WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained intercellular movement

  1. Contribution of host intracellular transport machineries to intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus.

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    Maxime Agbeci

    Full Text Available The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K₂:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b with TuMV-induced 6K₂-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors

  2. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

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    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  3. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

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    Jack Alexander De Havas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies.

  4. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

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    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  5. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

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    Savage, Natasha Saint; Walker, Tom; Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John; Dolan, Liam; Monk, Nicholas A M

    2008-09-23

    The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  6. Vehicles, Replicators, and Intercellular Movement of Genetic Information: Evolutionary Dissection of a Bacterial Cell

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    Matti Jalasvuori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic biosphere is vastly diverse in many respects. Any given bacterial cell may harbor in different combinations viruses, plasmids, transposons, and other genetic elements along with their chromosome(s. These agents interact in complex environments in various ways causing multitude of phenotypic effects on their hosting cells. In this discussion I perform a dissection for a bacterial cell in order to simplify the diversity into components that may help approach the ocean of details in evolving microbial worlds. The cell itself is separated from all the genetic replicators that use the cell vehicle for preservation and propagation. I introduce a classification that groups different replicators according to their horizontal movement potential between cells and according to their effects on the fitness of their present host cells. The classification is used to discuss and improve the means by which we approach general evolutionary tendencies in microbial communities. Moreover, the classification is utilized as a tool to help formulating evolutionary hypotheses and to discuss emerging bacterial pathogens as well as to promote understanding on the average phenotypes of different replicators in general. It is also discussed that any given biosphere comprising prokaryotic cell vehicles and genetic replicators may naturally evolve to have horizontally moving replicators of various types.

  7. Performance measures for sustainable freight movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Freight movement by road and rail is a cornerstone of the economy of the United States. However, the movement of freight in the U.S. is increasingly impacted by congestion, overburdened infrastructure, and economic issues. Thus, there is a need to em...

  8. Sustainability: an evolutionary concept analysis. Exploring nursing's role within the sustainability movement.

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    McMillan, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to explore the evolution of the concept of sustainability to facilitate further knowledge development in the discipline of nursing. The concept of 'sustainability' emerged in the 1950s as a result of the environmental movement. The concept has been adapted by the discipline of management and is increasingly discussed in the context of health care. The concept remains ambiguous in the discipline of nursing, resulting in a struggle to articulate the role of nursing in the sustainability movement. Rodgers evolutionary method of concept analysis was used. Literature was searched from 1987-2011, including English, peer reviewed texts in the databases CINAHL and ABI/INFORM global. Two book chapters and grey literature were also included. References were read and analysed according to antecedents, attributes, consequences, surrogate terms and related terms. Defining antecedents, attributes and consequences highlight the complexity and diversity of the concept. Attributes include: sustainability as a condition of change, as process, as outcome, as dependent of multiple stakeholders, and as social consciousness. 'Sustainability' is a fragile concept highly dependent on the processes and stakeholders involved in its fruition. There is a distinct difference in the level of concept clarity between the disciplines of management and nursing. The complexities associated with the concept of 'Sustainability' have led to its ambiguity. Nursing must, however, work to further clarify the concept to fully understand nursing's potential role in the sustainability movement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

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    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  10. “Hearts with one purpose alone”? Thinking personal sustainability in social movements

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    Cox, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    While attention is now being paid to emotions and personal sustainability in social movements, relatively little attention has been paid to difference between social movement situations or broader cultural contexts. This paper locates the question in the broader history of thinking about ordinary people’s political engagement since the French Revolution. It explores various literatures relating to the topic, arguing that emotional sustainability is only one aspect of personal sustainability i...

  11. Social change communication in the service of the sustainability education movement in BC

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    Le Roy, Candace Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the communication challenges of the BC Sustainability Education Movement and formulated a communications framework and guideBlog to address these challenges. Designed to assist movement members in developing holistic and comprehensive communication plans for advancing movement goals, the framework and guideBlog were developed by applying current social change communications theory and community capital models to the challenges and barriers presented at the “How Sustainabi...

  12. Partnerships in Sustainability: The Transition Town Movement in Minnesota

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    Leslie MacKenzie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition Towns is a citizen-led movement that seeks to address individual and societal dependence on fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas production in order to fight climate change. The foundation of Transition is permaculture, a design process based on whole-systems thinking informed by the patterns and relationships found in nature. Since its inception in 2005, the Transition movement has spread worldwide, as people in small groups and across large towns look for ways to take practical action to fight climate change: from home vegetable gardens to weatherization work parties, from time banks and tool shares to renewable energy systems. Transition looks different in every location because it meets the needs and draws on the skills of the local community. This article looks at Transition in one community: The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, profiling several Transition Town groups.

  13. GAPS 2030: Building a Global Access Movement for Sustainable Development

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    Florian Kaiser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the 2030 agenda including sustainable development goals, for the first time addressing access to all levels of education. This essay has two aims. Firstly, it will illustrate why access to post-secondary education is emerging as a major global concern and provide examples of access gaps. The second is to describe a young global initiative for access to post-secondary education, which could help to realize the United Nations’ vision for lifelong learning.

  14. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

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    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  15. Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1997-01-01

    Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

  16. Clean Plate Movement and Empowerment of Civil Leadership for Developing Sustainable Life Style

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    Choi, Kwang Soo; Kim, Seung Woo; Jung, Sin Yeong; Choi, Byeong Dae; Mun, Sung Joo; Lee, Dong Ho

    This paper describes the backgrounds, process, outcomes, and characteristics of "Clean plate" movement carried out in Korea. That was aimed at the reduction of food waste production as well as developing and disseminating a sustainable life style. Excessive foods are wasted every year in Korea and it reaches to 270 g/day/capita. Clean plate movement was started 2004 and over 1.5 million peoples, which is 3% of the population, did pledge for 15 months. Over one million students participated in the pledge campaign and they became conscious about the importance of food and get sustainable eating habit in which they don't leave any food behind. While the campaign carried out successfully, civil volunteers of a Buddhist NGO EcoBuddha, who were the housewives mainly, were in charge of the whole processes and were trained as civil leaders for sustainable development. They awakened to the interrelationship between human being and the nature, based on a series of Buddhist lectures and self practicing asceticism. Clean plate movement as an educational program for sustainable development has various factors in three pillars of environmental, economical and socio-cultural aspects for EfSD.

  17. The Sustainable Seafood Movement Is a Governance Concert, with the Audience Playing a Key Role

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    Kate Barclay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Private standards, including ecolabels, have been posed as a governance solution for the global fisheries crisis. The conventional logic is that ecolabels meet consumer demand for certified “sustainable” seafood, with “good” players rewarded with price premiums or market share and “bad” players punished by reduced sales. Empirically, however, in the markets where ecolabeling has taken hold, retailers and brands—rather than consumers—are demanding sustainable sourcing, to build and protect their reputation. The aim of this paper is to devise a more accurate logic for understanding the sustainable seafood movement, using a qualitative literature review and reflection on our previous research. We find that replacing the consumer-driven logic with a retailer/brand-driven logic does not go far enough in making research into the sustainable seafood movement more useful. Governance is a “concert” and cannot be adequately explained through individual actor groups. We propose a new logic going beyond consumer- or retailer/brand-driven models, and call on researchers to build on the partial pictures given by studies on prices and willingness-to-pay, investigating more fully the motivations of actors in the sustainable seafood movement, and considering audience beyond the direct consumption of the product in question.

  18. Modelling of intercellular synchronization in the Drosophila circadian clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Wei, Wang; Ai-Min, Chen; Jia-Jun, Zhang; Zhan-Jiang, Yuan; Tian-Shou, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    In circadian rhythm generation, intercellular signaling factors are shown to play a crucial role in both sustaining intrinsic cellular rhythmicity and acquiring collective behaviours across a population of circadian neurons. However, the physical mechanism behind their role remains to be fully understood. In this paper, we propose an indirectly coupled multicellular model for the synchronization of Drosophila circadian oscillators combining both intracellular and intercellular dynamics. By simulating different experimental conditions, we find that such an indirect coupling way can synchronize both heterogeneous self-sustained circadian neurons and heterogeneous mutational damped circadian neurons. Moreover, they can also be entrained to ambient light-dark (LD) cycles depending on intercellular signaling. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Education for a Sustainable Future: Strategies of the New Hindu Religious Movements

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    Martin Haigh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, sustainability is conceived as a crisis of the human mind and the key challenge for pro-sustainability education is developing sufficient motivation in learners. The spiritual aspirations of religious communities contain sufficient motivational force, which may be deployed for effective sustainability education. This paper explores the approaches to sustainability and sustainability education of some internationally-oriented Hindu religious movements. These include the rural education initiatives of Gandhian Sarvodaya, which emphasizes non-harming, self-reliance and personal ethics, ISKCON, which emphasizes devotional service, P.R. Sarkar’s Ananda Marg, which emphasizes cooperative enterprise, the Tantric body re-imagined at the social scale, and Swami Vivekananda’s Sri Ramakrishna Order, which emphasizes karma yoga, spiritual development through service to the God in each human. It also describes the British Hindu contribution to the UNDP/ARC’s multi-faith sustainability initiative “Many Heavens, One Earth”; which is the “Bhumi Project” and its two main campaigns, Green Temples and Compassionate Living.

  20. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

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    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  1. Plasmodesmata: intercellular tunnels facilitating transport of macromolecules in plants.

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    Kragler, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    In plants, intercellular structures named plasmodesmata (PD) form a continuous cytoplasmic network between neighboring cells. PD pores provide channels for intercellular symplasmic (cell-to-cell) transport throughout most tissues of the plant body. Cell-defining proteins, such as transcription factors, and regulatory non-coding sequences, such as short interfering RNA, micro RNA, protein-encoding messenger RNAs, viroids, and viral RNA/DNA genomes move via PD channels to adjacent cells. PD-mediated intercellular transport of macromolecules is a regulated process depending on the tissue, developmental stage, and nature of the transported macromolecule. In this review, PD channels and their similarity to tunneling nanotubes present in animals are highlighted. In addition, homeodomain protein movement and cellular components regulating transport are discussed.

  2. Intercellular K⁺ accumulation depolarizes Type I vestibular hair cells and their associated afferent nerve calyx.

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    Contini, D; Zampini, V; Tavazzani, E; Magistretti, J; Russo, G; Prigioni, I; Masetto, S

    2012-12-27

    Mammalian vestibular organs contain two types of sensory receptors, named Type I and Type II hair cells. While Type II hair cells are contacted by several small afferent nerve terminals, the basolateral surface of Type I hair cells is almost entirely enveloped by a single large afferent nerve terminal, called calyx. Moreover Type I, but not Type II hair cells, express a low-voltage-activated outward K(+) current, I(K,L), which is responsible for their much lower input resistance (Rm) at rest as compared to Type II hair cells. The functional meaning of I(K,L) and associated calyx is still enigmatic. By combining the patch-clamp whole-cell technique with the mouse whole crista preparation, we have recorded the current- and voltage responses of in situ hair cells. Outward K(+) current activation resulted in K(+) accumulation around Type I hair cells, since it induced a rightward shift of the K(+) reversal potential the magnitude of which depended on the amplitude and duration of K(+) current flow. Since this phenomenon was never observed for Type II hair cells, we ascribed it to the presence of a residual calyx limiting K(+) efflux from the synaptic cleft. Intercellular K(+) accumulation added a slow (τ>100ms) depolarizing component to the cell voltage response. In a few cases we were able to record from the calyx and found evidence for intercellular K(+) accumulation as well. The resulting depolarization could trigger a discharge of action potentials in the afferent nerve fiber. Present results support a model where pre- and postsynaptic depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation cooperates with neurotransmitter exocytosis in sustaining afferent transmission arising from Type I hair cells. While vesicular transmission together with the low Rm of Type I hair cells appears best suited for signaling fast head movements, depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation could enhance signal transmission during slow head movements. Copyright

  3. I Have a Dream: Organic Movements Include Gene Manipulation to Improve Sustainable Farming

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    Gerhart U. Ryffel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several papers in a Special Issue of Sustainability have recently discussed various aspects to evaluate whether organic farming and gene manipulation are compatible. A special emphasis was given to new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs. These new approaches allow the most predictable genetic alterations of crop plants in ways that the genetically modified plant is identical to a plant generated by conventional breeding. The articles of the Special Issue present the arguments pro and contra the inclusion of the plants generated by NPBTs in organic farming. Organic movements have not yet made a final decision whether some of these techniques should be accepted or banned. In my view these novel genetically manipulated (GM crops could be used in such a way as to respect the requirements for genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs formulated by the International Federation of Organic Movements (IFOAM. Reviewing the potential benefits of disease-resistant potatoes and bananas, it seems possible that these crops support organic farming. To this end, I propose specific requirements that the organic movements should proactively formulate as their standards to accept specific GM crops.

  4. Induced leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis, potassium and nitrate retention and strawberry early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation.

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    Li, Hong; Li, Tingxian; Fu, Gang; Katulanda, Panchali

    2013-07-01

    Relationships between induced high leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations, leaf K⁺ and NO₃⁻ ion movement and early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation are not well understood. We examined the effects and interactions of reduced K/N input treatments on leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency, berry formation as well as leaf/fruit K⁺, NO₃⁻ and photosynthate retention of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) to enhance low-input agriculture. The field study was conducted in Nova Scotia, eastern Canada during 2009-2010. The experimental treatments consisted of five K₂O rates (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 kg ha(-1)) and five N rates (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kg ha(-1)), representing respectively, 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of regular macronutrient recommendations based on the soil testing. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks in the field. The cultivar was 'Mira', a June-bearing crop. The results showed that strawberry plants treated with 25 %-reduced inputs could induce significantly higher leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations to improve plant photosynthesis, carboxylation and water use efficiency and translocation of leaf/fruit K⁺ and dissolved solids, which could advance berry formation by 6 days and produce significantly higher marketable yields (P < 0.05). Higher leaf intercellular CO₂ inhibited leaf/fruit NO₃⁻ ion retention, but this inhibition did not occur in leaf/fruit K⁺ retention. Linear interactions of the K/N treatments were significant on fruit marketable yields, intercellular CO₂, net photosynthesis, leaf transpiration rates, and leaf temperatures (P < 0.05). It was concluded that higher leaf CO₂ could enhance plant photosynthesis, promote plant carboxylation and water use efficiency, and advance berry formation, but it could inhibit leaf NO₃⁻ retention. This inhibition did not find in leaf K⁺ ion and dissolved solid retention. Overlay co

  5. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

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    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  6. The Green/Sustainability Movement, Food Culture, and the Music Scene within Youth Culture in Portland, Oregon

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    Bill Flood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written after a presentation at the American Embassy’s 2009 conference in Bonn for teachers of English and American Studies at German High Schools. Its aim is to offer these teachers a look at how young people (in their 20s and 30s in the author’s home town of Portland, Oregon, are participating in three areas which improve community life: the green/sustainability movement, food culture, and the music scene.

  7. Intercellular communication for innate immunity.

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    Nguyen, Tan A; Pang, Ken C; Masters, Seth L

    2017-06-01

    An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling. This bystander activation of innate immunity represents an alternative method by which the host can control infections via cell-to-cell communication. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the intercellular transfer of pathogen- or host-derived RNA, DNA and proteins from infected cells to neighbouring cells and how this impacts on host innate immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exosomes for Intramyocardial Intercellular Communication

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    Elisabetta Cervio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk between different cell types plays central roles both in cardiac homeostasis and in adaptive responses of the heart to stress. Cardiomyocytes (CMs send biological messages to the other cell types present in the heart including endothelial cells (ECs and fibroblasts. In turn, CMs receive messages from these cells. Recent evidence has now established that exosomes, nanosized secreted extracellular vesicles, are crucial mediators of such messages. CMs, ECs, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs release exosomes carrying nonrandom subsets of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids present in their cells of origin. Exosomes secreted from CMs are internalized by fibroblasts and regulate gene expression in these cells as well as in ECs. CPC-derived exosomes protect CMs against apoptosis while also stimulating angiogenesis. They are rich in cardioprotective and proangiogenic microRNAs such as miR-146, miR-210, and miR-132. When injected into infracted hearts in vivo, CPC-derived exosomes reduce infarct size and improve cardiac function. Thus, exosomes are emerging both as key mediators of intercellular communication in the heart and as therapeutic candidates for heart disease.

