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Sample records for sustained low-intensity contractions

  1. The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Gandevia, Simon C; Todd, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Subjects quickly fatigue when they perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Much of the loss of force is from processes within muscle (peripheral fatigue) but some occurs because voluntary activation of the muscle declines (central fatigue). The role of central fatigue during submaximal...... contractions is not clear. This study investigated whether central fatigue developed during prolonged low-force voluntary contractions. Subjects (n=9) held isometric elbow flexions of 15% MVC for 43 min. Voluntary activation was measured during brief MVCs every 3 min. During each MVC, transcranial magnetic...... several minutes while MVC torque only returned to approximately 85% baseline. The resting twitch showed no recovery. Thus, as well as fatigue in the muscle, the prolonged low-force contraction produced progressive central fatigue, and some of this impairment of the subjects' ability to drive the muscle...

  2. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  3. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  5. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  6. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  7. Bi-directional interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual sustained contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between homologous muscle representations in the right and left primary motor cortex was studied using a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocol known to evoke interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. The timecourse and magnitude of IHI was studied in fifteen healthy right-handed adults at several interstimulus intervals between the conditioning stimulus and test stimulus (6, 8, 10, 12, 30, 40, 50 ms. IHI was studied in the motor dominant to non-dominant direction and vice versa while the right or left hand was at rest, performing isometric contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle, and isometric contraction of the FDI muscle in the context of holding a pen. Results Compared with rest, IHI was reduced at all ISIs during contraction of either type (with or without the context of pen. IHI was reduced bi-directionally without evidence of hemispheric dominance. Further, contraction of the hand contralateral to the conditioning and test pulse yielded similar reductions in IHI. Conclusion These data provide evidence for bi-directional reduction of IHI during unimanual contractions. During unimanual, sustained contractions of the hand, the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices demonstrate reduced inhibition. The data suggest that unimanual movement decreases inhibition bi-directionally across motor hemispheres and offer one explanation for the observation of ipsilateral M1 activity during hand movements.

  8. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  9. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  10. Towards a sustainably certifiable futures contract for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    How are biofuels to be certified as produced in a sustainable and responsible fashion? In the global debate over this issue, one party to the proceedings seems rarely to be mentioned-namely the commodities exchanges through which a global biofuels market is being created. In this contribution, I propose a solution to the problem of sustainability certification through a biofuels futures contract equipped with 'proof of origin' documentation. The proposal does not call for any radical break with current practice, extending existing certification procedures with a requirement for the vendor to provide documentation, probably in barcoded form, of the history of the biofuel offered for sale, including plantation and biorefinery where the biofuel was produced and subsequent blendings it may have undergone. The proposal is thus compatible with the blending practices of large global traders, whose activities are the source of the difficulties of other approaches to certification. It is argued that if such a sustainable futures contract for bioethanol (in the first instance) were to be introduced, then it would likely trade at a premium and become the primary vehicle for North-South trade in biofuels

  11. Sustainable Contracts in the Bottled Tawilis Value Chain in Taal, Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia V. Almazan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conceptualized to investigate the potential impact of contracts on the sustainability of the bottled tawilis supply chain, i.e. sustainability in terms of environmental protection, well-being of the people whose livelihood depends on tawilis production, processing and marketing; and enhanced economic gains from the chain. A survey amongst fishermen, middlemen and processors was performed in the lake Taal area. The study concludes that formal contracts, with specific demands to gear used and the handling of fish, may stimulate the catch of minimum and uniform sized fish. Such contracts may also stimulate delivery of higher quality fish by fishermen. These contracts thereby enhance sustainable fishing and increase in fishermen’s income. Direct (win-win contracts between processors and fishermen seem to be the best way to stimulate delivery of sustainably catched fish. Government should strongly increase enforcement of sustainable fishing practices and stimulate contracting for sustainable fishing in this chain.

  12. Adaptations of upper trapezius muscle activity during sustained contractions in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falla, Deborah Lorraine; Andersen, Helle; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2010-01-01

    a topographical map of the distribution of muscle activity. The pain level rated by the patients at the beginning of the sustained contraction was 5.9+/-1.5. The peak pain intensity for the control group following the injection of hypertonic saline was 6.0+/-1.6. During the sustained contractions, the EMG...

  13. Sustainable kerbside recycling in the municipal garbage contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-12-01

    In an era of global warming, rising energy costs and increasing volumes of wastes destined for landfills and incinerators, communities should set up environmentally sustainable services that are cost-effective for their citizens and revenue generators for municipalities. A win-win garbage collection and kerbside recycling program established more than eight years ago in a small rural community in Ohio, US is still going strong. It is offering a relatively inexpensive way for waste disposal by providing an incentive-based and highly participatory kerbside recycling and at the same time bringing in substantial franchise fees for the municipal coffers. Unlike garbage contracts in most communities that are designed for only residential waste collection, this program extends disposal and recycling services to non-residential establishments. It picks up hard-to-dispose household furniture, appliances and other bulky items without additional costs to the residents. By being creative and assessing local political and socio-economic milieu, public officials can implement a comprehensive service package for taking care of their community throwaways. However, before establishing such programs in partnership with a private firm, city administrators must understand the intricacies of bid specifications customized for municipal wastes and recyclable materials.

  14. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  15. Towards sustainable infrastructure development through integrated contracts : Experiences with inclusiveness in Dutch infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Sander; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    Current complex society necessitates finding inclusive arrangements for delivering sustainable road infrastructure integrating design, construction and maintenance stages of the project lifecycle. In this article we investigate whether linking stages by integrated contracts can lead to more

  16. Sustainable Contract in the Bottled Tawalis Value Chain in Taal, Batangas, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almazan, C.V.; Trienekens, J.H.; Bijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conceptualized to investigate the potential impact of contracts on the sustainability of the bottled tawilis supply chain, i.e. sustainability in terms of environmental protection, well-being of the people whose livelihood depends on tawilis production, processing and marketing;

  17. International offshore petroleum contracts: Towards the compatibility of energy need and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiguo.

    1993-01-01

    The legal and commercial relationships between petroleum producing countries and foreign oil companies have been defined by traditional oil concession agreements before the 1950s, and since then by modern petroleum contracts. The development policies behind the evolution of various arrangements for offshore petroleum exploration are scrutinized. By studying examples of contracts in four developing countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, and China), the issues of mutuality of interests and environmental sustainability that are reflected in both the structure and substance of modern petroleum contracts are examined. Major findings are that modern petroleum contracts are generally able to achieve and maintain a necessary balance of rights, interests and benefits between the contracting parties, but have failed to produce any balance between the extraction of resources and environmental sustainability. The existing contractual systems have failed in principle to provide adequate environmental regulation and have not addressed the issue of sustainable development at all. Arrangements focusing on economic interests are inappropriate for future energy developments, but through the proper use of contract terms that contain elements favouring sustainable development, economic and environmental interests can nevertheless be accomodated and served at the same time. Future petroleum agreements should recognize explicitly the inherent independence and coexistence between commerciality and sustainable development. 288 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs

  18. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  19. Keratomodelling with low-intensity ultraviolet radiation of excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrishchak, I.B.; Vorontsov, V.V.; Murzin, A.G.; Polikarpov, S.S.; Soms, L.N.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of keratomodelling with low-intensive UV-radiation of excimer laser with subablation energy density in a pulse. Model specimens of polymers and cornea tissue were used. It is shown that the range of threshold energy density in a pulse expands with increase of UV-radiation wave length and contracts with increase of pulse repetition frequency. This range appeared to be different for polymers and cornea tissue. It was revealed that cornea tissue represented a complex high-molecular bipolymer with high water content

  20. FM contract relationships: from mobilisation to sustainable partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, I.; Owen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose / theory\\ud Outsourcing is a fundamental business model for the Facilities Management (FM) industry. To enable sustained mutual success the parties involved must seek to understand the unique, socially constructed, and often highly complex situational realities of the organisational ecologies they are engaged in. The FM industry can unlock improved performance and strategic credibility through an appreciation of the need for different conversations.\\ud Design / methodology / approach\\...

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  2. Photonuclear physics with low intensity photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments in photonuclear physics are discussed that require a low intensity photon beam and large acceptance detectors. This combination is especially suitable for the investigation of photoprocesses on nucleons and light nuclei. A specific experimental setup for the electron stretcher ring ELSA is presented. (orig.)

  3. Motor unit recruitment and bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram during a sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Terry, Mary E; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-06-01

    Bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during a sustained contraction have been interpreted as corresponding to the transient recruitment of motor units, but this association has never been confirmed. The current study compared the timing of trains of action potentials discharged by single motor units during a sustained contraction with the bursts of activity detected in the surface EMG signal. The 20 motor units from 6 subjects [recruitment threshold, 35.3 +/- 11.3% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force] that were detected with fine wire electrodes discharged 2-9 trains of action potentials (7.2 +/- 5.6 s in duration) when recruited during a contraction that was sustained at a force below its recruitment threshold (target force, 25.4 +/- 10.6% MVC force). High-pass filtering the bipolar surface EMG signal improved its correlation with the single motor unit signal. An algorithm applied to the surface EMG was able to detect 75% of the trains of motor unit action potentials. The results indicate that bursts of activity in the surface EMG during a constant-force contraction correspond to the transient recruitment of higher-threshold motor units in healthy individuals, and these results could assist in the diagnosis and design of treatment in individuals who demonstrate deficits in motor unit activation.

  4. Finite-element simulation of blood perfusion in muscle tissue during compression and sustained contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, W.J.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Slaaf, D.W.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Drost, M.R.; Janssen, J.D.; Huson, A.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between tissue stress and blood perfusion in skeletal muscles plays an important role in blood flow impediment during sustained contraction. The exact mechanism of this interaction is not clear, and experimental investigation of this mechanism is difficult. We developed a

  5. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  6. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  7. Motor unit recruitment in human biceps brachii during sustained voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Maerz, Adam H; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of the difference between the recruitment threshold of a motor unit and the target force of the sustained contraction on the discharge of the motor unit at recruitment. The discharge characteristics of 53 motor units in biceps brachii were recorded after being recruited during a sustained contraction. Some motor units (n = 22) discharged action potentials tonically after being recruited, whereas others (n = 31) discharged intermittent trains of action potentials. The two groups of motor units were distinguished by the difference between the recruitment threshold of the motor unit and the target force for the sustained contraction: tonic, 5.9 +/- 2.5%; intermittent, 10.7 +/- 2.9%. Discharge rate for the tonic units decreased progressively (13.9 +/- 2.7 to 11.7 +/- 2.6 pulses s(-1); P = 0.04) during the 99 +/- 111 s contraction. Train rate, train duration and average discharge rate for the intermittent motor units did not change across 211 +/- 153 s of intermittent discharge. The initial discharge rate at recruitment during the sustained contraction was lower for the intermittent motor units (11.0 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1)) than the tonic motor units (13.7 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1); P = 0.005), and the coefficient of variation for interspike interval was higher for the intermittent motor units (34.6 +/- 12.3%) than the tonic motor units (21.2 +/- 9.4%) at recruitment (P = 0.001) and remained elevated for discharge duration (34.6 +/- 9.2% versus 19.1 +/- 11.7%, P motor units were recorded at two different target forces below recruitment threshold (5.7 +/- 1.9% and 10.5 +/- 2.4%). Each motor unit exhibited the two discharge patterns (tonic and intermittent) as observed for the 53 motor units. The results suggest that newly recruited motor units with recruitment thresholds closer to the target force experienced less synaptic noise at the time of recruitment that resulted in them discharging action potentials at more regular

  8. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  9. Analysis of low-intensity scintillation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravsky, V.; Tolstov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum likelihood algorithms for nuclides activities estimation from low intensity scintillation γ-ray spectra have been created. The algorithms treat full energy peaks and Compton parts of spectra, and they are more effective than least squares estimators. The factors that could lead to the bias of activity estimates are taken into account. Theoretical analysis of the problem of choosing the optimal set of initial spectra for the spectrum model to minimize errors of the activities estimation has been carried out for the general case of the N-components with Gaussian or Poisson statistics. The obtained criterion allows to exclude superfluous initial spectra of nuclides from the model. A special calibration procedure for scintillation γ-spectrometers has been developed. This procedure is required for application of the maximum likelihood activity estimators processing all the channels of the scintillation γ-spectrum, including the Compton part. It allows one to take into account the influence of the sample mass density variation. The algorithm for testing the spectrum model adequacy to the processed scintillation spectrum has been developed. The algorithms are realized in Borland Pascal 7 as a library of procedures and functions. The developed library is compatible with Delphi 1.0 and higher versions. It can be used as the algorithmic basis for analysis of highly sensitive scintillation γ- and β-spectrometric devices. (author)

  10. Discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units at recruitment when older adults sustained an isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michael A; Holmes, Matthew R; Enoka, Roger M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the discharge characteristics of motor units recruited during an isometric contraction that was sustained with the elbow flexor muscles by older adults at target forces that were less than the recruitment threshold force of each isolated motor unit. The discharge times of 27 single motor units were recorded from the biceps brachii in 11 old adults (78.8 ± 5.9 yr). The target force was set at either a relatively small (6.6 ± 3.7% maximum) or large (11.4 ± 4.5% maximum) difference below the recruitment threshold force and the contraction was sustained until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for about 60 s. The time to recruitment was longer for the large target-force difference (P = 0.001). At recruitment, the motor units discharged repetitively for both target-force differences, which contrasts with data from young adults when motor units discharged intermittently at recruitment for the large difference between recruitment threshold force and target force. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the first five interspike intervals (ISIs) increased from the small (18.7 ± 7.9) to large difference (35.0 ± 10.2%, P = 0.008) for the young adults, but did not differ for the two target force differences for the old adults (26.3 ± 14.7 to 24.0 ± 13.1%, P = 0.610). When analyzed across the discharge duration, the average CV for the ISI decreased similarly for the two target-force differences (P = 0.618) in old adults. These findings contrast with those of young adults and indicate that the integration of synaptic input during sustained contractions differs between young and old adults.

  11. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundi Raman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually, millions of people across the world are inflicted with bone fracture injuries. Untimely healing is a significant burden in terms of socioeconomic costs, personal costs, and patients′ quality of life. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has gained much attention as a potential adjunctive therapy for accelerating fresh fracture healing, but its efficacy remains controversial. This paper is presented in two parts a literature review followed by a systematic review. The literature review highlights the physiology of fracture healing and the influence LIPUS exerts on cells and molecules involved in this healing process. In part two, we present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing the clinical effectiveness of LIPUS in accelerating the time to fracture healing. The electronic databases we searched for the systematic review are as follows: MEDLINE (from 1996 to November 2008, EMBASE (from 1996 to November 2008, and Healthstar (from 1966 to October 2008. A two-step screening process was used to assess the eligibility of studies yielded by our search. The first step was a review of titles and abstracts for the selection of studies that met the following criteria: (i inclusion of skeletally mature patients with a fresh fracture, (ii a minimum of two treatment arms with at least one arm receiving LIPUS treatment and another arm receiving placebo, (iii random allocation of patients to the different treatment arms, (iv radiological assessment of time to fracture healing, and (v publication in the English language. In the second step, selected articles were reviewed in full text. Eligible trials were all scored independently by two reviewers for methodological reporting quality using the 15-item CLEAR NPT checklist (Checklist to Evaluate the Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial. We identified a total of seventy seven studies, nine of which met our inclusion criteria after the initial screening. Of these nine

  12. Load type influences motor unit recruitment in biceps brachii during a sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Stéphane; Rudroff, Thorsten; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Enoka, Roger M

    2009-09-01

    Twenty subjects participated in four experiments designed to compare time to task failure and motor-unit recruitment threshold during contractions sustained at 15% of maximum as the elbow flexor muscles either supported an inertial load (position task) or exerted an equivalent constant torque against a rigid restraint (force task). Subcutaneous branched bipolar electrodes were used to record single motor unit activity from the biceps brachii muscle during ramp contractions performed before and at 50 and 90% of the time to failure for the position task during both fatiguing contractions. The time to task failure was briefer for the position task than for the force task (P=0.0002). Thirty and 29 motor units were isolated during the force and position tasks, respectively. The recruitment threshold declined by 48 and 30% (P=0.0001) during the position task for motor units with an initial recruitment threshold below and above the target force, respectively, whereas no significant change in recruitment threshold was observed during the force task. Changes in recruitment threshold were associated with a decrease in the mean discharge rate (-16%), an increase in discharge rate variability (+40%), and a prolongation of the first two interspike intervals (+29 and +13%). These data indicate that there were faster changes in motor unit recruitment and rate coding during the position task than the force task despite a similar net muscle torque during both tasks. Moreover, the results suggest that the differential synaptic input observed during the position task influences most of the motor unit pool.

  13. Sustainable Regulation of Information Sharing with Electronic Data Interchange by a Trust-Embedded Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the risks in demand information sharing applications by electronic soft-orders using electronic data interchange (EDI systems in e-commerce and aims to suggest a sustainable regulation mechanism with a trust-embedded contract. In a supply chain with one retailer and one supplier, the retailer solicits private forecasted demand and places soft-orders via EDI to the supplier. To ensure abundant supply, the retailer has an incentive to inflate her soft-orders, which potentially harms the credible information sharing and sustainability of business cooperation. Normally, the degree to which the supplier relies on the retailer’s order information is specified by trust, which is evaluated according to the retailer’s reputation and supplier’s intuition in this study. Based on standard game theory, we find that both the retailer’s order and the quantity of supplier prepared materials are independent of the retailer’s forecast. Therefore, EDI based information sharing in e-commerce without a regulation mechanism leads to inefficient demand information sharing. Since both the supplier and retailer are proved to faces huge of potential profit losses due to the failure of information sharing, the commerce by EDI based information sharing is full of risk and unsustainable. Therefore, a regulation mechanism that leaded by the retailer is proposed to establish ‘win-win’ sustainable cooperation. Numerical experiments highlight the value of trust, the impact of reputation and intuition in decisions, and the effectiveness of the regulation mechanism by a cost-sharing contract.

  14. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%); however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  15. Sustainability as Social Contract: Textile and Apparel Professionals’ Value Conflicts within the Corporate Moral Responsibility Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel LoMonaco-Benzing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current discussions of sustainability in the textile and apparel (T&A supply chain tend to focus on consumer behavior or methods of production. Few studies investigate how T&A supply chain members experience corporate sustainability initiatives within their own moral value spectrum. This study was designed to describe the gaps that might exist between personal and corporate moral values of T&A supply chain members, and how individuals manage such gaps to align personal and corporate identities. The researchers investigated the views of ten T&A supply chain members residing in the United States, both as employees and consumers of T&A companies, through semi-structured interviews. Dunfee’s extant social contracts and Schwartz’s theory of basic values were used as theoretical frameworks to better understand the participants’ lived experiences in negotiating personal and corporate expectations. The findings revealed three themes: (a nature of the value gap; (b frustration due to the value gap; and (c strategies to manage the value gap. The strategies used to realign values split into either those that held sustainability as their responsibility and worked to move corporate values toward their personal values; or those that shifted the blame to others so that their values could remain untouched.

  16. Finite-element simulation of blood perfusion in muscle tissue during compression and sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, W J; Huyghe, J M; Slaaf, D W; van Donkelaar, C C; Drost, M R; Janssen, J D; Huson, A

    1997-09-01

    Mechanical interaction between tissue stress and blood perfusion in skeletal muscles plays an important role in blood flow impediment during sustained contraction. The exact mechanism of this interaction is not clear, and experimental investigation of this mechanism is difficult. We developed a finite-element model of the mechanical behavior of blood-perfused muscle tissue, which accounts for mechanical blood-tissue interaction in maximally vasodilated vasculature. Verification of the model was performed by comparing finite-element results of blood pressure and flow with experimental measurements in a muscle that is subject to well-controlled mechanical loading conditions. In addition, we performed simulations of blood perfusion during tetanic, isometric contraction and maximal vasodilation in a simplified, two-dimensional finite-element model of a rat calf muscle. A vascular waterfall in the venous compartment was identified as the main cause for blood flow impediment both in the experiment and in the finite-element simulations. The validated finite-element model offers possibilities for detailed analysis of blood perfusion in three-dimensional muscle models under complicated loading conditions.

  17. SUSTAINED ISOMETRIC SHOULDER CONTRACTION ON MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Natalie L; Toonstra, Jenny L; Smith, Jacob S; Padgett, Cooper A; Uhl, Tim L

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Throwers Ten Exercise Program incorporates sustained isometric contractions in conjunction with dynamic shoulder movements. It has been suggested that incorporating isometric holds may facilitate greater increases in muscular strength and endurance. However, no objective evidence currently exists to support this claim. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of a sustained muscle contraction resistive training program (Advanced Throwers Ten Program) to a more traditional exercise training protocol to determine if increases in shoulder muscular strength and endurance occur in an otherwise healthy population. It was hypothesized that utilizing a sustained isometric hold during a shoulder scaption exercise from the Advanced Throwers Ten would produce greater increases in shoulder strength and endurance as compared to a traditional training program incorporating a isotonic scapular plane abduction (scaption) exercise. Randomized Clinical Trial. Fifty healthy participants were enrolled in this study, of which 25 were randomized into the traditional training group (age: 26 ± 8, height:172 ± 10 cm, weight: 73 ± 13 kg, Marx Activity Scale: 11 ± 4) and 25 were randomized to the Advanced Throwers Ten group (age: 28 ± 9, height: 169 ± 23 cm, weight: 74 ± 16 kg, Marx Activity Scale: 11 ± 5). No pre-intervention differences existed between the groups (P>0.05). Arm endurance and strength data were collected pre and post intervention using a portable load cell (BTE Evaluator, Hanover, MD). Both within and between group analyses were done in order to investigate average torque (strength) and angular impulse (endurance) changes. The traditional and Advanced Throwers Ten groups both significantly improved torque and angular impulse on both the dominant and non-dominant arms by 10-14%. There were no differences in strength or endurance following the interventions between the two training groups (p>0

  18. Blackcurrant Alters Physiological Responses and Femoral Artery Diameter during Sustained Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Cook

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may affect exercise-induced physiological responses. We examined tissue oxygen saturation, muscle activity, cardiovascular responses and femoral artery diameter during a submaximal sustained isometric contraction. In a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, healthy men (n = 13, age: 25 ± 4 years, BMI: 25 ± 3 kg·m−2, mean ± SD ingested New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL for 7-days separated by 14-days washout. Participants produced isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVC and a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps with electromyography (EMG, near-infrared spectroscopy, hemodynamic and ultrasound recordings. There was no effect of NZBC extract on iMVC (NZBC: 654 ± 73, PL: 650 ± 78 N. During the 30%iMVC with NZBC extract, total peripheral resistance, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were lower with increased cardiac output and stroke volume. With NZBC extract, EMG root mean square of the vastus medialis and muscle oxygen saturation were lower with higher total haemoglobin. During the 30%iMVC, femoral artery diameter was increased with NZBC extract at 30 (6.9%, 60 (8.2%, 90 (7.7% and 120 s (6.0%. Intake of NZBC extract for 7-days altered cardiovascular responses, muscle oxygen saturation, muscle activity and femoral artery diameter during a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps. The present study provides insight into the potential mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance with intake of blackcurrant.

  19. Low-intensity beam diagnostics with particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovelli, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Raia, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44/A Catania, 95125 (Italy); De Martinis, C.; Giove, D. [INFN-LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201 Segrate (Midway Islands), 20090 (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    The measure of low intensity beams at low-medium energy is one of the major challenge in beam diagnostics. This subject is of great interest for the design of accelerator-based medical and radioactive beam facilities. In this paper we discuss new developments in image-based devices to measure low-intensity beams. All the investigated devices must guarantee measurement of the total beam current and its transverse distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Low-intensity beam diagnostics with particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovelli, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Raia, G.; De Martinis, C.; Giove, D.

    1997-01-01

    The measure of low intensity beams at low-medium energy is one of the major challenge in beam diagnostics. This subject is of great interest for the design of accelerator-based medical and radioactive beam facilities. In this paper we discuss new developments in image-based devices to measure low-intensity beams. All the investigated devices must guarantee measurement of the total beam current and its transverse distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Dynamic Contraction of the Positive Column of a Self-Sustained Glow Discharge in Molecular Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Contraction of the gas discharge, when current contracts from a significant volume of weakly ionized plasma into a thin arc channel, was attracted attention of scientists for more than a century. Studies of the contraction (also called constriction) mechanisms, besides carrying interesting science, are of practical importance, especially when contraction should be prevented. A set of time-dependent two-dimensional equations for the non-equilibrium weakly-ionized nitrogen/ air plasma is formulated. The process is described by a set of time-dependent continuity equations for the electrons, positive and negative ions; gas and vibrational temperature; by taking into account the convective heat and plasma losses by the transverse flux. Transition from the uniform to contracted state was analyzed. It was shown that such transition experiences a hysteresis, and that the critical current of the transition increases when the pressure (gas density) drops. Possible coexistence of the contracted and uniform state of the plasma in the discharge where the current flows along the density gradient of the background gas was discussed. In this talk the problems related to the dynamic contraction of the current channel inside a quasineutral positive column of a self-sustained glow discharge in molecular gas in a rectangular duct with convection cooling will be discussed. Study presented in this talk was stimulated by the fact that there are large number of experiments on the dynamic contraction of a glow discharge in nitrogen and air flows and a many of possible applications. Similar processes play a role in the powerful gas-discharge lasers. In addition, the problem of dynamic contraction in the large volume of non-equilibrium weakly ionized plasma is closely related to the problem of streamer to leader transitions in lightning and blue jets.

  2. Intramuscular Heating Characteristics of Multihour Low-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Justin H; Taggart, Rebecca M; Stratton, Kelly L; Lewis, George K; Draper, David O

    2015-11-01

    The heating characteristics of a stationary device delivering sustained acoustic medicine with low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) are unknown. To measure intramuscular (IM) heating produced by a LITUS device developed for long-duration treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. A total of 26 healthy volunteers (16 men, 10 women; age = 23.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.48 ± 14.65 kg). Participants were assigned randomly to receive active (n = 20) or placebo (n = 6) LITUS at a frequency of 3 MHz and an energy intensity of 0.132 W/cm(2) continuously for 3 hours with a single transducer or dual transducers on the triceps surae muscle. We measured IM temperature using thermocouples inserted at 1.5- and 3-cm depths into muscle. Temperatures were recorded throughout treatment and 30 minutes posttreatment. We used 2-sample t tests to determine the heating curve of the LITUS treatment and differences in final temperatures between depth and number of transducers. A mild IM temperature increase of 1 °C was reached 10 ± 5 minutes into the treatment, and a more vigorous temperature increase of 4 °C was reached 80 ± 10 minutes into the treatment. The maximal steady-state IM temperatures produced during the final 60 minutes of treatment at the 1.5-cm depth were 4.42 °C ± 0.08 °C and 3.92 °C ± 0.06 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. At the 3.0-cm depth, the maximal steady-state IM temperatures during the final 60 minutes of treatment were 3.05 °C ± 0.09 °C and 3.17 °C ± 0.05 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. We observed a difference between the temperatures measured at each depth (t78 = -2.45, P = .02), but the number of transducers used to generate heating was not different (t78 = 1.79, P = .08). The LITUS device elicited tissue heating equivalent to traditional ultrasound but could be sustained for multiple hours. It is a safe and effective alternative tool

  3. Store-operated calcium entry is required for sustained contraction and Ca2+ oscillations of airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Sanderson, Michael J

    2017-05-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is driven by excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Agonist-induced Ca 2+ oscillations underlie this contraction of ASMCs and the magnitude of this contraction is proportional to the Ca 2+ oscillation frequency. Sustained contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations require an influx of extracellular Ca 2+ , although the mechanisms and pathways mediating this Ca 2+ influx during agonist-induced ASMC contraction are not well defined. By inhibiting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCCs), we show that SOCE, rather than Ca 2+ influx via VGCCs, provides the major Ca 2+ entry pathway into ASMCs to sustain ASMCs contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations. SOCE may therefore serve as a potential target for new bronchodilators to reduce airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Asthma is characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness: the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle. The extent of this airway contraction is proportional to the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations within airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Sustained Ca 2+ oscillations require a Ca 2+ influx to replenish Ca 2+ losses across the plasma membrane. Our previous studies implied store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) as the major pathway for this Ca 2+ influx. In the present study, we explore this hypothesis, by examining the effects of SOCE inhibitors (GSK7975A and GSK5498A) as well as L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel inhibitors (nifedipine and nimodipine) on airway contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations and SOCE-mediated Ca 2+ influx in ASMCs within mouse precision-cut lung slices. We found that both GSK7975A and GSK5498A were able to fully relax methacholine-induced airway contraction by abolishing the Ca 2+ oscillations, in a manner similar to that observed in zero extracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] e ). In addition, GSK7975A and GSK5498A inhibited increases in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in ASMCs with depleted Ca 2+ -stores in

  4. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  5. On a low intensity 241 Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  6. Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne B; Persiani, Marie; Boie, Sidsel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) can be used as a treatment for men with erectile dysfunction of organic origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study included 112 ...... are needed. KEYWORDS: Erectile dysfunction; extracorporeal shockwave; penis...

  7. Fractal based complexity measure and variation in force during sustained isometric muscle contraction: effect of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Bastos, Teodiano

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated the effect of age on the fractal based complexity measure of muscle activity and variance in the force of isometric muscle contraction. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) and force of muscle contraction were recorded from 40 healthy subjects categorized into: Group 1: Young - age range 20-30; 10 Males and 10 Females, Group 2: Old - age range 55-70; 10 Males and 10 Females during isometric exercise at Maximum Voluntary contraction (MVC). The results show that there is a reduction in the complexity of surface electromyogram (sEMG) associated with aging. The results demonstrate that there is an increase in the coefficient of variance (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction and a decrease in complexity of sEMG for the Old age group when compared with the Young age group.

  8. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pengpeng; Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian

    2011-01-01

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: → EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. → CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. → Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  9. Low-intensity training dissociates metabolic from aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J W; Damsgaard, R; Overgaard, K

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking was perf......This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking...... sensitive lipase activity was similar in arm and leg muscle prior to the expedition and was not significantly affected by the crossing. In conclusion, an improved blood lipid profile and thus metabolic fitness was present after prolonged low-intensity training and this occurred in spite of a decreased...... aerobic fitness and an unchanged arm and leg muscle hormone-sensitive lipase activity....

  10. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  11. Securing a sustainable future through a new global contract between rich and poor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global sustainable development depends on the capacity of natural, social and economic systems to adapt to external stimuli. However, building this adaptive capacity in the developing world context of Sub-Sahara Africa will require substantial...

  12. Motor variability during sustained contractions increases with cognitive demand in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Vanden Noven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20 ± 2 yr: 8 men, 8 women and 17 older adults (69 ±4 yr: 9 men, 8 women attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: 1 high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number; 2 low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by one; and 3 control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p0.05, but the variability between sessions (standard deviation [SD] of 3 sessions was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 min vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, P<0.05. Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low and moderate force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.

  13. Enhancing Economic Sustainability by Markdown Money Supply Contracts in the Fashion Industry: China vs U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain contracts, such as the markdown money policy (MMP, are commonly adopted in the fashion industry. In this paper, we explore how fashion companies can use MMP to enhance economic sustainability from the cross-cultural perspective. We conduct case studies on two fashion firms (suppliers, one from China and one from U.S.A., that are adopting MMP in their respective supply chains. Via semi-structured interviews with staff members and some public data searching of the target companies, we find that the cultural factors, such as power distance and collectivism/individualism, affect contract selection, contract management, supplier–retailer leadership, and supplier–retailer relationship. We use the Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions theory to explain our insights. Specifically, in China, a country with a relatively high degree of power distance and collectivism, the companies tend to care more about the group interest and loyalty. The Chinese fashion companies are more willing to play the leading role in managing the relationships with their retailers, and offer MMP to them. In the U.S.A., a country with a relatively low degree of power distance and individualism, the companies are more likely to emphasize their own interest in trading. In fact, we find that American fashion suppliers tend to bargain with their retailers, and they are less willing to proactively provide the markdown money as a sponsor. Finally, managerial implications are provided, and several future challenges on MMP are examined.

