; Lalleron, Ch.; Laurent, M.; Legrand, H.; Leveau, E.

    2006-01-01

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  16. Staircase To Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article to provide a theoretical framework on the concepts of Sustainable Development and the process that companies need to follow in order to ensure the future sustainability of business operations. Various secondary sources and previous literature was reviewed to clearly identify why companies are finding it difficult to conduct their business operations in a sustainable manner. Stricter legislation and regulations, increased competition, depletion of natural resources and market pressures have placed organisations under increased pressure to improve environmental performance and achieve eco-efficiency. This paper provides comprehensive overview of how companies can achieve the ‘Triple bottom line’ by committing to continuous improvement and adhering to the regulations stipulated according to the International Standards of Organisations (ISO14001.

  17. Sustainable urban development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...

  18. The road to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like

  19. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  20. Sustainability and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of the quest for sustainable use of the planet requires that human society both reexamine and expand present views of what is sacred and what is not. The most important aspect will be going beyond a homocentric focus to a biocentric emphasis. A unifying theme would be the desire to leave a habitable planet for human descendants and those of other species. It is unlikely that society can be confident of achieving sustainability until persuasive evidence supporting this belief has existed for several generations. In order for sustainable use of the planet to persist indefinitely, the conditions essential to this state must be morally preserved on sacred grounds. Viewing natural systems as sacred requires not only preventing damage to them but, wherever possible, repairing damage to them caused by humankind.

  1. TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and sustainable development are the subject of many initiatives and public or private debates in Romania. The main problem to which these initiatives try to find an answer is mostly related to the income generation for the local communities by using rationally and efficiently the local potential, in agreement with the economic, social, natural, and cultural factors. Consequently, some measures should be taken, and the tourist sector as a whole needs all the methods of sustainable development: new technologies, change of social behaviour, change of environmental legislation, methods of environmental management, better planning and development of control procedures. In this article, we presented a model of tourism development which should be applied in all the regions of great tourist attraction, and we realised a synthesis of the socio-economic advantages of sustainable tourism.

  2. Geoscience and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores how scientists entangle themselves in between keywords and buzzwords when they make use of concepts like sustainability. It sketches out theoretical distinctions between keywords and buzzwords. Then it turns to the concept of nature discussing the paradox that nature embraces...... the same fuzzy, slippery and contingent character as does sustainability, yet the former has a deep ontological status, the latter does not. The paper explores a related paradox: natural sciences claim we live in the Anthropocene, in which humans have transformed geochemical cycles, e.g. of methane...... and carbon dioxide as much as they changed between glacial and interglacial periods. Yet, science favors (external) nature as a keyword, sustainability as a buzzword. This should cause deep reflections on how scientists make use of the power of reference in between keywords and buzzwords – as well...

  3. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    open innovation with SME entrepreneurs, business execs, academics and policymakers via an online crowdsourcing event with 150 participants. Through inductive analysis of 1,696 text comments, five policy domains are identified: creating awareness/skills; building networks; funding/investing; measuring......Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...

  4. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, number of equipment used in the construction of plants and capital/operational cost. These required reductions can be addressed through process intensification that is the efficient use of raw....... Therefore sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process syn-thesis and process intensification together. The main contribution of this work is the development of a systematic computer-aided multi-scale, multi-level framework for performing process synthesis-intensification that aims...... designs that otherwise could not be found from the higher scales. The framework is applied to three case studies related to the chemical and bioprocess industry in order to test the applicability of the framework for covering a wide range of applications, showing that process intensification provides...

  5. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  6. Empowerment for Sustainability in Higher Education through the EYE Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Valentina C.; Dik, Giel; van Lingen, Thekla Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: While empowerment for sustainability is considered a major objective within sustainability-oriented educational programs and policies, little is known about the actual process of empowering students for sustainability through higher education. This study aims to explore this field, by introducing the EYE (Educating Yourself in…

  7. Exergy and Sustainability : Insights into the Value of Exergy Analysis in Sustainability Assessment of Technological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in striving for a more sustainable society is the selection of technological systems. Given the capital intensity of industrial production plants, power generation systems and infrastructure, investment decisions create path dependencies for decades to come. It is difficult to know