  9. Prolonging the response movement inhibits the feed-forward motor program in the sustained attention to response task.

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    Wilson, Kyle M; de Joux, Neil R; Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Russell, Paul N; Retzler, Jenny R; Helton, William S

    2018-02-01

    Despite widespread use in clinical and experimental contexts, debate continues over whether or not the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) successfully measures sustained attention. Altering physical aspects of the response movement required to SART stimuli may help identify whether performance is a better measure of perceptual decoupling, or response strategies and motor inhibition. Participants completed a SART where they had to manually move a mouse cursor to respond to stimuli, and another SART where this extra movement was not required, as in a typical SART. Additionally, stimuli were located at either a close or a far distance away. Commission errors were inversely related to distance in the manual movement condition, as the farther distance led to longer response times which gave participants more time to inhibit prepotent responses and thus prevent commission errors. Self-reported measures of mental demand and fatigue suggested there were no differences in mental demands between the manual and automatic condition; instead the differences were primarily in physical demands. No differences were found for task-unrelated thoughts between the manual and automatic condition. The movement effect combined with participants' subjective reports are evidence for time dependent action stopping, not greater cognitive engagement. These findings support a response strategy perspective as opposed to a perceptual decoupling perspective, and have implications for authors considering using the SART. Applied implications of this research are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exosomes: secreted vesicles and intercellular communications

    OpenAIRE

    Théry, Clotilde

    2011-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. Although exosomes were originally described in 1983, interest in these vesicles has really increased dramatically in the last 3 years, after the finding that they contain mRNA and microRNA. This discovery sparked renewed interest for the general field of membrane vesicles involved in intercellular communications, and research on these s...

  11. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move ‘up and down’ the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood–testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)—BTB—basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial

  12. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-01

    During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move 'up and down' the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)-BTB-basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. ICAMs are crucial regulatory molecules of spermatogenesis. The proposed

  13. Self-Sustained Oscillatory Sliding Movement of Doublet Microtubules and Flagellar Bend Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumio Ishijima

    Full Text Available It is well established that the basis for flagellar and ciliary movements is ATP-dependent sliding between adjacent doublet microtubules. However, the mechanism for converting microtubule sliding into flagellar and ciliary movements has long remained unresolved. The author has developed new sperm models that use bull spermatozoa divested of their plasma membrane and midpiece mitochondrial sheath by Triton X-100 and dithiothreitol. These models enable the observation of both the oscillatory sliding movement of activated doublet microtubules and flagellar bend formation in the presence of ATP. A long fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by synchronous sliding of the sperm flagella and a short fiber of doublet microtubules extruded by metachronal sliding exhibited spontaneous oscillatory movements and constructed a one beat cycle of flagellar bending by alternately actuating. The small sliding displacement generated by metachronal sliding formed helical bends, whereas the large displacement by synchronous sliding formed planar bends. Therefore, the resultant waveform is a half-funnel shape, which is similar to ciliary movements.

  14. Nanotubular Highways for Intercellular Organelle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustom, Amin; Saffrich, Rainer; Markovic, Ivanka; Walther, Paul; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2004-02-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a crucial prerequisite for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. To date, diverse mechanisms of intercellular exchange of information have been documented, including chemical synapses, gap junctions, and plasmodesmata. Here, we describe highly sensitive nanotubular structures formed de novo between cells that create complex networks. These structures facilitate the selective transfer of membrane vesicles and organelles but seem to impede the flow of small molecules. Accordingly, we propose a novel biological principle of cell-to-cell interaction based on membrane continuity and intercellular transfer of organelles.

  15. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  16. Understanding intercellular communication in the brain: Identified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding intercellular communication in the brain: Identified neuromuscular synapses of the fruitfly. Drosophila serve as a model. The transmission of information between nerve cells in the brain takes place at specialized sites of contact, the synapses. Spatial interactions between synapses and temporal modulation of ...

  17. The next green movement: Plant biology for the environment and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M; Lee, Soon Goo; Sherp, Ashley M

    2016-09-16

    From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology. These advances promise new strategies for the reduction of inputs to limit environmental impacts and improve agricultural sustainability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

     The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especial...

  19. Grassroots engagement with transition to sustainability: diversity and modes of participation in the international permaculture movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafter Sass. Ferguson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grassroots networks and social movements are increasingly regarded as agents of change that can help respond to environmental degradation both by generating novel solutions to existing problems and influencing institutions toward more substantive responses. We examine permaculture, an international movement that, despite its broad international distribution and relatively high public profile, has received little systematic scrutiny in the scientific literature. We attempt to remedy that gap by conducting a broad international (though English-only survey of 731 permaculture participants, and assessing the socio-demographic characteristics of the movement.  The survey examined self-identified roles of permaculture participants and explored the relationships between those roles and socio-demographic factors race, gender, and socioeconomic status. The influence of structural factors on participant roles was examined by including multidimensional national indices development, inequality, and ecosystem vitality, for the 45 countries in the sample. Results showed the participation of women at or above parity (53%, while participation by race showed a white supermajority (96%. Multivariate regression demonstrated that race, gender, and socioeconomic status are shaping participation in distinct ways and that each interact with structural factors. The effects of gender on social roles varied with ecosystem vitality, with women scoring higher than men in countries with high levels of ecosystem vitality, and the reverse where ecosystem vitality was low. The observed effect of race on practice varied with national inequality, such that the scores of respondents of color were equivalent to white respondents in countries with the least inequality, but descended as inequality increased, while whites were unaffected. Different indicators of socioeconomic status depressed and amplified different dimensions of participation. Results point toward a theoretical

  20. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    exhaust effectiveness; atrium smoke filling process and its time constant; pre-stratification and detection ; airflow for smoke control between the atrium and communicating space; sprinkler effect, etc. This report was written as a work report of my stay at the department of civil engineering of Aalborg...... conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especially in complying with the existing prescriptive fire codes. A hot argument is that smoke control system...... such as axisymmetric plume, wall plume, corner plume and balcony spill plume in this report. As many large space buildings such as cinema, sports arenas containing the sloping floor are designed to meet the function and aesthetic requirement. The smoke movement in atrium with sloping floor is also discussed...

  1. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  2. A Review of 'Organic Struggle: The Movement for Sustainable Agriculture in the United States'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Francis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Struggle chronicles the challenges encountered by innovators in a growing segment of the U.S. food pro- duction and marketing system. Practiced for millenia by farmers before the introduction of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and first developed more formally in Europe, organic farming practices began to gain prominence in the U.S. only in the 1950s. Far more than a system for pro- ducing food, this strategy has become a focus for those supporting healthy and pesticide-free products, for some who embrace the organic system as a food movement, and by many who disagree with the current domination of the country’s food industry by large farms and a small num- ber of multinational corporations. Within the organic sector there is debate between those who favor a system primar- ily run by local farmers who sell through small markets and CSAs, and others who insist that the ‘Big-Organic’ seg- ment that now sells more than half of all organic food is doing more to help the environment in the large picture. Author Brian Obach describes this ongoing struggle.

  3. Intercellular protein-protein interactions at synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Hou, Dongmei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions through which neurons send nerve impulses to communicate with other neurons or excitable cells. The appropriate formation of synapses, both spatially and temporally, is essential for brain function and depends on the intercellular protein-protein interactions of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at synaptic clefts. The CAM proteins link pre- and post-synaptic sites, and play essential roles in promoting synapse formation and maturation, maintaining synapse number and type, accumulating neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, controlling neuronal differentiation, and even regulating synaptic plasticity directly. Alteration of the interactions of CAMs leads to structural and functional impairments, which results in many neurological disorders, such as autism, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the functions of CAMs during development and in the mature neural system, as well as in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Here, we review the function of the major classes of CAMs, and how dysfunction of CAMs relates to several neurological disorders.

  4. Intercellular junctions in rabbit eye ora serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobeschi, L; Freymuller, E; Smith, R L

    2006-10-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to describe and localize the intercellular junctions in the ora serrata region of albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. Eyes of albino and pigmented rabbits were fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Light and electron microscope examination was carried out on semithin and ultrathin sections. The ora serrata region showed adherens, gap and tight junctions in the retinal and ciliary margins of albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. In the retinal margin, zonulae adherens between Müller cells and photoreceptors are associated with tight junctions. In the ciliary margin, epithelial cells are joined by adherens, gap and tight junctions localized between apical and apicolateral cell membranes. Tight junctions appear as zonulae occludens in the non-pigmented apicolateral cell membranes and as tight focal junctions between pigmented and non-pigmented apical cell membranes. Between the ciliary and retinal margins there are adherens and tight focal junctions which attach pigmented apical cell membranes to adjacent cells. There were no differences in the distribution of intercellular junctions between albino and pigmented rabbits.

  5. Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... We found that: 1) expressing the metastasis suppressing gene BRMS1 in diverse cancer cell lines, including breast and melanoma, restores homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); 2...

  6. Intercellular (mis)communication in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Gwenn A; La Spada, Albert R

    2012-03-08

    Neurodegenerative diseases have been intensively studied, but a comprehensive understanding of their pathogenesis remains elusive. An increasing body of evidence suggests that non-cell-autonomous processes play critical roles during the initiation and spatiotemporal progression or propagation of the dominant pathology. Here, we review findings highlighting the importance of pathological cell-cell communication in neurodegenerative disease. We focus primarily on the accumulating evidence suggesting dysfunctional crosstalk between neurons and astroglia, neurons and innate immune system cells, as well as cellular processes leading to transmission of pathogenic proteins between cells. Insights into the complex intercellular perturbations underlying neurodegeneration will enhance our efforts to develop effective therapeutic approaches for preventing or reversing symptomatic progression in this devastating class of human diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Defining morphology of periodic leg movements in sleep: an evidence-based definition of a minimum window of sustained activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeba, Patrick; Fulda, Stephany; Hiranniramol, Kasidet; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2016-12-01

    Current standard guidelines for scoring periodic leg movements (PLM) define the start and end of a movement but fail to explicitly specify the movement morphology necessary to classify an EMG event as a PLM, rather than some other muscle event. This is currently left to the expert visual scorer to determine. This study aimed to define this morphology to provide a consistent standard for visual scoring and to improve automatic periodic leg movements in sleep scoring. A review of expert PLM scoring produced a hypothesized morphology criterion: a window of high EMG activity within the movement lasting at least 0.5 s. Two diverse expert visual scorers were independently presented with images of EMG tracings from candidate leg movements (CLM) that either passed or failed this requirement (aka "full" or "empty" movements, respectively), and indicated whether each should be scored as CLM. The 0.5-s window was compared with alternatives of 0.25 and 0.75 windows. Expert scorers on average identified 94 % of "full" movements as CLM in contrast to only 8.5 % of "empty" movements. The proposed minimum window of 0.5 s also resulted in the highest agreement between visual scorers and between scorers and an automatic program. An added criterion requiring 0.5 s of high EMG activity within a valid CLM improves the accuracy of automatic scoring algorithms in relation to the gold standard of expert visual scorers. Our results suggest that this rule is an accurate representation of the morphology feature used by experts. This new rule has the potential to improve consistency and accuracy of visual and automatic scoring of PLM.

  8. Intercellular communications in multispecies oral microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity contains more than 700 microbial species that are engaged in extensive cell-cell interactions. These interactions contribute to the formation of highly structured multispecies communities, allow them to perform physiological functions, and induce synergistic pathogenesis. Co-adhesion between oral microbial species influences their colonization of oral cavity and effectuates, to a large extent, the temporal and spatial formation of highly organized polymicrobial community architecture. Individual species also compete and collaborate with other neighboring species through metabolic interactions, which not only modify the local microenvironment such as pH and the amount of oxygen, making it more suitable for the growth of other species, but also provide a metabolic framework for the participating microorganisms by maximizing their potential to extract energy from limited substrates. Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate signaling cascade and achieve modulation of gene expression in accordance with different species it is in contact with. In addition to communication through cell-cell contact, quorum sensing (QS) mediated by small signaling molecules such as competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes participate in intercellular communications with co-inhabitants through cell contact-dependent physical interactions, metabolic interdependencies, as well as coordinative signaling systems to establish and maintain balanced microbial communities.

  9. Extracellular vesicles as emerging intercellular communicasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yae Jin; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2014-10-01

    All living cells release extracellular vesicles having pleiotropic functions in intercellular communication. Mammalian extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes and microvesicles, are spherical bilayered proteolipids composed of various bioactive molecules, including RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids. Extracellular vesicles directly and indirectly control a diverse range of biological processes by transferring membrane proteins, signaling molecules, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and activating receptors of recipient cells. The active interaction of extracellular vesicles with other cells regulates various physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent developments in high-throughput proteomics, transcriptomics, and lipidomics tools have provided ample data on the common and specific components of various types of extracellular vesicles. These studies may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in vesicular cargo sorting and the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, and, further, to the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. This review focuses on the components, functions, and therapeutic and diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicles under various pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  11. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  12. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-03-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i).

  13. Sustained Overexpression of IGF-1 Prevents Age-Dependent Decrease in Charge Movement and Intracellular Ca2+ in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi,...

  14. Parameter estimation methods for chaotic intercellular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés P Mariño

    Full Text Available We have investigated simulation-based techniques for parameter estimation in chaotic intercellular networks. The proposed methodology combines a synchronization-based framework for parameter estimation in coupled chaotic systems with some state-of-the-art computational inference methods borrowed from the field of computational statistics. The first method is a stochastic optimization algorithm, known as accelerated random search method, and the other two techniques are based on approximate Bayesian computation. The latter is a general methodology for non-parametric inference that can be applied to practically any system of interest. The first method based on approximate Bayesian computation is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme that generates a series of random parameter realizations for which a low synchronization error is guaranteed. We show that accurate parameter estimates can be obtained by averaging over these realizations. The second ABC-based technique is a Sequential Monte Carlo scheme. The algorithm generates a sequence of "populations", i.e., sets of randomly generated parameter values, where the members of a certain population attain a synchronization error that is lesser than the error attained by members of the previous population. Again, we show that accurate estimates can be obtained by averaging over the parameter values in the last population of the sequence. We have analysed how effective these methods are from a computational perspective. For the numerical simulations we have considered a network that consists of two modified repressilators with identical parameters, coupled by the fast diffusion of the autoinducer across the cell membranes.

  15. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena. PN Agbedanu, MT Brewer, TA Day, MJ Kimber, KL Anderson, SK Rasmussen, MA Rasmussen, SA Carlson ...

  16. Phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate regulates intercellular coupling in cardiac myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofgaard, Johannes P; Banach, Kathrin; Mollerup, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the lipid composition of cardiac myocytes have been reported during cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, and infarction. Because a recent study indicates a relation between low phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) levels and reduced intercellular coupling, we tested the hypothesis...... that agonist-induced changes in PIP(2) can result in a reduction of the functional coupling of cardiomyocytes and, consequently, in changes in conduction velocity. Intercellular coupling was measured by Lucifer Yellow dye transfer in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Conduction velocity was measured...... in cardiomyocytes grown on microelectrode arrays. Intercellular coupling was reduced by angiotensin II (43.7 +/- 9.3%, N = 11) and noradrenaline (58.0 +/- 10.7%, N = 11). To test if reduced intercellular coupling after agonist stimulation was caused by PIP(2)-depletion, myocytes were stimulated by angiotensin II...

  17. Congestion reduction through efficient empty container movement : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach moved 15.3 million twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEU). There is a significant body of work on moving loaded containers efficiently, however there has been little research on the movement of empty conta...

  18. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of Dof transcription factors identified a conserved motif for intercellular protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Ahmad, Munawar; Rim, Yeonggil; Lucas, William J; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2013-06-01

    · Cell-to-cell trafficking of transcription factors (TFs) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of plant developmental events, but the evolutionary relationship between cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous (NCA) TFs remains elusive. · AtDof4.1, named INTERCELLULAR TRAFFICKING DOF 1 (ITD1), was chosen as a representative NCA member to explore this evolutionary relationship. Using domain structure-function analyses and swapping studies, we examined the cell-to-cell trafficking of plant-specific Dof TF family members across Arabidopsis and other species. · We identified a conserved intercellular trafficking motif (ITM) that is necessary and sufficient for selective cell-to-cell trafficking and can impart gain-of-function cell-to-cell movement capacity to an otherwise cell-autonomous TF. The functionality of related motifs from Dof members across the plant kingdom extended, surprisingly, to a unicellular alga that lacked plasmodesmata. By contrast, the algal homeodomain related to the NCA KNOX homeodomain was either inefficient or unable to impart such cell-to-cell movement function. · The Dof ITM appears to predate the evolution of selective plasmodesmal trafficking in the plant kingdom, which may well have acted as a molecular template for the evolution of Dof proteins as NCA TFs. However, the ability to efficiently traffic for KNOX homeodomain (HD) proteins may have been acquired during the evolution of early nonvascular plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p < 0.01). The peak intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (in muM): 14.5 +/- 0.9 and 16 +/- 2.1 (ns), whereas in old wild-type and transgenic mice the values were 9.9 +/- 0.1 and 14 +/- 1.1 (p < 0.01), respectively. No significant changes in the voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:11867450

  20. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of bone turnover is a complex and finely tuned process. Many factors regulate bone remodeling, including hormones, growth factors, cytokines etc. However, little is known about the signals coupling bone formation to bone resorption, and how mechanical forces are translated...... into biological effects in bone. Intercellular calcium waves are increases in intracellular calcium concentration in single cells, subsequently propagating to adjacent cells, and can be a possible mechanism for the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. The aim of the present studies was to investigate...... whether bone cells are capable of communicating via intercellular calcium signals, and determine by which mechanisms the cells propagate the signals. First, we found that osteoblastic cells can propagate intercellular calcium transients upon mechanical stimulation, and that there are two principally...