  14. Motor Variability during Sustained Contractions Increases with Cognitive Demand in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Noven, Marnie L.; Pereira, Hugo M.; Yoon, Tejin; Stevens, Alyssa A.; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations) and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20.4 ± 2.1 year: 8 men, 9 women) and 17 older adults (68.8 ± 4.4 years: 9 men, 8 women) attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: (1) high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number); (2) low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by 1); and (3) control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p  Older adults had larger force fluctuations than young adults during: (1) the 5% MVC task as cognitive demand increased (p  = 0.007), and (2) the fatiguing contraction for all sessions (p  = 0.002). Time to task failure did not differ between sessions or age groups (p  > 0.05), but the variability between sessions (standard deviation of three sessions) was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, p  age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce. PMID:24904410

  15. Low-intensity interference effects and hidden-variable theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-05-11

    The double-slit interference experiment and other similar experiments in the low-intensity limit (that is, one photon in the apparatus at a time) are examined in the spirit of Bell's work from the point of view of hidden-variable theories. It is found that there exists a class of hidden-variable theories which disagrees with quantum mechanics for a certain type of interference experiment. A manufactured conceptualization of this class, which is a particle view of interference, is described. An experiment, which appears to be feasible, is proposed to examine this disagreement.

  16. Mechanisms of repetitive retrograde contractions in response to sustained esophageal distension: a study evaluating patients with postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Ritter, Katherine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E

    2018-03-01

    Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with postfundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs. Adult patients with dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication ( n = 32) or type III achalasia ( n = 25) were evaluated with high-resolution manometry (HRM) and upper endoscopy with FLIP. HRM studies were assessed for outflow obstruction and spastic features: premature contractility, hypercontractility, and impaired deglutitive inhibition during multiple-rapid swallows. FLIP studies were analyzed to determine the esophagogastric junction (EGJ)-distensibility index and contractility pattern, including RRCs. Barium esophagram was evaluated when available. RRCs were present in 8/32 (25%) fundoplication and 19/25 (76%) achalasia patients ( P esophageal outflow obstruction, as a predictor for RRCs. RRCs in response to sustained esophageal distension appear to be a manifestation of spastic esophageal motility. Although future study to further clarify the significance of RRCs is needed, RRCs on FLIP panometry should prompt evaluation for a major motor disorder. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) are a common response to sustained esophageal distension among spastic achalasia patients when evaluated with the functional luminal imaging probe. We evaluated patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, i.e., patients with suspected mechanical obstruction, and found that RRCs occasionally occurred among postfundoplication patients, but often in association with manometric features of esophageal neuromuscular imbalance. Thus, RRCs appear to be a manifestation of

  17. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  18. Very low intensity storage-ring profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.; Kells, W.; Lai, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Fermilab Colliding Beams Group has now accomplished several cooling experiments (electron and stochastic methods) on proton beams in the ''electron cooling'' synchrotron ring built for this purpose. A key to analyzing the performance of any test cooling system is a complete set of beam diagnostics to measure the beam emittances in all three planes. For longitudinal emittance the authors use Schottky scans (although very low intensities make this difficult, necessitating a departure from the conventional method by bunching the beams). A description is given of the MCP telescope and readout which evolved independently as a complete monitor system using residual gas in lieu of Mg vapor. To date all transverse measurements of coasting beam profiles have been obtained in this mode. 2 refs

  19. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in Sexual Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Lowenstein, Lior; Reisman, Yacov

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) has emerged as a treatment option for male sexual dysfunction. However, results have been contradictory. AIM: To investigate the knowledge, practice patterns, and attitudes regarding LI-ESWT among experts in sexual medicine....... METHODS: A study-specific questionnaire was handed out at the 18th Congress for the European Society for Sexual Medicine. Participants were queried on their knowledge about LI-ESWT and about their use of the equipment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive data on the knowledge of LI-ESWT and perception...... of treatment effects. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-two questionnaires were available for analysis. Most respondents were physicians (79.7%) and most of these specialized in urology (58.9%). Overall, 144 of 192 (75%) reported that they were familiar with LI-ESWT in sexual medicine. Twenty-seven (14.1%) had...

  20. A REVIEW OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND FOR CANCER THERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, ANDREW K. W.; SEHGAL, CHANDRA M.

    2015-01-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy was reviewed - sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound mediated gene delivery and antivascular ultrasound therapy. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells and the bioeffects of ultrasound were primarily attributed to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform which can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given to either the direct assessment of the underlying mechanisms of the observed bioeffects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data there could be a prompt application of a therapy technique in treating cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  1. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  2. Sustainability of a public system for plasma collection, contract fractionation and plasma-derived medicinal product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.

  3. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  4. Low Intensity Laser Therapy Applied in the Healing of Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Fred; Matthews, Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) on wound healing for patients presenting with pain, compromised neurological and physical function and tissue damage associated with vascular/diabetic ulcerations of the lower extremity. Methods: A retrospective case review of six patients treated with LILT (GaAlAs SLD, 660 nm, 750 mW, 3.6 J/cm2; GaAlAs SLD, 840 nm, 1,500 mW, 6.48 J/cm2; GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 75 mW, 270 J/cm2) was conducted of clinical features including pain, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), motor function, measured by range of motion (ROM) and visual outcome, measured by wound dimensions for six patients (n = 6; 5 males, 1 female; age = 67.83 years). Results: Significant progress with regard to alleviation of pain (ΔVAS = -5), improvements in motor function (ΔROM = +40%), epithelialization (wound closure rate = 3%/week) and complete wound closure was achieved. No recurrence of pathology at least one month post cessation of therapy was evident (x¯% reduction in wound area = 100%). Conclusions: LILT achieved consistent, effective and clear endpoints, was cost effective, created no adverse effects and ultimately led to the salvage of extremities.

  5. Indirect Low-Intensity Ultrasonic Stimulation for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungshin Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS treatment has been shown to increase mass transport, which could benefit tissue grafts during the immediate postimplant period, when blood supply to the implanted tissue is suboptimal. In this in vitro study, we investigated effects of LIUS stimulation on dye diffusion, proliferation, metabolism, and tropomyosin expression of muscle cells (C2C12 and on tissue viability and gene expression of human adipose tissue organoids. We found that LIUS increased dye diffusion within adjacent tissue culture wells and caused anisotropic diffusion patterns. This effect was confirmed by a hydrophone measurement resulting in acoustic pressure 150–341 Pa in wells. Cellular studies showed that LIUS significantly increased proliferation, metabolic activity, and expression of tropomyosin. Adipose tissue treated with LIUS showed significantly increased metabolic activity and the cells had similar morphology to normal unilocular adipocytes. Gene analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression (a marker for tissue damage was significantly lower for stimulated organoids than for control groups. Our data suggests that LIUS could be a useful modality for improving graft survival in vivo.

  6. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-01-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  7. Evaluation of low-intensity physical activity by triaxial accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Futami, Jun; Tabata, Izumi

    2007-12-01

    To develop regression-based equations that estimate physical activity ratios [energy expenditure (EE) per minute/sleeping metabolic rate] for low-to-moderate intensity activities using total acceleration obtained by triaxial accelerometry. Twenty-one Japanese adults were fitted with a triaxial accelerometer while also in a whole-body human calorimeter for 22.5 hours. The protocol time was composed of sleep (8 hours), four structured activity periods totaling 4 hours (sitting, standing, housework, and walking on a treadmill at speeds of 71 and 95 m/min, 2 x 30 minutes for each activity), and residual time (10.5 hours). Acceleration data (milligausse) from the different periods and their relationship to physical activity ratio obtained from the human calorimeter allowed for the development of EE equations for each activity. The EE equations were validated on the residual times, and the percentage difference for the prediction errors was calculated as (predicted value - measured value)/measured value x 100. Using data from triaxial accelerations and the ratio of horizontal to vertical accelerations, there was relatively high accuracy in identifying the four different periods of activity. The predicted EE (882 +/- 150 kcal/10.5 hours) was strongly correlated with the actual EE measured by human calorimetry (846 +/- 146 kcal/10.5 hours, r = 0.94 p types of activities and estimate EE for low-intensity physical activities associated with modern lifestyles.

  8. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE DURING LOW-INTENSITY AND FATIGUING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle

  9. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  10. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  11. Application of the Non-Intervention Principle to Low-Intensity Cyber Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Liisi

    2015-01-01

    Present work focuses on the non-intervention principle and low-intensity cyber operations. More specifically, its main question is, whether the principle of non-intervention applies to low-intensity cyber operations and if it does, is the legal framework of non-intervention principle an effective way to regulate peacetime low-intensity cyber operations. Information Age and the rapid development of ICTs have provided hostile actors the opportunity to exploit the advantages cyberspace offe...

  12. A new therapeutic approach for erectile dysfunction: Low intensity shockwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or sustain a penile erection for vaginal penetration and satisfactory sexual performance. It is the second most frequent problem of sexual dysfunction in men, after premature ejaculation, with an approximate prevalence rate of 30%. Most cases of erectile dysfunction have an organic origin, mostly vascular diseases, but it is also associated with psychological, neurological, and hormonal factors, or with structural alterations of the penis. Therapy with 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors has been clinically effective, but some patients do not respond to it. Lowintensity shock waves may improve penile vascularity and blood flow, leading to better erections, and improvement of the quality of sexual performance. In this review several studies are included that show the effectiveness of this treatment for erectile dysfunction.

  13. Membrane depolarization-induced RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activation and sustained contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Hayato; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Shoji, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K+-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431–40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K+-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K+-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 µM). Genistein (10 µM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca2+ transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 µM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 µM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K+ stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K+ stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K+ stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ∼55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K+. Ca2+ sensitization, myosin light chain phosphatase, RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase PMID:24133693

  14. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  15. Effect of Low-intensity Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andy C Y; Wong, Thomson W L; Lee, Paul H

    It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise interventions on physical and cognitive health of older adults. Published research was identified in various databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Research studies published from January 01, 1994 to February 01, 2015 were selected for examination. Studies were included if they were published in an academic peer-reviewed journal, published in English, conducted as randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-experimental studies with appropriate comparison groups, targeted participants aged 65 or above, and prescribed with low-intensity exercise in at least one study arm. Two reviewers independently extracted the data (study, design, participants, intervention, and results) and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality index ranged from 15 to 18 mean = 18.3 with a full score of 28, indicating a moderate quality. Most of the outcomes reported in these studied were lower limb muscle strength ( n  = 9), balancing ( n  = 7), flexibility ( n  = 4), and depressive symptoms ( n  = 3). Out of the 15 selected studies, 11 reported improvement in flexibility, balancing, lower limb muscle strength, or depressive symptoms by low-intensity exercises. The current literature suggests the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise on improved physical and cognitive health for older adults. It may be a desired intensity level in promoting

  16. Can Conservation Contracts Co-exist with Change? Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptive Decision-Making and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  17. Can conservation contracts co-exist with change? Payment for ecosystem services in the context of adaptive decision-making and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  18. Army Corps of Engineers and Gulf Region Division Contingency Contracting in Iraq/Afghanistan: Sustaining Civilian Voluntary Workforce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brosch, Paige H; Clemons, Travis; Wigfall, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to describe, analyze, and recommend the strategy and process of using an Army volunteer civilian contracting deployable workforce in Iraq and Afghanistan particularly in terms of the U.S...

  19. Photooptical response of the blood plasma to the low-intensity red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, R.I.; Skopinov, S.A.; Yakovleva, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Photooptical response to low-intensity red light by irradiation of the whole blood as well as of its pigmentless plasma part is investigated. It is shown by the example of blood irradiation that the mechanism of action of low-intensity red light on the blood is not directly related to pigmented molecular complexes. The conclusion is made, that the effect of low-intensity red light on living organisms includes mechanism not utilizing light absorption by a specialized molecule-photoreceptor as a primary photophysical act

  20. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affects human articular chondrocytes in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, C.M.; van der Rijt, R.H.H.; Albers, G.H.; Semeins, C.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production in explants of human articular cartilage obtained from donors suffering from unicompartimental osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in isolated human chondrocytes in vitro.

  1. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  2. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve Simo

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: (1 An adapted low intensity exercise programme improved muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients on HD. (2 Our results highlight the benefits from exercise in HD patients even in this elderly population. (3 In elderly patients on HD, it is worth considering an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme as a part of a comprehensive care.

  3. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  4. The effects of low-intensity cycling on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Alexis B; Diekfuss, Jed A; Janssen, James A; Berry, Nate T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Raisbeck, Louisa D; Wideman, Laurie; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the effect of 24h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n=24, 14 males) were randomized to control (age=24.7±3.7years, BMI=27.2±7.0) or exercise (age=25.3±3.3years, BMI=25.6±5.1) groups. Cognitive testing included a 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), three memory tasks with increasing cognitive load, and performance of the PVT a second time. On morning one, cognitive testing followed a typical night's sleep. Following 24-h of sustained wakefulness, cognitive testing was conducted again prior to and after the acute intervention. Participants in the exercise condition performed low-intensity cycling (∼40%HRR) for 15-min and those in the control condition sat quietly on the bike for 15-min. t-Tests revealed sleep deprivation negatively affected performance on the PVT, but did not affect memory performance. Following the acute intervention, there were no cognitive performance differences between the exercise and rested conditions. We provide support for previous literature suggesting that during simple tasks, sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance. Importantly, in contrast to previous literature which has shown multiple bouts of exercise adding to cognitive detriment when combined with sleep deprivation, our results did not reveal any further detriments to cognitive performance from a single-bout of exercise following sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068005

    2016-01-01

    Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation for mandibular condyle osteoarthritis lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaguchi Arita, A; Yonemitsu, I; Ikeda, Y; Miyazaki, M; Ono, T

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated low-intensity pulsed ultrasound effects for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in adult rats. Osteoarthritis-like lesions were induced in 24 adult rats' temporomandibular joints with low-dose mono-iodoacetate injections. The rats were divided into four groups: control and mono-iodoacetate groups, injected with contrast media and mono-iodoacetate, respectively, at 12 weeks and observed until 20 weeks; and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound groups, injected with contrast media and mono-iodoacetate, respectively, at 12 weeks with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound performed from 16 to 20 weeks. Condylar bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone volume were evaluated weekly with microcomputed tomography. Histological and immunohistochemical staining for matrix metalloproteinases-13 was performed at 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, the mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound group showed significantly higher bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone volume than the mono-iodoacetate group; however, these values remained lower than those in the other two groups. On histological and immunohistochemical analysis, the chondrocytes were increased, and fewer matrix metalloproteinases-13 immunopositive cells were identified in the mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound group than mono-iodoacetate group. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for 2 weeks may have therapeutic potential for treating temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis lesions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  8. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for bone healing: A clinical practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); Agoritsas, T. (Thomas); Siemieniuk, R.A.C. (Reed A C); I. Harris (Ian); I.B. Schipper (Inger); Mollon, B. (Brent); Smith, M. (Maureen); Albin, A. (Alexandra); Nador, S. (Sally); Sasges, W. (Will); S. Schandelmaier; Lytvyn, L. (Lyubov); T. Kuijpers (Ton); Van Beers, L.W.A.H. (Loes W A H); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); P.O. Vandvik (Per)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDoes low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerate recovery in adults and children who have experienced bone fractures or osteotomy (cutting of a bone)? An expert panel rapidly produced these recommendations based on a linked systematic review triggered by a large multi-centre

  9. A scintillating fibre-based profiler for low intensity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Amato, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gu, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Raia, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Rovelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)

    1997-01-11

    In the framework of the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, now under development at LNS Catania, we have developed a new beam profile monitor based on a scintillating fibre and a photodetector. Its sensitivity allows the detection of single beam particles in pulse mode, thus representing a useful tool for diagnostics of low and very low intensity beams. (orig.).

  10. A scintillating fibre-based profiler for low intensity ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, P.; Amato, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Gu, M.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the EXCYT radioactive ion beam facility, now under development at LNS Catania, we have developed a new beam profile monitor based on a scintillating fibre and a photodetector. Its sensitivity allows the detection of single beam particles in pulse mode, thus representing a useful tool for diagnostics of low and very low intensity beams. (orig.)

  11. Low-intensive proton generators for radiation testing; Nizkointensivnyj protonnyj generator dlya radiatsionnykh ispytanij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istomin, I V; Gurbich, A F; Semenov, A V

    1994-12-31

    Experiment is conducted and calculations are performed grounding the possibility of creating a low-intensity proton generator based on nuclear reaction. The necessity in such a proton source is defined by the need of conducting long-term testings and by the absence of appropriate equipment.

  12. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  13. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betskii, O.V.

    1994-07-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  14. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A S; Mencalha, A L; Campos, V M A; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Peregrino, A A F; Magalhães, L A G; Geller, M; Paoli, F

    2013-01-01

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation. (paper)

  15. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T 4 endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T 4 endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T 4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. (author)

  16. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. (author)

  17. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Departamento de Morfologia

    2015-10-15

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T{sub 4} endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T{sub 4} endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T{sub 4} endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. (author)

  18. High or low intensity aerobic fitness training in fibromyalgia: does it matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Landewé, Robert; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; van der Kemp, Désirée; Houben, Harry; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of training in fibromyalgia (FM), we compared the effects of high intensity fitness training (HIF) and low intensity fitness training (LIF). Thirty-seven female patients with FM were randomly allocated to either a HIF group (n = 19) or a LIF group (n = 18). Four patients (1

  19. Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction-How Long Does the Effect Last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitrey, Noam D; Vardi, Yoram; Appel, Boaz; Shechter, Arik; Massarwi, Omar; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2018-03-01

    We studied the long-term efficacy of penile low intensity shock wave treatment 2 years after an initially successful outcome. Men with a successful outcome of low intensity shock wave treatment according to the minimal clinically important difference on the IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function) questionnaire were followed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Efficacy was assessed by the IIEF-EF. Failure during followup was defined as a decrease in the IIEF-EF below the minimal clinically important difference. We screened a total of 156 patients who underwent the same treatment protocol but participated in different clinical studies. At 1 month treatment was successful in 99 patients (63.5%). During followup a gradual decrease in efficacy was observed. The beneficial effect was maintained after 2 years in only 53 of the 99 patients (53.5%) in whom success was initially achieved. Patients with severe erectile dysfunction were prone to earlier failure than those with nonsevere erectile dysfunction. During the 2-year followup the effect of low intensity shock wave treatment was lost in all patients with diabetes who had severe erectile dysfunction at baseline. On the other hand, patients with milder forms of erectile dysfunction without diabetes had a 76% chance that the beneficial effect of low intensity shock wave treatment would be preserved after 2 years. Low intensity shock wave treatment is effective in the short term but treatment efficacy was maintained after 2 years in only half of the patients. In patients with milder forms of erectile dysfunction the beneficial effect is more likely to be preserved. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Energy Cost During Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise be Predicted by the OMNI-RES Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jefferson M.; Reis, Victor M.; Saavedra, Francisco; Damasceno, Vinicius; Silva, Sérgio G.; Goss, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of the OMNI-RES scale to predict energy cost (EC) at low intensity in four resistance exercises (RE). 17 male recreational body builders (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body weight = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg and percent body fat = 10.5 ± 4.6%) served as subjects. Initially tests to determine 1RM for four resistance exercises (bench press, half squat, lat pull down and triceps extension) were administered. Subjects also performed resistance exercise at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1RM at a rate of 40 bpm until volitional exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using the OMNI-RES were obtained during and after all RE. EC was calculated using VO2 and the caloric values of VO2 for non-protein RER. Regression analyses were performed for every RE, using EC as the dependent and RPE as the predictor variable. The triceps extension, lat pull down and bench press, RPE correlated strongly with EC (R > 0.97) and predicted EC with a error of less than 0.2 kcal.min−1. In conclusion, RPE using the OMNI-RES scale can be considered as an accurate indicator of EC in the bench press, lat pull down and triceps extension performed by recreational bodybuilders, provided lower intensities are used (up to 24% of 1-RM) and provided each set of exercise is performed for the maximal sustainable duration. It would be interesting in future studies to consider having the subjects exercise at low intensities for longer durations than those in the present study. PMID:23486188

  1. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2018-02-01

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Rapid switch-off of the human myosin heavy chain IIX gene after heavy load muscle contractions is sustained for at least four days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J L; Gruschy-Knudsen, T

    2018-02-01

    Long-term heavy load contractions decrease the relative amount of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIX isoform in human skeletal muscle, but the timing of the down-regulation in the short term is unknown. Untrained subjects performed two resistance bouts, in two consecutive days, with one leg, the other leg serving as a control (age 24±1, n=5). Muscle biopsies were obtained in both legs before, immediately after, and 24, 54, and 96 hours after exercise. Serial cryosection analysis combined immunohistochemistry and ATPase histochemistry with In Situ hybridization to identify the distribution of MHC isoforms and their corresponding transcripts, enabling identification of transitional fibers. Fibers positive solely for MHC IIX mRNA decreased in the exercised leg throughout the study period. At 96 hours post-exercise, no fibers solely expressed MHC IIX mRNA. In contrast, the number of fibers expressing MHC IIA mRNA increased throughout the study period. The percentage of fibers expressing mRNA for MHC I was unchanged in both legs at all time points. Pronounced depletion of glycogen in the MHC IIX fibers of the exercised leg verifies that the type IIX fibers were active during the heavy load contractions. Major mismatch between MHC at the mRNA and protein levels was only found in the fibers of the exercised leg. These data provide unequivocal in situ evidence of an immediate shutdown of the MHC IIX gene after resistance exercise. A further novel finding was that the silencing of the MHC IIX gene is sustained at least 4 days after removal of the stimulus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  4. Effects of Low Intensity Continuous Ultrasound (LICU on Mouse Pancreatic Tumor Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Bazou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of low intensity continuous ultrasound (LICU on the inflammatory response of mouse pancreatic tumor explants. While there are many reports focusing on the application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS on cell cultures and tissues, the effects of continuous oscillations on biological tissues have never been investigated. Here we present an exploratory study of the effects induced by LICU on mouse pancreatic tumor explants. We show that LICU causes significant upregulation of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α on tumor explants. No detectable effects were observed on tumor vasculature or collagen I deposition, while thermal and mechanical effects were not apparent. Tumor explants responded as a single unit to acoustic waves, with spatial pressure variations smaller than their size.

  5. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  6. Specific features of peroxide stress in children permanently exposed to low-intensity radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durnov, L.A.; Bajkova, V.N.; Mayakova, S.A.; Polyakov, V.G.; Kolosov, E.A.; Dumbrajs, K.O.; Gracheva, I.V.; Zakharova, N.V.; Leonidova, Yu.A.; Romanova, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    To study the peculiarities of peroxide stress in children residing at the territories with chronic low-intensity radiation effects, the investigation was performed of tyrosine level, indices of the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system status in children and teenagers living in Sverdlovsk and Kolpnyansk districts of the Orel region contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. Regions mentioned are characterized by low-intensity contamination with radionuclides (mainly 90 Sr, 131 I, 137 Cs), 25% an increase in tyrosine content, 1.8 times in malonic dial, 25-40 % in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity was revealed in blood plasma. Contents of A and E vitamins, glutathione and glutathione-depending enzymes are decreased. It is recommended to observe children health in regions contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident and correct failed redox processes using antioxidative vitamins [ru

  7. Early phase interference between low-intensity running and power training in moderately trained females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Kostas; Methenitis, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity running performed immediately after lower-body power-training sessions on power development. METHODS: Twenty young females participated in 6 weeks, 3/week, of either lower body power training (PT) or lower body power...... training followed by 30 min of low-intensity running (PET) eliciting 60-70 % of maximal heart rate. The following were measured before and after the training period: counter-movement jump, isometric leg press force and rate of force development (RFD), half squat 1-RM, vastus lateralis fiber type...... performed after lower-body power training impairs the exercise-induced adaptation in stretch-shortening cycle jumping performance (vertical jump height, peak power), during the first 6 weeks of training, which may be partially linked to inhibited muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle fiber conduction velocity....

  8. A new influence model of low intensive ionizing radiation on organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanova, K.Ya.; Lobanok, L.M.; Berdnikov, M.V.; Ignatenko, A.O.; Konoplya, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    The data and facts about the influence of ionizing radiation in small doses and low intensity on cardiovascular system and blood sells of experimental animals are given in the article. The ideas about its signal perception are used to illustrate and explain the mechanisms of low intensive physical nature factors influencing on organism. The leading role of quantitative information change in the process of forming physiological and pathologic influence of radiation on organism is supposed. The influence of X-ray small doses emission on human organism was analyzed on the basis of entropy calculation with the help of mathematical conversion characteristic of finger-tips luminosity. This method helped us to understand that the amount of information in the system was changed during post-radiation period. (authors)

  9. The Misplaced Ruse: Strategic Military Deception as a Tool in Low-Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    potential in not just low-intensity conflict but in warfare in general. Levels of War Tactical 6 JP 1-02, Department of Defense (DoD) Dictionary of...number of other objects and “ pocket litter” that would lend credibility and legitimacy to the character and identity of the body. These things...included a ticket stub from a movie theater, receipts from various stores, and other personal belongings that one may have in their pocket and forget

  10. DNA fragmentation and nuclear phenotype in tendons exposed to low-intensity infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paoli, Flavia; Ramos Cerqueira, Larissa; Martins Ramos, Mayara; Campos, Vera M.; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Geller, Mauro; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols are recommended in device guidelines outlined for treating many diseases on empirical basis. However, effects of low-intensity infrared lasers at fluences used in clinical protocols on DNA are controversial. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in tissues and free radicals generation could be described as a consequence of laser used. DNA lesions induced by free radicals cause changes in DNA structure, chromatin organization, ploidy degrees and cell death. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could alter the fibroblasts nuclei characteristics and induce DNA fragmentation. Tendons of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), at different fluences (1, 5 and 10 J/cm2), in continuous wave (power output of 10mW, power density of 79.6 mW/cm2). Different frequencies were analyzed for the higher fluence (10 J/cm2), at pulsed emission mode (2.5, 250 and 2500 Hz), with the laser source at surface of skin. Geometric, densitometric and textural parameters obtained for Feulgen-stained nuclei by image analysis were used to define nuclear phenotypes. Significant differences were observed on the nuclear phenotype of tendons after exposure to laser, as well as, high cell death percentages was observed for all fluences and frequencies analyzed here, exception 1 J/cm2 fluence. Our results indicate that low-intensity infrared laser can alter geometric, densitometric and textural parameters in tendon fibroblasts nuclei. Laser can also induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin lost and consequently cell death, using fluences, frequencies and emission modes took out from clinical protocols.

  11. Effect of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles on prostate cancer hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Xu, Yanjun; Lu, Qijie; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. It is well established that prostate cancer is exposed to fluctuating oxygen tensions and both acute and chronic hypoxia exist, and these conditions can upregulate angiogenesis-associated proteins such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles can induce obvious microvessel damage in tumors, cause cell necrosis or apoptosis. However, there is no information about whether the blocking blood effect of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles has an influence on hypoxia environment of prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated the impact of different low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles radiation times on prostate tumors, observed the change in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A protein levels, as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor volume. The results indicated that as the radiation was repeated four times on each treatment day, the effects of interruption were durable, the cell proliferation was inhibited, and apoptosis was promoted, and the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group. When the radiation was carried out once per treatment day, the hypoxia response was stimulated, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression levels were higher compared with the control group, and cell proliferation was promoted. In addition, the tumor volume increased obviously in the hypoxia-stimulated group, whereas tumors grew slowly in the hypoxia-suppressed group. The results of this work demonstrated that under the same conditions, different radiation times of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles affect the hypoxia response differently, and the

  12. Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Ahmed, Rafat; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade people have been constantly exposed to microwave radiation mainly from wireless communication devices used in day to day life. Therefore, the concerns over potential adverse effects of microwave radiation on human health are increasing. Until now no study has been proposed to investigate the underlying causes of genotoxic effects induced by low intensity microwave exposure. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the influence of low intensity microwave radiation on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. The study was carried out on 24 male Fischer 344 rats, randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group): group I consisted of sham exposed (control) rats, group II-IV consisted of rats exposed to microwave radiation at frequencies 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz, specific absorption rates (SARs) 0.59, 0.58 and 0.66 mW/kg, respectively in gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell for 60 days (2h/day, 5 days/week). Rats were sacrificed and decapitated to isolate hippocampus at the end of the exposure duration. Low intensity microwave exposure resulted in a frequency dependent significant increase in oxidative stress markers viz. malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and catalase (CAT) in microwave exposed groups in comparison to sham exposed group (pmicrowave exposed groups (pmicrowave exposed animal (pmicrowave exposed groups as compared to their corresponding values in sham exposed group (pmicrowave radiation induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in brain by exerting a frequency dependent effect. The study also indicates that increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response might be the factors involved in DNA damage following low intensity microwave exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on low intensity aeration oxygenation model and optimization for shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Ding, Zhibin; Ding, Jian; Wang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Aeration/oxygenation is an effective measure to improve self-purification capacity in shallow water treatment while high energy consumption, high noise and expensive management refrain the development and the application of this process. Based on two-film theory, the theoretical model of the three-dimensional partial differential equation of aeration in shallow water is established. In order to simplify the equation, the basic assumptions of gas-liquid mass transfer in vertical direction and concentration diffusion in horizontal direction are proposed based on engineering practice and are tested by the simulation results of gas holdup which are obtained by simulating the gas-liquid two-phase flow in aeration tank under low-intensity condition. Based on the basic assumptions and the theory of shallow permeability, the model of three-dimensional partial differential equations is simplified and the calculation model of low-intensity aeration oxygenation is obtained. The model is verified through comparing the aeration experiment. Conclusions as follows: (1)The calculation model of gas-liquid mass transfer in vertical direction and concentration diffusion in horizontal direction can reflect the process of aeration well; (2) Under low-intensity conditions, the long-term aeration and oxygenation is theoretically feasible to enhance the self-purification capacity of water bodies; (3) In the case of the same total aeration intensity, the effect of multipoint distributed aeration on the diffusion of oxygen concentration in the horizontal direction is obvious; (4) In the shallow water treatment, reducing the volume of aeration equipment with the methods of miniaturization, array, low-intensity, mobilization to overcome the high energy consumption, large size, noise and other problems can provide a good reference.

  14. The Saturne beam measurement system for orbit corrections and high and low intensity beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueurce, L.; Nakach, A.; Sole, J.

    1980-07-01

    This paper summarizes the dipolar and multipolar correction system and the main beam diagnostics of Saturne II: wide-band RF electrostatic pick-up electrode for observation of bunches, beam position and tune measurement systems, special electrodes for observation of emittance blow-up when particles cross a resonance line. For low intensity beams, special electrodes and electronics have been developed. All this instrumentation is computer controlled

  15. A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine eSarafian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE under standardized conditions is well defined at rest (as basal metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding, and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work.Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, + 15, +20 and +25 kg force, each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s and rest (30 s. EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min, was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity

  16. The effects of a low-intensity red laser on bacterial growth, filamentation and plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, C; Santos, J N; Guimarães, O R; Geller, M; Fonseca, A S; Paoli, F

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of nonphotosynthesizing microorganisms to light could increase cell division in cultures, a phenomenon denominated as biostimulation. However, data concerning the importance of the genetic characteristics of cells on this effect are as yet scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a low-intensity red laser on the growth, filamentation and plasmids in Escherichia coli cells proficient and deficient in DNA repair. E. coli cultures were exposed to a laser (658 nm, 10 mW, 1 and 8 J cm −2 ) to study bacterial growth and filamentation. Also, bacterial cultures hosting pBSK plasmids were exposed to the laser to study DNA topological forms from the electrophoretic profile in agarose gels. Data indicate the low-intensity red laser: (i) had no effect on the growth of E. coli wild type and exonuclease III deficient cells; (ii) induced bacterial filamentation, (iii) led to no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids from exonuclease III deficient cells, but plasmids from wild type cells were altered. A low-intensity red laser at the low fluences used in phototherapy has no effect on growth, but induces filamentation and alters the topological forms of plasmid DNA in E. coli cultures depending on the DNA repair mechanisms. (paper)

  17. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers on XPA and XPC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A S; Magalhães, L A G; Mencalha, A L; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Geller, M; Paoli, F

    2014-01-01

    Laser devices emit monochromatic, coherent, and highly collimated intense beams of light that are useful for a number of biomedical applications. However, for low-intensity lasers, possible adverse effects of laser light on DNA are still controversial. In this work, the expression of XPA and XPC genes in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at different fluences in continuous mode emission. Skin and muscle tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of XPA and XPC mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats, depending on physical (fluence and wavelength) and biological (tissue) parameters. Laser light could modify expression of genes related to the nucleotide excision repair pathway at fluences and wavelengths used in clinical protocols. (letter)

  18. Mitigating cutaneous sensation differences during tDCS: comparing sham versus low intensity control conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Cantelon, Julie; Holmes, Amanda; Taylor, Holly A; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous sensations at electrode sites during the administration of direct current brain stimulation may inadvertently influence participants' subjective experience and task performance. The present study evaluated the utility of a methodological variation that substitutes sham administration with very low intensity (0.5 mA) current delivery. We used a 4 × 1 high-definition ring electrode transcranial direct current (HD-tDCS) system to target the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 9). Four stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: sham 2.0 mA and 0.5 mA intensity, versus active 2.0 mA and 0.5 mA intensity. During stimulation participants performed a cognitive interference task that activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal network, and periodically provided perceived sensation ratings. We demonstrate that a relatively low intensity control condition attenuates otherwise large differences in perceived sensation between active and sham conditions. Critically, behavioral task differences maintained between the two active conditions. A low intensity control stimulation condition may prove a viable methodological alternative to conventional sham techniques used in repeated-measures designs, though important limitations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  20. Children, Learning and Chronic Natural Disasters: How Does the Government of Dominica Address Education during Low-Intensity Hurricanes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrant, Ted Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…

  1. Low-intensity training increases peak arm VO2 by enhancing both convective and diffusive O2 delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Ara, I; Gnaiger, E

    2014-01-01

    in prolonged low-intensity training of a small muscle group when the cardiac output capacity is not directly limiting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of circulatory and muscle metabolic mechanisms by which prolonged low-intensity exercise training alters regional muscle VO2 ....