  8. Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new City Sustainability Index (CSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koichiro, E-mail: kmori@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Christodoulou, Aris, E-mail: aris.christodoulou@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Transport Studies, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss conceptual requirements for a City Sustainability Index (CSI) and to review existing major sustainability indices/indicators in terms of the requirements. The following indices are reviewed: Ecological Footprint (EF), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Dashboard of Sustainability (DS), Welfare Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, City Development Index, emergy/exergy, Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), Environmental Policy Index (EPI), Living Planet Index (LPI), Environmentally-adjusted Domestic Product (EDP), Genuine Saving (GS), and some applications of composite indices or/and multivariate indicators to local or regional context as case studies. The key conceptual requirements for an adequate CSI are: (i) to consider environmental, economic and social aspects (the triple bottom line of sustainability) from the viewpoint of strong sustainability; (ii) to capture external impacts (leakage effects) of city on other areas beyond the city boundaries particularly in terms of environmental aspects; (iii) to create indices/indicators originally for the purpose of assessing city sustainability; and (iv) to be able to assess world cities in both developed and developing countries using common axes of evaluation. Based on the review, we conclude that it is necessary to create a new CSI that enables us to assess and compare cities' sustainability performance in order to understand the global impact of cities on the environment and human life as compared with their economic contribution. In the future, the CSI will be able to provide local authorities with guidance toward sustainable paths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We derive the four key requirements for a new City Sustainability Index (CSI) system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First, the triple bottom line must be considered in terms of strong sustainability. Black

  9. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  10. Hydroelectricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1995-01-01

    From 1975 to 1992, hydroelectricity helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec by 20%. For Hydro-Quebec, energy conservation and hydroelectric development are basic complementary tools for sustainable development. Recent studies show that developing only 50% of economically exploitable hydroelectric potential (30% of the gross theoretical potential) of different regions worldwide would considerably reduce greenhouse gas and SO 2 emissions. However, hydroelectric systems produce environmental and social impacts locally that require mitigative measures. To fulfill its mandate in a sustainable development context, Hydro-Quebec has adopted methods such as integrated resource planning, the assessment of externalities, multi criteria decision tools and public participations

  11. Sustainable building; Duurzaam bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Ch.F. [ed.] [Interfacultair Onderzoek Centrum ' De Ecologische Stad' DIOC, Delft (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    A complete overview is given of starting points and targets for the sustainable construction of buildings. The notion of sustainable indicates the necessity of managing specific flows: materials, energy, water and transport (traffic). Also, the monitoring and calculation of environmental effects must be clarified by the generally accepted method of life cycle analysis. This book is for the larger part the result of research carried out at the Interdepartmental Research Centre 'The Ecological City' at the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. refs.

  12. Sustainability as Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Joanne; Rasche, Andreas; Kenny, Kevina

    2019-01-01

    Sustainability, as it relates to both social and environmental issues, is treated very differently among companies that incorporate the subject into their business strategies. In this case, we explore sustainability at Unilever whose management addresses it not as a risk to be managed or cost...... product development and marketing expertise, to realise the potential of the fast-growing emerging markets (57% of its 2014 revenues came from emerging markets compared to less than 17% of most multinationals). Issues considered are the role of corporate culture and competencies, the importance...

  13. Engineering sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses sustainable development, a policy which attempts to balance environmental preservation and economic growth, and promises a way to provide a decent life for Earth's human inhabitants without destroying the global ecosystem. Sustainable development is an effort to use technology to help clean up the mess it helped make, and engineers will be central players in its success or failure. Key aspects include more efficient energy use through conservation measures and switching to renewable sources, waste minimization, much greater recycling and reuse of materials, more comprehensive economic/environmental assessments employing life-cycle analyses, and better management of resources

  14. Physics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emre, B.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a relationship with between physics and sustainable development? The answer of this question is yes since in the past to the health and welfare of people and nations physics has made tremendous contributions. Think of the contributions that physics has made to the world economy in areas such as electronics, materials, and computer technology, also to health x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine. However, many of these contributions have benefited people in the developed world more than those in the developing world. Moreover current physics curricula do not have vision of to offer the student a full perspective of sustainable development

  15. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  16. Consumerism and sustainable tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2000-01-01

    This article recognises the immense and growing interest for the development of a sustainable tourism. However, it demonstrates a gap between general awareness and preferences on the one hand, and the practices and behaviour of tourists and tourist industries on the other hand. The constraints...... for the development of a consumerism in the fields of tourism are addressed in the article. A particular emphasis is put on a lack of appropriate institutional frameworks that provide individual tourists with reliable information and co-ordinate their purchasing power in order to enhance the issues of environmental...... sustainability....

  17. Emergent pedagogy of sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    of societal life. Most often, the experimental activities tends to favor learning about responsible behavior, but the intension was formation of critical curiosity. While the difficulties to find pedagogical forms to present sustainability frustrate the participating pedagogues, the teachers teaching student.......S. Nielsen, N. Sriskandarajah, & E. Gunnarsson (eds) (2016). Commons, Sustainability, Democratization: Action Research and the Basic Renewal of Society. New York. RoutledgeLewin, K. (1948). Resolving Social Conflicts. New York, Harper and RowSachs, W. (1999). Planet dialectics. Explorations in Environment...