  1. Electrotonic potentials in Aloe vera L.: Effects of intercellular and external electrodes arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Scott, Jessenia M; Jackson, Mariah M Z; Greeman, Esther A; Greenidge, Ariane S; Cohen, Devin O; Volkova, Maia I; Shtessel, Yuri B

    2017-02-01

    Electrostimulation of plants can induce plant movements, activation of ion channels, ion transport, gene expression, enzymatic systems activation, electrical signaling, plant-cell damage, enhanced wound healing, and influence plant growth. Here we found that electrical networks in plant tissues have electrical differentiators. The amplitude of electrical responses decreases along a leaf and increases by decreasing the distance between polarizing Pt-electrodes. Intercellular Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted in a leaf and extracellular Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the leaf surface were used to detect the electrotonic potential propagation along a leaf of Aloe vera. There is a difference in duration and amplitude of electrical potentials measured by electrodes inserted in a leaf and those attached to a leaf's surface. If the external reference electrode is located in the soil near the root, it changes the amplitude and duration of electrotonic potentials due to existence of additional resistance, capacitance, ion channels and ion pumps in the root. The information gained from this study can be used to elucidate extracellular and intercellular communication in the form of electrical signals within plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels Of Serum Intercellular And Vascular Adhesion Molecules In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the possible significant role of soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and interluekin-1β in development nephropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This study included 60 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) ...

  3. Intra- and intercellular mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in the liver.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Casteleijn (Eric)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver by intraand intercellular mechanisms was studied. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, an enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of glucose was found to be stimulated by glucagon in isolated parenchym~l liver cells. Glucagon increased the Vmax

  4. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  5. Intercellular calcium waves in glial cells with bistable dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Shuai, Jianwei

    2011-04-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed for intercellular calcium (Ca2 +) waves with Ca2 +-induced IP3 regeneration and the diffusion of IP3 through gap junctions. Many experimental observations in glial cells, i.e. responding to local mechanical stimulation, glutamate application, mechanical stimulation followed by ACh application, and glutamate followed by mechanical stimulation, are reproduced and classified by the model. We show that a glial cell model with bistable dynamics, i.e. a Ca2 + oscillation state coexisting with a fixed point, can cause a prolonged plateau of Ca2 + signals in the cells nearby the stimulated cell when the cell network responds to the local mechanical stimulation.

  6. Treponema pallidum Invades Intercellular Junctions of Endothelial Cell Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. Denee; Navab, Mahamad; Haake, David A.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1988-05-01

    The pathogenesis of syphilis reflects invasive properties of Treponema pallidum, but the actual mode of tissue invasion is unknown. We have found two in vitro parallels of treponemal invasiveness. We tested whether motile T. pallidum could invade host cells by determining the fate of radiolabeled motile organisms added to a HeLa cell monolayer; 26% of treponemes associated with the monolayer in a trypsin-resistant niche, presumably between the monolayer and the surface to which it adhered, but did not attain intracellularity. Attachment of T. pallidum to cultured human and rabbit aortic and human umbilical vein endothelial cells was 2-fold greater than to HeLa cells. We added T. pallidum to aortic endothelial cells grown on membrane filters under conditions in which tight intercellular junctions had formed. T. pallidum was able to pass through the endothelial cell monolayers without altering tight junctions, as measured by electrical resistance. In contrast, heat-killed T. pallidum and the nonpathogen Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter failed to penetrate the monolayer. Transmission electron micrographs of sections of the monolayer showed T. pallidum in intercellular junctions. Our in vitro observations suggest that these highly motile spirochetes may leave the circulation by invading the junctions between endothelial cells.

  7. Xenobiotic Modulation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Randall

    1999-01-01

    .... These agents also inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). This inhibition may contribute to the enhancement of breast epithelial growth and breast cancer formation by xenobiotics...

  8. Identification and characterization of RBM44 as a novel intercellular bridge protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuko Iwamori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular bridges are evolutionarily conserved structures that connect differentiating germ cells. We previously reported the identification of TEX14 as the first essential intercellular bridge protein, the demonstration that intercellular bridges are required for male fertility, and the finding that intercellular bridges utilize components of the cytokinesis machinery to form. Herein, we report the identification of RNA binding motif protein 44 (RBM44 as a novel germ cell intercellular bridge protein. RBM44 was identified by proteomic analysis after intercellular bridge enrichment using TEX14 as a marker protein. RBM44 is highly conserved between mouse and human and contains an RNA recognition motif of unknown function. RBM44 mRNA is enriched in testis, and immunofluorescence confirms that RBM44 is an intercellular bridge component. However, RBM44 only partially localizes to TEX14-positive intercellular bridges. RBM44 is expressed most highly in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, but disappears abruptly in spermatids. We discovered that RBM44 interacts with itself and TEX14 using yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and immunoprecipitation. To define the in vivo function of RBM44, we generated a targeted deletion of Rbm44 in mice. Rbm44 null male mice produce somewhat increased sperm, and show enhanced fertility of unknown etiology. Thus, although RBM44 localizes to intercellular bridges during meiosis, RBM44 is not required for fertility in contrast to TEX14.

  9. Relationship between Leukopenia and Intercellular Adhesion Molecules in Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Shen, HJ; Zhou, P; Hu, H; Tang, JL; Peng, LL; Tong, J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Changes in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin levels as well as leukocyte count were examined in this study to explore the relationship between leukopenia and ICAMs in Graves' disease (GD). Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 37 GD patients with normal leukocytes and 32 GD patients with leukopenia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine serum sICAM-1 and E-selectin levels for comparison. The same analyses were repeated for the GD patients with leukopenia after glucocorticoid treatment (15 mg/day to 30 mg/day prednisone). Results: The ELISA results showed that E-selectin levels were higher in GD patients with leukopenia than those with normal leukocytes (p leukopenia, and glucocorticoids (prednisone) could decrease E-selectin level, which may be a new therapy target for GD with leukopenia. PMID:25803374

  10. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of (5-{sup 3}H)uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes.

  11. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5- 3 H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes

  12. META2: Intercellular DNA Methylation Pairwise Annotation and Integrative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide deciphering intercellular differential DNA methylation as well as its roles in transcriptional regulation remains elusive in cancer epigenetics. Here we developed a toolkit META2 for DNA methylation annotation and analysis, which aims to perform integrative analysis on differentially methylated loci and regions through deep mining and statistical comparison methods. META2 contains multiple versatile functions for investigating and annotating DNA methylation profiles. Benchmarked with T-47D cell, we interrogated the association within differentially methylated CpG (DMC and region (DMR candidate count and region length and identified major transition zones as clues for inferring statistically significant DMRs; together we validated those DMRs with the functional annotation. Thus META2 can provide a comprehensive analysis approach for epigenetic research and clinical study.

  13. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

      Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na...... were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMCs by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm). SMCs were uncoupled (evaluated by inhibition of vasomotion and desynchronization of calcium transients in vascular wall, or by reduction to half of Cm measured in paired A7r5 cells) when the Na,K-pump...... was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain or by ATP depletion. Uncoupling with ouabain was associated with a localized increase of intracellular calcium in discrete sites near the plasma membrane. Reduction of Na,K-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium also uncoupled cells, but only...

  14. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  15. The Campesino-to-Campesino agroecology movement of ANAP in Cuba: social process methodology in the construction of sustainable peasant agriculture and food sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter Michael; Sosa, Braulio Machín; Jaime, Adilén María Roque; Lozano, Dana Rocío Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Agroecology has played a key role in helping Cuba survive the crisis caused by the collapse of the socialist bloc in Europe and the tightening of the US trade embargo. Cuban peasants have been able to boost food production without scarce and expensive imported agricultural chemicals by first substituting more ecological inputs for the no longer available imports, and then by making a transition to more agroecologically integrated and diverse farming systems. This was possible not so much because appropriate alternatives were made available, but rather because of the Campesino-a-Campesino (CAC) social process methodology that the National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP) used to build a grassroots agroecology movement. This paper was produced in a 'self-study' process spearheaded by ANAP and La Via Campesina, the international agrarian movement of which ANAP is a member. In it we document and analyze the history of the Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecology Movement (MACAC), and the significantly increased contribution of peasants to national food production in Cuba that was brought about, at least in part, due to this movement. Our key findings are (i) the spread of agroecology was rapid and successful largely due to the social process methodology and social movement dynamics, (ii) farming practices evolved over time and contributed to significantly increased relative and absolute production by the peasant sector, and (iii) those practices resulted in additional benefits including resilience to climate change.

  16. Compression induced intercellular shaping for some geometric cellular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai Gimenez Calbo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The wall perimeter fraction, which contact neighboring cells, was named compression ratio (alpha. A zero compression ratio indicates maximum intercellular (air volume (vG, v/v and neglectable contact among cells, while alpha=1 indicates complete adherence between neighboring cells and no vG in the lattice. The maximum intercellular air volume (beta, v/v, when alpha=0, was 0.593 for triangular, 0.2146 for square and 0,0931 for hexagonal lattices. The equation alpha=1- (vG/beta½ was derived to relate alpha, beta and vG in the studied lattices. The relation (P S=p/alpha between cell turgor (P S and the tissue aggregating pressure (p, defined as the compression to keep in place a layer of cells, was demonstrated using the compression ratio concept. Intercellular deformations of Ipomea batatas L. roots obtained with pressure chamber were used to test alpha, vG, p and P S as a function of compression. Volumetric and transversal elastic extensibilities and the lamella media tearing forces were obtained and alpha constancy was considered as a criteria of cellular shape stability.A fração do perímetro da parede celular em contato com células vizinha foi denominada razão de compressão (alfa. Razão de compressão zero indica volume intercelular (vG, v/v máximo e contato neglível entre as células, enquanto alfa=1 ocorre quando há completa aderência com as células vizinhas (vG=0. O volume (gasoso intercelular máximo (beta, v/v, quando alfa=0, foi 0,593, 0,2146 e 0,0931 para látices triangulares, quadradas e hexagonais. A equação derivada para relacionar alfa, beta and vG nas látices estudadas foi alfa=1- (vG/beta½. A razão de compressão foi em seguida empregada para estabelecer a relação P S=p/alfa entre a pressão de turgescência (P S e a pressão de agregação (p, definida com a compressão para manter uma camada de células no seu lugar. As deformações intercelulares de batata-doce obtidas com procedimentos de c

  17. Role of intercellular communication on LH receptor induction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Pour HR

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical changes in the gonadotropins stimulate ovarian follicular development either to the ovulatory stage or to undergo atresia. One such intrafollicular factor may be inter-cellular communication via gap junctions. We have examined the effects of two agents (retinoids and alkanols, known to disrupt or uncouple gap junction, on FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction and progestrone synthesis in granulosa cells. Granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated immature rats were isolated and cultured in serum-free medium containing either FSH (15 ng/ml or FSH and estradiol (30 nM, various doses (0.1-1000 nM of either retinoic acid were added to the cultures at the time of seeding. Additional cultures containing the same concentrations of either FSH, or FSH and estradiol, were treated with 0.01-10 nM heptanol or octanol. The results of this study showed that: 1 Retinol, at all of the concentrations tested, had no effect on either FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction or progesterone accumulation by the granulosa cells. 2 Retinoic acid suppressed both LH receptor induction and progesterone accumulation by the cells. 3 Heptanol and octanol suppressed LH receptor induction but did not have inhibitory effect on the progesterone accumulation.

  18. Personal and Planetary Well-Being: Mindfulness Meditation, Pro-Environmental Behavior and Personal Quality of Life in a Survey from the Social Justice and Ecological Sustainability Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jeffrey; Jovic, Emily; Brinkerhoff, Merlin B.

    2009-01-01

    Employing data from a mailed survey of a sample of ecologically and spiritually aware respondents (N = 829), the study tests the hypothesized relationship between ecologically sustainable behavior (ESB) and subjective well-being (SWB). The proposed link between ESB and SWB is the spiritual practice of mindfulness meditation (MM). In multiple…

  19. Broad sustainability versus sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl

  20. Centriole movements in mammalian epithelial cells during cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanke Hans J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cytokinesis, when the cleavage furrow has been formed, the two centrioles in each daughter cell separate. It has been suggested that the centrioles facilitate and regulate cytokinesis to some extent. It has been postulated that termination of cytokinesis (abscission depends on the migration of a centriole to the intercellular bridge and then back to the cell center. To investigate the involvement of centrioles in cytokinesis, we monitored the movements of centrioles in three mammalian epithelial cell lines, HeLa, MCF 10A, and the p53-deficient mouse mammary tumor cell line KP-7.7, by time-lapse imaging. Centrin1-EGFP and α-Tubulin-mCherry were co-expressed in the cells to visualize respectively the centrioles and microtubules. Results Here we report that separated centrioles that migrate from the cell pole are very mobile during cytokinesis and their movements can be characterized as 1 along the nuclear envelope, 2 irregular, and 3 along microtubules forming the spindle axis. Centriole movement towards the intercellular bridge was only seen occasionally and was highly cell-line dependent. Conclusions These findings show that centrioles are highly mobile during cytokinesis and suggest that the repositioning of a centriole to the intercellular bridge is not essential for controlling abscission. We suggest that centriole movements are microtubule dependent and that abscission is more dependent on other mechanisms than positioning of centrioles.

  1. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  3. Adenosine opposes thrombin-induced inhibition of intercellular calcium wave in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Catheleyne; Srinivas, Sangly P; Vereecke, Johan; Himpens, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    In corneal endothelial cells, intercellular Ca(2+) waves elicited by a mechanical stimulus involve paracrine intercellular communication, mediated by ATP release via connexin hemichannels, as well as gap junctional intercellular communication. Both mechanisms are inhibited by thrombin, which activates RhoA and hence results in myosin light chain phosphorylation. This study was conducted to examine the effects of adenosine, which is known to oppose thrombin-induced RhoA activation, thereby leading to myosin light chain dephosphorylation, on gap junctional intercellular communication and paracrine intercellular communication in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells. An intercellular Ca(2+) wave was elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell in a confluent monolayer. The area of Ca(2+) wave propagation was measured by [Ca(2+)](i) imaging using the fluorescent dye Fluo-4. Gap junctional intercellular communication was assessed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Activity of hemichannels was determined by uptake of the hydrophilic dye Lucifer yellow in a Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release in response to mechanical stimulation was measured using the luciferin-luciferase technique. Gap26, a connexin mimetic peptide, was used to block hemichannels. Exposure to thrombin or TRAP-6 (a selective PAR-1 agonist) inhibited the Ca(2+) wave propagation by 70%. Pretreatment with adenosine prevented this inhibitory effect of thrombin. NECA (a potent A2B agonist) and forskolin, agents known to elevate cAMP in bovine corneal endothelial cells, also suppressed the effect of thrombin. The A1 receptor agonist CPA failed to inhibit the effect of thrombin. Similar to the effects on Ca(2+) wave propagation, adenosine prevented the thrombin-induced reduction in the fluorescence recovery during photobleaching experiments. Furthermore, pretreatment with adenosine prevented both thrombin and TRAP-6 from blocking the

  4. Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G, E-mail: georg.bauer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Abteilung Virologie, Institut fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-01-01

    Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

  5. Cavitation of intercellular spaces is critical to establishment of hydraulic properties of compression wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Hirai, Asami; Kudo, Kayo; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Kitin, Peter; Funada, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    When the orientation of the stems of conifers departs from the vertical as a result of environmental influences, conifers form compression wood that results in restoration of verticality. It is well known that intercellular spaces are formed between tracheids in compression wood, but the function of these spaces remains to be clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of these spaces in artificially induced compression wood in Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. We monitored the presence or absence of liquid in the intercellular spaces of differentiating xylem by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we analysed the relationship between intercellular spaces and the hydraulic properties of the compression wood. Initially, we detected small intercellular spaces with liquid in regions in which the profiles of tracheids were not rounded in transverse surfaces, indicating that the intercellular spaces had originally contained no gases. In the regions where tracheids had formed secondary walls, we found that some intercellular spaces had lost their liquid. Cavitation of intercellular spaces would affect hydraulic conductivity as a consequence of the induction of cavitation in neighbouring tracheids. Our observations suggest that cavitation of intercellular spaces is the critical event that affects not only the functions of intercellular spaces but also the hydraulic properties of compression wood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  7. A kinetic-based model of radiation-induced intercellular signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J McMahon

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that intercellular communication can cause significant variations in cellular responses to genotoxic stress. The radiation-induced bystander effect is a prime example of this effect, where cells shielded from radiation exposure see a significant reduction in survival when cultured with irradiated cells. However, there is a lack of robust, quantitative models of this effect which are widely applicable. In this work, we present a novel mathematical model of radiation-induced intercellular signalling which incorporates signal production and response kinetics together with the effects of direct irradiation, and test it against published data sets, including modulated field exposures. This model suggests that these so-called "bystander" effects play a significant role in determining cellular survival, even in directly irradiated populations, meaning that the inclusion of intercellular communication may be essential to produce robust models of radio-biological outcomes in clinically relevant in vivo situations.