  2. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  3. Bioenergy from Low-Intensity Agricultural Systems: An Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludunsin Arodudu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of possible future restrictions on the use of fossil fuel, due to climate change obligations and continuous depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, the search for alternative renewable energy sources is expected to be an issue of great concern for policy stakeholders. This study assessed the feasibility of bioenergy production under relatively low-intensity conservative, eco-agricultural settings (as opposed to those produced under high-intensity, fossil fuel based industrialized agriculture. Estimates of the net energy gain (NEG and the energy return on energy invested (EROEI obtained from a life cycle inventory of the energy inputs and outputs involved reveal that the energy efficiency of bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could be as much as much as 448.5–488.3 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 5.4–5.9 for maize ethanol production systems, and as much as 155.0–283.9 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 14.7–22.4 for maize biogas production systems. This is substantially higher than for industrialized agriculture with a NEG of 2.8–52.5 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 1.2–1.7 for maize ethanol production systems, as well as a NEG of 59.3–188.7 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 2.2–10.2 for maize biogas production systems. Bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could therefore be an important source of energy with immense net benefits for local and regional end-users, provided a more efficient use of the co-products is ensured.

  4. Untreated runoff quality from roof and road surfaces in a low intensity rainfall climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2016-04-15

    Sediment and heavy metals in stormwater runoff are key pollutants of urban waterways, and their presence in stormwater is driven by climatic factors such as rainfall intensity. This study describes the total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metal concentrations found in runoff from four different urban surfaces within a residential/institutional catchment, in a climate where rainfall is typically of low intensity (runoff quality from a compilation of international studies. The road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper and galvanized roof runoff had the highest copper and zinc concentrations, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were found to be significantly different between surfaces; quantification and prediction of pollutant contributions from urban surfaces should thus take account of the different surface materials, instead of being aggregated into more generalized categories such as land use. The TSS and heavy metal concentrations were found to be at the low to medium end of ranges observed internationally, except for total copper and zinc concentrations generated by dissolution of copper and galvanized roofing material respectively; these concentrations were at least as high as those reported internationally. TSS wash-off from the roofs was seen to be a source-limited process, where all available TSS is washed off during the rain event despite the low intensity rainfall, whereas both road TSS and heavy metals wash-off from roof and road surfaces appeared to all be transport-limited and therefore some carryover of pollutants occurs between rain events. A first flush effect was seen from most surfaces for TSS, but not for heavy metals. This study demonstrates that in low intensity rainfall climates, quantification of untreated runoff quality from key individual surface types in a catchment are needed to enable development of targeted and appropriately sized stormwater treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  6. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  7. Electrostatic system of background suppression under detection of low-intensive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, M.M.; Belyaev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes electrostatic system to suppress background at recording of low-intensive particle fluxes with transverse cross section exceeding the area of detector inlet aperture. Electrostatic system comprises 5 electrodes ensuring such spatial distribution of electrostatic field that enables accumulation of beam all ions with 30 x 40 mm 2 cross section at inlet aperture of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) with 9 mm diameter. In this case, ion trajectories prior to enter SEM are turned by 180 deg thus essentially improving signal/background ratio [ru

  8. Reception of low-intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation by the electroreceptors in skates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoev, G.N.; Avelev, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Low intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of less than 10 mW cm -2 power intensity has a nonthermal effect on the body and it is widely used in medical practice for treatment of various diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of EMR on biological tissues is not understood. The skin and its sensory receptors are considered to be responsible for EMR reception, but this has yet to be confirmed. The present experiments were designed to study the effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the ampullae of Lorenzini in skates, which are very sensitive to weak electrical stimuli at low frequency. (author)

  9. Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy in the treatment of postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effect and feasibility of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had undergone robot......-assisted bilateral nerve-sparing RP more than a year before entering this pilot study, had no preoperative ED and were suffering from mild to severe postoperative ED were invited to participate. Six treatments were given over a 6 week period, using the Duolith® SD1 T-Top machine. The effect of the treatment...

  10. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  11. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-01-01

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment

  12. Low intensity aerobic exercise and oxidative stress markers in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed A; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

  13. Profitability implications of sustainable contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Dude L.

    2006-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Certain construction companies have adopted green building methods and practices while most of the industry continues to provide traditional construction services in traditional ways. The green building methods include managing waste streams effectively, using environmentally friendly materials, and working with other green companies and groups. The benefits of green construction have been...

  14. No midterm benefit from low intensity pulsed ultrasound after chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter H; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted method for correction of symptomatic hallux valgus deformity. Full weight bearing in regular shoes is not recommended before 6 weeks after surgery. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is known to stimulate bone formation leading to more stable callus and faster bony fusion. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study on 44 participants (52 feet) who underwent chevron osteotomy to evaluate the influence of daily transcutaneous low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment at the site of osteotomy. Follow-up at 6 weeks and 1 year included plain dorsoplantar radiographs, hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale and a questionnaire on patient satisfaction. There was no statistical difference in any pre- or postoperative clinical features, patient satisfaction or radiographic measurements (hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, sesamoid index and metatarsal index) except for the first distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). The DMAA showed statistically significant (p = 0.046) relapse in the placebo group upon comparison of intraoperative radiographs after correction and fixation (5.2 degrees) and at the 6-week follow-up (10.6 degrees). Despite potential impact of LIPUS on bone formation, we found no evidence of an influence on outcome 6 weeks and 1 year after chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity.

  15. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  16. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory E. Brill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration selforganization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Material and Methods — The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial LPS. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results — Low-intensity ultra high frequency (UHF radiation (1 GHz, 0.1 μW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion — 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the LPS structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  17. Effects of fat adaptation on glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, J D; Geor, R J; Harris, P A; Hoekstra, K; Gardner, S; Hudson, C; Prince, A

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of fat adaptation on carbohydrate and fat oxidation in conditioned horses during low-intensity exercise. Five mature Arabians were studied. The study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 dietary periods, each of 10 week's duration: a) a control (CON) diet, and b) a fat-supplemented (FAT) diet. The total amount of digestible energy (DE) supplied by the fat in the CON and FAT diets was 7% and 29%, respectively. During each period, the horses completed exercise tests at the beginning of the period (Week 0) and after 5 and 10 weeks on the diet. Tests consisted of 90 min of exercise at a speed calculated to elicit 35% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 3 degrees. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at 15-min intervals. For determination of glucose kinetics, a stable isotope ([6-6-d2] glucose) technique was used. Compared to the CON diet, FAT diet consumption for 5-10 weeks was associated with an altered metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, as evidenced by a more than 30% reduction in the production and utilisation of glucose; a decrease in RER; a decrease in the estimated rate of whole-body carbohydrate utilisation; and an increase in the whole-body rate of lipid oxidation during exercise.

  18. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on current data where substrate metabolism in arm and leg muscle is investigated and discuss the presence of higher carbohydrate oxidation and lactate release observed during arm compared with leg exercise. Furthermore, a basis for a possible difference in substrate partiti...... at comparable workloads. Finally, the influence and capacity of low-intensity training to influence metabolic fitness in the face of a limited effect on aerobic fitness will be challenged....... partitioning between endogenous and exogenous substrate during arm and leg exercise will be debated. Moreover the review will probe if differences between arm and leg muscle are merely a result of different training status rather than a qualitative difference in limb substrate regulation. Along this line...... the review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise...

  19. Impact of a low intensity controlled-fire in some chemical soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Some changes in chemical soil properties can be observed after fires of low intensities. pH and electric conductivity tend to increase, while C/N ratio decrease. In the case of organic matter, the content can increase due to the massive incorporation of necromass including, especially, plants and roots. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of low intensity and controlled fire in some soil properties in field conditions. El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover (Mediterranean matorral: Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus clusii, Lavandula stoechas, Chamaeropos humilis, Thymus baetica), and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011. Weather conditions and water content of vegetation influenced in the intensity of fire (low). After the controlled-fire, soil surface sample (0-5 cm) were taken in both set of plots (B, burnt soil samples; C, control soil samples). Some soil chemical properties were analysed: organic matter content (OM), C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Some changes were observed in B corroborating a controlled-fire of low intensity. pH remained equal after fire (B: pH=7.7±0.11; C: pH=7.7±0.04). An increment was obtained in the case of EC (B: EC=0.45 mScm-1±0.08 mScm-1; C: EC=0.35 mScm-1±0.07 mScm-1) and OM (B: OM=8.7%±3.8%; C: pH=7.3%±1.5%). Finally, C/N ratio decreased after fire respect to the control and initial conditions (B: C/N=39.0±14.6; C: C/N =46.5±10.2).

  20. Review Paper: A Review on Brain Stimulation Using Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rezayat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain. It can also be coupled with brain imaging assessments in future research.

  1. Complex tibial fracture outcomes following treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kwok-Sui; Lee, Wing-Sze; Tsui, Hon-For; Liu, Paul Po-Lung; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2004-03-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) stimulation (LIPUS) on the healing of complex tibial fractures. Thirty complex tibial fractures were randomly assigned to the treatment with LIPUS (n = 16) or by a dummy machine (sham-exposed: n = 14). The fractures were immobilized by either internal or external fixations according to the clinical indications. LIPUS was given 20 min/day for 90 days. Fracture healing was monitored by clinical, radiological, densitometric and biochemical assessments. The LIPUS-treated group showed statistically significantly better healing, as demonstrated by all assessments. Complications were minimal in the LIPUS group. There were two cases of delayed union, with one in each group. There were two cases of infection in the control group. The delayed-union cases were subsequently treated by LIPUS and the infection cases were treated with standard protocol. Fracture healing in these patients was again treated by LIPUS.

  2. Low-intensity laser irradiation use for oral and lip precancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Petrov, Anatoly; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.

    1996-09-01

    Precancer and background diseases of the oral mucosa and lips, such as lichen planus, chronic ulcers and fissures, meteorological heilit, lupus erythematosus, after radiation heilit were treated by low-intensity laser irradiation. Laser therapy of the over-mentioned diseases was combined with medicinal treatment. All the patients were selected and treated in the limits of dispensary system. THe choice of diagnostic methods were made according to each concrete nosological form. A great attention was paid to the goal- directly sanitation of the oral cavity and treatment of attended internal diseases. The etiological factors were revealed and statistically analyzed. The results received during our researches demonstrated high effectiveness of laser irradiation combined with medicinal therapy in the treatment of oral mucosa and lips precancer diseases.

  3. Tritium breeding experiments in a fusion blanket assembly using a low-intensity neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, A.W.; Woodley, H.J.; McGregor, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the accuracy with which tritium production rates (TPRs) can be measured in a fusion blanket assembly of non-spherical geometry by a non-central low intensity D-T neutron source (2x10 10 neutrons per second). The tritium production was determined for samples of lithium carbonate containing high enrichments of 6 Li(96%) and 7 Li(99.9%). The measured data were used to check the accuracy with which the TPRs could be numerically predicted using current nuclear data and calculational methods. The numerical predictions from tritium production from the 7 Li samples agreed within the experimental errors of the measurements, but 6 Li measurements which differ by more than 20 per cent from the predicted values were observed in the lower half of the assembly

  4. A case-control pilot study of low-intensity IVF in good-prognosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Barad, David H

    2012-04-01

    Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is rapidly gaining in popularity. Yet studies comparing LI-IVF to standard IVF are lacking. This is a case-control pilot study, reporting on 14 first LI-IVF and 14 standard IVF cycles in women with normal age-specific ovarian reserve under age 38, matched for age, laboratory environment, staff and time of cycle. LI-IVF cycles underwent mild ovarian stimulation, utilizing clomiphene citrate, augmented by low-dose gonadotrophin stimulation. Control patients underwent routine ovarian stimulation. LI-IVF and regular IVF patients were similar in age, body mass index, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Standard IVF utilized more gonadotrophins (PIVF demonstrated better odds for pregnancy (OR 7.07; P=0.046) and higher cumulative pregnancy rates (63.3% versus 21.4%; OR 6.6; P=0.02). Adjustments for age, ethnicity and diagnosis maintained significance but oocyte adjustment did not. Cost assessments failed to reveal differences between LI-IVF and standard IVF. In this small study, LI-IVF reduced pregnancy chances without demonstrating cost advantages, raising questions about its utility. In the absence of established clinical and/or economic foundations, LI-IVF should be considered an experimental procedure. Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is increasingly propagated as an alternative to standard IVF. LI-IVF has, however, never been properly assessed in comparison to standard IVF. Such a comparison is presented in the format of a small pilot study, matching LI-IVF cycles with regular IVF cycles and comparing outcomes as well as costs. The study suggests that LI-IVF, at least in this setting, is clinically inferior and economically at best similar to standard IVF. LI-IVF should, therefore, as of this point not be offered as routine IVF treatment but only as an experimental procedure. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low Intensity laser therapy in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Nobuo SUGAYA

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low intensity laser therapy in patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS. Thirty BMS subjects were randomized into two groups – Laser (LG and Placebo (CG. Seven patients dropped out, leaving 13 patients in LG and 10 patients in CG. Each patient received 4 irradiations (laser or placebo twice a week, for two consecutive weeks (blinded to the type of irradiation received. Infrared laser (AsGaAI irradiations were applied to the affected mucosa in scanning mode, wavelength of 790 nm, output power of 20 mW and fluence of 6 J/cm2. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess the therapeutic effect before and after each irradiation, and at all the control time periods: 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after the last irradiation. One researcher delivered irradiation and another recorded the results. Both researchers were blinded, the first to the results, and the second to the type of radiation applied. The results were categorized according to the percentage of symptom level variation, and showed a statistically better response in LG in only two categories of the control checkpoints (p=0.02; Fisher’s Exact Test. According to the protocol used in this study, low intensity laser therapy is as beneficial to patients with BMS as placebo treatment, indicating a great emotional component of involvement in BMS symptomatology. Nevertheless, there were positive results in some statistical analyses, thus encouraging further research in BMS laser therapy with other irradiation parameters.

  6. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration: biochemical and radiologic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Karina T; Andreo, Jesus C; Rodrigues, Antonio de C; de O Gonçalves, Jéssica B; Daré, Letícia R; German, Iris J S; Rosa, Geraldo M; Buchaim, Rogerio L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound at 1.0 MHz on the healing process of fractures with bone loss in the rat fibula by alkaline phosphate level measurement and radiologic analyses. Thirty 70-day-old male Wistar rats underwent a bone resection of 2.5 to 3.0 mm between the proximal and middle third of the right fibular diaphysis. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: reference (uninjured), control (injured only), and treated (injured and treated with 5 applications of ultrasound, interspersed by 2 days of rest, beginning 24 hours after the osteotomy). Euthanasia was performed at experimental periods of 7 and 14 days. The right hind limb was removed for radiologic analysis. The blood was collected via cardiac puncture to determine the serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The bone fractures had not been completely consolidated in the treated and control group when analysis of the bone took place. At day 7, the serum alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the treated group (mean ± SD, 72.17 ± 7.02 U/L) compared to the control (65.26 ± 8.41 U/L) and reference (67.21 ± 7.86 U/L) groups. At day 14, higher alkaline phosphatase activity was seen in the control group (68.96 ± 8.12 U/L) compared to the treated (66.09 ± 8.46 U/L) and reference (67.14 ± 7.96 U/L) groups. The biochemical and radiologic results suggest that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can be used as an auxiliary method to consolidate fractures and probably reduces the bone healing time, offering clinical benefits.

  7. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  8. [Low-intensity, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal-Uram, Dóra; Harsányi, László; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease. This case study illustrates the management and stabilization of a 21-year-old adult male patient with active Crohn's disease and with severe psychiatric comorbidity. The patient was diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and dysruptive mood dysregulation disorder based on the results of psychodiagnostics (SCID-II structured clinical interview, MMPI personality inventory and disease-specific clinical questionnaires such as Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Social Cognition Questionnaire, Anger Expression Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The main aim of psychotherapy is to increase the adherence to pharmacotherapy, to promote psychosocial functioning, to improve well-being and to enhance adaptive coping strategies. Low-intensity cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy was used which included psychoeducation, motivational interview, behavioural activation, patient diary, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving training, and family consulting. Twenty-five sessions were held weekly in outpatient form and 3 sessions of crisis intervention after the surgery at the hospital. The efficacy of the treatment was measured by self-reported questionnaires at baseline and at two follow-up sessions which corroborated a very significant decrease in the severity of depression, hopelessness, while emotional regulation and self-esteem became more adaptive. The remission of the above

  9. What does low-intensity rTMS do to the cerebellum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellini, N; Grehl, S; Tang, A; Rodger, J; Mariani, J; Lohof, A M; Sherrard, R M

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation. We then evaluated whether LI-rTMS could induce climbing fibre (CF) reinnervation to denervated PCs. After unilateral pedunculotomy in adult mice and 2 weeks sham or BHFS stimulation, VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CF reinnervation. In contrast to sham, LI-rTMS induced CF reinnervation to the denervated hemicerebellum. To examine potential mechanisms underlying the LI-rTMS effect, we verified that BHFS could induce CF reinnervation using our in vitro olivocerebellar explants in which denervated cerebellar tissue is co-cultured adjacent to intact cerebella and treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (as a positive control), sham or LI-rTMS for 2 weeks. Compared with sham, BDNF and BHFS LI-rTMS significantly increased CF reinnervation, without additive effect. To identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined intracellular calcium flux during the 10-min stimulation. Complex high-frequency stimulation increased intracellular calcium by release from intracellular stores. Thus, even at low intensity, rTMS modifies PC structure and induces CF reinnervation.

  10. Low-Intensity Sprint Training With Blood Flow Restriction Improves 100-m Dash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Behlau, Daniel; Montag, Johannes C K; McCourt, Molly L; Mester, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Behringer, M, Behlau, D, Montag, JCK, McCourt, ML, and Mester, J. Low-intensity sprint training with blood flow restriction improves 100-m dash. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2462-2472, 2017-We investigated the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) of leg muscles during sprint training on the 100-m dash time in well-trained sport students. Participants performed 6 × 100-m sprints at 60-70% of their maximal 100-m sprinting speed twice a week for 6 weeks, either with (intervention group [IG]; n = 12) or without pBFR (control group [CG]; n = 12). The 100-m dash time significantly decreased more in the IG (-0.38 ± 0.24 seconds) than in the CG (-0.16 ± 0.17 seconds). The muscle thickness of the rectus femoris increased only in the IG, whereas no group-by-time interactions were found for the muscle thickness of the biceps femoris and the biceps brachii. The maximal isometric force, measured using a leg press, did not change in either group. However, the rate of force development improved in the IG. Growth hormone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations did not significantly differ between both groups at any measurement time point (pre, 1 minute, 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after the 6 all-out sprints of the first training session). The muscle damage marker h-FABP increased significantly more in the CG than in the IG. The pBFR improved the 100-m dash time significantly more than low-intensity sprint interval training alone. Other noted benefits of training with pBFR were a decreased level of muscle damage, a greater increase of the rectus femoris muscle thickness, and a higher rate of force development. However, the tested hormones were unable to explain the additional beneficial effects.

  11. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gimenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed, and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73±0.49; C-Ex: 5.67±0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41±0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81±0.50 mm; P<0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex. Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats.

  12. The impact of high and low-intensity exercise in adolescents with movement impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Liu

    Full Text Available Five to six percent of young people have movement impairment (MI associated with reduced exercise tolerance and physical activity levels which persist into adulthood. To better understand the exercise experience in MI, we determined the physiological and perceptual responses during and following a bout of exercise performed at different intensities typically experienced during sport in youth with MI. Thirty-eight adolescents (11-18 years categorised on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short-Form performed a peak oxygen uptake bike test ([Formula: see text] test at visit 1 (V1. At visits 2 (V2 and 3 (V3, participants were randomly assigned to both low-intensity (LI 30min exercise at 50% peak power output (PPO50% and high-intensity (HI 30s cycling at PPO100%, interspersed with 30s rest, for 30min protocol (matched for total work. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE for legs, breathing and overall was measured before, during and at 1, 3 and 7-min post-exercise (P1, P3, P7. There was a significant difference in [Formula: see text] between groups (MI:31.5±9.2 vs. NMI:40.0±9.5ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1, p0.05. Both groups experienced similar RPE for breathing and overall (MI:7.0±3.0 vs. NMI:6.0±2.0, p>0.05 at both intensities, but reported higher legs RPE towards the end (p<0.01. Significant differences were found in HRrecovery at P1 post-HI (MI:128±25.9 vs. NMI:154±20.2, p<0.05 but not for legs RPE. Perceived fatigue appears to limit exercise in youth with MI in both high and low-intensity exercise types. Our findings suggest interventions reducing perceived fatigue during exercise may improve exercise tolerance and positively impact on engagement in physical activities.

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates tooth movement via activation of the BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the underlying mechanism of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS induced alveolar bone remodeling and the role of BMP-2 expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model. Orthodontic appliances were placed between the homonymy upper first molars and the upper central incisors in rats under general anesthesia, followed by daily 20-min LIPUS or sham LIPUS treatment beginning at day 0. Tooth movement distances and molecular changes were evaluated at each observation point. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to detect HGF (Hepatocyte growth factor/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathways and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL expression by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. At day 3, LIPUS had no effect on the rat orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2-induced alveolar bone remodeling. However, beginning at day 5 and for the following time points, LIPUS significantly increased orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression compared with the control group. The qRT-PCR and Western blot data in vitro and in vivo to study BMP-2 expression were consistent with the immunohistochemistry observations. The present study demonstrates that LIPUS promotes alveolar bone remodeling by stimulating the HGF/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model, and LIPUS increased BMP-2 expression via Runx2 regulation.

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. ► CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. ► LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE 2 and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE 2 and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE 2 and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE 2 from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  15. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  16. Non-perturbative measurement of low-intensity charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M.; Geithner, R.; Golm, J.; Neubert, R.; Schwickert, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Tan, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-perturbative measurements of low-intensity charged particle beams are particularly challenging to beam diagnostics due to the low amplitude of the induced electromagnetic fields. In the low-energy antiproton decelerator (AD) and the future extra low energy antiproton rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor the operation efficiency. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based cryogenic current comparators (CCC) have been used for measuring slow charged beams in the nA range, showing a very good current resolution. But these were unable to measure fast bunched beams, due to the slew-rate limitation of SQUID devices and presented a strong susceptibility to external perturbations. Here, we present a CCC system developed for the AD machine, which was optimised in terms of its current resolution, system stability, ability to cope with short bunched beams, and immunity to mechanical vibrations. This paper presents the monitor design and the first results from measurements with a low energy antiproton beam obtained in the AD in 2015. These are the first CCC beam current measurements ever performed in a synchrotron machine with both coasting and short bunched beams. It is shown that the system is able to stably measure the AD beam throughout the entire cycle, with a current resolution of 30 {nA}.

  17. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone formation around miniscrew implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzorig, Khaliunaa; Kuroda, Shingo; Maeda, Yuichi; Mansjur, Karima; Sato, Minami; Nagata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    Miniscrew implants (MSIs) are currently used to provide absolute anchorage in orthodontics; however, their initial stability is an issue of concern. Application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) can promote bone healing. Therefore, LIPUS application may stimulate bone formation around MSIs and enhance their initial stability. To investigate the effect of LIPUS exposure on bone formation after implantation of titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (SS) MSIs. MSIs made of Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS were placed on rat tibiae and treated with LIPUS. The bone morphology around MSIs was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional micro-computed tomography. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ti and SS discs were treated with LIPUS, and the temporary expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined. Bone-implant contact increased gradually from day 3 to day 14 after MSI insertion. LIPUS application increased the cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and cortical bone rate after implantation of Ti and SS MSIs (P<0.05). LIPUS exposure induced ALP upregulation in MC3T3-E1 cells at day 3 (P<0.05). LIPUS enhanced bone formation around Ti and SS MSIs, enhancing the initial stability of MSIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects induced by high and low intensity laser plasma on SiC Schottky detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciuto Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-Carbide detectors are extensively employed as diagnostic devices in laser-generated plasma, allowing the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions, when used in time-of-flight configuration. The plasma generated by high intensity laser (1016 W/cm2 producing high energy ions was characterized by SiC detector with a continuous front-electrode, and a very thick active depth, while SiC detector with an Interdigit front-electrode was used to measure the low energy ions of plasma generated by low intensity laser (1010 W/cm2. Information about ion energy, number of charge states, plasma temperature can be accurately obtained. However, laser exposure induces the formation of surface and bulk defects whose concentration increases with increasing the time to plasma exposure. The surface defects consist of clusters with a main size of the order of some microns and they modify the diode barrier height and the efficiency of the detector as checked by alpha spectrometry. The bulk defects, due to the energy loss of detected ions, strongly affect the electrical properties of the device, inducing a relevant increase of the leakage (reverse current and decrease the forward current related to a deactivation of the dopant in the active detector region.

  19. Design of a compact Faraday cup for low energy, low intensity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantero, E.D., E-mail: esteban.cantero@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sosa, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Andreazza, W.; Bravin, E.; Lanaia, D.; Voulot, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Welsch, C.P. [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-21

    Beam intensity is one of the key parameters in particle accelerators, in particular during machine commissioning, but also during operation for experiments. At low beam energies and low intensities a number of challenges arise in its measurement as commonly used non-invasive devices are no longer sensitive enough. It then becomes necessary to stop the beam in order to measure its absolute intensity. A very compact Faraday cup for determining ion beam currents from a few nanoamperes down to picoamperes for the HIE-ISOLDE post-accelerator at CERN has been designed, built and tested with beam. It has a large aperture diameter of 30 mm and a total length of only 16 mm, making it one of the most compact designs ever used. In this paper we present the different steps that were involved in the design and optimization of this device, including beam tests with two early prototypes and the final monitor. We also present an analysis of the losses caused by secondary particle emission for different repelling electrode voltages and beam energies. Finally, we show that results obtained from an analytical model for electron loss probability combined with Monte Carlo simulations of particles trajectories provide a very good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Effects induced by high and low intensity laser plasma on SiC Schottky detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciuto, Antonella; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cannavò, Antonino; Mazzillo, Massimo; Calcagno, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide detectors are extensively employed as diagnostic devices in laser-generated plasma, allowing the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions, when used in time-of-flight configuration. The plasma generated by high intensity laser (1016 W/cm2) producing high energy ions was characterized by SiC detector with a continuous front-electrode, and a very thick active depth, while SiC detector with an Interdigit front-electrode was used to measure the low energy ions of plasma generated by low intensity laser (1010 W/cm2). Information about ion energy, number of charge states, plasma temperature can be accurately obtained. However, laser exposure induces the formation of surface and bulk defects whose concentration increases with increasing the time to plasma exposure. The surface defects consist of clusters with a main size of the order of some microns and they modify the diode barrier height and the efficiency of the detector as checked by alpha spectrometry. The bulk defects, due to the energy loss of detected ions, strongly affect the electrical properties of the device, inducing a relevant increase of the leakage (reverse) current and decrease the forward current related to a deactivation of the dopant in the active detector region.

  1. High-Prevalence and Low-Intensity Ichthyophonus Infections in Pacific Halibut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2018-03-01

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis throughout the West Coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, Alaska (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross-Portlock, Alaska (71% versus 32% within 2012), and interannual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% in 2012 versus 12% in 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from 3% or less among the youngest cohorts (age ≤ 6) to 39-54% among age-9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age-18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length at age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. © 2018 American Fisheries Society.

  2. High prevalence and low intensity Ichthyophonus infections in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2017-10-13

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) throughout the west coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, AK (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross - Portlock, AK (71% versus 32% within 2012) and inter-annual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% versus 12% from 2012 to 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from ≤ 3% among the youngest cohorts (≤age 6) to 39-54% among age 9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age 18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length-at-age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. Received 04 May 2017 accepted 09 Oct 2017 revised 21 Sep 2017.

  3. Problems in Developing Morally Sound Strategy in Low-Intensity Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    asking what sustains the moral soldier while he kills. His comments pertain especially to the issue of training soldiers for the .VIP special moral...unit has high esprit, and leaders prac- tice sustained efforts to enlighten and educate the soldier, and lead by persuasion. The only way to develop in...last century by humanitarian and individualistic (almost millenial ) ideals which view the potential, "natural" state of man as peaceful, based on

  4. Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) by Bade et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially no diffe......Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially...

  5. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Montalti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been shown to stimulate tissue metabolism and accelerate muscle healing. However, the optimal parameters in the use of LIPUS are still not clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of LIPUS on muscle healing in rats subjected to a cryolesion. METHOD: Twenty rats were divided into the following groups: an injured control group (CG and an injured treated group (TG. Both groups were divided into 2 sub-groups (n=5 each that were sacrificed 7 and 13 days post-surgery. Treatments were started 24 hours after the surgical procedure and consisted of 3 or 6 sessions. After euthanasia, the muscles were submitted to standard histological procedures. RESULTS: Qualitative analyses were based on morphological assessments of the muscle. The histopathological analysis on day 7 revealed that the muscles in the CG and the TG presented an intense inflammatory infiltrate, a large necrotic area and a disorganized tissue structure. After 13 days, both the CG and the TG had granulation tissue and newly formed fibers. The TG presented a more organized tissue structure. The quantitative analysis of collagen indicated similar findings among the groups, although the qualitative analysis revealed a better organization of collagen fibers in the TG at 13 days. The immunohistochemical analysis indicated that, at both time points, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated in the TG compared to the CG. CONCLUSIONS: LIPUS used as a treatment for muscle injury induced a more organized tissue structure at the site of the injury and stimulated the expression of COX-2 and the formation of new muscle fibers.

  6. Design evolution enhances patient compliance for low-intensity pulsed ultrasound device usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pounder NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neill M Pounder, John T Jones, Kevin J Tanis Bioventus LLC, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Poor patient compliance or nonadherence with prescribed treatments can have a significant unfavorable impact on medical costs and clinical outcomes. In the current study, voice-of-the-customer research was conducted to aid in the development of a next-generation low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS bone healing product. An opportunity to improve patient compliance reporting was identified, resulting in the incorporation into the next-generation device of a visual calendar that provides direct feedback to the patient, indicating days for which they successfully completed treatment. Further ­investigation was done on whether inclusion of the visual calendar improved patient adherence to the prescribed therapy (20 minutes of daily treatment over a 6-month period. Thus, 12,984 data files were analyzed from patients prescribed either the earlier- or the next-generation LIPUS device. Over the 6-month period, overall patient compliance was 83.8% with the next-generation LIPUS device, compared with 74.2% for the previous version (p<0.0001. Incorporation of the calendar feature resulted in compliance never decreasing below 76% over the analysis period, whereas compliance with the earlier-generation product fell to 51%. A literature review on the LIPUS device shows a correlation between clinical effectiveness and compliance rates more than 70%. Incorporation of stakeholder feedback throughout the design and innovation process of a next-generation LIPUS device resulted in a measurable improvement in patient adherence, which may help to optimize clinical outcomes. Keywords: LIPUS, ultrasound, compliance, patient adherence, medical device design

  7. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei, E-mail: geraldleelei@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Yang, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Hai [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Wenchuan [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Chen, Mengshi [Department of Biomechanics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhu, Zhimin, E-mail: hxzhimin@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE{sub 2} and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE{sub 2} and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE{sub 2} and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE{sub 2} from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  8. Low-intensity laser radiation in complex treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Irina A.; Erina, Stanislava V.