  18. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  19. Developing Ecological Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    IS initiatives become part of a firm’s overall strategy and part of the organizational sustainability process. We find that Green IS initiatives are initiated through a bottom-up process where environmentally concerned individuals identify issues and become Green IS champions. They use their authority...... and edification skills to promote Green IS to the organizational agenda. If the issue is aligned with the organizational agenda, it receives management’s endorsement. The empirical case also shows two types of systemic feedback that can fuel a self-reinforcing sustainability process. The first type of feedback...

  20. Growth, Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Virginia Dragulanescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Describing the relationship of interdependence through the materials balance, will be argued how the economy is a subset of the environment and the environment the natural limit to any economic initiative, or the limits imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. The theoretical debate moves, then, from the concept of growth to that of development, understood this in its three dimensions: economic, social, environmental. Bring the different environmental positions in four versions of sustainability, with the gained awareness that it’s “a spectrum of overlapping sustainability positions from very weak to very strong”.

  1. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  2. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  3. THE ROLE OF ENERGY IN ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Maria-Floriana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid population growth leads to greater daily demand for energy, causing nations to diversify their portfolios and seek new sources of energy, including renewable to provide more energy. In a universe with seriously exhausted natural resources, severe urbanization, climate change and conflicts that go beyond borders, the issue of overpopulation unquestionably causes worldwide debates and can generate a snowball effect for the global economy or human society. Population’s increase in the nearby future will have a central role in challenges such as: global warming, air and water contamination, increase in the level of poverty, food scarcity, deforestation, desertification, health problems and resource shortages. The transformation into a sustainable environmental model, situated in a post-carbon economy, will imply setting barriers to industrial progress (will have to be sustainable and environmental friendly and also to population growth (will have to follow a normal pace. But, the level on vulnerability and uncertainty in the evolution of energy has been threatened lately by major events that took place all around the world. Security of supply, new geopolitical perspectives and ecological and sustainability issues are yet again on the bleeding line. Therefore, the goal of this theoretical article is to give an overview of the current situation concerning the role of energy in ecological sustainability. It expresses routes in which humans and enterprises can act in order to contribute to ecologically sustainable development. The subject of how we live on a congested planet represents the most critical sustainability of all. We are witnessing our current risks and we can also envision our possible, and particularly desirable, future: a steady human population, living and protecting the nature and planet, having finite needs of goods, services, or energy, and maintaining a healthy Earth for us and the animals that also depend on it. This is

  4. Role of Biocatalysis in Sustainable Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A; Woodley, John M

    2018-01-24

    Based on the principles and metrics of green chemistry and sustainable development, biocatalysis is both a green and sustainable technology. This is largely a result of the spectacular advances in molecular biology and biotechnology achieved in the past two decades. Protein engineering has enabled the optimization of existing enzymes and the invention of entirely new biocatalytic reactions that were previously unknown in Nature. It is now eminently feasible to develop enzymatic transformations to fit predefined parameters, resulting in processes that are truly sustainable by design. This approach has successfully been applied, for example, in the industrial synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In addition to the use of protein engineering, other aspects of biocatalysis engineering, such as substrate, medium, and reactor engineering, can be utilized to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness and, hence, the sustainability of biocatalytic reactions. Furthermore, immobilization of an enzyme can improve its stability and enable its reuse multiple times, resulting in better performance and commercial viability. Consequently, biocatalysis is being widely applied in the production of pharmaceuticals and some commodity chemicals. Moreover, its broader application will be further stimulated in the future by the emerging biobased economy.

  5. Managing nuclear liabilities: 'hospital pass' or major opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper sets out to start changing the perception that liabilities management is an unattractive part of the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper describes BNFL's successes and long term challenges in this area and concludes that liabilities management presents a major opportunity to:-Remove an Achilles heel of the industry; Create value for the companies concerned by successfully driving down costs; Sustain and exploit internationally a major UK competitive edge. (Author)