  8. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  9. Microbial stress mediated intercellular nanotubes in an anaerobic microbial consortium digesting cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Martina; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-12-21

    The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery. Furthermore, it was noted that cellular stress led to the establishment of intercellular nanotubes within the microbial biomass. Intercellular nanotube - mediated communication among genetically engineered microorganisms and ad hoc assembled co - cultures have been previously reported. This study presents evidence of intercellular nanotube formation within an environmental sample - i.e., anaerobic sludge microbiota subjected to stress. Our observations suggested a mode of microbial communication in the anaerobic digestion process not previously explored and which may have implications on bioreactor design and microbial functions.

  10. [Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication protects astrocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xu-Hui; Gu, Yu-Chen; Jiao, Hao; Yu, Li; Dong, Shu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in astrocytes. Primary cultured cerebral cortical astrocytes of neonate rats were divided into normal control group, hypoxia reoxygenation injury group and 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide (gap junctional intercellular channel inhibitors) group. The gap junction intercellular communication was determined by Parachute assay. The viability of astrocyes was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis of astrocytes were detected with annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining. Compared with the normal control group, the gap junctional function of astrocytes was increased significantly in ischemia/reperfusion group (Pastrocytes decreased significantly (Pastrocytes in18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide group decreased significantly (Pastrocytes increased significantly (Pastrocytes.

  11. Estimation of the effective intercellular diffusion coefficient in cell monolayers coupled by gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Hofgaard, Johannes P; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed dye-based assay to study gap junction permeability is analysed. The assay is based on electroporation of dye into a large number of connexin 43 expressing cells, grown to confluency on electrically conductive slides. The subsequent intercellular spread of dye to non-electropo......A recently developed dye-based assay to study gap junction permeability is analysed. The assay is based on electroporation of dye into a large number of connexin 43 expressing cells, grown to confluency on electrically conductive slides. The subsequent intercellular spread of dye to non......-electroporated parts of the monolayer enables estimation of the intercellular coupling. So far, the extent of dye spread has been analyzed in qualitative terms only and not in a manner based directly on the physics of the underlying diffusion process....

  12. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation.The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear.Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation.The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium.The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  13. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  14. Cork for sustainable product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization

  15. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  16. Plasmodesmata-mediated intercellular signaling during plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Ram eYadav

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD are cytoplasmic channels that connect neighboring cells for cell-to-cell communication. PD structure and function vary temporally and spatially to allow formation of symplastic domains during different stages of plant development. Reversible deposition of callose at PD plays an important role in controlling molecular trafficking through PD by regulating their size exclusion limit (SEL. Previously, we reported several semi-dominant mutants for CALLOSE SYNTHASE 3 (CALS3 gene, which overproduce callose at PD in Arabidopsis. By combining two of these mutations in a LexA-VP16-ER (XVE-based estradiol inducible vector system, a tool known as the icals3m system was developed to temporally obstruct the symplastic connections in a specified spatial domain. The system has been successfully tested and used, in combination with other methods, to investigate the route for mobile signals such as the SHR protein, microRNA165/6, and cytokinins in Arabidopsis roots, and also to understand the role of symplastic domain formation during lateral root development. We envision that this tool may also be useful for identifying tissue-specific symplastic regulatory networks and to analyze symplastic movement of metabolites.

  17. The association between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and peritoneal injury in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yusuke; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Imai, Reika; Imai, Toshimi; Hirahara, Ichiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ookawara, Susumu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum causes peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its circulating form, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, play pivotal roles in inflammation. However, their role in peritoneal injury is unclear. We measured changes in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in rats. The associations between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and the solute transport rate (D/P-Cr and D/D0-glucose) determined by the peritoneal equilibration test, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate were investigated in 94 peritoneal drained dialysate samples. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in the peritoneum of rats with peritoneal injury. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate were significantly positively correlated with D/P-Cr (r = .51, p molecule-1expression is increased in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in the rat, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate are associated with peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These results suggest that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 could be a novel biomarker of peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  18. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  19. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  20. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo, E-mail: ksha@kangwon.ac.kr

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  1. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  2. Methoxychlor and vinclozolin induce rapid changes in intercellular and intracellular signaling in liver progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Zurabian, R.; Kumar, E. R.; Chopra, R.; Mianecki, M. J.; Park, J.-S.; Jaša, Libor; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 1 (2016), s. 174-185 ISSN 1096-6080 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : endocrine disrupters * gap junctional intercellular communication * resveratrol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.081, year: 2016

  3. Redox States of Plastids and Mitochondria Differentially Regulate Intercellular Transport via Plasmodesmata1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Brunkard, Jacob O.; Cheung, Alexander C.; Jiang, Keni; Feldman, Lewis; Zambryski, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD) is regulated by cellular redox state. Until now, this relationship has been unclear, as increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with both increased and decreased intercellular transport via PD. Here, we show that silencing two genes that both increase transport via PD, INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT1 (ISE1) and ISE2, alters organelle redox state. Using redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins targeted to the mitochondria or plastids, we show that, relative to wild-type leaves, plastids are more reduced in both ISE1- and ISE2-silenced leaves, whereas mitochondria are more oxidized in ISE1-silenced leaves. We further show that PD transport is positively regulated by ROS production in mitochondria following treatment with salicylhydroxamic acid but negatively regulated by an oxidative shift in both chloroplasts and mitochondria following treatment with paraquat. Thus, oxidative shifts in the mitochondrial redox state positively regulate intercellular transport in leaves, but oxidative shifts in the plastid redox state counteract this effect and negatively regulate intercellular transport. This proposed model reconciles previous contradictory evidence relating ROS production to PD transport and supports accumulating evidence that mitochondria and plastids are crucial regulators of PD function. PMID:22074709

  4. Novel approaches to mitigating bacterial biofilm formation and intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Stephen H.

    RNA-sequencing analysis and various other genetic and biochemical assays were performed to uncover the molecular target of our lead inhibitor in P. aeruginosa. Our results support the idea that the lead compound, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme kynureninase (KynU). KynU is a critical source of anthranilate, which is a precursor to a QS signaling molecule known as PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal). Previous research showed that kynU-knockout mutants have attenuated virulence; however, this was the first report to demonstrate a chemical probe could achieve KynU-mediated virulence attenuation. Because biofilm/QS inhibitors target cell signaling, as opposed to cell viability, novel approaches must be developed to enhance bioavailability and maximize their efficacy in complex and dynamic environments, such as the oral cavity. Therefore, a nanocapsule-based drug delivery system prepared from a natural plant protein was designed, fabricated, and characterized. The loading properties, release profiles, and ability to adsorb to and form films on hydroxyapatite (i.e. material of tooth surface), and ability to deter Streptococcus mutans biofilm was studied. To enhance performance of this drug delivery system, a synthetic biology approach was used to genetically fuse an oligopeptide hydroxyapatite-affinity tag to the zein peptide sequence. As observed antibiotic resistance is occurring at a faster pace than the approval of new antibiotics, it has become apparent that antimicrobial treatment is not a sustainable method to fight pathogenic infection. If the treatment paradigm of infectious disease is to transform to a more sustainable approach by mitigating bacterial virulence, significant advances must be made in this field. My dissertation explores several avenues of infectious disease research: (1) identification of new compounds for disarming pathogens, (2) discovery of the mechanism of action of a lead inhibitor, and (3) the design of a

  5. Patterning of wound-induced intercellular Ca2+ flashes in a developing epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Cody; Wu, Qinfeng; Brodskiy, Pavel; Garston, George; Baker, Ruth; Fletcher, Alexander; Zartman, Jeremiah

    2015-10-01

    Differential mechanical force distributions are increasingly recognized to provide important feedback into the control of an organ’s final size and shape. As a second messenger that integrates and relays mechanical information to the cell, calcium ions (Ca2+) are a prime candidate for providing important information on both the overall mechanical state of the tissue and resulting behavior at the individual-cell level during development. Still, how the spatiotemporal properties of Ca2+ transients reflect the underlying mechanical characteristics of tissues is still poorly understood. Here we use an established model system of an epithelial tissue, the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, to investigate how tissue properties impact the propagation of Ca2+ transients induced by laser ablation. The resulting intercellular Ca2+ flash is found to be mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and depends on gap junction communication. Further, we find that intercellular Ca2+ transients show spatially non-uniform characteristics across the proximal-distal axis of the larval wing imaginal disc, which exhibit a gradient in cell size and anisotropy. A computational model of Ca2+ transients is employed to identify the principle factors explaining the spatiotemporal patterning dynamics of intercellular Ca2+ flashes. The relative Ca2+ flash anisotropy is principally explained by local cell shape anisotropy. Further, Ca2+ velocities are relatively uniform throughout the wing disc, irrespective of cell size or anisotropy. This can be explained by the opposing effects of cell diameter and cell elongation on intercellular Ca2+ propagation. Thus, intercellular Ca2+ transients follow lines of mechanical tension at velocities that are largely independent of tissue heterogeneity and reflect the mechanical state of the underlying tissue.

  6. Intercellular wiring enables electron transfer between methanotrophic archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Gunter; Krukenberg, Viola; Riedel, Dietmar; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Boetius, Antje

    2015-10-22

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate controls the emission of the greenhouse gas methane from the ocean floor. In marine sediments, AOM is performed by dual-species consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting the methane-sulfate transition zone. The biochemical pathways and biological adaptations enabling this globally relevant process are not fully understood. Here we study the syntrophic interaction in thermophilic AOM (TAOM) between ANME-1 archaea and their consortium partner SRB HotSeep-1 (ref. 6) at 60 °C to test the hypothesis of a direct interspecies exchange of electrons. The activity of TAOM consortia was compared to the first ANME-free culture of an AOM partner bacterium that grows using hydrogen as the sole electron donor. The thermophilic ANME-1 do not produce sufficient hydrogen to sustain the observed growth of the HotSeep-1 partner. Enhancing the growth of the HotSeep-1 partner by hydrogen addition represses methane oxidation and the metabolic activity of ANME-1. Further supporting the hypothesis of direct electron transfer between the partners, we observe that under TAOM conditions, both ANME and the HotSeep-1 bacteria overexpress genes for extracellular cytochrome production and form cell-to-cell connections that resemble the nanowire structures responsible for interspecies electron transfer between syntrophic consortia of Geobacter. HotSeep-1 highly expresses genes for pili production only during consortial growth using methane, and the nanowire-like structures are absent in HotSeep-1 cells isolated with hydrogen. These observations suggest that direct electron transfer is a principal mechanism in TAOM, which may also explain the enigmatic functioning and specificity of other methanotrophic ANME-SRB consortia.

  7. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  8. INHIBITION OF GAP JUNCTIONAL INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION BY PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN RAT LIVER AND DOLPHIN KIDNEY EPITHELIAL CELL LINES IN VITRO AND SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) is the major pathway of intercellular signal transduction, and is, thus, important for normal cell growth and function. Recent studies have revealed a global distribution of some perfluorinated organic compounds e...

  9. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  10. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  11. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  12. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  13. Relationship between intercellular communication and adriamycin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, C; Freshney, R I; Pitts, J

    1994-01-01

    The adriamycin chemosensitivity and extent of gap junctional intercellular communication were assessed in a panel of seven human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Communication was assessed by autoradiographic detection of transfer of 3H uridine nucleotides between coupled cells. The strength of coupling varied widely between the cell lines and they could be separated into 3 groups: those which exhibited strong coupling, L-DAN and A549; those which exhibited weak coupling, SK-MES-1, Calu-3 and NCI-H125; and an intermediate group, WIL and NCI-H23. Adriamycin chemosensitivity was assessed by both clonogenic and MTT assays. The range of IC50 values as measured by either assay was extremely narrow, with no important differences between the lines. Thus, despite the wide spectrum of intercellular communication observed in these lines, this did not correlate with their adriamycin resistance.

  14. Detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by means of infrared spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.; Zelvys, A.; Steiner, G.; Sablinskas, V.

    2014-03-01

    In this work the infrared absorption spectra of intercellular fluid of normal and tumor kidney tissue were recorded and analyzed. The samples were prepared by stamping freshly resected tissue onto a CaF2 substrate. FT-IR spectra obtained from intracellular fluid of tumor tissue exhibit stronger absorption bands in the spectral region from 1000-1200 cm-1 and around 1750 cm-1 than those obtained from normal tissue. It is likely the spectra of extracellular matrix of kidney tumor tissue with large increases in the intensities of these bands represent a higher concentration of fatty acids and glycerol. Amide I and amide II bands are stronger in spectra of normal tissue indicating a higher level of proteins. The results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy of intercellular fluids is a novel approach for a quick diagnosis during surgical resection, which can improve the therapy of kidney tumors.

  15. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  16. 1,4-Naphthoquinones: From Oxidative Damage to Cellular and Inter-Cellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Oliver Klotz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones may cause oxidative stress in exposed cells and, therefore, affect redox signaling. Here, contributions of redox cycling and alkylating properties of quinones (both natural and synthetic, such as plumbagin, juglone, lawsone, menadione, methoxy-naphthoquinones, and others to cellular and inter-cellular signaling processes are discussed: (i naphthoquinone-induced Nrf2-dependent modulation of gene expression and its potentially beneficial outcome; (ii the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor by naphthoquinones, resulting in altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of redox signaling are properties of naphthoquinones that render them interesting leads for the development of novel compounds of potential use in various therapeutic settings.

  17. Membrane wounding triggers ATP release and dysferlin-mediated intercellular calcium signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Covian-Nares, J. Fernando; Koushik, Srinagesh V.; Puhl, Henry L.; Vogel, Steven S.

    2010-01-01

    Dysferlin is a Ca2+-binding protein found in many different cell types. It is required for membrane wound repair in muscle, but it is not known whether it has the same function in other cells. Here we report the activation of an intercellular signaling pathway in sea urchin embryos by membrane wounding that evokes Ca2+ spikes in neighboring cells. This pathway was mimicked by ATP application, and inhibited by apyrase, cadmium, and ω-agatoxin-IVA. Microinjection of dysferlin antisense phosphor...

  18. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  19. Estimation of the effective intercellular diffusion coefficient in cell monolayers coupled by gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Hofgaard, Johannes P; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-07-16

    A recently developed dye-based assay to study gap junction permeability is analysed. The assay is based on electroporation of dye into a large number of connexin 43 expressing cells, grown to confluency on electrically conductive slides. The subsequent intercellular spread of dye to non-electroporated parts of the monolayer enables estimation of the intercellular coupling. So far, the extent of dye spread has been analyzed in qualitative terms only and not in a manner based directly on the physics of the underlying diffusion process. We apply a continuum approximation assuming that the observed dye spread can be described by Fick's law of diffusion. Deduced from Fick's law, new measures are presented which directly relate the observed spread of dye to the diffusion coefficient. The theoretical framework enables the estimation of an effective diffusion coefficient from Fick's law independently of the specific indicator substance used in the assay. For Lucifer Yellow, diffusion stops within few minutes after the electroporation. Therefore only an order-of-magnitude estimate of the diffusion coefficient can be given for this dye. In terms of the underlying diffusion coefficient, the hitherto used measures give a relatively poor degree of quantification. In contrast, the present methods may yield direct information on the effective intercellular diffusion coefficient and hence provide additional and more precise information as to the permeability modulating effect of various substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of auxin during intercellular infection of Discaria trinervis by Frankia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Leandro; Perrine-Walker, Francine M.; Ndour, Adama; Vayssières, Alice; Conejero, Genevieve; Lucas, Mikaël; Champion, Antony; Laplaze, Laurent; Wall, Luis; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing nodules induced by Frankia in the actinorhizal plant Discaria trinervis result from a primitive intercellular root invasion pathway that does not involve root hair deformation and infection threads. Here, we analyzed the role of auxin in this intercellular infection pathway at the molecular level and compared it with our previous work in the intracellular infected actinorhizal plant Casuarina glauca. Immunolocalisation experiments showed that auxin accumulated in Frankia-infected cells in both systems. We then characterized the expression of auxin transporters in D. trinervis nodules. No activation of the heterologous CgAUX1 promoter was detected in infected cells in D. trinervis. These results were confirmed with the endogenous D. trinervis gene, DtAUX1. However, DtAUX1 was expressed in the nodule meristem. Consistently, transgenic D. trinervis plants containing the auxin response marker DR5:VENUS showed expression of the reporter gene in the meristem. Immunolocalisation experiments using an antibody against the auxin efflux carrier PIN1, revealed the presence of this transporter in the plasma membrane of infected cells. Finally, we used in silico cellular models to analyse auxin fluxes in D. trinervis nodules. Our results point to the existence of divergent roles of auxin in intercellularly- and intracellularly-infected actinorhizal plants, an ancestral infection pathways leading to root nodule symbioses. PMID:25191330

  1. Emergent properties of extracellular vesicles: a holistic approach to decode the complexity of intercellular communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Changjin

    2017-06-27

    Shedding of nano-sized bilayered extracellular vesicles and extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular communication are evolutionarily conserved biological processes. Communication between cells and the environment is an essential process in living organisms and dysregulation of intercellular communication leads to various diseases. Thus, systematic studies on extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes, microvesicles, and outer membrane vesicles, are critical for a deeper understanding of intercellular communication networks that are crucial for decoding the exact causes of various difficult-to-cure diseases. Recent progress in this emerging field reveals that extracellular vesicles are endogenous carriers of specific subsets of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and other bioactive materials, as well as play diverse pathophysiological roles. However, certain issues regarding diverse subtypes and the complex pathophysiological roles of extracellular vesicles are not yet clearly elucidated. In this review, we first briefly introduce the complexity of extracellular vesicles in terms of their vesicular cargos and protein-protein interaction networks, their diverse subtypes, and multifaceted pathophysiological functions. Then, we introduce the limitation of reductionist approaches in understanding the complexity of extracellular vesicles. We finally suggest that molecular systems biology approaches based on the concept of emergent properties are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the complex pathophysiological functions of heterogeneous extracellular vesicles, either at the single vesicle level or at a systems level as a whole.