    1995-04-01

    The problem of complex treatment of inflammatory disease of parodontium has become very acute and actual at the moment. The diseases of inflammatory nature are considered to be the most vital issues of the day. The state of the local immune system of oral cavity plays the most important role in the complicated mechanism of inflammatory process development in the tissues of parodontium. Recently physical factors have become predominant in the system of complex therapy of parodontitis. The application of low-intense laser radiation (LLR) is considered to be the most important and up-to-date method in the preventive dentistry. There were 60 patients of average damage rate suffering from chronic generalizing parodontitis at the age of 25 up to 55 under observation. The major goal of examination was to get the objective results of the following methods' application: parodontium index (Russel, 1956), hygiene index (Fyodorov, Volodkina, 1971), Bacterioscopy of dental-gingival pockets content, simple and broadened stomatoscopy (Kunin, 1970), SIgA level determination in mixed saliva (Manchini et all, 1965) and R-protein level in gingival blood (Kulberg, 1990). All the patients were split into 2 groups. The first group (30 patients) has undergone the laser therapy course while the second group of 30 patients couldn't get it (LLR). Despite the kind of therapy they have undergone, all the patients have got the local anti-inflammatory medicamental therapy. The results of clinical observations have proved the fact that laser therapy application makes it possible to shorten the course of treatment in 1.5 times. The shifts of oral cavity local resistance take place in case of chronic generalizing parodontitis. The direct immunostimulating effect could be observed as a result of LLR- therapy application. The close connection of both anti-inflammatory medicamental and LLR-therapy has proved the possibility of purposeful local immune status correction in case of parodontitis.

  9. Low intensity vibration of ankle muscles improves balance in elderly persons at high risk of falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane

    2018-01-01

    In our study we examined postural performance of young healthy persons (HY), elderly healthy persons (HE), and elderly persons at high risk of falling (FR). Anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as linear displacements of the center of mass (COM) were assessed in persons standing with eyes either open or closed, while none, and 40 and 30 Hz vibrations were applied bilaterally to the ankle muscle gastrocnemius. During quiet standing with eyes open, balance parameters in FR group differed from those in healthy groups. ML ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as COM linear displacements were noticeably larger in FR group. During quiet standing with eyes closed, all balance parameters in participants of all groups had a clear trend to increase. During standing with eyes open, 40 Hz vibration increased all but one balance parameter within HY group, ankle angular deviations in HE group, but none in FR group. In response to 30 Hz vibration, only ankle angular deviations and COM linear displacements increased in HY group. There were no changes in both elderly groups. During standing with eyes closed, 40 and 30 Hz vibrations did not produce consistent changes in balance parameters in HY and HE groups. In FR persons, 40 Hz vibration did not change balance parameters. However, in FR groups, 30 Hz vibration decreased ankle and hip angular deviations, and COM linear displacements. The major result of the study is a finding that low intensity vibration of ankle muscles makes balance better in elderly persons at high risk of falling. This result is clinically relevant because it suggests that applying mild vibration to ankle muscles while standing and walking might benefit elderly persons, improving their postural performance and reducing a risk of unexpected falls. PMID:29579098

  10. Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates cytochrome c oxidase in stressed fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houreld, Nicolette N; Masha, Roland T; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been used to modulate a variety of biological processes, including diabetic wound healing. The mechanism of action is thought to exist primarily with the mitochondria. This study aimed to determine the effect of irradiation on normal, diabetic, and ischemic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes. Normal, diabetic and ischemic human skin fibroblast mitochondria were irradiated in vitro at a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of either 5 or 15 J/cm(2). Non-irradiated mitochondria served as controls. Enzyme activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV were determined immediately post-irradiation. Normal, diabetic, and ischemic cells were irradiated and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and active mitochondria were determined by luminescence and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Irradiated diabetic mitochondria at a fluence of 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant decrease in complex III activity (P < 0.05). Normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.05) mitochondria irradiated at either 5 or 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant increase in complex IV activity. ATP results showed a significant increase in irradiated normal cells (5 J/cm(2); P < 0.05) and diabetic cells (15 J/cm(2); P < 0.01). There was a higher accumulation of active mitochondria in irradiated cells than non-irradiated cells. Irradiation at 660 nm has the ability to influence mitochondrial enzyme activity, in particular cytochrome c oxidase. This leads to increased mitochondrial activity and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Drug Release from Phase-Changeable Nanodroplets Triggered by Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Tao; Guo, Yuan; Liu, Fengqiu; Yao, Yuanzhi; Li, Pan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Yu; Ran, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Background: As one of the most effective triggers with high tissue-penetrating capability and non-invasive feature, ultrasound shows great potential for controlling the drug release and enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we report, for the first time, construction of a phase-changeable drug-delivery nanosystem with programmable low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) that could trigger drug-release and significantly enhance anticancer drug delivery. Methods: Liquid-gas phase-changeable perfluorocarbon (perfluoropentane) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) were simultaneously encapsulated in two kinds of nanodroplets. By triggering LIFU, the nanodroplets could be converted into microbubbles locally in tumor tissues for acoustic imaging and the loaded anticancer drug (doxorubicin) was released after the microbubble collapse. Based on the acoustic property of shell materials, such as shell stiffness, two types of nanodroplets (lipid-based nanodroplets and PLGA-based nanodroplets) were activated by different acoustic pressure levels. Ultrasound irradiation duration and power of LIFU were tested and selected to monitor and control the drug release from nanodroplets. Various ultrasound energies were introduced to induce the phase transition and microbubble collapse of nanodroplets in vitro (3 W/3 min for lipid nanodroplets; 8 W/3 min for PLGA nanodroplets). Results: We detected three steps in the drug-releasing profiles exhibiting the programmable patterns. Importantly, the intratumoral accumulation and distribution of the drug with LIFU exposure were significantly enhanced, and tumor proliferation was substantially inhibited. Co-delivery of two drug-loaded nanodroplets could overcome the physical barriers of tumor tissues during chemotherapy. Conclusion: Our study provides a new strategy for the efficient ultrasound-triggered chemotherapy by nanocarriers with programmable LIFU capable of achieving the on-demand drug release. PMID:29507623

  12. Efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the prevention of osteoporosis following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J; Bennell, K L; Matthews, B; Brown, D J; McMeeken, J M; Wark, J D

    2001-11-01

    Ultrasound (US), a high-frequency acoustic energy traveling in the form of a mechanical wave, represents a potential site-specific intervention for osteoporosis. Bone is a dynamic tissue that remodels in response to applied mechanical stimuli. As a form of mechanical stimulation, US is anticipated to produce a similar remodeling response. This theory is supported by growing in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrating an osteogenic effect of pulsed-wave US at low spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity pulsed US could prevent calcaneal osteoporosis in individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Fifteen patients with a 1-6 month history of SCI were recruited. Active US was introduced to one heel for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, over 6 weeks. The contralateral heel was simultaneously treated with inactive US. Patients were blind to which heel was being actively treated. Active US pulsed with a 10 microsec burst of 1.0 MHz sine waves repeating at 3.3 kHz. The spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensity was set at 30 mW/cm(2). Bone status was assessed at baseline and following the intervention period by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative US. SCI resulted in significant bone loss. Bone mineral content decreased by 7.5 +/- 3.0% in inactive US-treated calcanei (p 0.05). These findings confirm the negative skeletal impact of SCI, and demonstrate that US at the dose and mode administered was not a beneficial intervention for SCI-induced osteoporosis. This latter finding may primarily relate to the inability of US to effectively penetrate the outer cortex of bone due to its acoustic properties.

  13. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1·8–4·1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  14. Modification of osteoarthritis in the guinea pig with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, I; Ranganathan, A; Yang, X; Horton, W E; Todman, M; Huckle, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2010-05-01

    The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent OA, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to stifle joints for 20 min/day over periods ranging from 3 to 10 months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-beta1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Long-Term Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Heart Failure Development in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana U. Pagan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise is a strategy to control hypertension and attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling during uncontrolled hypertension is not established. We evaluated the effects of a long-term low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on heart failure (HF development and cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Sixteen month old SHR (n=50 and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=35 rats were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (EX groups. Rats exercised in treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for four months. The frequency of HF features was evaluated at euthanasia. Statistical analyses: ANOVA and Tukey or Mann-Whitney, and Goodman test. Results: Despite slightly higher systolic blood pressure, SHR-EX had better functional capacity and lower HF frequency than SHR-SED. Echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging showed no differences between SHR groups. In SHR-EX, however, left ventricular (LV systolic diameter, larger in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, and endocardial fractional shortening, lower in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, had values between those in WKY-EX and SHR-SED not differing from either group. Myocardial function, assessed in LV papillary muscles, showed improvement in SHR-EX over SHR-SED and WKY-EX. LV myocardial collagen fraction and type I and III collagen gene expression were increased in SHR groups. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was lower in SHR-EX than SHR-SED. Lysyl oxidase gene expression was higher in SHR-SED than WKY-SED. Conclusion: Exercise improves functional capacity and reduces decompensated HF in aging SHR independent of elevated arterial pressure. Improvement in functional status is combined with attenuation of LV and myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis.

  16. Low intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics contribution in pain and temporo mandibular dysfunction treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lollato, Renata Fronzaglia

    2003-01-01

    Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction (TMD) is a term used to describe disorders which involve temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolatedly or not, whose most frequent symptoms pain. Its etiology involve controversies, and among risk factors is Class 11 malocclusion. A lot of techniques are used for TMD treatment, and the most recent are Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Functional Orthopedics (FO). The aim of this study was to evaluate pain and buccal mobility in subjects with Class II malocclusion and TMD symptoms, treated with LILT and FO associated or not. Eighteen subjects were selected and divided in three groups. Group 1 was treated with LILT, λ = 780 nm, 70 mW, 15 J/cm 2 per point, in six sessions during two weeks. The application was in three points around the TMJ and in masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, sternomastoid and trapezius, on both sides when there was pain. Palpation was made before and five minutes after application and subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation. Group 2 received functional orthopedics aparatology Planas Indirect Composed Plates, and was evaluated once a week during two weeks, after palpation and following the same score as group 1. Group 3 received both therapies at the same time, and the first application coincided with the aparatology installation. The evaluation followed the parameters of group 1. The results were statically analyzed , and in general form did not show significant differences. There was remission of pain symptoms in ali of the groups, and group 3 showed more rapidly results. This fact leaded us to a conclusion that the association of the LILT with FO was the best treatment for the pain symptoms remission in TMD. (author)

  17. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  18. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  19. Low intensity radiation in diapazone of high frequency as factor of the survival modification of differentiated plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordiya, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of low intensity electromagnetic emission in high frequency range (EMI HF) and ionizing radiation on survival of the differential cells of high plant water Elodea canadensis is investigated. It was established, that EMI HF is radioprotective modification of the radiation injury of plant cell

  20. Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5 h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers)

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation facilitates osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs possess stem cell properties, which play a key role in periodontal regeneration. Physical stimulation at appropriate intensities such as low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesechymal stem cells. However, the impacts of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro and its molecular mechanism are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. HPDLCs were isolated from premolars of adolescents for orthodontic reasons, and exposed to LIPUS at different intensities to determine an optimal LIPUS treatment dosage. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities in the cultured cells and supernatants, and osteocalcin production in the supernatants after treatment were analyzed. Runx2 and integrin β1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after LIPUS stimulation. Blocking antibody against integrinβ1 was used to assess the effects of integrinβ1 inhibitor on LIPUS-induced ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium deposition. Our data showed that LIPUS at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 with 20 min/day was more effective. The ALP activities in lysates and supernatants of LIPUS-treated cells started to increase at days 3 and 7, respectively, and peaked at day 11. LIPUS treatment significantly augmented the production of osteocalcin after day 5. LIPUS caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Runx2 and integrin β1, while a significant decline when the integrinβ1 inhibitor was used. Moreover, ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium nodules of cells treated with both daily LIPUS stimulation and integrinβ1 antibody were less than those in the LIPUS-treated group. In conclusion, LIPUS promotes osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which is associated with upregulation of Runx2 and

  2. In vitro magnetic stimulation: a simple stimulation device to deliver defined low intensity electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Grehl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electromagnetic field brain stimulation (NIBS appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined.Here we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS delivered at 3 frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modelling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency (BHFS, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganisation. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-minute stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially

  3. Investigation of the cellular effects of Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandiary, H.

    1998-07-01

    Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI) has become a therapeutic modality for the treatment of various conditions including acceleration of wound healing. Despite extensive experimental cellular research, the biological mechanisms underlying the success of this phenomenon remain unknown. This, in combination with the conflicting reported clinical results of LILI have prevented universal acceptance of this modality by health care professions. The aim of this thesis was to investigate further, in a systematic and well-controlled manner, the biological effects of LILI on two human leukaemic cell lines HL-60 and U937 in vitro. The laser diode used was a Gallium Aluminium Arsenide (GaAlAs) laser with a wavelength of 660nm, output power of 12mW and a chosen therapeutic energy density of 11.5J/cm 2 . Initially, intracellular thermal effects were examined following LILI by monitoring levels of several heat shock protein (hsp) family members over a 24h period. Levels of hsp70, 60, 90 and 27 were unaffected at the chosen LILI energy density of 11.5J/cm 2 . The effect of LILI on the cell cycle was also investigated at the molecular level by probing for protein and mRNA of a number of cell cycle regulatory factors. Levels of p53, c-fos, c-myc hsp70, bcl-2, TNF-α and several others was unaffected by LILI. Finally, the differential display method was used to detect any LILI-induced transcriptional changes in mRNA i.e. altered gene expression and again results were negative with LILI having no effect on gene expression. In conclusion, these results suggest that the biological effects of GaAlAs lasers at an E.D. of 11.5/cm 2 on two human leukaemic cell lines in vitro do not involve a stress response as measured by hsps, do not modulate levels of prominent cell cycle factors and do not induce changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level. These results seriously question the effectiveness of low energy lasers as 'real' therapeutic devices due to lack of any LILI

  4. High-effective position time spectrometer in actual measurements of low intensity region of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic position-time spectrometer was proposed in previous work, where not only electron coordinates in focal plane are measured by position sensitive detector (PSD) but places of their birth in beta source plane of a large area are fixed using another PSD, situated behind it, by quick effects, accompanying radioactive decay. PSD on the basis of macro-channel plates are used. It is succeeded in position-time spectrometer to combine beta sources of a large area with multichannel registration for a wide energy interval, that efficiency of measurements was two orders of magnitude increase d in comparison magnetic apparatus having PSD only in focal plane. Owing to two detectors' switching on coincidence the relation effect/background in increased minimum on two orders of magnitude in comparison with the same apparatus. At some complication of mathematical analysis it was obtained, that high characteristics of position-time spectrometer are kept during the use the magnetic field, providing double focusing. Owning to this focusing the gain the efficiency of measurements will make one more order of magnitude. Presented high-effective position-time spectrometer is supposed to use in the measurements of low-intensity region of electron spectra, which are important for development of fundamental physics. This is the first of all estimation of electron anti-neutrino mass by the form of beta spectrum of tritium in the region of boundary energy. Recently here there was problem of non physical negative values. This problem can be solved by using in measurement of different in principle high-effective spectrometers, which possess improved background properties. A position-time spectrometers belongs to these apparatus, which provides the best background conditions at very large effectiveness of the measurements of tritium beta spectrum in the region of boundary energy with acceptable high resolution. An important advantage of position-time spectrometer is the possibility of

  5. Low intensity interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of mental health practitioner experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Judith; Pedley, Rebecca; Molloy, Christine; Butler, Jennifer; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-02-22

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that can substantially impact upon quality of life and everyday functioning. Guidelines recommend pharmacological and psychological treatments, using a cognitive behaviour therapy approach (CBT) including exposure and response prevention, but access has generally been poor. Low intensity psychological interventions have been advocated. The evidence base for these interventions is emerging but there is a paucity of information regarding practitioners' perceptions and experiences of supporting individuals with OCD using this approach. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWPs) (n = 20) delivering low intensity psychological interventions for adults with OCD within the context of a large pragmatic effectiveness trial. Interviews explored the feasibility and acceptability of delivering two interventions; guided self-help and supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT), within Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in NHS Trusts. Interviews were recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. PWPs acknowledged the benefits of low intensity psychological interventions for individuals experiencing OCD symptoms on an individual and population level. Offering low intensity support provided was perceived to have the opportunity to overcome existing service barriers to access treatment, improve patient choice and flexibility. Professional and service relevant issues were also recognised including self-beliefs about supporting people with OCD and personal training needs. Challenges to implementation were recognised in relation to practitioner resistance and intervention delivery technical complications. This study has provided insight into the implementation of new low intensity approaches to the management of OCD within existing mental health services. Benefits from a practitioner, service

  6. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  7. A study of the effect of low intensity laser therapy on the osseointegration of hydroxyapatite implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajab, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three significant developments over the last decade in the maxillofacial region have been the predictable use of dental implants, the employment of hydroxyapatite as an implant coating, with a potential for more rapid osseointegration, and the introduction of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) for the enhancement of healing. Implants, although proving a major advance in prosthetics have the disadvantage that loading has to be delayed for a period, which in the case of the mouth needs to be 3 - 6 months after insertion. Hydroxyapatite offers the possibility of a shortened period of delay. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) has been shown to accelerate the healing of bony fractures, both experimentally and clinically. This thesis sets out to evaluate whether LILT could enhance the process of osseointegration, particularly when used with ceramic hydroxyapatite implants in an animal model. If so, this could provide a future clinical combination which would allow earlier loading of hydroxyapatite coated dental implants and also their counterparts in femoral head replacement. There has been virtually no research work undertaken on this aspect. An animal research study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of LILT on the osseointegration of endosseous implants. HA ceramic implants were inserted in two different anatomical sites, namely the mandible and femur in 40 rabbits. The animals were divided into three groups, comprising a low energy laser group (25 J/cm 2 per treatment), a high energy group (125 J/cm 2 per treatment ) and a control group. Animals were sacrificed at four and twelve weeks, with equivalent numbers of representatives of the three groups. The evolved method of evaluation involved radiographic methods (plain x-ray, radiovisiography RVG and the innovative technique of x-ray microtomography XMT), mechanical push out testing (Instron machine) and histological examination (qualitative and quantitative histomorphometry). The conclusions of the study

  8. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  9. Reflexive contraction of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle to involuntarily sustain the effective eyelid retraction through the transverse trigeminal proprioceptive nerve on the proximal Mueller's muscle: verification with evoked electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ryokuya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    We have proposed a hypothetical mechanism to involuntarily sustain the effective eyelid retraction, which consists of not only voluntary but also reflexive contractions of the levator palpebrae superior muscle (LPSM). Voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the LPSM stretches the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle to evoke trigeminal proprioception, which induces continuous reflexive contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the LPSM through the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres innervating the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle via the oculomotor neurons, as a tonic trigemino-oculomotor reflex. In the common skeletal mixed muscles, electrical stimulation of the proprioceptive nerve, which apparently connects the mechanoreceptors in muscle spindles to the motoneurons, induces the electromyographic response as the Hoffmann reflex. To verify the presence of the trigemino-oculomotor reflex, we confirmed whether intra-operative electrical simulation of the transverse trigeminal proprioceptive nerve on the proximal Mueller's muscle evokes an electromyographic response in the LPSM under general anaesthesia in 12 patients. An ipsilateral, phasic, short-latency response (latency: 2.8+/-0.3 ms) was induced in the ipsilateral LPSM in 10 of 12 subjects. As successful induction of the short-latency response in the ipsilateral LPSM corresponds to the Hoffmann reflex in the common skeletal mixed muscles, the present study is the first electromyographic verification of the presence of the monosynaptic trigemino-oculomotor reflex to induce reflexive contraction of the LPSM. The presence of the trigemino-oculomotor reflex may elucidate the unexplainable blepharoptosis due to surgery, trauma and tumour, all of which may damage the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres to impair the trigemino-oculomotor reflex. Copyright (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  11. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  12. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  13. Method for Correction of Consequences of Radiation-Induced Heart Disease using Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Emission under Experimental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavrina, A P; Monich, V A; Malinovskaya, S L; Yakovleva, E I; Bugrova, M L; Lazukin, V F

    2015-05-01

    Effects of successive exposure to ionizing irradiation and low-intensity broadband red light on electrical activity of the heart and myocardium microstructure were studied in rats. Lowintensity red light corrected some ECG parameters, in particular, it normalized QT and QTc intervals and voltage of R and T waves. Changes in ECG parameters were followed by alterations in microstructure of muscle fi laments in the myocardium of treatment group animals comparing to control group.

  14. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G C (control, which was untreated; group G F (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G LF (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser (λ= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm 2 ) with APF application after irradiation and group G FL (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G LF . The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G F , G LF and G FL when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G LF with respect to G F , there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  15. Low intensity infrared laser affects expression of oxidative DNA repair genes in mitochondria and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A S; Magalhães, L A G; Mencalha, A L; Geller, M; Paoli, F

    2014-01-01

    Practical properties and physical characteristics of low intensity lasers have made possible their application to treat soft tissue diseases. Excitation of intracellular chromophores by red and infrared radiation at low energy fluences with increase of mitochondrial metabolism is the basis of the biostimulation effect but free radicals can be produced. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by the base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluate the expression of POLγ and APEX2 genes related to repair of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low intensity infrared laser at different fluences. One hour and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA expression by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to laser radiation show different expression of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA depending of the fluence and time after exposure. Our study suggests that a low intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of oxidative lesions in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. (paper)

  16. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi; China, Toshiyuki; Horiuchi, Akira; Kimura, Masaki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Ide, Hisamitsu; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy and to identify the predictive factors of its efficacy in Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction. The present study included 57 patients with erectile dysfunction who satisfied all the following conditions: more than 6-months history of erectile dysfunction, sexual health inventory for men score of ≤ 12 without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, erection hardness score grade 1 or 2, mean penile circumferential change by erectometer assessing sleep related erection of energy shock waves generator (ED1000; Medispec, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). A total of 12 shock wave treatments were applied. Sexual health inventory for men score, erection hardness score with or without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, and mean penile circumferential change were assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after the termination of low-intensity shock wave therapy. Of 57 patients who were assigned for the low-intensity shock wave therapy trial, 56 patients were analyzed. Patients had a median age of 64 years. The sexual health inventory for men and erection hardness score (with and without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor) were significantly increased (P wave therapy (P wave therapy seems to be an effective physical therapy for erectile dysfunction. Age and comorbidities are negative predictive factors of therapeutic response. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. The effect of local skin cooling before a sustained, submaximal isometric contraction on fatigue and isometric quadriceps femoris performance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Cescon, Corrado; Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The central- and peripheral mechanisms by which heat strain limits physical performance are not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, pre-cooling is often used in an attempt to improve subsequent performance. This study compared the effects of pre-cooling vs. a pre-thermoneutral application on central- and peripheral fatigue during 60% of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Furthermore, the effects between a pre-cooling and a pre-thermoneutral application on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps femoris muscle and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated. In this randomized controlled trial, 18 healthy adults voluntarily participated. The participants received either a cold (experimental) application (+8°C) or a thermoneutral (control) application (+32°C) for 20min on their right thigh (one cuff). After the application, central (fractal dimension - FD) and peripheral (muscle fiber conduction velocity - CV) fatigue was estimated using sEMG parameters during 60% of isometric MVC. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus medialis and lateralis using bidimensional arrays. Immediately after the submaximal contraction, isometric MVC and RPE were assessed. Participants receiving the cold application were able to maintain a 60% isometric MVC significantly longer when compared to the thermoneutral group (mean time: 78 vs. 46s; p=0.04). The thermoneutral application had no significant impact on central fatigue (p>0.05) compared to the cold application (p=0.03). However, signs of peripheral fatigue were significantly higher in the cold group compared to the thermoneutral group (p=0.008). Pre-cooling had no effect on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps muscle and ratings of perceived exertion. Pre-cooling attenuated central fatigue and led to significantly longer submaximal contraction times compared to the pre-thermoneutral application. These findings support the use of pre-cooling procedures

  18. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  19. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  20. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  1. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW INTENSITY VISIBLE AND INFRARED LIGHT ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER (MCF7 CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Peidaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7 cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM cells (control were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm. The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlueTM cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlueTM assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  2. Reflecting on mirror mechanisms: motor resonance effects during action observation only present with low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Loporto

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This 'motor resonance' effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1 via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the

  3. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field as prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Heterotopic ossification (HO is an important complication of head and spinal cord injuries (SCI. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field (PLIMF therapy increases blood flow to an area of pain or inflammation, bringing more oxygen to that area and helps to remove toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLIMF as prophylaxis of HO in patients with SCI. Methods. This prospective random control clinical study included 29 patients with traumatic SCI. The patients were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control group (n = 15. The patients in the experimental group, besides exercise and range of motion therapy, were treated by PLIMF of the following characteristics: induction of 10 mT, frequency of 25 Hz and duration of 30 min. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy started in the 7th week after the injury and lasted 4 weeks. The presence or absence of HO around the patients hips we checked by a plane radiography and Brookers classification. Functional capabilities and motor impairment were checked by Functional Independent Measure (FIM, Barthel index and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment class. Statistic analysis included Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann Whitney Exact test, Exact Wilcoxon signed rank test and Fischer Exact test. Statistical significance was set up to p < 0.05. Results. At the end of the treatment no patient from the experimental group had HO. In the control group, five patients (33.3% had HO. At the end of the treatment the majority of the patients from the experimental group (57.14% moved from ASIA-A to ASIA-B class. Conclusion. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy could help as prophylaxis of HO in patients with traumatic SCI.

  4. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  5. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Low-Intensity Home-Based Physical Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Hong Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a preliminary examination of the effect of low-intensity home-based physical therapy on the performance of activities of daily living (ADL and motor function in patients more than 1 year after stroke. Twenty patients were recruited from a community stroke register in Nan-Tou County, Taiwan, to a randomized, crossover trial comparing intervention by a physical therapist immediately after entry into the trial (Group I or after a delay of 10 weeks (Group II. The intervention consisted of home-based physical therapy once a week for 10 weeks. The Barthel Index (BI and Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM were used as standard measures for ADL and motor function. At the first follow-up assessment at 11 weeks, Group I showed greater improvement in lower limb motor function than Group II. At the second follow-up assessment at 22 weeks, Group II showed improvement while Group I had declined. At 22 weeks, the motor function of upper limbs, mobility, and ADL performance in Group II had improved slightly more than in Group I, but the between-group differences were not significant. It appears that low-intensity home-based physical therapy can improve lower limb motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Further studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga

    2018-01-15

    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Apoptosis induced by low-intensity ultrasound in vitro: Alteration of protein profile and potential molecular mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the potential mechanism related to the apoptosis induced by low intensity focused ultrasound, comparative proteomic method was introduced in the study. After ultrasound irradiation (3.0 W/cm2, 1 minute, 6 hours incubation post-irradiation), the human SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells were stained by trypan blue to detect the morphologic changes, and then the percentage of early apoptosis were tested by the flow cytometry with double staining of FITC-labelled Annexin V/Propidium iodide. Two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to get the protein profile and some proteins differently expressed after ultrasound irradiation were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It's proved early apoptosis of cells were induced by low intentisy focused ultrasound. After ultrasound irradiation, the expressing characteristics of several proteins changed, in which protein p53 and heat shock proteins are associated with apoptosis initiation. It is suggested that the low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptotic cancer therapy has the potential application via understanding its relevant molecular signaling and key proteins. Moreover, the comparative proteomic method is proved to be useful to supply information about the protein expression to analyze the metabolic processes related to bio-effects of biomedical ultrasound.

  9. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  10. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  12. The Fight for Oman 1963-1975 Analysis of Civil-Military Operations in Low-Intensity Conflict and its Relevance to Current World Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarnoski, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... While often overlooked, the government response to the 1963-1975 insurgency in Oman provides excellent examples of both ineffective and effective national-military strategies for combating a low intensity threat...

  13. Effects and Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiting Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is one of the most common urologic diseases, and no curative treatments have been identified. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been successfully used in promoting tissue healing, inhibiting inflammation and pain, differentiating stem cells, and stimulating nerve regeneration/muscle regeneration, as well as enhancing angiogenesis. Very recently, LIPUS has been proven an effective approach for CP/CPPS. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of LIPUS for CP/CPPS. To search publications relevant to the topics of this review, the search engine for life sciences of Entrez was used. We reviewed the available evidence from 1954 through 2015 concerning LIPUS for CP/CPPS. According to the literature, both transrectal and transperineal approaches of LIPUS are effective for CP/CPPS.

  14. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat's thymus cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkevich, T I; Bokut', T B; Netukova, N I

    2001-01-01

    Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes.

  15. Repeated prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise: effects on insulin sensitivity and limb muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Mikael; Overgaard, Kristian; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    arbitrary units) than in the arm (54 ± 9 arbitrary units) and was not changed in the leg, but was increased (P increased glucose transporter expression in arm muscle may compensate for the loss of lean body mass...... or body mass, were not affected by the crossing. Citrate synthase activity was higher (P muscle (16 ± 2 µmol · g-1 · min-1) and was unchanged after the crossing. Muscle GLUT4 protein concentration was higher (P ...This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 ± 3.2 kg; age, 35 ± 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies...

  16. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Halo Immobilization Is an Effective Treatment for Nonunion Following Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kohtaroh; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-10-01

    This case report describes a unique case involving traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis that resulted in nonunion, angulation, and displacement after conservative treatment with a cervical collar, but which was successfully achieved union with halo immobilization and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Halo immobilization of a traumatic spondylolisthesis in a 20-year-old patient, that previously failed to improve after wearing a cervical collar for 3 months, was immediately followed by treatment with a LIPUS device (SAFHS 4000J; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) 20 minutes once daily to the right and left fracture sites which were located using fluoroscopic guidance. Radiographs and computed tomography showed conclusive evidence of bone union after 10 weeks of treatment with halo immobilization. No adverse events were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing that the combination of halo immobilization and LIPUS therapy might be a safe, effective, and feasible method by which to treat cervical spine fractures.

  17. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell

  18. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  19. In vitro effect of low intensity laser on the cytotoxicity produced by substances released by bleaching gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Gomes Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effect of different parameters of phototherapy with low intensity laser on the viability of human dental pulp fibroblasts under the effect of substances released by bleaching gel. Cells were seeded into 96 wells plates (1 x 10³ cells/well and placed in contact with culture medium conditioned by a 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel for 40 minutes, simulating the clinical condition of the in-office bleaching treatment. Cells cultured in ideal growth conditions served as positive control group (PC, and the cells grown in conditioned medium and non-irradiated served as negative control group (NC. Cells grown in conditioned medium were submitted to a single irradiation with a diode laser (40 mW, 0.04 cm² emitting at visible red (660 nm; RL or near infrared (780 nm; NIR using punctual technique, in contact mode and energy densities of 4, 6 or 10 J/cm². The cell viability was analyzed through the MTT reduction assay immediately and 24 hours after the irradiation. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The cell viability increased significantly in 24 hours within each group. The PC presented cell viability significantly higher than NC in both experimental times. Only the NIR/10 J/cm² group presented cell viability similar to that of PC in 24 hours. The phototherapy with low intensity laser in defined parameters is able to compensate the cytotoxic effects of substances released by 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel.

  20. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam’s focus. Approach. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca2+ responses. Main results. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm‑2 (I sppa), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca2+ responses. Significance. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  2. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  3. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  4. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-02-13

    The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam's focus. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca 2+ responses. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm -2 (I sppa ), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca 2+ responses. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  5. Importance of ventricular rate after mode switching during low intensity exercise as assessed by clinical symptoms and ventilatory gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner-La Rocca, H P; Rickli, H; Weilenmann, D; Duru, F; Candinas, R

    2000-01-01

    Automatic mode switching from DDD(R) to DDI(R) or VVI(R) pacing modes has improved dual chamber pacing in patients at high risk for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, little is known about the effect of ventricular pacing rate adaptation after mode switching. We conducted a single-blinded, crossover study in 15 patients (58 +/- 21 years) with a DDD pacemaker who had AV block and normal sinus node function to investigate the influence of pacing rate adaptation to intrinsic heart rate during low intensity exercise. Patients performed two tests (A/B) of low intensity treadmill exercise (0.5 W/kg) in randomized order. They initially walked for 6 minutes while paced in DDD mode. The pacing mode was then switched to VVI with a pacing rate of either 70 beats/min (test A) or matched to the intrinsic heart rate (95 +/- 11 beats/min test B). Respiratory gas exchange variables were determined and patients classified the effort before and after mode switching on a Borg scale from 6 to 20. Percentage changes of respiratory gas exchange measurements were significantly larger (O2 consumption: -8.2 +/- 5.0% vs. -0.6 +/- 7.2%; ventilatory equivalent of CO2 exhalation: 5.3 +/- 4.9% vs. 1.5 +/- 4.3%; respiratory exchange ratio: 7.0 +/- 2.2% vs. 3.5 +/- 3.0%; end-tidal CO2: -5.7 +/- 2.9% vs. -1.8 +/- 2.7%; all P rate unadjusted than after adjusted mode switching. Mode switching from DDD to VVI pacing is better tolerated and gas exchange measurements are less influenced if ventricular pacing rate is adjusted to the level of physical activity. Thus, pacing rate adjustment should be considered as part of automatic mode switch algorithms.