  6. A sustainable woody biomass biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Houfang; Hu, Ruofei; Shupe, Alan; Lin, Lu; Liang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass is renewable only if sustainable production is imposed. An optimum and sustainable biomass stand production rate is found to be one with the incremental growth rate at harvest equal to the average overall growth rate. Utilization of woody biomass leads to a sustainable economy. Woody biomass is comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. While extractives and hemicellulose are least resistant to chemical and thermal degradation, cellulose is most resistant to chemical, thermal, and biological attack. The difference or heterogeneity in reactivity leads to the recalcitrance of woody biomass at conversion. A selection of processes is presented together as a biorefinery based on incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. A preference is given to a biorefinery absent of pretreatment and detoxification process that produce waste byproducts. While numerous biorefinery approaches are known, a focused review on the integrated studies of water-based biorefinery processes is presented. Hot-water extraction is the first process step to extract value from woody biomass while improving the quality of the remaining solid material. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers, aromatics and acetic acid in the hardwood extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Higher temperature and longer residence time lead to higher mass removal. While high temperature (>200°C) can lead to nearly total dissolution, the amount of sugars present in the extraction liquor decreases rapidly with temperature. Dilute acid hydrolysis of concentrated wood extracts renders the wood extract with monomeric sugars

  7. Health Care Infrastructure for Financially Sustainable Clinical Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Jochen K; McLaughlin, Heather M; Baron, Jason M; Rasmussen, David; Sumbada Shin, Meini; Berners-Lee, Nancy; Miller Batten, Julie; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gala, Manish K; Winter, Harland S; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sweetser, David A; Boswell, Marianne; Pacula, Maciej; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Le, Long P; Hynes, William; Rehm, Heidi L; Klibanski, Anne; Black-Schaffer, Stephen W; Golden, Jeffrey A; Louis, David N; Weiss, Scott T; Iafrate, A John

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing has evolved technically and economically into the method of choice for interrogating the genome in cancer and inherited disorders. The introduction of procedural code sets for whole-exome and genome sequencing is a milestone toward financially sustainable clinical implementation; however, achieving reimbursement is currently a major challenge. As part of a prospective quality-improvement initiative to implement the new code sets, we adopted Agile, a development methodology originally devised in software development. We implemented eight functionally distinct modules (request review, cost estimation, preauthorization, accessioning, prebilling, testing, reporting, and reimbursement consultation) and obtained feedback via an anonymous survey. We managed 50 clinical requests (January to June 2015). The fraction of pursued-to-requested cases (n = 15/50; utilization management fraction, 0.3) aimed for a high rate of preauthorizations. In 13 of 15 patients the insurance plan required preauthorization, which we obtained in 70% and ultimately achieved reimbursement in 50%. Interoperability enabled assessment of 12 different combinations of modules that underline the importance of an adaptive workflow and policy tailoring to achieve higher yields of reimbursement. The survey confirmed a positive attitude toward self-organizing teams. We acknowledge the individuals and their interactions and termed the infrastructure: human pipeline. Nontechnical barriers currently are limiting the scope and availability of clinical genomic sequencing. The presented human pipeline is one approach toward long-term financial sustainability of clinical genomics. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Energy Assessment. Toward a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, T B; Nakicenovic, N; Patwardhan, A; Gomez-Echeverri, L [eds.

    2012-11-01

    The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.

  9. Molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita

    2008-01-01

    Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. The goal of ligand-protein docking is to predict the predominant binding mode(s) of a ligand with a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Successful docking methods search high-dimensional spaces effectively and use a scoring function that correctly ranks candidate dockings. Docking can be used to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands inhibit the target, which is invaluable in lead optimization. The setting up of the input structures for the docking is just as important as the docking itself, and analyzing the results of stochastic search methods can sometimes be unclear. This chapter discusses the background and theory of molecular docking software, and covers the usage of some of the most-cited docking software.

  10. Sustainable Energy (SUSEN) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Research Centre Rez and University of West Bohemia started preparatory work on the 'Sustainable Energy' project, financed from EU structural funds. The goals and expected results of the project, its organization, estimated costs, time schedule and current status are described. (orig.)

  11. Paying for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns of consumers and global supply chains center on the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions and water usage. This study analyzes consumers’ preferences for sustainable products as indicated by water and carbon footprint labels, enabling a rare cross-cultural comparison...... and policy stakeholders in designing targeted footprint labeling initiatives....

  12. Sustainability in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper...

  13. Strategic corporate sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  14. Sustainable growth in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreini, P.

    1993-01-01

    The measures till now adopted did not stop environmental deterioration in Europe and the growth of economic activities in the future will make the situation more and more heavy. The European Communities (EEC) Cabinet launched a long term program for a sustainable growth in Europe, which could conciliate economic needs with environmental protection. This paper presents the first part of the program

  15. Sustainable consumption dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees; Heijden, Eline Van Der; Soest, Daan Van; Vollebergh, Herman; Dietz, Frank

    To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on

  16. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  17. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  18. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    An overview is presented of the need for keeping electricity consumption low, including a suggested definition of sustainable development. Specific attention is devoted to present and future electricity production´s contribution to the environmental problems. Prognoses are shown from before any...

  19. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  20. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...