  2. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  3. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  4. Regulation Involved in Colonization of Intercellular Spaces of Host Plants in Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Hikichi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invading plant roots first colonizes the intercellular spaces of the root, and eventually enters xylem vessels, where it replicates at high levels leading to wilting symptoms. After invasion into intercellular spaces, R. solanacearum strain OE1-1 attaches to host cells and expression of the hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system (T3SS. OE1-1 then constructs T3SS and secrets effectors into host cells, inducing expression of the host gene encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase. This leads to suppressing plant innate immunity. Then, OE1-1 grows on host cells, inducing quorum sensing (QS. The QS contributes to regulation of OE1-1 colonization of intercellular spaces including mushroom-type biofilm formation on host cells, leading to its virulence. R. solanacearum strains AW1 and K60 produce methyl 3-hydroxypalmitate (3-OH PAME as a QS signal. The methyltransferase PhcB synthesizes 3-OH PAME. When 3-OH PAME reaches a threshold level, it increases the ability of the histidine kinase PhcS to phosphorylate the response regulator PhcR. This results in elevated levels of functional PhcA, the global virulence regulator. On the other hand, strains OE1-1 and GMI1000 produce methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME as a QS signal. Among R. solanacearum strains, the deduced PhcB and PhcS amino acid sequences are related to the production of QS signals. R. solanacearum produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones, which are extracellularly secreted and required for its virulence, dependent on the QS. Interestingly, ralfuranones affect the QS feedback loop. Taken together, integrated signaling via ralfuranones influences the QS, contributing to pathogen virulence.

  5. Inhibitory effects of organochlorine pesticides on intercellular transfer of Lucifer Yellow in cultured bovine oviductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U; Pöhland, R

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), methoxychlor (MXC), and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gammaHCH, lindane) on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cultured bovine oviductal cells. GJIC was evaluated by microinjecting fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow and observing the inhibition of the spreading of dye into adjacent cells. After incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was observed over a concentration range of 16 to 128 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH compared with nonexposed controls. A significant inhibition began at 32 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH. After incubation for 5 h, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was obtained in the concentration range from 8 to 64 microM of the pesticides. The first significant inhibitory effect on GJIC was caused by 8 microM DDT, 16 microM MXC, and 32 microM gammaHCH. The 128 microM concentration of the pesticides was toxic. At pesticide concentration of 64 microM, the decrease in dye-coupling observed was not due to lethal cell injury, as is indicated by the use of trypan blue dye exclusion. After removal of 64 microM DDT from the culture medium, intercellular communication was reestablished within 3 h. Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in fura-2/AM-loaded oviductal cells showed that the inhibition of GJIC by addition of DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH was not associated with a detectable increase in [Ca2+]i. Coincubation of the DDT with dibutyryl-cAMP prevented the 64 microM DDT-induced inhibition of intercellular communication in adherent oviduct cells. It is suggested that organochlorine pesticides can influence cells responsible for reproduction.

  6. Gap junction mediated intercellular metabolite transfer in the cochlea is compromised in connexin30 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chang

    Full Text Available Connexin26 (Cx26 and connexin30 (Cx30 are two major protein subunits that co-assemble to form gap junctions (GJs in the cochlea. Mutations in either one of them are the major cause of non-syndromic prelingual deafness in humans. Because the mechanisms of cochlear pathogenesis caused by Cx mutations are unclear, we investigated effects of Cx30 null mutation on GJ-mediated ionic and metabolic coupling in the cochlea of mice. A novel flattened cochlear preparation was used to directly assess intercellular coupling in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Double-electrode patch clamp recordings revealed that the absence of Cx30 did not significantly change GJ conductance among the cochlear supporting cells. The preserved electrical coupling is consistent with immunolabeling data showing extensive Cx26 GJs in the cochlea of the mutant mice. In contrast, dye diffusion assays showed that the rate and extent of intercellular transfer of multiple fluorescent dyes (including a non-metabolizable D-glucose analogue, 2-NBDG among cochlear supporting cells were severely reduced in Cx30 null mice. Since the sensory epithelium in the cochlea is an avascular organ, GJ-facilitated intercellular transfer of nutrient and signaling molecules may play essential roles in cellular homeostasis. To test this possibility, NBDG was used as a tracer to study the contribution of GJs in transporting glucose into the cochlear sensory epithelium when delivered systemically. NBDG uptake in cochlear supporting cells was significantly reduced in Cx30 null mice. The decrease was also observed with GJ blockers or glucose competition, supporting the specificity of our tests. These data indicate that GJs facilitate efficient uptake of glucose in the supporting cells. This study provides the first direct experimental evidence showing that the transfer of metabolically-important molecules in cochlear supporting cells is dependent on the normal function of GJs, thereby suggesting a

  7. Na+/K+-pump modulates intercellular communication viainteraction with other membrane transporters in vascularsmooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Nilsson, Holger

    Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+-pump, has previously been shown to disturb intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na+/K+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger...... in restricted spaces near the plasma membrane. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in individual SMCs was imaged simultaneously with isometric force in rat mesenteric small arteries. Paired cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMC by measuring...

  8. Effect and its threshold of ELF magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yiti; Hu Genlin; Zeng Qunli; Jiang Huai; Xu Zhengping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and carcinogenesis. Methods: The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique was used to determine the effect of ELF magnetic fields and its threshold on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Results: FRAP analysis indicated that 0.4 mT ELF or more could inhibit GJIC, and 0.2 mT ELF or more could enhance the inhibition of GJIC by TPA. Conclusion: ELF magnetic fields might act as a cancer promoter or work in synergy with other cancer promoters

  9. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  10. Intercellular distribution of mutations induced in oopcytes of Drosophila melanogaster by chemical and physical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1979-01-01

    When females of Drosophila melanogaster are treated with chemical or physical mutagens, not only in one but also in both of the two homologous X chromosomes of a given oocyte, a recessive sex-linked lethal mutation may be induced. A method is described that discriminates between such single and double mutations. A theory is developed to show how a comparison betweeen the expected and the observer frequency of double mutations yields an indication of the intercellular distribution (random or nonrandom) of recessive lethal mutations induced by mutagenic agents in oocytes and, consequently, of the distribution (homogenous or nonhomogeneous) of those agents. Three agents were tested: FUdR (12.5, 50.0 and 81.0 μg/ml), mitomycin C (130.0 μg/ml) and x rays (2000 R, 150 kV). After FUdR feeding, no increase in the mutation frequency usually observed in D. melanogaster without mutagenic treatment was obtained (u = 0.13%, namely three single mutations among 2332 chromosomes tested). After mitomycin C feeding 104 single and three double mutations were obtained. All of the 50 mutations observed after x irradiation were single mutations. The results obtained in the mitomycin C and radiation experiments favor the assumption of a random intercellular distribution of recessive lethal mutations induced by these two agents in oocytes of D. melanogaster. Reasons are discussed why for other types of mutagenic agents nonrandom distributions may be observed with our technique

  11. CHANGES OF INTERCELLULAR COOPERATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN TREATED PATIENTS WITH CARDIOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Korichkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of intercellular cooperation in peripheral blood induced by treatment in patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. 610 patients were involved into the study, including 250 patients with HT of stages I-III (50 untreated patients, 150 patients with IHD and 210 patients with CHF of stages I-III. All patients were treated except 50 hypertensive ones. 80 healthy patients (40 men, 40 women were included into control group. Blood smears of patients were evaluated (Romanovsky's stain. A number of leukocyte, autorosettes and autorosettes with erythrocyte lysis was calculated. The cellular association consisting of a neutrophil, monocyte or eosinocyte with 3 or more erythrocytes skintight to their surface defined as autorosettes. Erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level determined in peripheral blood.Results. Single autorosettes in peripheral blood were observed in patients of control group and in untreated patients with HT. Treated patients with HT, IHD and CHF had increased number of autorossets and autorosettes with erythrocytes lysis. This phenomenon resulted in reduction of erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level in peripheral blood.Conclusion. Treated patients with cardiologic diseases had changes in intercellular cooperation. It should be considered at intensive and long term therapy.

  12. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by aminobenzyl alcohols and nitrobenzyl alcohols is correlated with intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalsen, S O

    1990-07-31

    Two aminobenzyl alcohols (ABAs) and 3 nitrobenzyl alcohols (NBAs) were studied in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation system. All compounds induced statistically significant increases in morphological transformation of SHE cells. 2-ABA and 3-ABA induced dose-dependent increases in transformation, while the transformation frequencies for 2-NBA and 4-NBA decreased when concentrations were increased above 0.2 mM. When tested in an intercellular communication assay using dye transfer between SHE cells, 2-ABA inhibited communication, and 2-NBA and 4-NBA enhanced communication. Thus, the inverse dose-response of 2-NBA related to an increased intercellular communication.

  13. The status of intercellular junctions in established lens epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Alpana; Craig, Jamie E; Sharma, Shiwani

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause of vision-related disability worldwide. Mutations in the crystallin genes are the most common known cause of inherited congenital cataract. Mutations in the genes associated with intercellular contacts, such as Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) and Ephrin type A receptor-2 (EPHA2), are other recognized causes of congenital cataract. The EPHA2 gene has been also associated with age-related cataract, suggesting that intercellular junctions are important in not only lens development, but also in maintaining lens transparency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression and localization of the key cell junction and cytoskeletal proteins, and of NHS and EPHA2, in established lens epithelial cell lines to determine their suitability as model epithelial systems for the functional investigation of genes involved in intercellular contacts and implicated in cataract. The expression and subcellular localization of occludin and zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), which are associated with tight junctions; E-cadherin, which is associated with adherence junctions; and the cytoskeletal actin were analyzed in monolayers of a human lens epithelial cell line (SRA 01/04) and a mouse lens epithelial cell line (αTN4). In addition, the expression and subcellular localization of the NHS and EPHA2 proteins were analyzed in these cell lines. Protein or mRNA expression was respectively determined by western blotting or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and localization was determined by immunofluorescence labeling. Human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells expressed either the proteins of interest or their encoding mRNA. Occludin, ZO-1, and NHS proteins localized to the cellular periphery, whereas E-cadherin, actin, and EPHA2 localized in the cytoplasm in these cell lines. The human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells express the key junctional proteins. The localization patterns of these proteins suggest that

  14. Mitochondria know no boundaries: mechanisms and functions of intercellular mitochondrial transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torralba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria regulate multiple cell processes, including calcium signaling, apoptosis and cell metabolism. Mitochondria contain their own circular genome encoding selected subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to being maternally inherited, mitochondria can traverse cell boundaries and thus be horizontally transferred between cells. Although the physiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate, mitochondria uptake rescues mitochondrial respiration defects in recipient cells and regulates signaling, proliferation or chemotherapy resistance in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we outline the pathophysiological consequences of horizontal mitochondrial transfer and offer a perspective on the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating their intercellular transmission, including tunneling nanotubes, extracellular vesicles, cellular fusion and GAP junctions. The physiological relevance of mitochondrial transfer and the potential therapeutic application of this exchange for treating mitochondrial-related diseases are discussed.

  15. Signaling through intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a B cell lymphoma line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, J; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (CD54) is an adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The interaction between ICAM-1 on B lymphocytes and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 on T cells plays a major role in several aspects of the immune response, including T-dependent B...... cell activation. While it was originally believed that ICAM-1 played a purely adhesive role, recent evidence suggests that it can itself transduce biochemical signals. We demonstrate that cross-linking of ICAM-1 results in the up-regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex, and we...... investigate the biochemical mechanism for the signaling role of ICAM-1. We show that cross-linking of ICAM-1 on the B lymphoma line A20 induces an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including the Src family kinase p53/p56(lyn). In vitro kinase assays showed that Lyn kinase...

  16. Polymeric micelles as a drug delivery system enhance cytotoxicity of vinorelbine through more intercellular accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fayun; Qin, Lei; Xiao, Fengying; Liang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Polymeric micelles had been used as an efficacious carrier system for anti-cancer drug delivery. However, it is not clear whether the molecular mechanism of drug encapsulated in micelles is same as free drug. In this study, the mechanism of vinorelbine loaded in glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles (M-Vino) on tumor cells was investigated. Compared with free vinorelbine (Free Vino), M-Vino was more effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells in vitro, inducing G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. M-Vino showed a faster entry and higher accumulation in 4T1 cells than free vinorelbine. Therefore, M-Vino destabilized microtubules, induced cell death, and enhanced its cytotoxicity through more intercellular accumulation of vinorelbine.

  17. Effect of apigenin on gap junctional intercellular communication in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jibing; Zou, Huihui; Huang, Xudong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of apigenin on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) and its underlying mechanism. After a 48 h treatment of cultured HTFs with apigenin (80 micromol/L), the GJIC was detected by a scrape-loading/dye transfer technique with Lucifer yellow dye and rhodamine (Rh) dextran. The coupling index represents a quantification of GJIC where a high coupling index is associated with a greater number of cells demonstrating cell-cell communication through gap junction channels. The changes in connexin 43 (Cx43) distribution and the expression of Cx43 at the protein and mRNA levels were statistically compared between the two groups by means of immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functioning of GJIC in the HTFs was significantly enhanced after 48 hours by apigenin treatment when compared with the control cells. In the apigenin group, the intercellular dye transfer grade was above 9, while this value was only grade 3-4 in the control group. The coupling index was significantly increased up to 9.205+/-0.3621 in the apigenin group, compared with 5.1775+/-0.3177 in the control group (F=279.581, P=0.000). The expression of Cx43 at the protein and mRNA levels was significantly up-regulated in the apigenin group compared with the control group. Apigenin can significantly enhance the function of GJIC in HTFs by up-regulating the expression of Cx43 at both the protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that the enhancement of GJIC in HTFs by apigenin probably acts as an important mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of apigenin on HTF proliferation.

  18. Intercellular contact: its influence on the Dsub(q) of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, R.E.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Cell survival in tissues exposed to a given dose of ionizing radiation is usually greater than that of similar cells grown individually in vitro, despite the fact that the radiosensitivities (D 0 ) are virtually identical under the two conditions. An analogous increase in cell survival is observed when Chinese hamster V79-171 cells are grown in suspension culture and irradiated as multicell spheroids. Unfortunately, the information gained from the survival curves so obtained is limited by the inhomogeneity of the cell population with respect to both degree of contact and cell cycle position. The latter can be studied using synchronized small spheroids. The ratio of Dsub(q) of spheroid cells to Dsub(q) of single cells increased as the cells progressed through the cell cycle, from a minimum of 1.3 for G 1 phase cells to a maximum of 2.2 for late S-phase cells. The enhanced survival, or 'contact effect', developed slowly as the spheroids grew, after an initial latent period of about one generation cycle of the cells. A second effect of intercellular contact on mammalian cell survival has also been observed. When cells are assayed under conditions in which intercellular contact is maintained, the net cellular survival is increased further. This effect is different from the usual repair of potentially lethal damage, in that it occurs much more slowly and results in modification of the survival-curve shoulder. Not all cell types tested have shown enhanced survival when grown as spheroids. Several MNNG-induced mutants of the Chinese hamster V79-171 line have been isolated and sublines which do and do not show the contact effect are now available. These may permit study of the mechanism(s) of contact effects. (author)

  19. Regulation of intercellular tight junctions by zonula occludens toxin and its eukaryotic analogue zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, A

    2000-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest interface between the external environment and the internal host milieu and constitutes the major barrier through which molecules can either be absorbed or secreted. There is now substantial evidence that tight junctions (tj) play a major role in regulating epithelial permeability by influencing paracellular flow of fluid and solutes. Tj are one of the hallmarks of absorptive and secretory epithelia. Evidence now exists that tj are dynamic rather than static structures and readily adapt to a variety of developmental, physiological, and pathological circumstances. These adaptive mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Activation of PKC either by Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) or by phorbol esters increases paracellular permeability. Alteration of epithelial tj is a recently described property for infectious agents. Clostridium difficile toxin A and B and influenza and vesicular stomatitis viruses have been shown to loosen tj in tissue culture monolayers. Unlike what occurs after the Zot stimulus, these changes appear to be irreversible and are associated with destruction of the tj complex. On the basis of this observation, we postulated that Zot may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of epithelial tj. We were able to identify an intestinal Zot analogue, which we named zonulin. It is conceivable that the zonulins participate in the physiological regulation of intercellular tj not only in the small intestine, but also throughout a wide range of extraintestinal epithelia as well as the ubiquitous vascular endothelium, including the blood-brain barrier. Disregulation of this hypothetical zonulin model may contribute to disease states that involve disordered intercellular communication, including developmental and intestinal disorders, tissue inflammation, malignant transformation, and metastasis.