  6. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Uninterrupted Low-Intensity Warfarin for Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yangbo; Xu, Buyun; Xu, Chao; Peng, Fang; Yang, Biao; Qiu, Yufang; Sun, Yong; Wang, Shengkai; Guo, Hangyuan

    2017-09-01

    No previous studies exist investigating the optimal intensity of uninterrupted anticoagulation with warfarin during radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous low-intensity warfarin therapy throughout the periprocedural period of RFCA for AF in the elderly. This is a prospective randomized study. We enrolled AF patients (age ≥ 70 years) who underwent first-time RFCA for AF. Enrolled patients were randomized to group A and group B. The international normalized ratios before ablation were maintained at 1.5 to 2.0 and 2.0 to 2.5 in group A and B, respectively. Primary end points were periprocedural thromboembolic complications and major bleeding. Secondary end points included periprocedural asymptomatic cerebral emboli (ACE) and minor bleeding. A total of 101 patients were enrolled in our study (group A: 52; group B: 49). Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the 2 groups. Only 1 patient suffered from stroke in group B. No major bleeding events occurred in either group. The incidence of new ACE lesions was comparable between the 2 groups (11.5% vs 8.2%, P = 0.82). Minor bleeding occurred in 1 of 52 (1.9%) patients in group A and in 5 of 49 (10.2%) patients in group B ( P = 0.10). Uninterrupted low-intensity warfarin for RFCA of AF might be as effective as standard-intensity warfarin in preventing periprocedural thromboembolic complications and might be associated with fewer bleeding events in the elderly.

  8. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G c (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G L (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, λ=660 nm, P=30 mW, Δt=5 sec, 5 J/cm 2 ); G F (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G LF (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G FL (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p LF was smaller than that for G F and G FL groups but no statistical difference was observed. There was no significant statistical difference between the microhardness of the G C and G L groups and among G FL , G LF and G F groups. Regarding to the calcium and phosphorus ratio, it was not observed significant statistical differences among the groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride reduces the caries area and could be an alternative in the prevention of the dental caries. (author)

  9. Improved healing response in delayed unions of the tibia with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: results of a randomized sham-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigner Julia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the healing response of tibial delayed unions between subjects treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS (n = 51 and subjects treated with a sham device (n = 50. Fracture age was ≥ 4 months in all cases. Study personnel and participants were blinded to random treatment assignment throughout the study. Methods This multi-center randomized sham-controlled trial was undertaken at six hospitals in Germany. Adult patients who had sustained a tibial shaft fracture that subsequently showed inadequate progress toward healing (i.e., delayed union were enrolled and randomized to receive either LIPUS (Exogen 2000/2000+, Smith & Nephew GmbH, Schenefeld, Germany or an identical nonoperative sham device. The daily treatment duration was 20 minutes, for a period of 16 weeks. Subjects randomly assigned to active treatment had the ultrasound pressure wave signal set at the following parameters: 1.5 MHz frequency, 1 kHz repetition rate, 200 μs pulse duration, 30 mW/cm2 spatial intensity. Progress toward healing was estimated from changes in bone mineral density (BMD and gap area as determined from computed tomography scans. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted using a multiple imputation methodology. Results Based on log-transformed data, mean improvement in BMD was 1.34 (90% confidence interval (CI 1.14 to 1.57 times greater for LIPUS-treated subjects compared to sham (p = 0.002. A mean reduction in bone gap area also favored LIPUS treatment (p = 0.014. Conclusions These findings demonstrate significantly greater progress toward bone healing after LIPUS treatment compared to no LIPUS treatment in subjects with established delayed unions of the tibia.

  10. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  11. Low-intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Improves Erectile Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihua; Lin, Guiting; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Wang, Chunxi; Lee, Yung-Chin; Lue, Tom F

    2017-02-01

    As a novel therapeutic method for erectile dysfunction (ED), low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave treatment (LI-ESWT) has been applied recently in the clinical setting. We feel that a summary of the current literature and a systematic review to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of LI-ESWT for ED would be helpful for physicians who are interested in using this modality to treat patients with ED. A systematic review of the evidence regarding LI-ESWT for patients with ED was undertaken with a meta-analysis to identify the efficacy of the treatment modality. A comprehensive search of the PubMed and Embase databases to November 2015 was performed. Studies reporting on patients with ED treated with LI-ESWT were included. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Erection Hardness Score (EHS) were the most commonly used tools to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of LI-ESWT. There were 14 studies including 833 patients from 2005 to 2015. Seven studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, in these studies, the setup parameters of LI-ESWT and the protocols of treatment were variable. The meta-analysis revealed that LI-ESWT could significantly improve IIEF (mean difference: 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.00; pwaves per treatment, and duration of LI-ESWT treatment were closely related to clinical outcome, especially regarding IIEF improvement. The number of studies of LI-ESWT for ED have increased dramatically in recent years. Most of these studies presented encouraging results, regardless of variation in LI-ESWT setup parameters or treatment protocols. These studies suggest that LI-ESWT could significantly improve the IIEF and EHS of ED patients. The publication of robust evidence from additional RCTs and longer-term follow-up would provide more confidence regarding use of LI-ESWT for ED patients. We reviewed 14 studies of men who received low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave treatment (LI-ESWT) for erectile dysfunction (ED

  12. 41 CFR 102-76.50 - What is sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.50 What is sustainable development? Sustainable... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is sustainable development? 102-76.50 Section 102-76.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  13. Activity of processes of a lipoperoksidation at patients with a long postoperative pain syndrome against the combined application of application of low-intensive infrared laser therapy at impact on thymus area and pantovegin electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugieva M.Z.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to optimize the treatment of postoperative gynecological patients using physiotherapy method. Material and methods. It was examined 220 patients in postoperative period. It was investigated antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation. Results. It is demonstrated that patients with prolonged postoperative pain disorders are more pronounced as compared with the control group. The article presents data on the effectiveness of the impact on the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in postoperative period of combined use of low-intensity infrared laser therapy when exposed area of the thymus and in pantovegin electrophoresis in patients sustained postoperative pain after gynecological laparotomy. Conclusion. It is shown that this method helps to reduce pain in the postoperative wound.

  14. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  15. Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tabuchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2 did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down, which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells.

  16. Successful treatment of nonunion in severe finger injury with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Michaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe injuries of the hand or single fingers require immediate treatment but surgical fixation methods are limited depending on soft tissue damage. Thus, it is very common that severe soft tissue damage along with poor osteosynthetic bone fixation results in a delayed healing process or nonunion. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proven to stimulate bone formation in in vitro studies and also to significantly accelerate nonunion healing in animal studies and clinical trials but to date there are no data with respect to nonunion in phalanx fracture. Case presentation We report a case in which we successfully used LIPUS in a 19-year-old Caucasian man with a nonunion of his ring finger after injury and first treatment with K-wire osteosynthesis. Conclusion We recommend that LIPUS be considered as an option to treat nonunions in fractures of the hand, especially because it is a soft tissue conserving method with a good functional result.

  17. Yeast cell inactivation related to local heating induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Stéphane; Ferret, Eric; Boehm, Jean-Baptiste; Gervais, Patrick

    2007-01-25

    The effects of electric field (EF) treatments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability were investigated using a PG200 electroporator (Hoefer Scientific Instrument, San Fransisco, CA, USA) with specific attention to induced thermal effects on cell death. Lethal electric fields (1.5 kV cm(-1) for 5 s) were shown to cause heat variations in the cell suspension medium (water+glycerol), while corresponding classical thermal treatments at equivalent temperatures had no effect on the cells viability. Variations of the electrical conductivity of the intra- and extracellular matrix caused by ions and solutes transfer across the membrane were shown to be involved in the observed heating. The results permitted to build a theoretical model for the temperature variations induced by electric fields. Using this model and the electrical conductivity of the different media, a plausible explanation of the cell death induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses has been proposed. Indeed, cell mortality could in part be caused by direct and indirect effects of electric fields. Direct effects are related to well known electromechanical phenomena, whereas indirect effects are related to secondary thermal stress caused by plasma membrane thermoporation. This thermoporation was attributed to electrical conductivity variations and the corresponding intracellular heating.

  18. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm -2 was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  20. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  1. Effects of lightweight outdoor clothing on the prevention of hypothermia during low-intensity exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Kofler, Philipp; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Philippe, Marc; Fischer, Kathrin; Walther, Rebekka; Herten, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To study protective effects of windbreaker jacket and pants during exercise in the cold. Randomized pilot study. Climate chamber. Nine well-trained (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 61.7 ± 6.6 mL/min/kg) sport students (6 male and 3 female participants). Subjects started walking for 1 hour in a climate chamber (0°C ambient temperature and wind speed of 10 km/h) at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max wearing gloves, a T-shirt, and shorts. Then, the walking speed was reduced to 30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for an additional 60 minutes or until core temperature dropped below 35.5°C. Subsequently, 3 groups of 3 participants continued walking without change of clothing or obtaining additionally a cap and a windbreaker jacket or windbreaker jacket and pants. Core and skin temperature, thermal comfort. The main findings of this study were that exercising at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the cold was sufficient to prevent hypothermia and that during low-intensity exercise (30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), the combined use of a polyester cap, lightweight windbreaker jacket, and pants was necessary to increase a prehypothermic core temperature. We strongly recommend taking a cap, windbreaker jacket, and pants for the prevention of hypothermia during exhaustive walking or running in cold weather conditions.

  2. Radio and chemioinduced oral mucositis treatment: comparison between conventional drug protocol and treatments with low intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Anelise Ribeiro Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    In this clinical study verified the effects of low intensity laser in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis radio and/or chemical induced. Thirty one patients with head and neck cancer were selected before being submitted to cancer exclusive radiotherapy or radio and associated chemotherapy. The patients were distributed into three randomly groups as follows: group 1- (control) conventional medicine treatment; group 2 - conventional medicine treatment and daily laser therapy as soon as grade two oral mucositis appeared; group 3 - conventional medicine treatment and daily laser therapy to be initiated immediately before radiotherapy sessions.The irradiation parameters were: wavelength of 660nm, potency of 100mW, continuous mode, punctual application, 2J energy on thirty pre-determined 30 points, with 20s of exposure per point. The control group received medical treatment which consisted in using a set of preventive and therapeutic approach for acute radiation-induced adverse effects. Results were evaluated observing occurrence and grade of oral mucositis, score of pain, loss of body mass, use of nasogastric sound line, internment and interruption of oncologic treatment due to oral mucositis. The results showed that the preventive protocol as used was the most effective in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis and that its daily application contributed in relieving the painful symptomatology so collaborating to maintain and/or bettering the life quality of oncologic patients. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced liver injury showing low intensity on T2-weighted images noted in Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Harushi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Mori, Kensaku [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Hospital; Ahmadi, T. [Shahid Beheshti Univ. of Medical Sciences, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Okumura, Toshiyuki [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Although it is documented that radiation can cause density or intensity changes on computed tomography or MR imaging in the irradiated hepatic parenchyma, few researchers have reported or understood the MR presentation of changes in hepatic parenchyma following radiotherapy in the patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MR appearance of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome and to consider the underlying pathophysiology. The MR examinations of two patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome was compared with those of 11 patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. The two groups, both of which suffered from hepatocellular carcinoma, underwent 50-72 Gy of proton-beam irradiation during a period of 14-43 days. Examinations including T1- and T2-weighted imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced imaging, and dynamic study were performed 3-10 weeks after the end of irradiation. Radiation-induced hepatic injury was observed as a low-intensity area on T2-weighted images and on delayed phase images of dynamic study in the Budd-Chiari patients, and as iso- or high-intensity areas on both images in the patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. US-guided needle biopsy from the irradiated area in one patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome revealed mostly necrotic tissue and fibrous tissue. These MR features of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome were considered to be due to severe hepatic fibrosis. (author)

  4. [The action of low-intensity extremely high-freguency electromagnetic radiation on growth parameters for bacteria Enterococcus hirae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, V; Sarkisian, A; Tadevosian, A; Torchunian, A

    2008-01-01

    It has been found that the exposure of Enterococcus hirae ATCC9790, grown under anaerobic conditions for 30 min or 1 h, to low-intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/sm2) coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMI) of extremely high-frequency 45 - 53 GHz), or millimeter waves causes a marked prolongation of the lag-growth phase and a decrease in their specific growth rate, the inhibitory effect increasing in the frequency range from 49 to 53 GHz. The effect enhanced as duration of expocure was encreased from 30 min to 1 h; however, further increase in exposure duration to 2 h did not cause an enhancement of the effect. It has been shown that the action of extremely high-frequency EMI on these bacteria does not depend on medium pH (pH 8.0 or pH 6.0). It is proposed that these bacteria have defensive or reparation mechanisms which compensate for the action of radiation; the occurrence of different mechanisms for pH regulation is not ruled out.

  5. [Research on ultrasonic permeability of low intensity pulsed ultrasound through PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhaowu; Zhao, Chunliang; Song, Jinlin; Deng, Feng; Yang, Ji; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Minyi

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the transmission rate of ultrasonic low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane (Thickness: 0.01 mm) and Bio-Gide collagen membrane, and to provide the basis for the barrier membrane selection on the study of LIPUS combined with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The ultrasonic (LIPUS, frequency 1.5 MHz, pulse width 200 micros, repetition rate 1.0 kHz) transmission coefficient of the two kinds of barrier membrane were detected respectively through setting ten groups from 10 to 100mW/cm2 every other 10 mW/cm2. We found in the study that the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through 0.01 mm PTFE membrane was 78.1% to 92.%, and the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through Bio-Gide collagen membrane was 43.9% to 55.8%. The ultrasonic transmission coefficient through PTFE membrane was obviously higher than that through Bio-Gide collagen membrane. The transmission coefficient of the same barrier membrane of the ultrasonic ion was statistically different under different powers (P PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane were relatively high. We should select barrier membranes based on different experimental needs, and exercise ultrasonic transmission coefficient experiments to ensure effective power.

  6. Gingival healing after gingivectomy procedure and low intensity laser irradiation. A clinical and biometrical study in anima nobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Jose Claudio Faria

    2001-01-01

    For the present study seven patients presenting periodontal disease were selected in a way that they required the performance of gingivectomy procedure in the region of premolars in both sides, being this in the upper or lower region. After the surgical procedure one side was submitted to low intensity laser radiation, wavelength 685 nm, power 50 mW and fluency of 4J/cm 2 , contact mode. The other side was used as a control, not receiving any laser irradiation. Healing process for both sides, was clinically and biometrically evaluated and compared using photographs for the periods: pre-operative, immediate post-operative, 3, 7,14,21, 28 and 35 days. The analysis was performed by 3 specialists in Periodontology considering aspects of healing. Results were submitted to statistical analysis. Biometrical evaluation showed improvement of healing for the period of 21 and 28 days in the lased group. Clinical evaluation showed better reparation mainly after the third day for the active group. Laser group was considered to present an improved healing when compared to the control group. (author)

  7. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates transcription of genes involved in the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Roland T; Houreld, Nicolette N; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2013-02-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been shown to stimulate cellular functions leading to increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of LILI on genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC, complexes I-IV) and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthase). Four human skin fibroblast cell models were used in this study: normal non-irradiated cells were used as controls while wounded, diabetic wounded, and ischemic cells were irradiated. Cells were irradiated with a 660 nm diode laser with a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) and gene expression determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). LILI upregulated cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 2 (COX6B2), cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc (COX6C), and pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1 (PPA1) in diabetic wounded cells; COX6C, ATP synthase, H+transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 (ATP5F1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 11 (NDUFA11), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7 (NDUFS7) in wounded cells; and ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, beta polypeptide (ATP4B), and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) (ATP5G2) in ischemic cells. LILI at 660 nm stimulates the upregulation of genes coding for subunits of enzymes involved in complexes I and IV and ATP synthase.

  9. Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinic Report of Intranasal Low-Intensity Laser Therapy on Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intranasal low intensity GaInP/AlGaInP diode 650 nm laser therapy (ILGLT might improve blood lipid and hemorheologic behavior of patients in view of its previous research, but it should be further supported by a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study. In this paper, 90 patients with coronary heart disease or cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups, 60 in the treatment group and 30 in the control group, and were blindly treated with ILGLT at 8.38 and 0 mW/cm2 for 30 min each time once a day ten days each session for two sessions between which there were three days for rest, respectively. Fasting blood lipid such as total cholesterol and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hemorheologic behavior such as blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, redox viscosity and red blood cell aggregation were assessed before the first treatment and after the two sessions and were found to be significantly improved by ILGLT. It was concluded that ILGLT may improve blood lipid and hemorheologic behavior of patients with coronary heart disease or cerebral infarction.

  10. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho Filho, Thyrso

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser (λ=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm 2 on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  12. Interaction of low-intensity linearly polarized laser radiation with living tissues: effects on tissular acceleration of skin wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Martha Simoes

    2000-01-01

    According to the Maxwell's equations to optical properties of surfaces, the energy deposition efficiency in a microroughness interface depends on the electrical field polarization component. Considering a linearly polarized beam, this efficiency will depend on the roughness parameters to p-polarized light and it will not depend on such parameters to s-polarized light. In this work it was investigated the effects of low-intensity, linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing, considering two orthogonal directions of polarization. We have considered a preferential axis as the animals' spinal column and we aligned the linear laser polarization first parallel, then perpendicular to this direction. Burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the animals and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1,0 J/cm 2 . Control lesions were not irradiated. The theoretical model consisted in describing linearly polarized light propagation in biological tissues using transport theory. The degree of polarization was measured in normal and pathological skin samples. It was verified that linearly polarized light can survive in the superficial layers of skin and it can be more preserved in skin under pathological condition when compared with health skin. The analysis of skin wound healing process has demonstrated that the relative direction of the laser polarization plays an important role on the wound healing process by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and radioautography. (author)

  13. Efficacy of Proliferation of HeLa Cells under Three Different Low-Intensity Red Lasers Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was intended to compare the efficacy of proliferation of HeLa cells under three different low-intensity laser irradiation (LIL, that is, 633 nm, 658 nm, and 785 nm. The time-dependent responses of proliferation of HeLa cells after the red laser irradiation and the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS at 1%, 2%, 5%, or 10% on the proliferation of cells were also investigated. The results indicated that the proliferation of HeLa cells in 10% FBS was in proliferation-specific homeostasis (PSH so that it was not modulated with LIL; the proliferation in FBS at 1%, 2%, or 5% was far from PSH so that it may be wavelength dependently modulated with LIL, and the maximum proliferation promotion was conducted with LIL at 633 nm amongst the three different LIL. It was concluded the wavelength-dependent photobiomodulation of LIL on proliferation of HeLa cells may be homeostatic.

  14. Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Joint Injury and Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: an Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Bhasin, Priya; Guo, Yi; Paudel, Sharada; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Intra-articular fracture of the medial tibial plateau was surgically created in 30 rats. LIPUS was applied to the operated joints either for the first 2 wk (LIPUS 1-2 group) or in weeks 4 and 5 after intra-articular fracture (LIPUS 4-5 group). In controls, the operated knees were not treated with LIPUS (LIPUS 0 group). The rats were monitored with weekly gait analysis and euthanized at week 8. Among the altered gait parameters, the maximal and average paw print areas in the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups, but not the LIPUS 0 group, had either reached baseline or significantly recovered (70%, p <0.05) by week 8. PTOA pathology in both the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups was less severe than that in the LIPUS 0 group (Mankin score: 5.4 and 4.5 vs. 8.8, p <0.05). In conclusion, LIPUS treatment partially improved the gait of the affected limbs and reduced cartilage degeneration in PTOA. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of high- versus low-intensity community health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findley SE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sally E Findley,1 Omolara T Uwemedimo,2 Henry V Doctor,1,3 Cathy Green,4 Fatima Adamu,5 Godwin Y Afenyadu61Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Pediatric Global Health Program, Cohen Children’s Medical Centre of New York, Division of General Pediatrics, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 3Operations Research Unit, Programme for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria-Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH, Abia State House, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Health Partners International, Waterside Centre, Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom; 5Social Development and Community Engagement Unit, 6Operations Research Unit, PRRINN-MNCH Programme, Nassarawa GRA, Kano State, NigeriaBackground: In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs, who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs.Methods: We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009 and follow-up (2011 to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in

  16. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  17. Low Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Improves Erectile Function in a Model of Type II Diabetes Independently of NO/cGMP Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly-Kaddoum, Rana; Giuliano, François; Laurin, Miguel; Gorny, Diane; Kergoat, Micheline; Bernabé, Jacques; Vardi, Yoram; Alexandre, Laurent; Behr-Roussel, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent in type II diabetes mellitus. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction of vasculogenic origin, including diabetes. However, its mode of action remains unknown. We investigated the effects of low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared to or combined with sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in a type II diabetes mellitus model. Our purpose was to test our hypothesis of a mode of action targeting the cavernous nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. GK rats, a validated model of type II diabetes mellitus, and age matched Wistar rats were treated with low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy twice weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment was repeated after a 3-week no-treatment interval. The penis was stretched and dipped in a specifically designed water-filled cage. Shock waves were delivered by a calibrated probe yielding a controlled energy flux density (0.09 mJ/mm(2)). The probe was attached to an electrohydraulic unit with a focused shock wave source, allowing for accurate extrapolation to humans. Following a 4-week washout period erectile function was assessed as well as endothelium dependent and independent, and nitrergic relaxations of the corpus cavernosum of GK rats. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy significantly improved erectile function in GK rats to the same extent as sildenafil. Treatment effects were potentiated when combined with sildenafil. Shock wave effects were not associated with improved cavernous endothelium dependent or independent, or nitrergic reactivity. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improved erectile function in GK rats. Unexpectedly, this was not mediated by a nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate dependent mechanism. Sildenafil increased shock wave efficacy. This preclinical paradigm to deliver low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy to the rat penis should

  18. [The specific features of the development of metabolic and regenerative processes under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in radiation exposure conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Mihajlik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Geniatulina, M S

    The experiments on male white rats with the use of biochemical, photo-optical, and electron-microscopic techniques have demonstrated that the use of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultrahigh frequency (EMR UHF) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF) during the post-irradiation period (within 21 days after exposure to radiation) enhanced the metabolic and regenerative processes in the testes and liver. It was shown that the application of MF largely intensified the antioxidant activity whereas EMR UHF preferentially stimulated the biosynthetic processes as well as the processes of cellular and intracellular regeneration.

  19. Scenes from an Unfinished War: Low-Intensity Conflict in Korea, 1966-1969 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    1966, he hosted the Asian Pacific Council (Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia , the Philip- pines, South Vietnam, Thailand, Australia, and Laos) in Seoul. It...fingered worked as contract employees of U.S. Eighth Army, one of the cells having been in place since 1961.55 But by August, they were gone. The year...firmly in control.8 Like the strength of the Samsung and Hyundai corporations, the overbearing might of the soldiery in Seoul is also a legacy of the

  20. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Prevents the Oxidative Stress Induced Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT has been shown to take part in the generation and progression of diverse diseases, involving a series of changes leading to a loss of their endothelial characteristics and an acquirement of properties typical of mesenchymal cells. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS is a new therapeutic option that has been successfully used in fracture healing. However, whether LIPUS can inhibit oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damages through inhibiting EndMT remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of LIPUS against oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damages and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: EndMT was induced by H2O2 (100 µm for seven days. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs were exposed to H2O2 with or without LIPUS treatment for seven days. The expression of EndMT markers (CD31, VE-cadherin, FSP1 and α-SMA were analyzed. The levels of total and phosphorylated PI3K and AKT proteins were detected by Western Blot analysis. Cell chemotaxis was determined by wound healing and transwell assay. Results: LIPUS relieved EndMT by decreasing ROS accumulation and increasing activation of the PI3K signaling cascade. LIPUS alleviated the migration of EndMT-derived mesenchymal-like cells through reducing extracellular matrix (ECM deposition that is associated with matrix metallopeptidase (MMP proteolytic activity and collagen production. Conclusion: LIPUS produces cytoprotective effects against oxidative injuries to endothelial cells through suppressing the oxidative stress-induced EndMT, activating the PI3K/AKT pathway under oxidative stress, and limiting cell migration and excessive ECM deposition.

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances angiogenesis and ameliorates contractile dysfunction of pressure-overloaded heart in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ogata

    Full Text Available Chronic left ventricular (LV pressure overload causes relative ischemia with resultant LV dysfunction. We have recently demonstrated that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis. In the present study, we thus examined whether LIPUS also ameliorates contractile dysfunction in LV pressure-overloaded hearts.Chronic LV pressure overload was induced with transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. LIPUS was applied to the whole heart three times in the first week after TAC and was repeated once a week for 7 weeks thereafter (n = 22. Animals in the control groups received the sham treatment without LIPUS (n = 23. At 8 weeks after TAC, LV fractional shortening was depressed in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly ameliorated in the TAC-LIPUS group (30.4±0.5 vs. 36.2±3.8%, P<0.05. Capillary density was higher and perivascular fibrosis was less in the LV in the TAC-LIPUS group than in the TAC-Control group. Myocardial relative ischemia evaluated with hypoxyprobe was noted in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly attenuated in the TAC-LIPUS group. In the TAC-LIPUS group, as compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of BNP and collagen III were significantly lower (both P<0.05 and protein expressions of VEGF and eNOS were significantly up-regulated associated with Akt activation (all P<0.05. No adverse effect related to the LIPUS therapy was noted.These results indicate that the LIPUS therapy ameliorates contractile dysfunction in chronically pressure-overloaded hearts through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis and attenuated perivascular fibrosis. Thus, the LIPUS therapy may be a promising, non-invasive treatment for cardiac dysfunction due to chronic pressure overload.

  2. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  3. Low-intensity violence and the social determinants of adolescent health among three East African pastoralist communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ivy L; Hilton, Charles; Österle, Matthias; Olungah, Owuor

    2018-04-01

    Recently, strong pleas have emerged to place the health of adolescents on the global health agenda. To reposition adolescence front and center, scholars argue that we must work toward a richly contextualized approach that considers the role that social environments play in shaping the final stages of growth and development. We aim to contribute to this deeper understanding of the social determinants of global adolescent health by offering a case study of three nomadic pastoralist communities from northern Kenya. In addition to noteworthy political and economic marginalization, East African pastoralist communities also contend with chronic, low intensity intercommunity conflict. Data collected over five extensive visits from 2008 to 2011, include the 10-19 year olds from 215 randomly sampled Pokot, Samburu, and Turkana households. Using a case/control design, we sampled two sites per ethnic community: one directly affected and one less affected by intercommunity violence. Our nutritional findings indicate that teens ages 15-19 years old had significantly higher anthropometric values compared to younger teens. Living in a wealthier household is associated with greater height, body mass indices, and summed skinfolds for boys but not for girls. Anthropometric measures were influenced by household and community variation in the mixed-effects, multi-level regression models. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess psychosocial health, with higher scores associated with living in a community directly affected by violence and having lost a loved one due to violence. Our findings highlight the unique nature of adolescent health challenges but also the central role even subtle differences across communities and households play in shaping young people's experiences. With few studies to document the lived experience of pastoralist youth as they move toward adulthood, examining how such challenging socioeconomic environment shapes health seems long overdue

  4. Modeling and simulation of a 3D-CMOS silicon photodetector for low-intensity light detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri Alirezaei, Iman; Burte, Edmund P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a design and simulation of a novel high performance 3D-silicon photodetector for implementing in the low intensity light detection at room temperature (300K). The photodetector is modeled by inspiration of general MEMS fabrication to make a 3D- structure in the silicon substrate using a bulk micromachining process, and based on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The design includes a vertical n+/p junction as an optical window for lateral illumination. The simulation is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics relying on theoretical and physical concepts, and then, the assessment of the results is done by the numerical analysis with SILVACO (Atlas) device simulator. Light is regarded as a monochromatic beam with a wavelength of 633nm that is placed 1μm far from the optical window. The simulation is considered under the reverse bias dc voltage in the steadystate. We present photocurrent-voltage (Iph-V) characteristics under different light intensities (2… 10[mW/cm2]), and dark current-voltage (Id-V) characteristics. Comparative studies of sensitivity dependence on the dopant concentration in the substrate as an intrinsic region are accomplished utilizing two different p-type silicon substrates with 1×1015 [1/cm3] and 4×1012 [1/cm3] doping concentration. Moreover, the sensitivity is evaluated with respect to the active substrate thickness. The simulated results confirmed that the high optical sensitivity of the photodetector with low dark current can be realized in this model.

  5. AXAF-I Low Intensity-Low Temperature (LILT) Testing of the Development Verification Test (DVT) Solar Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Doug; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The planned orbit of the AXAF-I spacecraft will subject the spacecraft to both short, less than 30 minutes for solar and less than 2 hours for lunar, and long earth eclipses and lunar eclipses with combined conjunctive duration of up to 3 to 4 hours. Lack of proper Electrical Power System (EPS) conditioning prior to eclipse may cause loss of mission. To avoid this problem, for short eclipses, it is necessary to off-point the solar array prior to or at the beginning of the eclipse to reduce the battery state of charge (SOC). This yields less overcharge during the high charge currents at sun entry. For long lunar eclipses, solar array pointing and load scheduling must be tailored for the profile of the eclipse. The battery SOC, loads, and solar array current-voltage (I-V) must be known or predictable to maintain the bus voltage within acceptable range. To address engineering concerns about the electrical performance of the AXAF-I solar array under Low Intensity and Low Temperature (LILT) conditions, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers undertook special testing of the AXAF-I Development Verification Test (DVT) solar panel in September-November 1997. In the test the DVT test panel was installed in a thermal vacuum chamber with a large view window with a mechanical "flapper door". The DVT test panel was "flash" tested with a Large Area Pulse Solar Simulator (LAPSS) at various fractional sun intensities and panel (solar cell) temperatures. The testing was unique with regards to the large size of the test article and type of testing performed. The test setup, results, and lessons learned from the testing will be presented.

  6. Effects of low intensity laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoxin; Xiong, Leilei; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of low intensity semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes, a method using a high-fat diet and low-dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin established a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model. Model rats were randomly divided into a laser acupoint irradiation group, rosiglitazone control group, and placebo group; each group had 10 rats. In addition, 10 normal male rats were selected for the normal control group. The Housanli, Neiting and Yishu acupoints of the rats in the laser acupoint irradiation group were irradiated with a 10 mW semiconductor laser; each point was irradiated for 15 min, once every 2 d over 28 d, for a total of 14 episodes of irradiation. The rosiglitazone group rats were given rosiglitazone (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically; the placebo group rats were given 0.9% brine (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically, once daily, for four consecutive weeks. The change of fasting blood glucose was determined before and after each treatment. The islet beta-cell apoptosis was determined. The islet beta-cell apoptosis rates of the laser acupoint irradiation group and the rosiglitazone group were significantly lower than the rate of the placebo group. Even though the rate was lower in the laser acupoint irradiation group than in the rosiglitazone group, there was no significant difference between them. It is shown that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can effectively inhibit islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is effective for progressive-stage lumbar spondylolysis with MRI high-signal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Togawa, Daisuke; Mihara, Yuki; Murata, Hideyuki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on progressive-stage spondylolysis. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. Based on the results of computed tomography, spondylolysis was classified into three categories: early, progressive, and terminal. Bone healing was prolonged or not obtained in progressive-stage spondylolysis. The progression of spondylolysis to nonunion has been associated with an increased incidence of spondylolisthesis. To prevent these clinical conditions, achieving bony healing of the spondylolysis site should be the goal of treatment. 15 consecutive pediatric patients with progressive-stage spondylolysis (defects) with MRI high-signal change were analyzed. Nine patients were treated conservative treatment including avoidance of any sport activity and the use of a brace during treatment (conventional). Six patients were treated using LIPUS everyday during treatment in addition to conservative treatment. Approximately every 1.5 months, bone healing was evaluated via CT. Cases that retained defects after 4.5 months were defined as nonunion. Two patients dropped out during the study period. A total of 13 patients (mean 14.6 ± 2.5 years) from the database met with 19 interarticularis defects. The bone union rate in LIPUS group was significantly higher than that in conventional group (66.7 vs. 10.0%, p = 0.020). The treatment period to bone union was 3.8 months and 2.7 ± 0.3 months in conventional and LIPUS groups. This study revealed that LIPUS treatment might be effective for bone union in patients with progressive-stage spondylolysis with MRI high-signal change. 4.