  20. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit

    2015-04-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Sustainable Soy : Initiatives in Brazil and Argentina. Do multiple standards enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Hospes, O.; Mheen-Sluijer, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    How sustainability schemes promote sustainability and compete amongst themselves is not static but in continuous movement. This is illustrated with the development history of sustainability schemes in soy. Their dynamics are defined by the importance of certified product for market access and by

  2. A 50% reduction of excitability but not of intercellular coupling affects conduction velocity restitution and activation delay in the mouse heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, M.; van Veen, T.A.B.; Hauer, R.N.W.; de Bakker, J.M.T.; van Rijen, H.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Computer simulations suggest that intercellular coupling is more robust than membrane excitability with regard to changes in and safety of conduction. Clinical studies indicate that SCN5A (excitability) and/or Connexin43 (Cx43, intercellular coupling) expression in heart disease is reduced by

  3. Modulation of gap-junctional intercellular communication by a series of cyanobacterial samples from nature and laboratory cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, K.; Babica, Pavel; Adamovský, O.; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2011), s. 76-84 ISSN 0041-0101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanotoxins * gap-junctional intercellular communication * tumor promotion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2011

  4. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I A; Tajima, O; Groten, J P; Wolterbeek, A P

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2, 2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In

  5. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R. M.; de Haan, L. H.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Nusselder, I. C.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  6. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  7. qDNAmod: a statistical model-based tool to reveal intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ren; Zhang, Xuegong

    2014-01-01

    In an isogenic cell population, phenotypic heterogeneity among individual cells is common and critical for survival of the population under different environment conditions. DNA modification is an important epigenetic factor that can regulate phenotypic heterogeneity. The single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides a unique platform for detecting a wide range of DNA modifications, including N6-methyladenine (6-mA), N4-methylcytosine (4-mC) and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). Here we present qDNAmod, a novel bioinformatic tool for genome-wide quantitative profiling of intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data. It is capable of estimating proportion of isogenic haploid cells, in which the same loci of the genome are differentially modified. We tested the reliability of qDNAmod with the SMRT sequencing data of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ST556. qDNAmod detected extensive intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation (6-mA) in a clonal population of ST556. Subsequent biochemical analyses revealed that the recognition sequences of two type I restriction–modification (R-M) systems are responsible for the intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation initially identified by qDNAmod. qDNAmod thus represents a valuable tool for studying intercellular phenotypic heterogeneity from genome-wide DNA modification. PMID:25404133

  8. The Joint Tactical Aerial Resupply Vehicle Impact on Sustainment Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    movement before completing the plan, especially the concept of sustainment . In a dynamic environment , dispersing sustainment operations by way of...responsive, dedicated sustainment support helps leaders overcome unforeseen challenges associated with ill-defined operational environments . The...THE JOINT TACTICAL AERIAL RESUPPLY VEHICLE IMPACT ON SUSTAINMENT OPERATIONS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S

  9. Is Globalisation Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Raza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that globalisation is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalisation are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more international cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalisation Index with Sustainability Indices to analyse if more globalised countries are doing better in terms of sustainable development and its dimensions. The results seem to suggest that the process of globalisation may render world development more sustainable.

  10. Fiscal adjustments and asset price movements

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Tagkalakis

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the links between asset price movements and fiscal adjustments. Our findings suggest that a pick up in asset prices increases the probability of initiating a fiscal adjustment, but it does not necessarily lead to a sustainable correction of fiscal imbalances. However, higher real equity prices increase the probability of success.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF INTERCELLULAR SUBSTANCE METABOLISM OF PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tyurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to study the peculiarities of intercellular substance metabolism of patients with osteoarthritis (OA and connective tissue dysplasia (CTD.Materials and methods. 95 female patients with OA take part in the study; 70 of them have signs of CTD. Inclusion criteria: female sex, age from 20 to 60 y.o., OA diagnosed on the basis of criteria of the American Association of Rheumatology. Exclusion criteria: injury of the lower extremities in medical history, systemic connective tissue diseases, ovariectomy, prolonged (over 6 months intake of glucocorticoid hormones. 50 almost healthy women were included into the reference group. Study of clinical phenomena of the CTD of patients with OA was performed, as well as the study of levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the blood serum.Results. In 500 of patients examined, OA was revealed with 95 cases (19 % including combinations with CTD in 70 cases (14 %. Polyosteoarthrosis was revealed with 38 (40 % patients, isolated gonarthrosis was revealed with 30 (31.5 % patients, coxarthrosis was revealed with 20 (21 % patients, and osteoarthritis of ankle joints was revealed with 7 (7.3 % patients. Increasing of the COMP concetration was revealed with patients with combined pathology of up to 24.15 ± 11.35 μm/l, with OA – up to 18.26 ± 6.35 μm/l, with CTD – up to 14.32 ± 3.96 μm/l. Maximum variability of indicators was marked in the group of people with the combination of OA and CTD. Serum GAG concentrations were increased with female patients with the combined pathology and isolated OA of up to 53.65 ± 21.5 and 46.96 ± 15.82 μm/l, respectively. No increasing of GAG concentration was revealed with patients with CTD.Conclusion. Increasing of the intercellular substance metabolism is observed with persons that suffer from CTD. To a greater degree, CTD affects the state of the fibrillar component of the intercellular substance as

  12. PECULIARITIES OF INTERCELLULAR SUBSTANCE METABOLISM OF PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tyurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to study the peculiarities of intercellular substance metabolism of patients with osteoarthritis (OA and connective tissue dysplasia (CTD.Materials and methods. 95 female patients with OA take part in the study; 70 of them have signs of CTD. Inclusion criteria: female sex, age from 20 to 60 y.o., OA diagnosed on the basis of criteria of the American Association of Rheumatology. Exclusion criteria: injury of the lower extremities in medical history, systemic connective tissue diseases, ovariectomy, prolonged (over 6 months intake of glucocorticoid hormones. 50 almost healthy women were included into the reference group. Study of clinical phenomena of the CTD of patients with OA was performed, as well as the study of levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the blood serum.Results. In 500 of patients examined, OA was revealed with 95 cases (19 % including combinations with CTD in 70 cases (14 %. Polyosteoarthrosis was revealed with 38 (40 % patients, isolated gonarthrosis was revealed with 30 (31.5 % patients, coxarthrosis was revealed with 20 (21 % patients, and osteoarthritis of ankle joints was revealed with 7 (7.3 % patients. Increasing of the COMP concetration was revealed with patients with combined pathology of up to 24.15 ± 11.35 μm/l, with OA – up to 18.26 ± 6.35 μm/l, with CTD – up to 14.32 ± 3.96 μm/l. Maximum variability of indicators was marked in the group of people with the combination of OA and CTD. Serum GAG concentrations were increased with female patients with the combined pathology and isolated OA of up to 53.65 ± 21.5 and 46.96 ± 15.82 μm/l, respectively. No increasing of GAG concentration was revealed with patients with CTD.Conclusion. Increasing of the intercellular substance metabolism is observed with persons that suffer from CTD. To a greater degree, CTD affects the state of the fibrillar component of the intercellular substance as

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  14. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  15. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  16. Transient suppression of gap junctional intercellular communication after exposure to 100-nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Anna; Schmidt, Anke; Labohá, Petra; Babica, Pavel; Kolb, Juergen F

    2016-12-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is an important mechanism that is involved and affected in many diseases and injuries. So far, the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) on the communication between cells was not investigated. An in vitro approach is presented with rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells grown and exposed in a monolayer. In order to observe sub-lethal effects, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields with a duration of 100ns and amplitudes between 10 and 20kV/cm. GJIC strongly decreased within 15min after treatment but recovered within 24h. Gene expression of Cx43 was significantly decreased and associated with a reduced total amount of Cx43 protein. In addition, MAP kinases p38 and Erk1/2, involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, were activated and Cx43 became hyperphosphorylated. Immunofluorescent staining of Cx43 displayed the disassembly of gap junctions. Further, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was observed whereas tight junction protein ZO-1 was not significantly affected. All effects were field- and time-dependent and most pronounced within 30 to 60min after treatment. A better understanding of a possible manipulation of GJIC by nsPEFs might eventually offer a possibility to develop and improve treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rescue effects in radiobiology: Unirradiated bystander cells assist irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chiu, S.K. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhu, L. [Office of Admission and Careers Advisory Service, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wu, L. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-10

    Mammalian cells respond to ionization radiation by sending out extracellular signals to affect non-irradiated neighboring cells, which is referred to as radiation induced bystander effect. In the present paper, we described a phenomenon entitled the 'rescue effects', where the bystander cells rescued the irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback. The effect was observed in both human primary fibroblast (NHLF) and cancer cells (HeLa) using two-cell co-culture systems. After co-culturing irradiated cells with unirradiated bystander cells for 24 h, the numbers of 53BP1 foci, corresponding to the number of DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells were less than those in the irradiated cells that were not co-cultured with the bystander cells (0.78 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell) at a statistically significant level. Similarly, both micronucleus formation and extent of apoptosis in the irradiated cells were different at statistically significant levels if they were co-cultured with the bystander cells. Furthermore, it was found that unirradiated normal cells would also reduce the micronucleus formation in irradiated cancer cells. These results suggested that the rescue effects could participate in repairing the radiation-induced DNA damages through a media-mediated signaling feedback, thereby mitigating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ionizing radiation.

  18. Interactions Between Temperature and Intercellular CO2 Concentration in Controlling Leaf Isoprene Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Russell K.; Neice, Amberly A.; Trahan, Nicole A.; Shiach, Ian; McCorkel, Joel T.; Moore, David J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been linked to several reaction pathways involved in atmospheric photochemistry. Evidence exists from a limited set of past observations that isoprene emission rate (I(sub s)) decreases as a function of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and that increased temperature suppresses the CO2 effect. We studied interactions between intercellular CO2 concentration (C(sub I)) and temperature as they affect I(sub s) in field-grown hybrid poplar trees in one of the warmest climates on earth - the Sonoran Desert of the southwestern United States. We observed an unexpected midsummer down regulation of I(sub s) despite the persistence of relatively high temperatures. High temperature suppression of the I(sub s):C(sub I) relation occurred at all times during the growing season, but sensitivity of I(sub s) to increased C(sub I) was greatest during the midsummer period when I(subs) was lowest. We interpret the seasonal down regulation of I(sub s) and increased sensitivity of I(sub s) to C(sub I) as being caused by weather changes associated with the onset of a regional monsoon system. Our observations on the temperature suppression of the I(sub s):C(sub I) relation are best explained by the existence of a small pool of chloroplastic inorganic phosphate, balanced by several large, connected metabolic fluxes, which together, determine the C(sub I) and temperature dependencies of phosphoenolpyruvate import into the chloroplast.

  19. Intercellular Adhesion Molecular-5 as Marker in HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Wei, Feili; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xianghua; Lu, Xiaofan; Su, Bin; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao; Chen, Dexi

    2017-05-01

    Despite the use of antiretroviral drugs HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still common in HIV-seropositive patients. Identification of HIV patients with cognitive impairment in early-stage might benefit a great deal from disease progression monitoring and treatment adjustment. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5), characteristically expressed on neuron, may suppress immune functions by inhibition of T cell activation in central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that ICAM5 could be detected in patients with brain injury. To investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and ICAM5 in HIV patients, we compared soluble ICAM5 levels in paired CSF and plasma specimens from HIV-infected individuals with or without neurocognitive impairment. sICAM5 concentrations were measured by ICAM5 ELISA kit. A total of 41 Patients were classified into HIV infected with normal cognition (HIV-NC) and impaired cognition groups (HIV-CI) based on Memorial Sloan-Kettering Scale. CSF and plasma levels of sICAM5 in HIV-CI patients were significantly higher than HIV-NC group ( p neurocognitive impairment in HIV infected patients. The elevation of sICAM5 in plasma were correspond with that in CSF as a consequence of blood-brain barrier permeability changes. ICAM5 can serve as a potential and readily accessible biomarker to predict HIV associated neurocognitive disorder.

  20. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  1. Effect of perchloroethylene and its metabolites on intercellular communication in clone 9 rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benane, S.G.; Blackman, C.F.; House, D.E. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Gap junction intercellular communication (IC) is thought to be important in chemical carcinogenesis as abnormalities in IC have been found in cancer cells. Perchloroethylene (PERC) is metabolized in rodent liver to dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which are rodent liver carcinogens. Chloral hydrate (CH) and trichloroethanol (TCEth) are kidney metabolites. We used Lucifer yellow scrape-load dye transfer as a measure of IC to look at the effect of PERC, DCA, TCA, CH, and TCEth on Clone 9 cell cultures (normal rat liver cells). Four independent experiments were performed for each chemical using exposure times of 1, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 168 h. Concentrations for each chemical varied and were based on preliminary data on effect and cytotoxicity. To compare the relative effectiveness of each chemical to cause biological change, we identified the lowest concentration needed to produce 50% reduction in IC, were PERC (0.3 mM) >> TCA (3.8 mM) > TCEth (6.6 mM) = CH (7.0 mM) >> DCA (41 mM). Time-course data indicated that PERC, DCA, and TCA produced reduction in IC in a similar fashion, but 5 mM CH or TCEth exhibited variances from these results and may indicate specific cell responses to these chemicals. The mechanism(s) responsible for inhibition of IC by these structurally related chemicals needs to be established. 44 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Proteomic insights into intra- and intercellular plant-bacteria symbiotic association during root nodule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin eSalavati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, there have been a large number of studies done on the all aspects of legumes and bacteria which participate in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. The analysis of legume-bacteria interaction is not just a matter of numerical complexity in terms of variants of gene products that can arise from a single gene. Bacteria regulate their quorum-sensing genes to enhance their ability to induce conjugation of plasmids and symbiotic islands, and various protein secretion mechanisms; that can stimulate a collection of chain reactions including species-specific combinations of plant-secretion isoflavonoids, complicated calcium signaling pathways and autoregulation of nodulation mechanisms. Quorum-sensing systems are introduced by the intra- and intercellular organization of gene products lead to protein–protein interactions or targeting of proteins to specific cellular structures. In this study, an attempt has been made to review significant contributions related to nodule formation and development and their impacts on cell proteome for better understanding of plant-bacterium interaction mechanism at protein level. This review would not only provide new insights into the plant-bacteria symbiosis response mechanisms but would also highlights the importance of studying changes in protein abundance inside and outside of cells in response to symbiosis. Furthermore, the application to agriculture programe of plant-bacteria interaction will be discussed.

  3. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  5. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan; Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna M; Gorintin, Sarah; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Bouzinova, Elena V; Praetorius, Helle A; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-04-13

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells was imaged in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell pairs (A7r5) and in rat mesenteric small artery segments simultaneously with force. In A7r5 coupling between cells was estimated by measuring membrane capacitance. Smooth muscle cells were uncoupled when the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain, which also caused a localized increase of [Ca(2+)](i) near the membrane, or by ATP depletion. Reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells. Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.

  6. Intercellular Resistance to BRAF Inhibition Can Be Mediated by Extracellular Vesicle–Associated PDGFRβ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Vella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma with kinase inhibitors has been associated with rapid tumor regression; however, this clinical benefit is short-lived, and most patients relapse. A number of studies suggest that the extracellular environment promotes BRAF inhibitor resistance and tumor progression. Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are functional mediators in the extracellular environment. They are small vesicles known to carry a concentrated group of functional cargo and serve as intercellular communicators not only locally but also systemically. Increasingly, it is reported that extracellular vesicles facilitate the development of drug resistance in cancer; however, their role in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma is unclear. Here we investigated if extracellular vesicles from BRAF inhibitor–resistant melanoma could influence drug sensitivity in recipient melanoma cells. We demonstrate that the resistance driver, PDGFRβ, can be transferred to recipient melanoma cells via extracellular vesicles, resulting in a dose-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT signaling and escape from MAPK pathway BRAF inhibition. These data suggest that the BRAF inhibitor–sensitive phenotype of metastatic melanoma can be altered by delivery of PDGFRβ by extracellular vesicles derived from neighboring drug-resistant melanoma cells.