  8. Doxorubicin combined with low intensity ultrasound suppresses the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma in culture and in xenografts

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    Haixia Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC invades surrounding tissues by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs -2 and −9, which causes over-expression of the Hedgehog signaling proteins Shh and Gli-1 and degradation of the extracellular matrix, thereby creating a “highway” for tumor invasion. We explored the potential of low intensity ultrasound (LIUS and doxorubicin (DOX to inhibit the formation of this “highway”. Methods MTT assays were used to examine OSCC cell viability after exposure to LIUS and DOX. The cell morphological changes and ultrastructure were detected by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Endogenous autophagy-associated proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and western blotting. Cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated by Transwell assays. Collagen fiber changes were evaluated by Masson’s trichrome staining. Invasion-associated proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results LIUS of 1 W/cm2 increased the in vitro DOX uptake into OSCC by nearly 3-fold in three different cell lines and induced transient autophagic vacuoles on the cell surface. The combination of LIUS and 0.2 μg/ml DOX inhibited tumor cell viability and invasion, promoted tumor stromal collagen deposition, and prolonged the survival of mice. This combination also down-regulated MMP-2, MMP-9, Shh and Gli-1 in tumor xenografts. Collagen fiber expression was negatively correlated with the expression of these proteins in human OSCC samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest that effective low dosages of DOX in combination with LIUS can inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion, which might be through MMP-2/9 production mediated by the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  9. Outcomes of Low-Intensity Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Rubagumya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in low-income countries have disproportionately lower cure rates than those in high-income countries. At Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE, physicians treated patients with ALL with the first arm of the Hunger Protocol, a graduated-intensity method tailored for resource-limited settings. This article provides the first published outcomes, to our knowledge, of patients with ALL treated with this protocol. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of patients with ALL enrolled at BCCOE from July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2014; data were collected through December 31, 2015. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate patient demographics, disease characteristics, and outcomes; event-free survival was assessed at 2 years using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Forty-two consecutive patients with ALL were included. At the end of the study period, 19% (eight were alive without evidence of relapse: three completed treatment and five were continuing treatment. Among the remaining patients, 71% (30 had died and 10% (four were lost to follow-up. A total of 83% (25 of the deaths were disease related, 3% (one treatment-related, and 13% (four unclear. Event-free survival was 22% (95% CI, 11% to 36%, considering lost to follow-up as an event, and 26% (95% CI, 13% to 41% if lost to follow-up is censored. Conclusion: As expected, relapse was the major cause of failure with this low-intensity regimen. However, toxicity was acceptably low, and BCCOE has decided to advance to intensity level 2. These results reflect the necessity of a data-driven approach and a continual improvement process to care for complex patients in resource-constrained settings.

  10. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-01-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm 2 , spot area of 0.028 cm 2 ). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  11. Low intensity magnetic field influences short-term memory: A study in a group of healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Enrique A; Gomez-Perretta, Claudio; Montes, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes if an external magnetic stimulus (2 kHz and approximately 0.1 μT applied near frontal cortex) influences working memory, perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention in humans. A magnetic stimulus and a sham stimulus were applied to both sides of the head (frontal cortex close to temporal-parietal area) in young and healthy male test subjects (n = 65) while performing Sternberg's memory scanning task. There was a significant change in reaction time. Times recorded for perception, sustained attention, and motor execution were lower in exposed subjects (P short-term working memory, as well as perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  13. Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Manon A.; Ren, Yijin; de Haan-Visser, H. Willy; Kuijer, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two clinically applied treatments to stimulate bone healing-low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF)-for their effects on RANKL and OPG expression in osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIPUS or PEMF was applied to

  14. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Lukasz Fojecki, MD

    2018-03-01

    Fojecki GL, Tiessen S, Osther PJS. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study. Sex Med 2018;6:1–7.

  15. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  16. Design of a randomized-controlled trial on low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise for inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Postema, Klaas; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Purpose: To investigate effects and working mechanisms of low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise on fitness, (upper-body) health and active lifestyle in inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A multicenter randomized-controlled trial (RCT) in 40 inactive manual

  17. A Longitudinal Study of the TEACCH Program in Different Settings: The Potential Benefits of Low Intensity Intervention in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Lidia; Valeri, Giovanni; Sonnino, Fabiana; Fontana, Ilaria; Mammone, Alessia; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of 30 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to evaluate the potential benefits of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH). Fifteen children following a low intensity TEACCH program were assessed four times for autism severity, adaptive…

  18. Effects of a low-intensity strength-training program on knee-extensor strength and functional ability of frail older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, M.H.; Stemmerik, L.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate whether a 10-week low-intensity strength-training program could improve strength of the knee extensors and functional ability. Participants 65 years and older with low knee-extensor muscle strength were randomized into an exercise (n = 11) and a control group

  19. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  20. Synergistic effects of low-intensity exercise conditioning and β-blockade on cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation in pre- and postmenopausal women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Catherine L; Brown, C Ann; Hains, Sylvia M J; Parlow, Joel L; Birtwhistle, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a 12-week low-intensity exercise conditioning program (walking) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rate-pressure product (RPP), and cardiac autonomic function were measured in 40 sedentary women with hypertension. Women were assigned to either an exercise group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20), matched for β-blockade treatment. They underwent testing at the beginning and at the end of the 12-week study period in three conditions: supine rest, standing, and low-intensity steady state exercise. The exercise group participated in a 12-week, low-intensity walking program, while the control group continued with usual sedentary activity. Compared with the control group, women in the exercise group showed reductions in systolic and diastolic BP and RPP (i.e., the estimated cardiac workload). β-Blockers increased baroreflex sensitivity and lowered BP and HR in all participants; however, those in the exercise group showed the effects of both treatments: a greater reduction in HR and RPP. The combination of exercise training and β-blockade produces cardiac and autonomic adaptations that are not observed with either treatment alone, suggesting that β-blockade enhances the conditioning effects of low-intensity exercise in women with hypertension.

  1. The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on tendon-bone healing in a transosseous-equivalent sheep rotator cuff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovric, Vedran; Ledger, Michael; Goldberg, Jerome; Harper, Wade; Bertollo, Nicky; Pelletier, Matthew H; Oliver, Rema A; Yu, Yan; Walsh, William R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound has on initial tendon-bone healing in a clinically relevant extra-articular transosseous-equivalent ovine rotator cuff model. Eight skeletally mature wethers, randomly allocated to either control group (n = 4) or treatment group (n = 4), underwent rotator cuff surgery following injury to the infraspinatus tendon. All animals were killed 28 days post surgery to allow examination of early effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment. General improvement in histological appearance of tendon-bone integration was noted in the treatment group. Newly formed woven bone with increased osteoblast activity along the bone surface was evident. A continuum was observed between the tendon and bone in an interdigitated fashion with Sharpey's fibres noted in the treatment group. Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment also increased bone mineral density at the tendon-bone interface (p < 0.01), while immunohistochemistry results revealed an increase in the protein expression patterns of VEGF (p = 0.038), RUNX2 (p = 0.02) and Smad4 (p = 0.05). The results of this study indicate that Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound may aid in the initial phase of tendon-bone healing process in patients who have undergone rotator cuff repair. This treatment may also be beneficial following other types of reconstructive surgeries involving the tendon-bone interface.

  2. Effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound with and without increased cortical porosity on structural bone allograft incorporation

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    Ehrhart Nicole

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though used for over a century, structural bone allografts suffer from a high rate of mechanical failure due to limited graft revitalization even after extended periods in vivo. Novel strategies that aim to improve graft incorporation are lacking but necessary to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients receiving bone allografts. The current study evaluated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, a potent exogenous biophysical stimulus used clinically to accelerate the course of fresh fracture healing, and longitudinal allograft perforations (LAP as non-invasive therapies to improve revitalization of intercalary allografts in a sheep model. Methods Fifteen skeletally-mature ewes were assigned to five experimental groups based on allograft type and treatment: +CTL, -CTL, LIPUS, LAP, LIPUS+LAP. The +CTL animals (n = 3 received a tibial ostectomy with immediate replacement of the resected autologous graft. The -CTL group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts. The +CTL and -CTL groups did not receive LAP or LIPUS treatments. The LIPUS treatment group (n = 3, following grafting with fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts, received ultrasound stimulation for 20 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for the duration of the healing period. The LAP treatment group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine allografts with 500 μm longitudinal perforations that extended 10 mm into the graft. The LIPUS+LAP treatment group (n = 3 received both LIPUS and LAP interventions. All animals were humanely euthanized four months following graft transplantation for biomechanical and histological analysis. Results After four months of healing, daily LIPUS stimulation of the host-allograft junctions, alone or in combination with LAP, resulted in 30% increases in reconstruction stiffness, paralleled by significant increases (p Conclusion The current study has demonstrated in a large animal model the potential of both LIPUS and LAP

  3. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound enhanced mesenchymal stem cell recruitment through stromal derived factor-1 signaling in fracture healing.

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    Fang-Yuan Wei

    Full Text Available Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proven effective in promoting fracture healing but the underlying mechanisms are not fully depicted. We examined the effect of LIPUS on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and the pivotal role of stromal cell-derived factor-1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway in response to LIPUS stimulation, which are essential factors in bone fracture healing. For in vitro study, isolated rat MSCs were divided into control or LIPUS group. LIPUS treatment was given 20 minutes/day at 37 °C for 3 days. Control group received sham LIPUS treatment. After treatment, intracellular CXCR4 mRNA, SDF-1 mRNA and secreted SDF-1 protein levels were quantified, and MSCs migration was evaluated with or without blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway by AMD3100. For in vivo study, fractured 8-week-old young rats received intracardiac administration of MSCs were assigned to LIPUS treatment, LIPUS+AMD3100 treatment or vehicle control group. The migration of transplanted MSC to the fracture site was investigated by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. SDF-1 protein levels at fracture site and in serum were examined. Fracture healing parameters, including callus morphology, micro-architecture of the callus and biomechanical properties of the healing bone were investigated. The in vitro results showed that LIPUS upregulated SDF-1 and CXCR4 expressions in MSCs, and elevated SDF-1 protein level in the conditioned medium. MSCs migration was promoted by LIPUS and partially inhibited by AMD3100. In vivo study demonstrated that LIPUS promoted MSCs migration to the fracture site, which was associated with an increase of local and serum SDF-1 level, the changes in callus formation, and the improvement of callus microarchitecture and mechanical properties; whereas the blockade of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling attenuated the LIPUS effects on the fractured bones. These results suggested SDF-1 mediated MSCs migration might be one of the

  4. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces angiogenesis and ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

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    Kenichiro Hanawa

    Full Text Available Although a significant progress has been made in the management of ischemic heart disease (IHD, the number of severe IHD patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to develop low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS therapy for the treatment of IHD.We first confirmed that in cultured human endothelial cells, LIPUS significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF with a peak at 32-cycle (P<0.05. Then, we examined the in vivo effects of LIPUS in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (n = 28. The heart was treated with either sham (n = 14 or LIPUS (32-cycle with 193 mW/cm2 for 20 min, n = 14 at 3 different short axis levels. Four weeks after the treatment, LVEF was significantly improved in the LIPUS group (46±4 to 57±5%, P<0.05 without any adverse effects, whereas it remained unchanged in the sham group (46±5 to 47±6%, P = 0.33. Capillary density in the ischemic region was significantly increased in the LIPUS group compared with the control group (1084±175 vs. 858±151/mm2, P<0.05. Regional myocardial blood flow was also significantly improved in the LIPUS group (0.78±0.2 to 1.39±0.4 ml/min/g, P<0.05, but not in the control group (0.84±0.3 to 0.97±0.4 ml/min/g. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were all significantly up-regulated only in the LIPUS group.These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is promising as a new, non-invasive therapy for IHD.

  5. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Protects Retinal Ganglion Cell From Optic Nerve Injury Induced Apoptosis via Yes Associated Protein

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    Jia-Xing Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been used in clinical studies. But little is known about its effects on the central nervous system (CNS, or its mechanism of action. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are CNS neuronal cells that can be utilized as a classic model system to evaluate outcomes of LIPUS protection from external trauma-induced retinal injury. In this study, we aim to: (1 determine the pulse energy and the capability of LIPUS in RGC viability, (2 ascertain the protective role of LIPUS in optic nerve (ON crush-induced retinal injury, and 3 explore the cellular mechanisms of RGC apoptosis prevention by LIPUS.Methods: An ON crush model was set up to induce RGC death. LIPUS was used to treat mice eyes daily, and the retina samples were dissected for immunostaining and Western blot. The expression of yes-associated protein (YAP and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis of RGCs was evaluated by TUNEL staining, the survival of RGCs and retained axons were labeled by Fluoro-gold and Tuj1 antibody, respectively. Rotenone was used to set up an in vitro cellular degenerative model and siYAP was used to interfering the expression of YAP to detect the LIPUS protective function.Results: LIPUS protected RGC from loss and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The ratio of cleaved/pro-caspase3 also decreased significantly under LIPUS treatment. As a cellular mechanical sensor, YAP expression increased and YAP translocated to nucleus in LIPUS stimulation group, however, phospho-YAP was found to be decreased. When YAP was inhibited, the LIPUS could not protect RGC from caspase3-dependent apoptosis.Conclusion: LIPUS prevented RGCs from apoptosis in an ON crush model and in vitro cellular degenerative model, which indicates a potential treatment for further traumatic ON injury. The mechanism of protection is dependent on YAP activation and correlated with caspase-3 signaling.

  6. Influence of low-intensity laser therapy on spatial perception threshold and electroneurographic finding in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy

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    Perić Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT can be applied in cases when patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN suffer from chronic severe neuropathic pain. Objective. We wanted to analyze influence of LILT on spatial perception threshold (SPT and electroneurographic (ENG parameters in patients with painful DPN. Method. We analyzed 45 patients (25 males, average age 54.3 years (54.3±10.9, with clinical and ENG signs of painful DPN. The patients were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patients with DPN who had 30 LILT treatments over the period of 12 weeks and group B consisted of 15 patients with DPN who received only vitamin therapy per os within the same period. Prior to and after 12 weeks of treatment, the following ENG parameters were determined using surface electrodes: motor (MCV and sensory conduction velocities (SCV values (in m/s of nervus (n. peroneus (NP, n. tibialis (NT and n. medianus (NM and their motor distal latency (MDL values (in ms. SPT value (score as number from 1 to 8 was determined with Tactile Circumferential Discriminator on dorsal part of foot’s big toe skin. For statistical analysis, we used Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation (sig. 2 tailed study. Results. We registered statistically significant difference between SPT (p<0.01 values prior to (5.25±1.11 and after (4.87±0.90 LILT, as well as NMMCV (p<0.05 values prior to (47.18±5.08 and after (49.12±3.72 LILT. Besides, we registered, only after LILT, statistically significant correlation between SPT and NMDML (p<0.01 values and also between SPT and NMSCV (p<0.05 values. The differences and correlations between other analyzed parameters before and after treatments were not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion. In this study we registered significant decrease of SPT and increase of NMMCV after LILT and that indicated a favorable effect of this treatment in analyzed patients with painful DPN. In our opinion these results need further

  7. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  8. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD, while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively. No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. The distribution contracts: an Iberian approach

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    Sónia de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracts of commercial distribution are indispensable legal instruments to the development of the economic activity. The distribution, since the industrial revolution, acquired autonomy, given the necessity of specialized intermediation to distribute good and products. In this process, the structural organization of the distribution process suffered mutations, starting to assume a set of activities aiming at adjusting demand to supply, including, among others, clients canvassing, after-sales services, financing and assumption of risks, advisory services, promotion and advertising. The insufficiency of traditional contracts of purchase and sales and commission to satisfy the distributive needs caused by the industrial revolution will justify the development of new contractual schemes, such us agency contract, commercial concession and franchising. The obligation of the distributer to ensure the interests of the producer and to promote the distribution of the goods and services of the producer, in the context of a lasting relation of cooperation between the parts, through which the distributer is incorporated, with greater or minor intensity, in the producer distribution network, allowed us to sustain, as affirmed in the Portuguese and European literature, that distribution contracts could be framed in the same legal category. These contracts, as contracts that were shaped by praxis, do not have, with exception of agency contract, a legal framework in Portugal and Spain. It has been discussed in literature if agency contract legal framework can be applied, by analogy, to the contracts that fit in the legal category of distribution contracts. This paper aims at analyzing the legal framework of contracts of distribution in these legal systems, with the purpose to discuss the analogical application of the agency contract to these contracts.

  10. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

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    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  11. Effect of three breakfast interventions on blood glucose during low-intensity exercise performed on a treadmill

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    Paula Guedes Cocate

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate blood glucose (BG response during a low-intensity activity, preceded by the consumption of three different types of breakfast (BF. Fifteen Physical Education male students of mean age of 22.7 ± 2 years were evaluated. Three BF interventions were carried out on different days :fasting; BF1: cookie, juice, apple, cereal bar or BF2: 400 mL carbohydrate drink 60 minutes before jogging/walking for 1 hour at 50-60% of maximum calculated HR (heart rate. Measurements of BG were taken at 60 and 30 minutes prior to activity and every 20 minutes during exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP and RPE were also monitored. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA with Tukey test and aimed to identify differences both in effect over time and between different BF interventions, to a signifi cance level of P RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta da glicose sangüínea (GS ao longo de uma atividade de baixa intensidade, precedida pelo consumo de diferentes tipos de café da manhã (CM. Foram avaliados 15 estudantes Educação Física, do gênero masculino com idade média de 22,7 ± 2 anos. Os avaliados realizaram, em dias diferenciados, três ações de CM (CM0: jejum; CM1: biscoito, suco, maçã, barra de cereal; ou CM2: 400mL de bebida carboidratada 60 minutos antes de um trote/caminhada a 50 – 60% da FC máxima calculada com duração de uma hora. A mensuração da GS ocorreu 60 e 30 minutos antes da atividade e durante intervalos de 20 minutos no exercício. Foram também monitorizadas a FC, pressão arterial (PA e IPE. O tratamento estatístico correspondeu à ANOVA associada ao teste de Tukey, para determinar a existência de diferenças tanto no efeito tempo como entre as ações de CM, com nível de signifi cância de P < 0,05. Os resultados indicaram ausência de diferença na resposta da FC, PA e IPE entre os três procedimentos. A GS apresentou diferença estatística entre o CM1 e o CM2 no per

  12. [The ultrastructure of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the rats exposed to radiation under conditions of therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity electromagnetic emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Y N; Bobrovnitskii, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhailik, L V

    2018-04-09

    it has been demonstrated in various experimental studies that radiation exposure produces a negative impact on the processes of spermatogenesis associated with the disturbances of the microcirculation processes in the testes and the development of cellular and intracellular disintegration expressed as destructive changes in the cells leading to their death. The objective of the present study was to detect the ultrastructural abnormalities in the cells of Sertoli and spermatogonia under conditions of their exposure to radiation and to identify the peculiarities of their regeneration under the influence of the therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF). The experiments were carried out on 28 non-pedigree mature male rats with the body weight 180-220 g that were divided into four groups. The first study group was comprised of the animals exposed to radiation followed by the application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency UHF electromagnetic radiation EMR. The rats in the second study group experienced effects of radiation and low-intensity low-frequency MF. The animals of the third (control) group were exposed to radiation alone, and those comprising the fourth group 1 (only radiation exposure) were considered to be intact. The studies with the use of electron microscopy showed that the therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field caused the decrease in the number and the severity of post-radiation defects in the treated cells together with the increase of the number and size of mitochondria as well as hyperplasia of ribosomes; moreover, it promoted cellular and intracellular regeneration. UHF electromagnetic radiation had a more pronounced stimulating effect on the regeneration processes as compared with low-frequency MF

  13. The influence of non thermal coherent EMR with low intensity and extremely high frequency on total activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, A.V.; Shahinyan, M.A.; Khachatryan, A.V.; Vardevanyan, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with low intensity and extremely high frequency on intensity of wheat developing germ metabolism has been investigated. Particularly, total activity and isoenzymatic composition of peroxidase of germ cells have been determined during their growth. The role of water in formation of organism response reaction to the external physical field effect has also been investigated. It has been shown, that water appears to be a primary element of extremely high frequency EMR effect on bio system. Extremely high frequency EMR irradiation of germinating seeds and the cultivation of dry seeds and their germs by irradiated water stimulate peroxidase synthesis in germ cells. The redistribution of quantitative composition of peroxidase molecular forms takes place in germ cells effected by EMR with extremely high frequency and low intensity

  14. Ensuring sustained user quality in buildings. Success contracting with functional tendering of the building services equipment guarantees quality for 15 years; Nutzerqualitaet in Gebaeuden dauerhaft sicherstellen. Erfolgscontracting mit funktionaler Ausschreibung ermoeglicht eine 15-jaehrige Garantie auf die Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Until now, buildings regularly require more energy and provide less user quality in practice than was to be expected from the installed technology during the planning. That has structural reasons. The naerco research project has investigated this aspect and developed the success contracting concept: pre-defined energy and quality parameters are contracted out as part of a function-based tender. A contractor guarantees their realisation for 15 years. The contractual process also includes continual control of the agreed values and a bonus-malus system.

  15. The distinguishing effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of different extremely high frequencies on Enterococcus hirae: growth rate inhibition and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovnanyan, K; Kalantaryan, V; Trchounian, A

    2017-09-01

    A low-intensity electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency has inhibitory and stimulatory effects on bacteria, including Enterococcus hirae. It was shown that the low-intensity (the incident power density of 0·06 mW cm -2 ) electromagnetic field at the frequencies of 51·8 GHz and 53 GHz inhibited E. hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth rate; a stronger effect was observed with 53 GHz, regardless of exposure duration (0·5 h, 1 h or 2 h). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of these effects has been done; the cells were of spherical shape. Electromagnetic field at 53 GHz, but not 51·8 GHz, changed the cell size-the diameter was enlarged 1·3 fold at 53 GHz. These results suggest the difference in mechanisms of action on bacteria for electromagnetic fields at 51·8 GHz and 53 GHz. A stronger inhibitory effect of low-intensity electromagnetic field on Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth rate was observed with 53 GHz vs 51·8 GHz, regardless of exposure duration. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that almost all irradiated cells in the population have spherical shapes similar to nonirradiated ones, but they have increased diameters in case of irradiated cells at 53 GHz, but not 51·8 GHz. The results are novel, showing distinguishing effects of low-intensity electromagnetic field of different frequencies. They could be applied in treatment of food and different products in medicine and veterinary, where E. hirae plays an important role. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Low-Intensity Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-Based Music Group (CBT-Music) for the Treatment of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Chris; Tyo, Richard; Pikard, Jennifer; McKenna, Claire; Naeem, Farooq

    2018-03-01

    Music has the potential to be an effective and engaging therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness. This research area remains underdeveloped. This paper reports the feasibility of an innovative low-intensity CBT-based music (CBT-Music) group targeted to symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 28 participants with symptoms of depression and anxiety who were attending community mental health services were recruited for the study and randomized into TAU (treatment as usual) plus low-intensity CBT-Music (treatment) or to TAU alone (control). The treatment group consisted of a 9-week music group that incorporated various components of CBT material into a musical context. Feasibility was the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were a reduction in depression, anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and disability (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0) assessed at baseline and 10 weeks. Recruitment proved feasible, retention rates were high, and the participants reported a high level of acceptability. A randomized control study design was successfully implemented as there were no significant differences between treatment and control groups at baseline. Participants in the treatment group showed improvement in disability (p = 0.027). Despite a reduction in depression and anxiety scores, these differences were not statistically significant. A low-intensity CBT-based music group can be successfully administered to clients of community mental health services. There are indications of effectiveness in reducing disability, although there appears to be negligible effect on symptoms of anxiety and depression. This is the first report of a trial of a low-intensity CBT-based music group intervention.

  17. Photodegradation of the herbicide azimsulfuron using nanocrystalline titania films as photocatalyst and low intensity Black Light radiation or simulated solar radiation as excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelentridou, Katerina; Stathatos, Elias; Karasali, Helen; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of the herbicide azimsulfuron have been treated by a photocatalytic process employing titania nanocrystalline films as photocatalyst. Results showed that solutions of this herbicide at maximum possible concentration can be photodegraded in a time of a few hours by using low intensity UVA radiation comparable with that of the UVA of solar noon. Similar results have also been obtained with simulated solar radiation. Thus heterogeneous photocatalysis can be employed for the treatment of waters polluted by this herbicide

  18. Short-Term Effects of Low Intensity Thinning on the Fine Root Dynamics of Pinus massoniana Plantations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots play an important role in plant growth as well as carbon (C and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fine roots are important for understanding the contribution of forests to the global C cycle. Knowledge about this topic is still limited, especially regarding the effects of different forest management practices. This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of fine roots (<2 mm in masson pine (P. massoniana plantations for one year after low intensity thinning by using a sequential soil coring method. The fine roots showed pronounced seasonal dynamics, with a peak of fine root biomass (FRB occurring in September. Significant differences were noted in the seasonal dynamics of FRB for the different diameter size sub-classes (≤0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm and 1–2 mm; also FRB was inversely related to soil depth. Moreover, the FRB (≤0.5 mm and 0.5–1 mm except 1–2 mm in the thinning plots was greater than that in the control only in the upper soil layer (0–10 cm. Furthermore, the FRB varied significantly with soil temperature, moisture and nutrients depended on the diameter sub-class considered. Significant differences in the soil temperature and moisture levels were noted between low-intensity thinned and control plots. Soil nutrient levels slightly decreased after low-intensity thinning. In addition, there was a more sensitive relationship between the very fine roots (diameter < 0.5 mm and soil nutrients. Our results showed an influence of low-intensity thinning on the fine root dynamics with a different magnitude according to fine root diameter sub-classes. These results provide a theoretical basis to promote the benefits of C cycling in the management of P. massoniana forests.

  19. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

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    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  20. Low intensity natural gas infrared in sports centres; L'infrarouge a basse intensite au gaz naturel dans les centres sportifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, S. [Gaz Metropolitain, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-09-30

    Infrared devices are being employed more and more for heating buildings. They were traditionally used to heat large spaces higher than 3 metres, such as aviation hangars and industrial buildings. Natural gas infrared devices have found other applications, namely in sports centres, due in large part to the energy efficiency and the resulting comfort. There are three types of infrared devices: low intensity or low intensity tubes, high intensity, and catalytic infrared. Each type of device possesses specific characteristics and applications. For example, infrared tubes are used to uniformly heat a specific area. High intensity devices possess a more intense heat and concentrated in a confined space. Catalytic devices do not have flames, and they can be used in industrial drying processes and thermoforming. In the case of skating rinks, the use of low intensity natural gas infrared tubes is ideal. They reduce the crossed effects of ice cooling load and the spectators need for heat. This is due to infrared acting more on mass (spectators and bleachers) than ambient air. The author described the situation at the Val d'Or arena, Quebec where an energy saving project was initiated two years ago, involving the installation for one of the ice surfaces, of movement sensors to turn off infrared tubes when the rink is unoccupied. The payback period for such equipment is short. The case of the Soccerplex at Lachine, part of the larger City of Montreal, was also discussed. This sports centre comprises indoor soccer fields with 30 foot-high ceilings and large area covering 66,000 square feet (3 soccer fields). Once again, low intensity natural gas infrared tubes were installed and have proved successful.

  1. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; sports performance experiments.

  2. Adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore its feasibility and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zun; Wang, Lei; Fan, Hongjuan; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Sheng; Gu, Zhaohua; Wang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors. [Subjects] The subjects were forty-eight early stroke survivors. [Methods] Eligible subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups participated in comprehensive rehabilitation training. Low intensity aerobic training was only performed by the experimental group. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer motor score, Barthel index, exercise test time, peak heart rate, plasma glucose level and serum lipid profiles. [Results] Patients in the experimental group finished 88.6% of the total aerobic training sessions prescribed. In compliant participants (adherence≥80%), aerobic training significantly improved the Barthel index (from 40.1±21.1 to 79.2±14.2), Fugl-Meyer motor score (from 26.4±19.4 to 45.4±12.7), exercise test time (from 12.2±3.62 min to 13.9±3.6 min), 2-hour glucose level (from 9.22±1.16 mmol/L to 7.21±1.36 mmol/L) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (from 1.72±1.01 to 1.28±0.88). [Conclusion] Preliminary findings suggest that early and severely impaired stroke patients may benefit from low intensity ergometer aerobic training.

  3. Competences required for the delivery of high and low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome/ME and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventions for these conditions. To develop "high-intensity" and "low-intensity" competences for cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The initial draft drew on a variety of sources including treatment manuals and other information from randomized controlled trials. Therapists with experience in providing cognitive behavioural interventions for CF, CFS/ME and IBS in research and clinical settings were consulted on the initial draft competences and their suggestions for minor amendments were incorporated into the final versions. Feedback from experienced therapists was positive. Therapists providing low intensity interventions reported that the competences were also helpful in highlighting training needs. These sets of competences should facilitate the training and supervision of therapists providing cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The competences are available online (see table of contents for this issue: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_BCP) or on request from the first author.

  4. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  5. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  6. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  7. Maintenance contract strategies for reliability at minimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, E.

    1992-01-01

    The conference paper deals with offshore contract philosophies concerning maintenance. The main philosophies of the contract should be built on the following key success factors: Safe operations and correct quality must be sustained at any time; the maintenance contractor should be viewed as a cooperation partner, not only as a supplier; optimum exploitation of learning curve effects and economies of scale. The paper illustrates the importance of each of them in a contract context with a few recommendations

  8. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional taboos and social contracts played an important role in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboos are defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as a protective measure' and social contracts are – in conservation sense – a common agreement for achieving conservation, sustainable ...

  9. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  10. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  11. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  12. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  13. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  14. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  15. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  16. ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.

  17. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  18. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  19. Feasibility study of a peer-facilitated low intensity cognitive-behavioral intervention for mild to moderate depression and anxiety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John R; Manitsas, Tara; Gau, Jeff M

    2017-09-01

    The majority of older adults experiencing depression and/or anxiety do not receive adequate treatment due to limited access to evidence-based practices. Low intensity cognitive-behavioral intervention has been established as an evidence-based practice with the potential to increase the reach to older adults. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a low intensity, peer-supported, cognitive-behavioral intervention for mild to moderate depression and/or anxiety delivered by a local intergovernmental agency serving older adults. Sixty-two older adults (81% female) between 55 and 96 years of age were randomly assigned to either a peer-facilitated cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy condition (n = 31) or a wait-list control condition (n = 31). The 10-week feasibility trial data indicated that (1) a majority of the participants were highly engaged in the intervention with an average number of 7.3 peer sessions attended and 2.1 workbooks completed, (2) the participants were quite satisfied with the peer mentoring sessions and moderately satisfied with the workbooks, and (3) there were clinically meaningful reductions in depressive symptoms for those assigned to the treatment condition compared to those that were wait-listed (d = .43), though the effect was non-significant (p = .099) due to the small sample size. The evidence for the impact on reducing anxiety symptoms was more equivocal with a non-significant, small effect size favoring the treatment condition. The pilot study provided preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the peer-facilitated low intensity cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention approach.