  7. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels

  8. Intraspecific evolution of the intercellular signaling network underlying a robust developmental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milloz, Josselin; Duveau, Fabien; Nuez, Isabelle; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2008-11-01

    Many biological systems produce an invariant output when faced with stochastic or environmental variation. This robustness of system output to variation affecting the underlying process may allow for "cryptic" genetic evolution within the system without change in output. We studied variation of cell fate patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursors, a developmental system that relies on a simple intercellular signaling network and yields an invariant output of cell fates and lineages among C. elegans wild isolates. We first investigated the system's genetic variation in C. elegans by means of genetic tools and cell ablation to break down its buffering mechanisms. We uncovered distinct architectures of quantitative variation along the Ras signaling cascade, including compensatory variation, and differences in cell sensitivity to induction along the anteroposterior axis. In the unperturbed system, we further found variation between isolates in spatio-temporal dynamics of Ras pathway activity, which can explain the phenotypic differences revealed upon perturbation. Finally, the variation mostly affects the signaling pathways in a tissue-specific manner. We thus demonstrate and characterize microevolution of a developmental signaling network. In addition, our results suggest that the vulva genetic screens would have yielded a different mutation spectrum, especially for Wnt pathway mutations, had they been performed in another C. elegans genetic background.

  9. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  10. Sustainability, Student Affairs, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen G.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are developing both the next generation of leaders as well as state-of-the-art technology that allow climate reduction aspirations and triple bottom-line outcomes to become realities. Divisions of student affairs play a crucial role in the sustainability movement in colleges and universities. The technology-savvy,…

  11. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  13. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  14. Social movements as emotional contexts: the emotional drive in the Basque linguistic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Larrinaga Renteria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.

  15. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  16. Effect of tumor-conditioned medium on intercellular communication and proliferation of Balb/c 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, L; Pásti, G; Sárváry, A; Balázs, M; Adány, R

    2000-04-03

    The possible role of tumor cell-derived factors in the regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and proliferation of fibroblasts was studied in a model system of Balb/c 3T3 cells growing in tumor conditioned medium by Lucifer Yellow CH dye-transfer and BrdU incorporation assays. Six to 24 h incubation of Balb/c 3T3 cells in a medium conditioned by WiDr adenocarcinoma cells enhanced the gap junctional communication between the cells by 25-40% as revealed by intercellular transfer of a fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. Simultaneously the cell proliferation rates were examined and found to be reduced by 23% at 24 h treatment. Since adenocarcinoma cells are known to secrete different growth factor-like polypeptides into their conditioned medium, we suppose that tumors that produce these molecules might alter their host environment through the enhancement of cell-cell communication thereby facilitating the exchange of modulatory factors.

  17. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  18. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  19. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  20. Cell Cycle Checkpoint Proteins p21 and Hus1 Regulating Intercellular Signaling Induced By Alpha Particle Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Jun; Hang, Haiying

    In recent years, the attentions for radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been paid on the intercellular signaling events connecting the irradiated and non-irradiated cells. p21 is a member of the Cip/Kip family and plays essential roles in cell cycle progression arrest after cellular irradiation. DNA damage checkpoint protein Hus1 is a member of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex and functions as scaffold at the damage sites to facilitate the activation of downstream effectors. Using the medium trasfer method and the cells of MEF, MEF (p21-/-), MEF (p21-/-Hus1-/-) as either medium donor or receptor cells, it was found that with 5cGy alpha particle irradiation, the bystander cells showed a significant induction of -H2AX for normal MEFs (p¡0.05). However, the absence of p21 resulted in deficiency in inducing bystander effects. Further results indicated p21 affected the intercellular DNA damage signaling mainly through disrupting the production or release of the damage signals from irradiated cells. When Hus1 and p21 were both knocked out, an obvious induction of -H2AX recurred in bystander cells and the induction of -H2AX was GJIC (gap junction-mediated intercellular communication) dependent, indicating the interrelationship between p21 and Hus1 regulated the production and relay of DNA damage signals from irradiated cells to non-irradiated bystander cells.

  1. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  3. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY: THE ANALYSIS OF COMPANIES IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Krivačić, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Movement of companies towards sustainable development resulted in increased demand from their stakeholders to disclose sustainability reports. Sustainability reports are considered as an evidence of responsible business practice that provides the necessary non-financial information to external and internal stakeholders. Sustainability reports enable companies to consider their efficiency in addressing the sustainability issues, and at the same time easier to assess the opportunities, but also...

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  5. Meeting report - Intercellular interactions in context: towards a mechanistic understanding of cells in organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David; Johnson, Aaron

    2017-07-01

    The Company of Biologists held the workshop 'Intercellular interactions in context: towards a mechanistic understanding of cells in organs' at historic Wiston House in West Sussex, UK, 5-8 February 2017. The meeting brought together around 30 scientists from disparate backgrounds - yet with a common interest of how tissue morphogenesis occurs and its dysregulation leads to pathologies - to intensively discuss their latest research, the current state of the field, as well as any challenges for the future. This report summarises the concepts and challenges that arose as key questions for the fields of cell, cancer and developmental biology. By design of the organizers - Andrew Ewald (John Hopkins University, MA), John Wallingford (University of Texas at Austin, TX) and Peter Friedl (Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands) - the attendee makeup was cross-sectional: both in terms of career stage and scientific background. This intermingling was mirrored in the workshop format; all participants - irrespective of career stage - were given equal speaking and question time, and all early-career researchers also chaired a session, which promoted an atmosphere for discussions that were open, egalitarian and supportive. This was particularly evident in the scheduled 'out-of-the-box' sessions, which provided an avenue for participants to raise ideas and concepts or to discuss specific problems they wanted feedback or clarification on. In the following, rather than act as court reporters and convey chronological accounting of presentations, we present the questions that arose from the workshop and should be posed to the field at large, by discussing the presentations as they relate to these concepts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Comparison of light and electron microscopy in measurement of esophageal intercellular space in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A; Ciecierega, Thomas; Szabo, Sara; Miranda, Adrian; Gorges, Christina; Simpson, Pippa; Sood, Manu R

    2014-08-01

    A good objective marker of esophageal mucosal damage from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is lacking in children. Increased esophageal epithelial intercellular (EEIC) space measured using electron microscopy (EM) has been proposed as a surrogate of esophageal mucosal damage in adults with GERD. The aim of the present study was to compare EEIC space measured using EM and light microscopy (LM) in children with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) with asymptomatic controls. Distal esophageal mucosal biopsy was used to measure EEIC space using EM in 35 NERD subjects and 8 controls. In a subset of these patients we used phase contrast LM to measure EEIC space area (26 NERD subjects and 8 controls). The median (range) EEIC space measured using EM in the NERD group was 1.15 (0.74-1.64) μm compared with 0.93 (0.67-1.11) μm in the control group (P = 0.002). The median (range) EEIC space measured using LM was 14.4% (9.6%-26.3%) in the NERD group and 9.6% (8.5%-17.2%) in controls (P = 0.003). Using a cutoff value of 1.02 μm for normal EEIC space measured by EM, we obtained 73% sensitivity and 75% specificity to distinguish the NERD group from the control group, and using a cutoff value of 11.1% for EEIC space measured by LM, we obtained 96% sensitivity and 75% specificity. EEIC space is increased in children with NERD compared with that in controls, suggesting that changes in EEIC space can be a useful marker of esophageal mucosal injury in children with NERD. Our results suggest that the accuracy of EM and LM to evaluate EEIC space changes in NERD is comparable, and LM may be a more cost-effective option.

  7. Proteins in intercellular washing fluid from noninoculated and rust-affected leaves of wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, D W; Rohringer, R

    1985-08-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19 degrees C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF.To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25 degrees C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley.IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19 degrees C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium.

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is increased in adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Jung-Man; Lee, Yun-Gyoung; Hong, Oak-Kee; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Ji, Jong-Hoon

    2013-02-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in shoulders with adhesive capsulitis ("frozen shoulder"). Glenohumeral capsular tissue was obtained from twenty-six patients (seventeen with adhesive capsulitis and nine controls), and ICAM-1 was evaluated with use of oligonucleotide arrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. ICAM-1 was also evaluated in synovial fluid with use of western blotting (six patients with adhesive capsulitis and two controls) and in peripheral blood with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (thirty-two patients with adhesive capsulitis, twenty with diabetes mellitus, and fourteen controls). The effect of ICAM-1 treatment on gene expression of cytokines related to inflammation and fibrosis was evaluated in cultured normal human synovial cells. The level of ICAM-1 was significantly greater in capsular tissue from the glenohumeral joint of patients with adhesive capsulitis compared with controls as measured by oligonucleotide array analysis (0.12 ± 0.01 compared with 0.09 ± 0.00 arbitrary units) (p = 0.001), real-time RT-PCR (1.70 ± 0.19 compared with 0.67 ± 0.24 arbitrary units) (p adhesive capsulitis (1.70 ± 0.18 arbitrary units) compared with normal controls (0.48 ± 0.17) (p adhesive capsulitis (633.22 ± 59.14 ng/mL) and patients with diabetes mellitus (671.25 ± 27.08 ng/mL) compared with controls (359.86 ± 44.29 ng/mL) (p adhesive capsulitis, similar to the increase that has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  10. Pannexin 1 channels play essential roles in urothelial mechanotransduction and intercellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Negoro

    Full Text Available Urothelial cells respond to bladder distension with ATP release, and ATP signaling within the bladder and from the bladder to the CNS is essential for proper bladder function. In other cell types, pannexin 1 (Panx1 channels provide a pathway for mechanically-induced ATP efflux and for ATP-induced ATP release through interaction with P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs. We report that Panx1 and P2X7R are functionally expressed in the bladder mucosa and in immortalized human urothelial cells (TRT-HU1, and participate in urothelial ATP release and signaling. ATP release from isolated rat bladders induced by distention was reduced by the Panx1 channel blocker mefloquine (MFQ and was blunted in mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Hypoosmotic shock induced YoPro dye uptake was inhibited by MFQ and the P2X7R blocker A438079 in TRT-HU1 cells, and was also blunted in primary urothelial cells derived from mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Rinsing-induced mechanical stimulation of TRT-HU1 cells triggered ATP release, which was reduced by MFQ and potentiated in low divalent cation solution (LDPBS, a condition known to enhance P2X7R activation. ATP signaling evaluated as intercellular Ca2+ wave radius was significantly larger in LDPBS, reduced by MFQ and by apyrase (ATP scavenger. These findings indicate that Panx1 participates in urothelial mechanotransduction and signaling by providing a direct pathway for mechanically-induced ATP release and by functionally interacting with P2X7Rs.

  11. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Fukata, Hideki; Mori, Chisato

    2006-01-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17β-estradiol (E 2 , a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 μM DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 μM E 2 and 25 μM GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at μM level between DES and E 2 on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E 2 . DES and E 2 showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 μM was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E 2 (10 pM and 20 μM) and GEN (25 μM) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E 2 and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development

  12. Sulforaphane counteracts aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer driven by dysregulated Cx43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyao; Isayev, Orkhan; Heilmann, Katharina; Schoensiegel, Frank; Liu, Li; Nessling, Michelle; Richter, Karsten; Labsch, Sabrina; Nwaeburu, Clifford C.; Mattern, Juergen; Gladkich, Jury; Giese, Nathalia; Werner, Jens; Schemmer, Peter; Gross, Wolfgang; Gebhard, Martha M.; Gerhauser, Clarissa; Schaefer, Michael; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The extreme aggressiveness of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has been associated with blocked gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). We examined whether disturbed GJIC is responsible for a CSC phenotype in established and primary cancer cells and patient tissue of PDA using interdisciplinary methods based in physiology, cell and molecular biology, histology and epigenetics. Flux of fluorescent dyes and gemcitabine through gap junctions (GJs) was intact in less aggressive cells but not in highly malignant cells with morphological dysfunctional GJs. Among several connexins, only Cx43 was expressed on the cell surface of less aggressive and GJIC-competent cells, whereas Cx43 surface expression was absent in highly malignant, E-cadherin-negative and GJIC-incompetent cells. The levels of total Cx43 protein and Cx43 phosphorylated at Ser368 and Ser279/282 were high in normal tissue but low to absent in malignant tissue. si-RNA-mediated inhibition of Cx43 expression in GJIC-competent cells prevented GJIC and induced colony formation and the expression of stem cell-related factors. The bioactive substance sulforaphane enhanced Cx43 and E-cadherin levels, inhibited the CSC markers c-Met and CD133, improved the functional morphology of GJs and enhanced GJIC. Sulforaphane altered the phosphorylation of several kinases and their substrates and inhibition of GSK3, JNK and PKC prevented sulforaphane-induced CX43 expression. The sulforaphane-mediated expression of Cx43 was not correlated with enhanced Cx43 RNA expression, acetylated histone binding and Cx43 promoter de-methylation, suggesting that posttranslational phosphorylation is the dominant regulatory mechanism. Together, the absence of Cx43 prevents GJIC and enhances aggressiveness, whereas sulforaphane counteracts this process, and our findings highlight dietary co-treatment as a viable treatment option for PDA. PMID:24742583

  13. Point Mutation in the Mouse P2X7 Receptor Affects Intercellular Calcium Waves in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia O Suadicani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2 receptors and gap junctions are two groups of proteins involved in the transmission of ICWs (intercellular calcium waves between astrocytes. The extent to which ICWs spread among these glial cells depends on the amount of ATP released, which can occur through membrane channels, as well as other pathways. Our previous studies have shown that the pore-forming P2X7R (P2X7 receptor contributes to the amplification of ICW spread by providing sites of ATP release through Panx1 (Pannexin1 channels. To gain insight into the signal transduction events mediating this response we compared the properties of the P2X7R–Panx1 complex in astrocytes from a mouse strain (C57Bl/6 containing a naturally occurring point mutation (P451L in the C-terminus of the P2X7R to that of non-mutated receptors (Balb/C mice. Electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological and fluorescence imaging techniques revealed that the P451L mutation located in the SH3 domain (a Src tyrosine kinase-binding site of the C-terminus of the P2X7R attenuates Panx1 currents, ATP release and the distance of ICW spread between astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when using the Src tyrosine inhibitor (PP2 and a membrane-permeant peptide spanning the P451L mutation of the P2X7R of the C57Bl6 astrocytes. These results support the participation of a tyrosine kinase of the Src family in the initial steps mediating the opening of Panx1 channels following P2X7R stimulation and in the transmission of calcium signals among astrocytes.

  14. Transferring intercellular signals and traits between cancer cells: extracellular vesicles as "homing pigeons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesi, Giulia; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Margue, Christiane; Kreis, Stephanie

    2016-06-10

    Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles, which can transport various cargos out of cells. From their cell of origin, the content molecules (proteins, non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, DNA and others) can be delivered to neighboring or distant cells and as such extracellular vesicles can be regarded as vehicles of intercellular communication or "homing pigeons". Extracellular vesicle shuttling is able to actively modulate the tumor microenvironment and can partake in tumor dissemination. In various diseases, including cancer, levels of extracellular vesicle secretion are altered resulting in different amounts and/or profiles of detectable vesicular cargo molecules and these distinct content profiles are currently being evaluated as biomarkers. Apart from their potential as blood-derived containers of specific biomarkers, the transfer of extracellular vesicles to surrounding cells also appears to be involved in the propagation of phenotypic traits. These interesting properties have put extracellular vesicles into the focus of many recent studies.Here we review findings on the involvement of extracellular vesicles in transferring traits of cancer cells to their surroundings and briefly discuss new data on oncosomes, a larger type of vesicle. A pressing issue in cancer treatment is rapidly evolving resistance to many initially efficient drug therapies. Studies investigating the role of extracellular vesicles in this phenomenon together with a summary of the technical challenges that this field is still facing, are also presented. Finally, emerging areas of research such as the analysis of the lipid composition on extracellular vesicles and cutting-edge techniques to visualise the trafficking of extracellular vesicles are discussed.

  15. Intercellular Variability in Protein Levels from Stochastic Expression and Noisy Cell Cycle Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inside individual cells, expression of genes is inherently stochastic and manifests as cell-to-cell variability or noise in protein copy numbers. Since proteins half-lives can be comparable to the cell-cycle length, randomness in cell-division times generates additional intercellular variability in protein levels. Moreover, as many mRNA/protein species are expressed at low-copy numbers, errors incurred in partitioning of molecules between two daughter cells are significant. We derive analytical formulas for the total noise in protein levels when the cell-cycle duration follows a general class of probability distributions. Using a novel hybrid approach the total noise is decomposed into components arising from i stochastic expression; ii partitioning errors at the time of cell division and iii random cell-division events. These formulas reveal that random cell-division times not only generate additional extrinsic noise, but also critically affect the mean protein copy numbers and intrinsic noise components. Counter intuitively, in some parameter regimes, noise in protein levels can decrease as cell-division times become more stochastic. Computations are extended to consider genome duplication, where transcription rate is increased at a random point in the cell cycle. We systematically investigate how the timing of genome duplication influences different protein noise components. Intriguingly, results show that noise contribution from stochastic expression is minimized at an optimal genome-duplication time. Our theoretical results motivate new experimental methods for decomposing protein noise levels from synchronized and asynchronized single-cell expression data. Characterizing the contributions of individual noise mechanisms will lead to precise estimates of gene expression parameters and techniques for altering stochasticity to change phenotype of individual cells.