  20. Clinical evaluation of the low intensity laser antialgic action of GaAlAs (λ=785 nm) in the treatment of the temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanseverino, Nelly Tichauer Maluf

    2001-01-01

    The therapy with laser emitting low intensity has been currently used in the most diverse fields of medicine as therapeutic conduct for pain. It is a non invasive, painless, non-thermal and aseptic type therapy, without any collateral effects, having a good cost/benefit relationship. However, for the therapy with low-intensity laser to result in positive effects, a correct diagnosis is fundamental, as well as a protocol of adequate application. n odontology, the majority of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), present pain and limitations in the movements of the jaw. In this work, a GaAlAs laser emitting low intensity, was used, λ=785 nm, in patients having a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with a complaint of pain. Twenty patients were divided into two groups. The group treated received laser therapy in the temporomandibular articulations and in the muscles affected. The dose applied was 45 J/cm 2 , while the ten patients in the control group received 0 J/cm 2 , in a total of nine applications, carried out three times a week, during three weeks. he evaluation of the patients was made through clinical examinations of manual palpation of the masseter, temporal, cervical, posterior neck and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and measurements of opening and laterality of the mouth. The results obtained showed a diminishing of the pain and an increase of the mandibular mobility in the patients treated, when compared to the control group. These results point to this therapy as being an important tool in the treatment of pain in patients with a dysfunction in the TMJ, indicating this therapeutic modality as a co-adjuvant in these treatments. (author)

  1. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  2. Measuring topology of low-intensity DNA methylation sites for high-throughput assessment of epigenetic drug-induced effects in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic anti-cancer drugs with demethylating effects have shown to alter genome organization in mammalian cell nuclei. The interest in the development of novel epigenetic drugs has increased the demand for cell-based assays to evaluate drug performance in pre-clinical studies. An imaging-based cytometrical approach that can measure demethylation effects as changes in the spatial nuclear distributions of methylated cytosine and global DNA in cancer cells is introduced in this paper. The cells were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei. In the preprocessing step the segmentation of nuclei in three-dimensional images (3-D) is followed by an automated assessment of nuclear DAPI/MeC patterns to exclude dissimilar entities. Next, low-intensity MeC (LIM) and low-intensity DNA (LID) sites of similar nuclei are localized and processed to obtain specific nuclear density profiles. These profiles sampled at half of the total nuclear volume yielded two parameters: LIM 0.5 and LID 0.5 . The analysis shows that zebularine and 5-azacytidine-the two tested epigenetic drugs introduce changes in the spatial distribution of low-intensity DNA and MeC signals. LIM 0.5 and LID 0.5 were significantly different (p < 0.001) in 5-azacytidine treated (n = 660) and zebularine treated (n = 496) vs. untreated (n = 649) DU145 human prostate cancer cells. In the latter case the LIM sites were predominantly found at the nuclear border, whereas treated populations showed different degrees of increase in LIMs towards the interior nuclear space, in which a large portion of heterochromatin is located. The cell-by-cell evaluation of changes in the spatial reorganization of MeC/DAPI signals revealed that zebularine is a more gentle demethylating agent than 5-azacytidine. Measuring changes in the topology of low-intensity sites can potentially be a

  3. [The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Bobrovnitsky, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhailik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Bobkova, A S; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present study carried out on white male rats in experiments with the use of biochemical, radioimmunological, and electron- microscopic methods. It was shown that the combined treatment with potable mineral water (MV) and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) of ultrahigh frequency (power density less than 1 pW/cm2, the frequency about 1000 MHz) facilitated the activation of metabolic and intracellular regenerative processes in the liver and testes. One of the advantages of the combined application of MV and LIEMR over the single-factor treatment manifested itself as the weakening of stress reactions, the increase in the frequency of the plastic processes, and the more harmonious development of different forms of intracellular regeneration. The results of the study provide a deeper insight ino the mechanisms underlying the combined actions of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation; also, they justify the application of these factors for the protection of the reproductive system and the entire body from stress-induced disorders.

  4. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm(2)) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers.

  5. Bone repair of the periapical lesions treated or not with low intensity laser (λ = 904 nm).(An X-ray study in human)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Gerdal Roberto de

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser on the bone repair over periapical lesions of dental elements. Fifteen patients with a total of eighteen periapical lesions were selected and divided into two groups. Lesions of the control group were submitted to endodontic treatment and/or periapical surgery and the lesions of the experimental laser group, were submitted to the same procedures of the first group but also irradiated by low intensity laser. It was used a 904 nm wavelength laser GaAs, employing 11 mW of power delivered by a fiber optic system, irradiation continuos and contact mode, using a fluency of 9 J/cm 2 . The mentioned treatment was repeated for 10 sessions with intervals of 72 hours between each session. Bone repair was evaluated through lesion measurements, which were accessed from the X ray pictures using a time and then, were also statistically analyzed. Results showed a significant difference between lased and control groups (p<0,10), emphasizing that for the laser group presented a significant reduction of the lesions area, confirmed by X ray. (author)

  6. Leafcutter Ant Nests Inhibit Low-Intensity Fire Spread in the Understory of Transitional Forests at the Amazon's Forest-Savanna Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine S. Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutter ants (Atta spp. remove leaf litter and woody debris—potential fuels—in and around their nests and foraging trails. We conducted single and three annual experimental fires to determine the effects of this leaf-cutter ant activity on the behavior of low-intensity, slow-moving fires. In a transitional forest, where the southern Amazon forest meets the Brazilian savanna, we tested whether leaf-cutter ant nests and trails (i inhibit fire spread due to a lack of fuels, and (ii, thereby, reduce the total burned area during these experimental low-intensity fires, particularly at forest edges where leaf-cutter ant abundance was higher. Fine-medium fuel mass increased with an increase in distance from ant nest, and the mean area of bare soil was greater on nests than on the forest floor. Between 60 to 90 percent of the unburned area was within 30 m of ant nests, and burned area significantly increased with increasing distance to ant nests. In addition, the number of ant nests declined with increasing distance from the forest edge, and, with exception of the first experimental fire, burned area also increased with increasing distance from the edge. The present study provides new insight to fire ecology in Amazon environments.

  7. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  8. 99mTechnetium-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: promotion of bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuxiang; Li, Guoquan; Ao, Jianhua; Zhou, Libin; Ma, Qin; Liu, Yanpu

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of (99m)technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone imaging in the use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound to promote bony formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs. The body of the mandibles in 7 dogs were cut between the first and the second premolar and were lengthened at the rate of 1mm/day, twice a day, for 20 days. During the period of distraction one lateral distraction gap was irradiated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for 10min twice a day, and the other side was used as control. Serial radiographic inspections were made at different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks) during the consolidation phase, followed by a plain radiograph and histological examination. The (99m)Tc-MDP imaging showed that the ratio of bone formation on the LIPUS-treated side was significantly higher than that on the control side during the early period of consolidation (before the 4th week), but later this was reversed and there were no significant differences between the two sides by the 12th week. Plain radiographs and histological examination showed that the new bone on the experimental side had matured earlier than that on the control side. Radionuclide bone imaging is a good way to assess the formation of bone after distraction osteogenesis.

  9. Influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on osteogenic tissue regeneration in a periodontal injury model: X-ray image alterations assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunji; Chai, Zhaowu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate, with micro-computed tomography, the influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on wound-healing in periodontal tissues. Periodontal disease with Class II furcation involvement was surgically produced at the bilateral mandibular premolars in 8 adult male beagle dogs. Twenty-four teeth were randomly assigned among 4 groups (G): G1, periodontal flap surgery; G2, periodontal flap surgery+low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS); G3, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) surgery; G4, GTR surgery plus LIPUS. The affected area in the experimental group was exposed to LIPUS. At 6 and 8weeks, the X-ray images of regenerated teeth were referred to micro-CT scanning for 3-D measurement. Bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), and number of trabeculae (Tb) in G2 and G4 were higher than in G1 and G3 (pperiodontal flap surgery group. LIPUS irradiation increased the number, volume, and area of new alveolar bone trabeculae. LIPUS has the potential to promote the repair of periodontal tissue, and may work effectively if combined with GTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical value of periventricular low-intensity areas detected by fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Relationships between perinatal vital parameter and neonatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadowaki, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Tamura, Masanori [Nagano Children' s Hospital, Toyoshina (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed to assess the correlation among the incidence of periventricular low intensities (PVLI) on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, clinical evidence of perinatal insults that may cause white matter damage, and the outcome of the infants. We evaluated periventricular white matter lesions of 329 neonates whose MRI were obtained before two months corrected age. The detective rate of periventricular abnormalities on FLAIR imaging was significantly higher than that of T1-T2 weighted imaging. The most typical lesion detected on FLAIR imaging was periventricular low intensities (PVLI), frequently observed in the neonates with a history of preterm labour, very low birth weight, birth asphyxia and severe respiratory failure. Although we could not characterize the risk factors of PVLI, the incidence of PVLI had a strong correlation with the scores of motor and developmental tests at 12 and 36-months corrected age. In conclusion, FLAIR imaging, detecting the border zone damage of white matter, would be a strong tool to pick out neonates at high risk of neurological disturbances from those without clinical evidence of neurological insults in the neonatal period. (author)

  11. High- but not low-intensity light leads to oxidative stress and quality loss of cold-stored baby leaf spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Mogren, Lars M; Reade, John P H; Cobb, Andrew H; Monaghan, James M

    2015-07-01

    Quality management in the fresh produce industry is an important issue. Spinach is exposed to various adverse conditions (temperature, light, etc.) within the supply chain. The present experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of light conditions (dark, low-intensity light (LL) and high-intensity light (HL)) and photoperiod (6 h HL and 18 h dark) on the quality changes of cold-stored spinach. HL exposure resulted in oxidative stress, causing tissue damage and quality loss as evidenced by increased membrane damage and water loss. The content of total ascorbic acid was reduced under HL conditions. On the other hand, storage of spinach under LL conditions gave promising results, as nutritional quality was not reduced, while texture maintenance was improved. No significant differences, with the exception of nutritional quality, were found between spinach leaves stored under continuous (24 h) low-intensity light (30-35 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and their counterparts stored under the same light integral over 6 h (130-140 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). LL extended the shelf-life of spinach. The amount of light received by the leaves was the key factor affecting produce quality. Light intensity, however, has to be low enough not to cause excess oxidative stress and lead to accelerated senescence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  13. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  14. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  15. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  16. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  17. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  18. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  19. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  20. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  1. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  2. [Analgesia evoked by combined effect of corvitin and low-intensity microwaves on acupuncture points in mice of different genetic strains with somatic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, O V; Bahats'ka, O V; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P

    2011-01-01

    The level of analgesia has been investigated in mice of two genotypes C57BL/6J Bl/6j and CBA/CaLac with the somatic pain caused by the formalin test after irradiation of acupuncture point E-36 by microwaves of low intensity (30-300 GHz, density of a stream of capacity of 3-10-9 B(T)/cm2) on a background entered corvitin (20 mg/kg). It is shown, that the action of these two factors causes significant analgesia with different levels: 43% in C57BL/6J Bl/6j mice and 33% in CBA/CaLac mice. The intensity of analgesia after action of microwaves and corvitin exceeds the level attained during separate use of these factors.

  3. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rentería, M. A.; López-Morelos, V. H.; García-Hernández, R.; Dzib-Pérez, L.; García-Ochoa, E. M.; González-Sánchez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O2 (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N2 (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  4. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  5. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  6. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  7. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of a digitally assisted low intensity intervention to promote personal recovery in persisting psychosis: SMART-Therapy study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Farhall, John; Foley, Fiona; Rossell, Susan L; Castle, David; Ladd, Emma; Meyer, Denny; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Leitan, Nuwan; Nunan, Cassy; Frankish, Rosalie; Smark, Tara; Farnan, Sue; McLeod, Bronte; Sterling, Leon; Murray, Greg; Fossey, Ellie; Brophy, Lisa; Kyrios, Michael

    2016-09-07

    Psychosocial interventions have an important role in promoting recovery in people with persisting psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Readily available, digital technology provides a means of developing therapeutic resources for use together by practitioners and mental health service users. As part of the Self-Management and Recovery Technology (SMART) research program, we have developed an online resource providing materials on illness self-management and personal recovery based on the Connectedness-Hope-Identity-Meaning-Empowerment (CHIME) framework. Content is communicated using videos featuring persons with lived experience of psychosis discussing how they have navigated issues in their own recovery. This was developed to be suitable for use on a tablet computer during sessions with a mental health worker to promote discussion about recovery. This is a rater-blinded randomised controlled trial comparing a low intensity recovery intervention of eight one-to-one face-to-face sessions with a mental health worker using the SMART website alongside routine care, versus an eight-session comparison condition, befriending. The recruitment target is 148 participants with a schizophrenia-related disorder or mood disorder with a history of psychosis, recruited from mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomised to intervention, and complete follow up assessments at 3, 6 and 9 months post-baseline. The primary outcome is personal recovery measured using the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR). Secondary outcomes include positive and negative symptoms assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, subjective experiences of psychosis, emotional symptoms, quality of life and resource use. Mechanisms of change via effects on self-stigma and self-efficacy will be examined. This protocol describes a novel intervention which tests new therapeutic methods including in-session tablet computer use and

  9. Effects of a low-intensity intervention that prescribed a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet in obese, diabetic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Vetter, Marion L; Moore, Reneé H; Chittams, Jesse L; Dalton-Bakes, Cornelia V; Dowd, Monique; Williams-Smith, Catherine; Cardillo, Serena; Wadden, Thomas A

    2010-09-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have been associated with significant reductions in weight and HbA(1c) in obese, diabetic participants who received high-intensity lifestyle modification for 6 or 12 months. This investigation sought to determine whether comparable results to those of short-term, intensive interventions could be achieved over a 24-month study period using a low-intensity intervention that approximates what is feasible in outpatient practice. A total of 144 obese, diabetic participants were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate diet (low fat diet (fat with a deficit of 500 kcal/day). Participants were provided weekly group nutrition education sessions for the first month, and monthly sessions thereafter through the end of 24 months. Weight, HbA(1c), glucose, and lipids were measured at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months. Of the 144 enrolled participants, 68 returned for the month 24 assessment visit. Weights were retrieved from electronic medical records for an additional 57 participants (total, 125 participants) at month 24. All participants with a baseline measurement and at least one of the three other measurements were included in the mixed-model analyses (n = 138). The low-intensity intervention resulted in modest weight loss in both groups at month 24. At this time, participants in the low-carbohydrate group lost 1.5 kg, compared to 0.2 kg in the low-fat group (P = 0.147). Lipids, glycemic indexes, and dietary intake did not differ between groups at month 24 (or at months 6 or 12) (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00108459).

  10. Optimization of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound-mediated microvessel disruption on prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice using an orthogonal experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y U; Bai, Wenkun; Chen, Yini; Lin, Yanduan; Hu, Bing

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to provide a complete exploration of the effect of sound intensity, frequency, duty cycle, microbubble volume and irradiation time on low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound (US)-mediated microvessel disruption, and to identify an optimal combination of the five factors that maximize the blockage effect. An orthogonal experimental design approach was used. Enhanced US imaging and acoustic quantification were performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. In the confirmatory test, in addition to acoustic quantification, the specimens of the tumor were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed using light microscopy. The results revealed that sound intensity, frequency, duty cycle, microbubble volume and irradiation time had a significant effect on the average peak intensity (API). The extent of the impact of the variables on the API was in the following order: Sound intensity; frequency; duty cycle; microbubble volume; and irradiation time. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: Sound intensity, 1.00 W/cm 2 ; frequency, 20 Hz; duty cycle, 40%; microbubble volume, 0.20 ml; and irradiation time, 3 min. In the confirmatory test, the API was 19.97±2.66 immediately subsequent to treatment, and histological examination revealed signs of tumor blood vessel injury in the optimum parameter combination group. In conclusion, the Taguchi L 18 (3) 6 orthogonal array design was successfully applied for determining the optimal parameter combination of API following treatment. Under the optimum orthogonal design condition, a minimum API of 19.97±2.66 subsequent to low-frequency and low-intensity mediated blood perfusion blockage was obtained.

  11. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

  12. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca²⁺-sensitive K⁺ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Craig A; Tharp, Darla L; Ivey, Jan R; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2011-10-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ET(A)) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K(+) currents (I(K(+))) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca(2+) from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ET(A)-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)) was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)), illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy.

  13. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  14. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  15. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  16. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  17. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  18. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  19. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  20. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  1. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  2. Embeddedness as a facilitator of sustainable entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper makes the case for a strong embeddedness at all stages of sustainable entrepreneurship – opportunity identification and/or creation, evaluation, and exploitation. This strong embeddedness is argued to drive entrepreneurs towards sustainability through the set-up of long-term social contracts with multiple stakeholders. Building upon extant literature on sustainable, social, and environmental entrepreneurship and the framework of stakeholder theory, as well as the embedde...

  3. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  4. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  5. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  6. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  7. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  8. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  9. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  10. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  11. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10,000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J M; Bos, Elske H; Ruiter, Martine J

    2011-01-28

    Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same illuminance (10,000 lux) and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD) were given light treatment (10,000 lux) for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000 °K) with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle) with a vertical illuminance of 10,000 lux at eye position or BLT (17,000 °K) with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%). On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found to be highly effective. The therapeutic effects of low-intensity

  12. Estimation of the distribution of low-intensity ultrasound mechanical index as a parameter affecting the proliferation of spermatogonia stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Zeinab Hormozi; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Ravari, Mohammad Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Considering the use of physical and mechanical stimulation, such as low-intensity ultrasound for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, it is essential to understand the physical and acoustical mechanisms of acoustic waves in vitro. Mechanical index is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the mechanical index was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells. Due to low intensity of ultrasound, Rayleigh integral model has been used for acoustic pressure computation. The acoustic pressure and mechanical index equations are modeled and solved to estimate optimal mechanical index for 28, 40, 150kHz and 1MHz frequencies. This model are solved in different intensities and distances from transducer in cylindrical coordinates. Based on the results of the mechanical index, regions with threshold mechanical index of 0.7 were identified for extracting of radiation arrangement to cell medium. Acoustic pressure distribution along the axial and radial was extracted. In order to validate the results of the modeling, the acoustic pressure in the water and near field depth was measured by a piston hydrophone. Results of modeling and experiments show that the model is consistent well to experimental results with 0.91 and 0.90 correlation of coefficient (pmechanical index is more effective on enhancing the proliferation rate of the spermatogonia stem cells during the seven days of culture. In contrast, higher mechanical index has a harmful effect on the spermatogonial stem cells. Thus, considering cavitation threshold of different materials is necessary to find effective mechanical index ranges on proliferation for the used frequencies. This acoustic propagation model and ultrasound mechanical index assessments can be used with acceptable accuracy, for the extraction special arrangement of acoustic

  13. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2018-03-01

    Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Subjects with ED (N = 126) who scored lower than 25 points in the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were eligible for the study. They were allocated to 1 of 2 groups: 5 weekly sessions of sham treatment (group A) or linear Li-ESWT (group B). After a 4-week break, the 2 groups received active treatment once a week for 5 weeks. At baseline and 6 and 12 months, subjects were evaluated by the IIEF-EF, the Erectile Hardness Scale (EHS), and the Sexual Quality of Life in Men. The primary outcome measure was an increase of at least 5 points in the IIEF-EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout rate = 25%). Adjusted for the IIEF-EF score at baseline, the difference between groups B and A was -1.30 (95% CI = -4.37 to 1.77, P = .4). The success rate based on the main outcome parameter (ΔIIEF-EF score ≥ 5) was 54% in group A vs 47% in group B (odds ratio = 0.67, P = .28). Improvement based on changes in the EHS score in groups A and B was 34% and 24%, respectively (odds ratio = 0.47, P = .82). Exposure to 2 cycles of linear Li-ESWT for ED is not superior to 1 cycle at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Fojecki GL, Tiessen S

  14. Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden – a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenblad Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing interest in several countries to develop tobacco cessation support in dentistry setting. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative effectiveness of a high intensity intervention compared with a low intensity intervention for smoking cessation support in a dental clinic setting. Methods 300 smokers attending dental or general health care were randomly assigned to two arms and referred to the local dental clinic for smoking cessation support. One arm received support with low intensity treatment (LIT, whereas the other group was assigned to high intensity treatment (HIT support. The main outcome measures included self-reported point prevalence and continuous abstinence (≥ 183 days at the 12-month follow-up. Results Follow-up questionnaires were returned from 86% of the participants. People in the HIT-arm were twice as likely to report continuous abstinence compared with the LIT-arm (18% vs. 9%, p = 0.02. There was a difference (not significant between the arms in point prevalence abstinence in favour of the HIT-protocol (23% vs. 16%. However, point prevalence cessation rates in the LIT-arm reporting additional support were relatively high (23% compared with available data assessing abstinence in smokers trying to quit without professional support. Conclusion Screening for willingness to quit smoking within the health care system and offering smoking cessation support within dentistry may be an effective model for smoking cessation support in Sweden. The LIT approach is less expensive and time consuming and may be appropriate as a first treatment option, but should be integrated with other forms of available support in the community. The

  15. Low intensity 635 nm diode laser irradiation inhibits fibroblast-myofibroblast transition reducing TRPC1 channel expression/activity: New perspectives for tissue fibrosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Chellini, Flaminia; Squecco, Roberta; Tani, Alessia; Idrizaj, Eglantina; Nosi, Daniele; Giannelli, Marco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation therapy is emerging as a promising new therapeutic option for fibrosis in different damaged and/or diseased organs. However, the anti-fibrotic potential of this treatment needs to be elucidated and the cellular and molecular targets of the laser clarified. Here, we investigated the effects of a low intensity 635 ± 5 nm diode laser irradiation on fibroblast-myofibroblast transition, a key event in the onset of fibrosis, and elucidated some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were cultured in a low serum medium in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and irradiated with a 635 ± 5 nm diode laser (continuous wave, 89 mW, 0.3 J/cm(2) ). Fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation was assayed by morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological approaches. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and of Tissue inhibitor of MMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, after laser exposure was also evaluated by confocal immunofluorescence analyses. Moreover, the effect of the diode laser on transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) 1/stretch-activated channel (SAC) expression and activity and on TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling was investigated. Diode laser treatment inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as judged by reduction of stress fibers formation, α-smooth muscle actin (sma) and type-1 collagen expression and by changes in electrophysiological properties such as resting membrane potential, cell capacitance and inwardly rectifying K(+) currents. In addition, the irradiation up-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and downregulated that of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in TGF-β1-treated cells. This laser effect was shown to involve TRPC1/SAC channel functionality. Finally, diode laser stimulation and TRPC1 functionality negatively affected fibroblast-myofibroblast transition by interfering with TGF-β1 signaling, namely reducing the

  16. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux and standard bright light (10 000 lux are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos Elske H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT. Both treatments used the same illuminance (10 000 lux and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. Method In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD were given light treatment (10 000 lux for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000°K with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle with a vertical illuminance of 10 000 lux at eye position or BLT (17 000°K with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. Results On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%. On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. Conclusion With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found

  17. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  18. Effect of Nonviral Plasmid Delivered Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Condylar Growth: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is an important regulator of tissue growth. Previous studies have shown that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulates bone growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergetic effect of LIPUS and local injection of nonviral bFGF plasmid DNA (pDNA on mandibular growth in rats. Design. Groups were control, blank pDNA, bFGF pDNA, LIPUS, and bFGF pDNA + LIPUS. Treatments were performed for 28 days. Significant increase was observed in mandibular height and condylar length in LIPUS groups. MicroCT analysis showed significant increase in bone volume fraction in bFGF pDNA + LIPUS group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased cell count and condylar proliferative and hypertrophic layers widths in bFGF pDNA group. Results. Current study showed increased mandibular condylar growth in either bFGF pDNA or LIPUS groups compared to the combined group that showed only increased bone volume fraction. Conclusion. It appears that there is an additive effect of bFGF + LIPUS on the mandibular growth.

  19. New insight into the disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger by TiO2 photocatalyst under low intensity UVA light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhum, Chonlada; Viboonratanasri, Duangamon; Chawengkijwanich, Chamorn

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) photocatalytic reaction has great potential for the disinfection of harmful pathogens. However, the disinfection mechanisms of TiO 2 photocatalysis are not yet well-known for fungi and protozoa. In this work, the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of Fusarium monoliforme and Aspergillus niger under low intensity UVA light (365nm, niger was more sensitive to UVA-light. Serious destructions of cell membrane and cellular organelles were shown in A. niger exposed to UVA-light only and photocatalytic treatments. However, morphological change in A. niger cell wall was only observed in photocatalytic treatment. Changes to the outermost melanin like layer and cell wall of A. niger spore due to photocatalytic treatment were greatly apparent while the intracellular organelles of A. niger spore were not affected. Therefore, regrowth of A. niger on agar plate was expected from the germination of A. niger spore in the subsequent dark. These observations give a better understanding of the photocatalytic disinfection mechanism toward fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact on the Quality of Erections after Completing a Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Cycle on a Group of 710 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Corredor Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in a group of patients with organic vascular erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods. This is an observational retrospective study. The researchers reviewed 710 patients with a clinical diagnosis of organic vascular erectile dysfunction (ED of more than 3-month duration from male sexual health clinics of the Boston Medical Group from 12 cities in Spain and 4 in Mexico. Patients received 5 outpatient shock wave therapy sessions. They were evaluated with the erection hardness score (EHS before the first session (n = 710, at the end of the last session (n = 710, and one month after the last session (n = 412. Results. In the first examination, the EHS improved in 43.1% (306/710 of subjects compared to the baseline measurement and ability to penetrate increased from 26.8% to 44% (p<0.0001. In the second examination, the ability to penetrate was 37.9%, lower than in the first (p=0.042 but higher than the baseline (p=0.0001. Conclusions. The results suggest that the shock wave therapy with or without concomitant treatments improved the quality of erections in patients with erectile dysfunction treated in specialised male sexual health clinics. This trial is registered with NCT03237143.

  1. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  2. Low intensity shear stress increases endothelial ELR+ CXC chemokine production via a focal adhesion kinase-p38{beta} MAPK-NF-{kappa}B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sadiq S; Soltau, Thomas D; Chaturvedi, Gaurav; Totapally, Balagangadhar; Hagood, James S; Andrews, William W; Athar, Mohammad; Voitenok, Nikolai N; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Patel, Rakesh P; Fallon, Michael B; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2009-02-27

    CXC chemokines with a glutamate-leucine-arginine (ELR) tripeptide motif (ELR(+) CXC chemokines) play an important role in leukocyte trafficking into the tissues. For reasons that are not well elucidated, circulating leukocytes are recruited into the tissues mainly in small vessels such as capillaries and venules. Because ELR(+) CXC chemokines are important mediators of endothelial-leukocyte interaction, we compared chemokine expression by microvascular and aortic endothelium to investigate whether differences in chemokine expression by various endothelial types could, at least partially, explain the microvascular localization of endothelial-leukocyte interaction. Both in vitro and in vivo models indicate that ELR(+) CXC chemokine expression is higher in microvascular endothelium than in aortic endothelial cells. These differences can be explained on the basis of the preferential activation of endothelial chemokine production by low intensity shear stress. Low shear activated endothelial ELR(+) CXC chemokine production via cell surface heparan sulfates, beta(3)-integrins, focal adhesion kinase, the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38beta, mitogen- and stress-associated protein kinase-1, and the transcription factor.

  3. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Sloth Osther, Palle Jørn

    2018-01-01

    -EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout......INTRODUCTION: Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which...... can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. AIM: To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. METHODS: Subjects with ED...

  4. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Glen Anderson Maia de

    2003-01-01

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (λ= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm 2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  5. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Agata; Gulino, Marisa; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bellia, Paolo; Raciti, Giuseppina; Grasso, Rosaria; Musumeci, Francesco; Vanella, Angelo; Triglia, Antonio

    2010-03-31

    The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100% modulation index. The strength of the electric field (rms value) at the sample position was 10V/m. No change in cellular viability evaluated by MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase release was observed. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation was found only after exposure of the astrocytes to modulated EMF for 20min. No evident effects were detected when shorter time intervals or continuous waves were used. The irradiation conditions allowed the exclusion of any possible thermal effect. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of hypocaloric diet, low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement, or both on aortic hemodynamics and muscle mass in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Wong, Alexei; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos Angel; Simonavice, Emily; Daggy, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to examine the independent and combined impact of hypocaloric diet and low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) on aortic hemodynamics and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) in obese postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 54 [1] y) were randomly assigned to LIRET (n = 13), diet (n = 14), or diet + LIRET (n = 14). Body weight, waist circumference, aortic systolic blood pressure, aortic pulse pressure, augmentation index, subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR; myocardial perfusion), and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after 12 weeks. ASM was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body weight (P diet and diet + LIRET compared with no changes after LIRET. ASM did not change after diet + LIRET, and the decrease observed after diet (P diet (P diet + LIRET (P diet and diet + LIRET, but not after LIRET. SEVR (P diet groups, whereas HR (P diet. Changes in SEVR (P diet were different compared with LIRET. The augmentation index did not change in any group. Our findings suggest that diet-induced weight loss may reduce cardiovascular risk by improving SEVR via HR and aortic pulse pressure reductions in obese postmenopausal women. LIRET prevents ASM loss associated with hypocaloric diet but has no additive effects on aortic hemodynamics.

  7. Cellular and genetic effects and recovery of heat-damaged cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by low intensity electromagnetic radiation at 915 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were conducted on two genetically well known strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wild Type) and repair deficient mutant (UVS). Results obtained showed clear genetic difference between normal and mutants based on UV sensitivity, percent survival at elevated temperatures and high intensity electromagnetic radiation. At the cellular level, both strains showed a consistent increase in the recovery rate of heat damaged cells when exposed to low intensity FMR as compared to sham (non irradiated cells) at 915 MHz. The percent recovery of wild type was higher than mutant. At the molecular level, the uptake of tritiated uridine into thermally damaged cells which were recovered by low level EMR was significantly higher than sham. Total RNA isolated from irradiated cells and sham showed visible differences in the intensity of RNA bands. Gross quantitative analyses suggest more RNA production in radiation recovered cells as compared to sham. Results presented in this dissertation provide conclusive evidence that low level microwave radiation can be used in the recovery of heat damaged cells

  8. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahhas, Feras Y; El-Bialy, Tarek; Afify, Ahmed R; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: crazyfim@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: luirdzib@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Ochoa, E.M., E-mail: emgarcia@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic interaction in welding improved localised corrosion resistance. • Electromagnetic interaction in welding enhanced γ/δ phase balance of DuplexSS. • Welding under Electromagnetic interaction repress formation and growth of detrimental phases. • Welds made with gas protection (2% O{sub 2} + 98% Ar) have better microstructural evolution during welding. - Abstract: The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O{sub 2} (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N{sub 2} (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  10. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Bieler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL- reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT versus low-intensity (LRT resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n=24 or LRT (n=26 from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94% of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69% 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P=0.020. Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.027 and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.006 without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity.

  11. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation (λ=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, λ=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm 2 , directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  12. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through calcium and phosphate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinary, João Alberto Fioravante; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Basso, Bruno de Souza; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Stülp, Simone; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Melo, Denizar Alberto da Silva; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues de

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on pre-osteoblast mineralization using in vitro bioassays. Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to LIPUS at 1 MHz frequency, 0.2 W/cm 2 intensity and 20% duty cycle for 30 min. The analyses were carried out up to 336 h (14 days) after exposure. The concentration of collagen, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in cell supernatant and the presence of calcium deposits in the cells were analyzed. Our results showed that LIPUS promotes mineralized nodules formation. Collagen, phosphate, and calcium levels were decreased in cell supernatant at 192 h after LIPUS exposure. However, alkaline phosphatase and TGF-β1 concentrations remained unchanged. Therapeutic pulsed ultrasound is capable of stimulating differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by calcium and phosphate uptake with consequent hydroxyapatite formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Histomorphological analyse of accelerating the fibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction in rabbits by low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliang; Lü, Hongbin; Hu, Jianzhong; Xu, Daqi; Zhou, Jingyong; Wang, Ye

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) on accelerating the fibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction. A total of 60 mature female New Zealand white rabbits undergoing standard partial patellectomy were divided into 2 groups randomly. The control group was given comfort treatment and the treatment group was given LIPUS treatment starting from day 3 to the end of week 6 postoperatively. The scheduled time points of animal euthanization would be at week 6, week 12 and week 18 postoperatively. The patella-patellar tendon (PPT) complex would be harvested and cut into sections after decalcification for H&E staining, Safranine o/fast green staining. The thickness and gray value of fibrocartilage layer were analyzed by SANO Microscope Partner image analyzer. At week 6, week 12 and week 18 postoperatively, the fibrocartilage layer in the treatment group was significantly thicker than that in the control group (Pfibrocartilage layer was significantly smaller than that in the control group (Pfibrocartilage layer repair of patella-patellar tendon junction in rabbit models.

  15. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    ;Pure shift; NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  16. Low-Intensity Wheelchair Training in Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Propulsion Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; Hartog, Johanneke; Tepper, Marga; Slootman, Hans; Veeger, DirkJan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a low-intensity wheelchair training on propulsion technique in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Participants in this multicenter nonblinded randomized controlled trial were inactive manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury for at least 10 yrs (N = 29), allocated to exercise (n = 14) or no exercise. The 16-wk training consisted of wheelchair treadmill propulsion at 30%-40% heart rate reserve or equivalent in rate of perceived exertion, twice a week, 30 mins per session. Propulsion technique was assessed at baseline as well as after 8, 16, and 42 wks during two submaximal treadmill-exercise blocks using a measurement wheel attached to a participant's own wheelchair. Changes over time between the groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests on difference scores (P propulsion technique were not found in this group. Perhaps, substantial effects require a higher intensity or frequency. Investigating whether more effective and feasible interventions exist might help reduce the population's risk of upper-body joint damage during daily wheelchair propulsion.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Ionel-Alin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a model for resource use meant to satisfy human needs, without polluting the environment, so that these needs can be satisfied not only in the present, but in the future as well. It is a concept of nowadays with no generally accepted definition, placing environment first and foremost, aiming at implementing the environmental policies in all structures and at all economic levels. Within the present study we have aimed at creating a conceptual delimitation on sustainable development, sustainability and socialresponsibility, concepts of present interest, that tend to become a mystery for the academic community and practitioners by their variety and complexity of approaches. During our scientific endeavor we believe that social responsibility is the foundation of sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept used especially at macro-economic level, while social responsibility is used at entity level and incorporates the economic, environmental and social dimension, which has a voluntary character and tries to respond to the information needs of the society and other stakeholders. Sustainability at the entity\\'s level is the goal or final objective of sustainable development – satisfaction of present needs without compromising the possibility for future generations to satisfy their own needs, while social responsibility is an intermediate phase of sustainability wherein entities try to balance the economic, social and environmental dimension. Thus, we can state we include ourselves within social corporatism, slightly close to social institutionalism, which is characteristic to developed countries, giving a particular importance to social contract and relations between entity and society. We believe that in Romania, a POSDRU funded project should be regarded as a legal person with social values, which must be based on sustainable development and to promote, besides legal liability of automatically deriving

  18. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  19. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  20. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  1. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  2. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  3. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  4. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  5. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  6. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  7. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  8. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  9. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  10. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  11. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  12. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  13. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  14. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  15. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  16. Evaluation of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Effects on the Osteogenesis Potential of Demineralized Bone Matrix in Experimental Tibial Defect in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Givi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Many studies have assessed the effects of either low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS or demineralized bone matrix (DBM on bone repair; however, an evaluation of the combination of these modalities (LIPUS + DBM has not yet been considered. Objectives This study aimed to investigate combined effects of DBM and LIPUS on fracture healing. Methods Bilateral 5-mm tibial defects were created in male Dutch rabbits (n = 30. Animals were divided to two groups of empty defect (A and DBM group (B, in which commercial DBM putty was used in defects. In each animal left tibia was treated with LIPUS (intensity = 30 mW/cm2, I SATA, 1 MHz, 20 min/day, pulsed duty 1:4 and the contralateral limb was used as the control. Animals, after 14, 28 and 60 days, were submitted to radiographic or computerized tomography (CT scanning analysis. Results At two weeks, LIPUS had no substantial effect on bone formation. Slight increase of average rates in LIPUS group (A2 were seen compared to the empty defect group (A1 at day 21 and 28. In the DBM–treated group compared with the sham LIPUS, bone-healing rate was reduced at the end of the period (60 days after surgery. The average healing rate in group B at the end of the 60-day period was less than group A after 21 days. Conclusions The present study discusses systemic effect of LIPUS because of non-significant results between treated group and control group and is the first to demonstrate that LIPUS decreases bone formation induced by DBM.

  17. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation and proliferation in human mesenchymal stem cells by a modified low intensity ultrasound stimulation under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar M Z Uddin

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages depending on their exposure to differing biochemical and biomechanical inductive factors. Lack of mechanical signals due to disuse can inhibit osteogenesis and induce adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Long-term bed rest due to both brain/spinal cord injury and space travel can lead to disuse osteoporosis that is in part caused by a reduced number of osteoblasts. Thus, it is essential to provide proper mechanical stimulation for cellular viability and osteogenesis, particularly under disuse conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived human stem cells (Ad-hMSC in simulated microgravity conditions. Cells were cultured in a 1D clinostat to simulate microgravity (SMG and treated with LIPUS at 30mW/cm(2 for 20 min/day. It was hypothesized that the application of LIPUS to SMG cultures would restore osteogenesis in Ad-hMSCs. The results showed significant increases in ALP, OSX, RANKL, RUNX2, and decreases in OPG in LIPUS treated SMG cultures of Ad-MSC compared to non-treated cultures. LIPUS also restored OSX, RUNX2 and RANKL expression in osteoblast cells. SMG significantly reduced ALP positive cells by 70% (p<0.01 and ALP activity by 22% (p<0.01, while LIPUS treatment restored ALP positive cell number and activity to equivalence with normal gravity controls. Extracellular matrix collagen and mineralization was assessed by Sirius red and Alizarin red staining, respectively. SMG cultures showed little or no collagen or mineralization, but LIPUS treatment restored collagen content to 50% (p<0.001 and mineralization by 45% (p<0.001 in LIPUS treated-SMG cultures relative to SMG-only cultures. The data suggest that LIPUS treatment can restore normal osteogenic differentiation of MSCs from disuse by daily short duration stimulation.

  18. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  19. A case report of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) in the management of venous ulceration: potential effects of wound debridement upon efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, K M; Mc Donough, S M; Clements, B A; Baxter, G D

    2000-02-01

    This single case report (ABA design) was undertaken as a preliminary investigation into the clinical effects of low intensity laser upon venous ulceration, applied to wound margins only, and the potential relevance of wound debridement and wound measurement techniques to any effects observed. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Ulster's Research Ethical Committee and the patient recruited was required to attend 3 times per week for a total of 8 weeks. Treatments were carried out using single source irradiation (830 nm; 9 J/cm2, CB Medico, Copenhagen, Denmark) in conjunction with dry dressings during each visit. Assessment of wound surface area, wound appearance, and current pain were completed by an independent investigator. Planimetry and digitizing were completed for wound tracings and for photographs to quantify surface areas. Video image analysis was also performed on photographs of wounds. The primary findings were changes in wound appearance, and a decrease in wound surface area (range 33.3-46.3%), dependent on the choice of measurement method. Video image analysis was used, but rejected as an accurate method of wound measurement. Treatment intervention produced a statistically significant reduction in wound area using the C statistic on digitizing data for photographs (at Phase one only; Z = 2.412; p debridement emerged as an important procedure to be carried out prior to measuring wounds. Despite fluctuating pain levels recorded throughout the duration of the study, VAS scores showed a decrease of 15% at the end of the study. This hypoalgesic effect was, however, statistically significant (using the C statistic) at Phase one only (Z = 2.554; p types of ulceration.

  20. [The effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency and low intensity on the growth rate of bacteria Escherichia coli and the role of medium pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosian, A; Kalantarian, V; Trchunian, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequency (45-53 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength 5.6-6.7 mm) of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) of Escherichia coli K12, grown under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugar (glucose) for 30 min or 1 h, caused a decrease in their growth rate, the maximum inhibitory effect being achieved at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz. This effect depended on medium pH when the maximal action was determined at pH 7.5. In addition, separate 30-min of 1-h irradiation (frequency 51.8 or 53 GHz) of doubly distilled water or some inorganic ions contained in Tris-phosphate buffer where the cells were transferred induced oppositely directed changes in further growth of these bacteria under anaerobic conditions; irradiation of water caused a decrease in the growth rate of bacteria. A significant change in pH of water (0.5-1.5 unit) was induced by a 30-irradiation at a frequency of 49, 50.3, 51.8, or 53 GHz, when the initial pH value was 6.0 or 8.0, but not 7.5. These results indicate the changes in the properties of water and its role in the effects of EMI of extremely high frequency. The marked effect of EMI on bacteria disappeared upon repeated irradiation for 1 h at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz with an interval of 2 hours. This result indicates some compensatory mechanisms in bacteria.

  1. Gene expression profiling analysis of the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Zhiling; Lv, Yonggang

    2017-11-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a noninvasive technique that has been shown to affect cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and promote the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve. Our previous studies had proved that LIPUS can significantly promote the neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells (iPSCs-NCSCs) and enhance the repair of rat-transected sciatic nerve. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of LIPUS treatment of iPSCs-NCSCs, this study reported the gene expression profiling analysis of iPSCs-NCSCs before and after LIPUS treatment using the RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) method. It was found that expression of 76 genes of iPSCs-NCSCs cultured in a serum-free neural induction medium and expression of 21 genes of iPSCs-NCSCs cultured in a neuronal differentiation medium were significantly changed by LIPUS treatment. The differentially expressed genes are related to angiogenesis, nervous system activity and functions, cell activities, and so on. The RNA-seq results were further verified by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). High correlation was observed between the results obtained from qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq. This study presented new information on the global gene expression patterns of iPSCs-NCSCs after LIPUS treatment and may expand the understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of LIPUS treatment of iPSCs-NCSCs. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Comparison of an intermittent high-intensity vs continuous low-intensity physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Welz, A; Werner, C; Quentin, B; Wissel, J

    2011-02-01

    This study compared two modes of physiotherapy service over 12 months in community-dwelling people with stroke, either following a train-wait train paradigm by providing bouts of intense physiotherapy, or a continuous less intense programme. Randomized trial. Community-dwelling people with stroke. Fifty patients, first-time stroke, discharged home, following inpatient rehabilitation, allocated to two groups, A and B. Over 12 months, Group A (n = 25) received three two-month blocks of therapy at home, each block contained four 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 96 sessions. Group B (n = 25) continuously received two 30 to 45 minute sessions per week, totalling 104 sessions. Primary Rivermead Mobility Index (0-15), secondary upper- and lower-limb motor functions, Activities of Daily Living competence, tone and number of falls. Both groups were comparable at onset, the mean age in Group A (B) was 62.4 (61.9) years. A and B patients equally improved functions over time, between group differences did not occur. The initial (terminal) Rivermead Mobility Index was 9.4 ± 2.8 (12.2 ± 2.1) in Group A, and 8.5 ± 3.5 (11.2 ± 2.7) in Group B. More Group B patients fell seriously (7 versus 1). The intermittent high-intensity and continuous low-intensity therapy protocols were equally effective, the sheer intensity seems more important than the time-mode of application. The relatively young patients functionally improved in the first year after stroke, the reduced risk of serious falls in the intermittent high-intensity group should be validated.

  3. Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, we found that Li-ESWT increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Here we assessed the underlying signaling pathways in Schwann cells in vitro and in penis tissue in vivo after nerve injury. The result indicated that BDNF were significantly increased by the Li-ESWT after nerve injury, as well as the expression of BDNF in Schwann cells (SCs, RT4-D6P2T in vitro. Li-ESWT activated the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER kinase (PERK pathway by increasing the phosphorylation levels of PERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2a (eIF2α, and enhanced activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 in an energy-dependent manner. In addition, GSK2656157—an inhibitor of PERK—effectively inhibited the effect of Li-ESWT on the phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α, and the expression of ATF4. Furthermore, silencing ATF4 dramatically attenuated the effect of Li-ESWT on the expression of BDNF, but had no effect on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1α or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in Schwann cells. In conclusion, our findings shed new light on the underlying mechanisms by which Li-ESWT may stimulate the expression of BDNF through activation of PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway. This information may help to refine the use of Li-ESWT to further improve its clinical efficacy.

  4. Tuning excitation laser wavelength for secondary resonance in low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ analytical measurement of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Li, Shuiqing; Tse, Stephen D.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, a novel low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (PS-LIBS) technique has been developed for unique elemental-composition identification of aerosolized nanoparticles, where only the solid-phase nanoparticles break down, forming nanoplasmas, without any surrounding gas-phase breakdown. Additional work has demonstrated that PS-LIBS emissions can be greatly enhanced with secondary resonant excitation by matching the excitation laser wavelength with an atomic transition line in the formed nanoplasma, thereby achieving low limits of detection. In this work, a tunable dye laser is employed to investigate the effects of excitation wavelength and irradiance on in-situ PS-LIBS measurements of TiO2 nanoaerosols. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation can be 220 times greater than that for non-resonant cases under similar conditions. Moreover, the emitted spectra are unique for the selected resonant transition lines for a given element, suggesting the potential to make precise phase-selective and analyte-selective measurements of nanoparticles in a multicomponent multiphase system. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation is highly sensitive to excitation laser wavelength, with narrow excitation spectral windows, i.e., 0.012 to 0.023 nm (FWHM, full width at half maximum) for Ti (I) neutral atomic lines, and 0.051 to 0.139 nm (FWHM) for Ti (II) single-ionized atomic lines. Boltzmann analysis of the emission intensities, temporal response of emissions, and emission dependence on excitation irradiance are investigated to understand aspects of the generated nanoplasmas such as temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and excitation mechanism.

  5. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth through Mechanotransduction-Mediated ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Feng, Yi; Hu, Hong; Shi, Aiwei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-12-01

    Enhancing the action of nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic approach to neural regeneration. To facilitate neural regeneration, we investigated whether combining low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and NGF could promote neurite outgrowth, an essential process in neural regeneration. In the present study, PC12 cells were subjected to a combination of LIPUS (1 MHz, 30 or 50 mW/cm 2 , 20% duty cycle and 100-Hz pulse repetition frequency, 10 min every other day) and NGF (50 ng/mL) treatment, and then neurite outgrowth was compared. Our findings indicated that the combined treatment with LIPUS (50 mW/cm 2 ) and NGF (50 ng/mL) promotes neurite outgrowth that is comparable to that achieved by NGF (100 ng/mL) treatment alone. LIPUS significantly increased NGF-induced neurite length, but not neurite branching. These effects were attributed to the enhancing effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB and the expression of thioredoxin (Trx-1). Furthermore, blockage of stretch-activated ion channels with Gd 3+ suppressed the stimulating effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and the downstream signaling activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LIPUS enhances NGF-induced neurite outgrowth through mechanotransduction-mediated signaling of the ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 pathway. The combination of LIPUS and NGF could potentially be used for the treatment of nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  7. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5 years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5 years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5 years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  8. Histopathological study of the effects of low-intensity laser irradiation (λ=650 nm) on dental pulp tissue after cavity pre paration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertella, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of low-intensity Arsenide Gallium Aluminium laser application post-cavity preparation class 1. Six patients with bilateral pre-molars and molars indicated to extraction for orthodontics aim were selected. Four samples of these teeth underwent cavity preparation with deep from medium to high and two samples underwent cavity preparation from high to pulp expositions. The samples were constituted of two teeth of the same patient and received different treatments. One of the teeth underwent laser exposition and the other one was maintained as control, before restorative procedure with polycarboxylate cement. A diode laser (λ=650 nm), output power 30 mW and fluencies of 1,8 J/cm 2 and 2,7 J/cm 2 in pre-molars and molars, respectively, was used for irradiation with repetition rate of 18 Hz in interrupted continuous wave mode. After seven days, the teeth were extracted and processed histologically with HE to verify morphological changes in the pulpy tissue. The four samples, which cavity preparation and restorative material were not in contact with the pulp, did not show histological differences between irradiated and non-irradiated teeth. Both of them presented the same characteristics of normality. The two samples with exposed pulpy tissue showed different results. The irradiated teeth presented no or slight inflammatory signs when compared to the control samples, which showed abscess in the coronary pulp interior and intense inflammatory infiltrated. These results suggest that the laser irradiation can be used as a therapeutic modality in clinical trials, in the conditions employed in this study. (author)

  9. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  10. [The influence of pulsed low-intensity laser radiation of the red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra on the human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, S V; Kliuchnikov, D Iu; Antipov, E V; Volchkov, S E; Kiseleva, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have for a long time been an object of investigation with a view to elucidating the prospects for their application in clinical medicine and cosmetology. One of the approaches to the non-specific regulation of the activity of these cells at the stage of preliminary in vitro combination is the treatment with low-intensity laser radiation (LILR). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using pulsed LILR of the infrared and red spectra for this purpose. We used the 4th passage adhesive MSC cultures based at the umbilical tissue of a donor who gave the informed consent to participate in the study. The source of illumination was a Lazmik-VLOK laser therapeutic apparatus (RU No RZN 2014/1410 dated 06.02.2014) with the matrix laser infrared radiation heads (wavelength 904 nm, light pulse length 108 ns, frequency 1500 Hz). The apparatus was operated either in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.05 and 0.14 mW/cm2 and the red spectrum (wavelength 635 nm, light pulse length 144 ns, frequency 1500 Hz) or in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.03 and 0.12. The exposition was 5 min in both regimes. The study has demonstrated that neither the morphological structure nor the viability of mesenchymal stem cells changed under the influence of energy and time parameters used in experiments. The number of cells was shown to slightly increase in comparison with control. The most pronounced effect was documented after illumination with pulse infrared (904 nm) LILR in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime. The maximum effect was observed during a period between days 1 and 3 of cultivation.

  11. DNA detection of Schistosoma japonicum: diagnostic validity of a LAMP assay for low-intensity infection and effects of chemotherapy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guan, Zhi-Xun; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Zhu, Xing-Quan; He, Yong-Kang; Xia, Chao-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Schistosomiasis has decreased significantly in prevalence and intensity of infection in China, thus more accurate and sensitive methods are desperately needed for the further control of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to assess the utility of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of light intensity infection or false-negative patients and patients post-treatment, targeting the highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 of Schistosoma japonicum. LAMP was first assessed in rabbits with low intensity infection (EPGLAMP. Meanwhile, 42 sera from healthy individuals in a non-endemic area, and 60 sera from "healthy" residents who were identified as being negative for feces examination and immuno-methods in an endemic area were also examined. The results showed that LAMP could detect S. japonicum DNA in sera from rabbits at 3rd day post-infection. Following administration of praziquantel, the S. japonicum DNA in rabbit sera became negative at 10 weeks post-treatment. Of 110 sera from patients, LAMP showed 95.5% sensitivity, and even for 41 patients with less than 10 EPG, the sensitivity of LAMP still reached to 95.1%. For 47 patients after treatment, the negative conversion rate of S. japonicum DNA in patient sera increased from 23.4%, 61.7% to 83.0% at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-treatment, respectively. No false-positive result was obtained for 42 human sera from non-endemic area, while for the 60 "healthy" individuals from endemic area, 10 (16.7%) individuals were positive by LAMP, which suggested that these individuals might be false-negative patients. The present study demonstrated that the LAMP assay is sensitive, specific, and affordable, which would help reduce schistosomiasis transmission through targeted treatment of individuals, particularly for those with negative stool examinations who may yet remain infected. The LAMP assay may provide a potential tool to support schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies.

  12. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Livio de Barros

    2001-01-01

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser (λ = 785 nm) or to red laser (λ = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm 2 . A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths λ=785 nm and λ=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm 2 -, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  13. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  14. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  15. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  16. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  17. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  18. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  19. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  20. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  1. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  2. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  3. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring

  4. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  5. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  6. 36 CFR 223.111 - Administration of contracts in designated disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sharing arrangement in paragraph (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of the contract... disaster, (2) The sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) The sale...

  7. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound increases bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate in the area of fracture healing in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, S.; Nolte, P.A.; Korstjens, C.M.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates impaired fracture healing, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how LIPUS affects bone healing at the tissue level in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula, by using histology

  9. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods: Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  10. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  11. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Wieke H.; de Wit, Maartje; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.; Snoek, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert intervention (N=45) or

  12. IR spectroscopy and electron-positron annihilation study of microstructure of polymer materials under low-intensity irradiation; Issledovanie mikrostruktury polimernykh materialov pri nizkointensivnom obluchenii s ispol`zovaniem IK-spektroskopii i ehlektron-pozimtronnoj annigilyatsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeev, R S; Kononenko, A.I.

    1994-12-31

    A model of oxidation destruction of polymer materials under a low-intensity gamma irradiation is considered. The results obtained allow one to determine conditions for conducting accelerated testings, which the mechanism of polymer material aging under their utilization at NPPs is realized.

  13. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  14. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound have contrasting additive effects during fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Komatsu, David E; Rydberg, Johanna; Bond, Julie L; Hassett, Sean M

    2009-03-01

    Fracture healing is thought to be naturally optimized; however, recent evidence indicates that it may be manipulated to occur at a faster rate. This has implications for the duration of morbidity associated with bone injuries. Two interventions found to accelerate fracture healing processes are recombinant human parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). This study aimed to investigate the individual and combined effects of PTH and LIPUS on fracture healing. Bilateral midshaft femur fractures were created in Sprague-Dawley rats, and the animals treated 7 days/week with PTH (10 microg/kg) or a vehicle solution. Each animal also had one fracture treated for 20 min/day with active-LIPUS (spatial-averaged, temporal-averaged intensity [I(SATA)]=100 mW/cm(2)) and the contralateral fracture treated with inactive-LIPUS (placebo). Femurs were harvested 35 days following injury to permit micro-computed tomography, mechanical property and histological assessments of the fracture calluses. There were no interactions between PTH and LIPUS indicating that their effects were additive rather than synergistic. These additive effects were contrasting with LIPUS primarily increasing total callus volume (TV) without influencing bone mineral content (BMC), and PTH having the opposite effect of increasing BMC without influencing TV. As a consequence of the effect of LIPUS on TV but not BMC, it decreased volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) resulting in a less mature callus. The decreased maturity and persistence of cartilage at the fracture site when harvested offset any beneficial mechanical effects of the increased callus size with LIPUS. In contrast, the effect of PTH on callus BMC but not TV resulted in increased callus vBMD and a more mature callus. This resulted in PTH increasing fracture site mechanical strength and stiffness. These data suggest that PTH may have utility in the treatment of acute bone fractures, whereas LIPUS at an I(SATA) of

  15. Modifying effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on content and composition of fatty acids in thymus of mice exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Aripovsky, Alexander V; Kulagina, Tatiana P

    2015-03-01

    The effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) on thymus weight and its fatty acids (FA) content and FA composition in X-irradiated mice were studied to test the involvement of FA in possible protective effects of EHF EMR against ionizing radiation. Mice were exposed to low-intensity pulse-modulated EHF EMR (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm(2), 20 min exposure, 1 Hz modulation) and/or X-rays at a dose of 4 Gy with different sequences of the treatments. In 4-5 hours, 10, 30, and 40 days after the last exposure, the thymuses were weighed; total FA content and FA composition of the thymuses were determined on days 1, 10, and 30 using a gas chromatography. It was shown that after X-irradiation of mice the total FA content per mg of thymic tissue was significantly increased in 4-5 h and decreased in 10 and 30 days after the treatment. On days 30 and 40 after X-irradiation, the thymus weight remained significantly reduced. The first and tenth days after X-rays injury independently of the presence and sequence of EHF EMR exposure were characterized by an increased content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and a decreased content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) with unchanged content of saturated FA (SFA). Exposure of mice to EHF EMR before or after X-irradiation prevented changes in the total FA content in thymic tissue, returned the summary content of PUFA and MUFA to the control level and decreased the summary content of SFA on the 30th day after the treatments, and promoted the restoration of the thymus weight of X-irradiated mice to the 40th day of the observations. Changes in the content and composition of PUFA in the early period after treatments as well as at the restoration of the thymus weight under the combined action of EHF EMR and X-rays indicate to an active participation of FA in the acceleration of post-radiation recovery of the thymus by EHF EMR exposure.

  16. Associations of low-intensity light physical activity with physical performance in community-dwelling elderly Japanese: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P Izawa

    Full Text Available Physical activity and physical performance relate to quality of life, mortality, and morbidity in elderly people. However, little is known about differences in physical performance related to low-intensity light physical activity (LLPA, high-intensity light physical activity (HLPA, and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA and how they are separated by sex in elderly populations.This study aimed to determine differences in LLPA, HLPA, MPA, and physical performance, and associations between these measures in community-dwelling elderly men and women.Physical activity and physical performance such as timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, and maximum gait speed were measured in 181 community-dwelling elderly men (mean age, 75.1 ± 5.3 years and 109 women (mean age, 73.4 ± 4.8 years in 2013. Physical activity was classified as LLPA (1.6~1.9 METs of physical activity, HLPA (2.0~2.9 METs of physical activity, and MPA (over 3 METs of physical activity. The association between the values of these three intensities of physical activity in the participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of physical performance values with the three groups defined by accelerometer-measured physical activity intensity adjusted for sociographic, behavioral, and multiple diseases in the participants.MPA was beneficially associated with all physical performance indicators in the men (all P<0.05 and women (all P<0.05. Only HLPA showed significant associations with the timed-up-and-go test (P = 0.001 and maximum gait speed (P = 0.006 in women.These results may support the notion that not only HLPA in women but MPA in both sexes appears to improve physical performance in elderly populations.The present study findings provide novel epidemiological evidence for the potential benefits of HLPA in women and also reinforce the potential benefits of MPA in both sexes, which is the

  17. DNA detection of Schistosoma japonicum: diagnostic validity of a LAMP assay for low-intensity infection and effects of chemotherapy in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has decreased significantly in prevalence and intensity of infection in China, thus more accurate and sensitive methods are desperately needed for the further control of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to assess the utility of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection of light intensity infection or false-negative patients and patients post-treatment, targeting the highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 of Schistosoma japonicum.LAMP was first assessed in rabbits with low intensity infection (EPG<10. Then 110 patient sera from Hunan Province, China, and 47 sera after treatment by praziquantel were used to evaluate the diagnostic validity of LAMP. Meanwhile, 42 sera from healthy individuals in a non-endemic area, and 60 sera from "healthy" residents who were identified as being negative for feces examination and immuno-methods in an endemic area were also examined. The results showed that LAMP could detect S. japonicum DNA in sera from rabbits at 3rd day post-infection. Following administration of praziquantel, the S. japonicum DNA in rabbit sera became negative at 10 weeks post-treatment. Of 110 sera from patients, LAMP showed 95.5% sensitivity, and even for 41 patients with less than 10 EPG, the sensitivity of LAMP still reached to 95.1%. For 47 patients after treatment, the negative conversion rate of S. japonicum DNA in patient sera increased from 23.4%, 61.7% to 83.0% at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-treatment, respectively. No false-positive result was obtained for 42 human sera from non-endemic area, while for the 60 "healthy" individuals from endemic area, 10 (16.7% individuals were positive by LAMP, which suggested that these individuals might be false-negative patients.The present study demonstrated that the LAMP assay is sensitive, specific, and affordable, which would help reduce schistosomiasis transmission through targeted treatment of individuals, particularly for those with

  18. Combination of doxorubicin and low-intensity ultrasound causes a synergistic enhancement in cell killing and an additive enhancement in apoptosis induction in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toru; Kondo, Takashi; Ogawa, Ryohei; Feril, Loreto B; Zhao, Qing-Li; Watanabe, Akihiko; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2008-04-01

    Potential clinical use of ultrasound (US) in enhancing the effects of anticancer drugs in the treatment of cancers has been highlighted in previous reports. Increased uptake of drugs by the cancer cells due to US has been suggested as a mechanism. However, the precise mechanism of the enhancement has not yet been elucidated. Here, the combined effects of low-intensity pulsed US and doxorubicin (DOX) on cell killing and apoptosis induction of U937 cells, and mechanisms involved were investigated. Human myelomonocytic lymphoma U937 cells were used for the experiments. Experiments were conducted in 4 groups: (1) non-treated, (2) DOX treated (DOX), (3) US treated (US), and (4) combined (DOX + US). In DOX +US, cells were exposed to 5 microM DOX for 30 min and sonicated by 1 MHz pulsed US (PRF 100 Hz, DF 10%) at intensities of 0.2-0.5 W/cm(2) for 60 s. The cells were washed and incubated for 6 h. The viability was evaluated by Trypan blue dye exclusion test and apoptosis and incorporation of DOX was assessed by flow cytometry. Involvement of sonoporation in molecular incorporation was evaluated using FITC-dextran, hydroxyl radical formation was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance-spin trapping, membrane alteration including lipid peroxidation and membrane fluidity by DOX was evaluated using cis-parinaric acid and perylene fluorescence polarization method, respectively. Synergistic enhancement in cell killing and additive enhancement in induction of apoptosis were observed at and above 0.3 W/cm(2). No enhancement was observed at 0.2 W/cm(2) in cell killing and induction of apoptosis. Hydroxyl radicals formation was detected at and above 0.3 W/cm(2). The radicals were produced more in the DOX + US than US alone. Incorporation of DOX was increased 13% in DOX + US (vs. DOX) at 0.5 W/cm(2). Involvement of sonoporation for increase of drug uptake was suggested by experiment using FITC-labeled dextran. We made the hypothesis that DOX treatment made the cells weaken

  19. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  20. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  1. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  2. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  3. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  5. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  6. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  7. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  8. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  9. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  10. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  11. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  12. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  13. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  14. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  15. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  16. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  17. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  18. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  19. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  20. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  1. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  2. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  3. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  4. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  5. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  6. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  7. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  8. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  9. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  10. Leader Fairness, Social Contract and Corporate Sustainability Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders, Henk; Miedema, Joost; Politis, J

    2009-01-01

    The world badly needs organizations who harness private interest to serve the public interest and who accrue fair returns to shareholders, but not at the expense of the legitimate interest of other stakeholders. We need new principles for future corporate design and new strategic leadership for

  11. Efeitos do ultra-som de baixa intensidade na veia auricular de coelhos Effects of low intensity ultrasound in the auricular vein of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a ação do ultra-som na veia auricular de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram divididos em dois grupos de dez animais diferindo com relação ao local da aplicação, do ultra-som, o modo e o intervalo de tempo para a análise histopatológica (3 e 7 dias. Os animais foram submetidos à aplicação de ultra-som contínuo e pulsado em dois segmentos venosos da orelha previamente determinados. Cada animal foi o seu próprio controle. Empregou-se a freqüência de 3MHz, intensidade de 3W/cm² nos ciclos pulsado e contínuo por 10 minutos, de forma estacionária. O grupo I foi submetido a eutanásia após 3 dias e o grupo II em 7 dias contemplando a fase aguda do processo inflamatório. Empregou-se o teste exato de Fisher e o teste de Mc Nemar para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se trombose venosa e aumento de linfócitos de forma significativa (p= 0,032 nos grupos tratados com o modo contínuo. O modo pulsado não provocou efeitos deletérios. Outros achados foram congestão, edema, hemorragia e lesão da parede vascular. CONCLUSÕES: O ultra-som pulsado não provoca qualquer alteração na parede vascular nas condições do experimento.O ultra-som contínuo induz a trombose venosa e aumento dos linfócitos de forma significativa.PURPOSE: The purpose of this experimental work was evaluate the effects of low intensity in the auricular vein of rabbits. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were divided in two groups of ten animals. The groups differed about the place where the continuous and pulsed ultrasound were applied and the period that the material was collected for the morphologic examination (3 and 7 days. Acoustic coupling gel was used on marginal ear vein, each animal underwent continuous and pulsed ultrasound treatment, in segments previously marked with indelible ink. Each animal provided its own control. Ultrasound was used in the frequency of 3MHz, intensity of 3W/cm² in the pulsed and continuous modes during 10min

  12. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  13. Comparison of Two Intensities of Aerobic Training (low intensity and High Intensity on Expression of Perlipin 2 Skeletal Muscle, Serum Glucose and Insulin levels in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Lipid metabolism disorder plays an important role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and lipid drop proteins such as perlipine 2 (PLIN2 are effective in regulating intracellular fat metabolism. One of the suggested pathways for the effects of endurance activity in metabolic diseases is the effect of physical activity on intramuscular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was compare the intensity of aerobic exercise intensity (low intensity and high intensity on expression of PLIN2 skeletal muscle, serum glucose and insulin levels in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.   Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8, including two intervention groups (low intensity endurance training group and high intensity continuous exercise group and one control group. After induction of diabetic rats by injection streptozotocin (55 mg / kg body weight, Intraperitoneally, endurance training was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week in diabetic rats. Exercise intensity in the low-intensity group was equal to 5-8 m / min (equivalent to 50-60% Vo2max, the intensity of training in a high intensity training group was equivalent to a speed of 22-25 m / min (equivalent to 80% Vo2max and the control group did not receive intervene in this time. Relative protein expression of PLIN2 was performed using western blot technique. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test.   Results: The results of the intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference among three groups in the PLIN2 variables (p = 0.037. The results of post hoc test showed a significant increase in PLIN2 in high intensity training diabetic group compared to the control group (p = 0.033 However, there was no significant difference in PLIN2 level in the low exercise group compared to the control group (p = 0.18. Also, there was no significant difference between the low intensity and

  14. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  15. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  16. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  17. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  18. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  19. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  20. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...