  16. The inner CSF–brain barrier: developmentally controlled access to the brain via intercellular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whish, Sophie; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Noor, Natassya M.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Habgood, Mark D.; Richardson, Samantha J.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2015-01-01

    In the adult the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain is lined by the ependymal cells, which are joined by gap junctions. These intercellular connections do not provide a diffusional restrain between the two compartments. However, during development this interface, initially consisting of neuroepithelial cells and later radial glial cells, is characterized by “strap” junctions, which limit the exchange of different sized molecules between cerebrospinal fluid and the brain parenchyma. Here we provide a systematic study of permeability properties of this inner cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier during mouse development from embryonic day, E17 until adult. Results show that at fetal stages exchange across this barrier is restricted to the smallest molecules (286Da) and the diffusional restraint is progressively removed as the brain develops. By postnatal day P20, molecules the size of plasma proteins (70 kDa) diffuse freely. Transcriptomic analysis of junctional proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid-brain interface showed expression of adherens junctional proteins, actins, cadherins and catenins changing in a development manner consistent with the observed changes in the permeability studies. Gap junction proteins were only identified in the adult as was claudin-11. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize at the cellular level some of the adherens junctional proteins of genes identified from transcriptomic analysis. N-cadherin, β - and α-catenin immunoreactivity was detected outlining the inner CSF-brain interface from E16; most of these markers were not present in the adult ependyma. Claudin-5 was present in the apical-most part of radial glial cells and in endothelial cells in embryos, but only in endothelial cells including plexus endothelial cells in adults. Claudin-11 was only immunopositive in the adult, consistent with results obtained from transcriptomic analysis. These results provide information about physiological, molecular

  17. The inner CSF–brain barrier: developmentally controlled access to the brain via intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ruthven Saunders

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the adult the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the brain is lined by the ependymal cells, which are joined by gap junctions. These intercellular connections do not provide a diffusional restrain between the two compartments. However during development this interface, initially consisting of neuroepithelial cells and later radial glial cells, is characterized by strap junctions, which limit the exchange of different sized molecules between CSF and the brain parenchyma. Here we provide a systematic study of permeability properties of this inner CSF-brain barrier during mouse development from embryonic day, E17 until adult. Results show that at fetal stages exchange across this barrier is restricted to the smallest molecules (286Da and the diffusional restraint is progressively removed as the brain develops. By postnatal day P20, molecules the size of plasma proteins (70kDa diffuse freely. Transcriptomic analysis of junctional proteins present in the CSF-brain interface showed expression of adherens junctional proteins, actins, cadherins and catenins changing in a development manner consistent with the observed changes in the permeability studies. Gap junction proteins were only identified in the adult as was claudin-11. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize at the cellular level some of the adherens junctional proteins of genes identified from transcriptomic analysis. N-cadherin, β– and α-catenin immunoreactivity was detected outlining the inner CSF-brain interface from E16; most of these markers were not present in the adult ependyma. Claudin-5 was present in the apical-most part of radial glial cells and in endothelial cells in embryos, but only in endothelial cells including plexus endothelial cells in adults. Claudin-11 was only immunopositive in the adult, consistent with results obtained from transcriptomic analysis. These results provide information about physiological, molecular and morphological

  18. Human platelets express CAR with localization at the sites of intercellular interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Maha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenovirus has a wide tissue tropism. The virus attaches to the surface of cells via the fiber protein knob binding to the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor known as CAR. Virus entry inside cells is facilitated by integrins αVβ3 and αVβ5. Mice platelets are shown to be the predominant Ad binding blood cell type and the virus is documented inside platelets. CAR was identified on human platelets in one study yet contradicted in another. The presence of CAR appears to be the most reasonable initial step for virus entry into platelets and is a key to the understanding of platelet adenovirus interaction. This study aimed to re investigate the presence of CAR on human platelets. Platelets were tested by indirect immune-fluorescence using rabbit H-300 polyclonal anti-CAR antibody and goat anti-rabbit IgG F(ab'2 Texas Red antibodies, alongside with CAR positive and negative controls. Platelets were found to express CAR on their surface and in contrast to the previous study only 3.5 ± 1.9% of the tested platelets did express CAR. In addition, CAR was seen within intracellular aggregates localized at the sites of cell-cell contacts indicating that CAR expression might be upregulated in response to platelet stimulation. We confirm the presence of CAR on human platelets, we provide explanation to some of the discrepancies in this regards and we add that this receptor is localized at the sites of intercellular interaction.

  19. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  20. Sustainable development: A HUD perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, E.

    1994-12-31

    Sustainable development is the current term now being used to describe the environmental movement. The term`s popularity can be traced to publication of Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission). Sustainable development means exactly what is implied; development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission). It is another way of conveying the basic premise of {open_quotes}Spaceship Earth{close_quotes}; that our species has been given this planet to live on and we must carefully balance resource utilization if we want to endure more than a few generations, because this is all we`ve got. It is a natural evolution of the conservation and environmental movements into a format that recognizes that environmental issues cannot be viewed in isolation, but must be evaluated in a context of economic development (Powledge). Sustainable development is thus a broad term that encompasses many elements, depending upon the context. Such elements can include: 1 energy, 2 economic development, 3 pollution prevention, 4 biodiversity, 5 historic preservation, 6 social equity, and 7 recycling and solid waste disposal. One of the cornerstones of sustainable development is energy policy, since energy use is perhaps the most defining element of contemporary civilization. In the energy discipline, sustainability can best be paraphrased as living off one`s income as opposed to depleting ones capital. In other words, using solar, wind and other renewables rather than fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are limited and will eventually be depleted, therefore they cannot be considered sustainable. Another element embraced by sustainable development is biodiversity. The biodiversity movement is most sharply distinguished from traditional conservationism for its commitment to the principle of preserving and managing entire ecosystems.

  1. Sustainable development: A HUD perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, E.

    1994-01-01

    Sustainable development is the current term now being used to describe the environmental movement. The term's popularity can be traced to publication of Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission). Sustainable development means exactly what is implied; development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission). It is another way of conveying the basic premise of open-quotes Spaceship Earthclose quotes; that our species has been given this planet to live on and we must carefully balance resource utilization if we want to endure more than a few generations, because this is all we've got. It is a natural evolution of the conservation and environmental movements into a format that recognizes that environmental issues cannot be viewed in isolation, but must be evaluated in a context of economic development (Powledge). Sustainable development is thus a broad term that encompasses many elements, depending upon the context. Such elements can include: 1 energy, 2 economic development, 3 pollution prevention, 4 biodiversity, 5 historic preservation, 6 social equity, and 7 recycling and solid waste disposal. One of the cornerstones of sustainable development is energy policy, since energy use is perhaps the most defining element of contemporary civilization. In the energy discipline, sustainability can best be paraphrased as living off one's income as opposed to depleting ones capital. In other words, using solar, wind and other renewables rather than fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are limited and will eventually be depleted, therefore they cannot be considered sustainable. Another element embraced by sustainable development is biodiversity. The biodiversity movement is most sharply distinguished from traditional conservationism for its commitment to the principle of preserving and managing entire ecosystems

  2. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    , has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...

  3. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  4. Efect of intercellular extracts from banana inoculated leaves with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, on chloroplast electronic transport of Grande naine (AAA cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some foliar pathogens colonize intercellular spaces of damage tissues during infection process, mediated by toxins production and diffusion to kill adjacent healthy cells. Due to the absence of reliable bioassays, the physiologic effects of several phytotoxins are still ignored on cellular membranous systems of the affected cells. In the present work it was extracted the intercellular content from not inoculated and inoculated banana leaves with different Mycosphaerella fijiensis strains. Their effects on chloroplasts of Grande naine cv were evaluated by the absorbance evolution (595 nm of Hill reactive (DCPIP, mixture with 810 ì l of chloroplasts suspension and 99 ì l of the intercellular contents. The electronic exchange on chloroplasts suspension was inhibited by intercellular contents of inoculated leaves. The intercellular contents from leaves inoculated with I1 (high virulence strain had a major inhibiter effect respect to leaves inoculates with G1 strain (low virulence, showing a correspondence between the inhibiter effect of intercellular contents and the affection levels of affected tissues. The procedures used in this work will let to make studies concerned with Mycosphaerella fijiensis-Musa spp interactions and the future breeding programs. Key words: banana breeding, black Sigatoka, host pathogen interaction, physiological bioassays

  5. Disconjugate eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    To foveate targets in different depths, the movements of the two eyes must be disconjugate. Fine measurements of eye rotations about the three principal axes have demonstrated that disconjugate eye movements may appear not only in the horizontal, but also in the vertical and torsional directions. In the presence of visual targets, disconjugate eye movements are driven by the vergence system, but they may also appear during vestibular stimulation. Disconjugate eye movements are highly adaptable by visual disparities, but under normal condition the effects of adaptation only persist when one eye is covered. Finally, disorders of the brainstem and cerebellum may lead to abnormal disconjugate eye movements that are often specific for the topography of the lesion. This chapter reviews the literature on the phenomenology of disconjugate eye movements over the last 15 years.

  6. Anti-Vaccination Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The current anti-vaccination movements that have established themselves in the United States as well as other regions in the world are like a hydra of discourse. Right when one effective measure is created to convince people to vaccinate two more anti-vaccination movements sprout up in its place. These anti-vaccination movements are driven by cultural beliefs, ideologies, medical exemption laws, non-medical exemption laws, distrust of the government, distrust of large pharmaceutical companies...

  7. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  8. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  9. Intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles in macrophages: intracellular uptake, exocytosis, and intercellular transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LQ

    2017-08-01

    mechanisms, providing the basis for how CsNPs are recognized by the MPS; such information is crucial to numerous medical applications of CsNPs. Keywords: exocytosis, uptake, intercellular transport, chitosan nanoparticles, macrophages

  10. The induction of stromule formation by a plant DNA-virus in epidermal leaf tissues suggests a novel intra- and intercellular macromolecular trafficking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eKrenz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stromules are dynamic thin protrusions of membrane envelope from plant cell plastids. Despite considerable progress in understanding the importance of certain cytoskeleton elements and motor proteins for stromule maintenance, their function within the cell has yet to be unraveled. Several viruses cause a remodulation of plastid structures and stromule biogenesis within their host plants. For RNA-viruses these interactions were demonstrated to be relevant to the infection process. An involvement of plastids and stromules is assumed in the DNA-virus life cycle as well, but their functional role needs to be determined. Recent findings support a participation of heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein (cpHSC70-1-containing stromules induced by a DNA-virus infection (Abutilon mosaic virus, AbMV, Geminiviridae in intra- and intercellular molecule exchange. The chaperone cpHSC70-1 was shown to interact with the AbMV movement protein (MP. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation confirmed the interaction of cpHSC70-1 and MP, and showed a homo-oligomerization of either protein in planta. The complexes were detected at the cellular margin and co-localized with plastids. In healthy plant tissues cpHSC70-1-oligomers occurred in distinct spots at chloroplasts and in small filaments extending from plastids to the cell periphery. AbMV-infection induced a cpHSC70-1-containing stromule network that exhibits elliptical dilations and transverses whole cells. Silencing of the cpHSC70-gene revealed an impact of cpHSC70 on chloroplast stability and restricted AbMV movement, but not viral DNA accumulation. Based on these data, a model is suggested in which these stromules function in molecule exchange between plastids and other organelles and perhaps other cells. AbMV may utilize cpHSC70-1 for trafficking along plastids and stromules into a neighboring cell or from plastids into the nucleus. Experimental approaches to investigate this hypothesis are discussed.

  11. An Evolution of Sustainable Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper will reflect on an exploration of the aesthetical influence of the sustainable architecture discourse from a historical and contemporary perspective. It aims to understand the link between different sustainable architecture movements, their labels, implications and subsequent aesthetics...... their aesthetical influence both on alternative architecture and the everyday. In continuation, a visual analysis of selected case studies, both historical and contemporary analyses visually what different theoretical concepts are implemented into different design aesthetics. Initial findings emphasise....... This paper is framed within the understanding that while sustainable architecture has showcased ethical technology, it lacks the holistic aesthetic language needed for the discipline to progress. A discussion of literature concerning sustainability, architecture, and aesthetics, articulating the particularly...

  12. Intercellular calcium signaling and nitric oxide feedback during constriction of rabbit renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Torben Rene; Schjerning, J; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.

    2007-01-01

    vasoconstriction which was converted into a sustained response by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Depolarization increased smooth muscle cell [Ca(2+)](i) from 162 +/- 15 nmol/l to a peak of 555 +/- 70 nmol/l (n = 7), and this response was inhibited by 80% by the l-type calcium channel blocker...

  13. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  14. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  16. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  17. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  18. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  19. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  20. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  1. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  2. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  3. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. The myosin II ATPase inhibitor blebbistatin prevents thrombin-induced inhibition of intercellular calcium wave propagation in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsaerts, Raf; D'hondt, Catheleyne; Bultynck, Geert; Srinivas, Sangly P; Vereecke, Johan; Himpens, Bernard

    2008-11-01

    Thrombin inhibits intercellular Ca(2+) wave propagation in bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) through a mechanism dependent on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. In this study, blebbistatin, a selective myosin II ATPase inhibitor, was used to investigate whether the effect of thrombin is mediated by enhanced actomyosin contractility. BCECs were exposed to thrombin (2 U/mL) for 5 minutes. MLC phosphorylation was assayed by immunocytochemistry. Ca(2+) waves were visualized by confocal microscopy with Fluo-4AM. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to investigate intercellular communication (IC) via gap junctions. ATP release was measured by luciferin-luciferase assay. Lucifer yellow (LY) uptake was used to investigate hemichannel activity, and Fura-2 was used to assay thrombin- and ATP-mediated Ca(2+) responses. Pretreatment with blebbistatin (5 microM for 20 minutes) or its nitro derivative prevented the thrombin-induced inhibition of the Ca(2+) wave. Neither photo-inactivated blebbistatin nor the inactive enantiomers prevented the thrombin effect. Blebbistatin also prevented thrombin-induced inhibition of LY uptake, ATP release and FRAP, indicating that it prevented the thrombin effect on paracrine and gap junctional IC. In the absence of thrombin, blebbistatin had no significant effect on paracrine or gap junctional IC. The drug had no influence on MLC phosphorylation or on [Ca(2+)](i) transients in response to thrombin or ATP. Blebbistatin prevents the inhibitory effects of thrombin on intercellular Ca(2+) wave propagation. The findings demonstrate that myosin II-mediated actomyosin contractility plays a central role in thrombin-induced inhibition of gap junctional IC and of hemichannel-mediated paracrine IC.

  6. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Kusch, Angelika [Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin D-13353 (Germany); Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Dumler, Inna, E-mail: dumler.inna@mh-hannover.de [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  7. The use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions

  8. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  9. Crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-8, interleukin-17 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 after regenerative periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka; Keceli, H Gencay; Apan, Teoman Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of regenerative periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-17 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP). Fifteen patients received demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) surgically to the site of infrabony defect. Clinical periodontal indices were recorded, and GCF samples were collected at baseline and at the 6(th) and the 9(th) month after the surgery. Except plaque index, all clinical parameters improved following surgery (P periodontal healing after demineralized freeze-dried bone grafting.

  10. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A freeze-fracture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Robenek, H

    1980-01-01

    Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant females by freeze-fracture technique. Junctional complexes consist of zonulae occludentes (tight junctions) and numerous maculae adhaerentes (desmosomes); z. adhaerentes and nexuses (gap junctions) could not be identified. Tight junctions are of the "flexible" type exhibiting loosely interconnected fibrils. The fibrillary network appears stretched more often in pregnant females possibly due to the mechanical stress of pregnancy. The structure and occurrence of the junctions identified, especially that of the tight junctions, is discussed with regard to the functions of the uterus during pregnancy.

  12. The study of the intercellular trafficking of the fusion proteins of herpes simplex virus protein VP22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaodong; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Huishan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modifications can improve the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in myocardial infarction. However, so far, the efficiency of MSC modification is very low. Seeking for a more efficient way of MSC modification, we investigated the possibility of employing the intercellular trafficking capacity of the herpes simplex virus type-1 tegument protein VP22 on the enhancement of MSC modification. Plasmids pVP22-myc, pVP22-EGFP, pEGFP-VP22, pVP22-hBcl-xL and phBcl-xL-VP22 were constructed for the expressions of the myc-tagged VP22 and the fusion proteins VP22-EGFP, EGFP-VP22, VP22-hBcl-xL and hBcl-xL-VP22. MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and the surface markers were identified by Flowcytometry. COS-1 cells were transfected with the above plasmids and co-cultured with untransfected MSCs, the intercellular transportations of the constructed proteins were studied by immunofluorescence. The solubility of VP22-hBcl-xL and hBcl-xL-VP22 was analyzed by Western blot. VP22-myc could be expressed in and spread between COS-1 cells, which indicates the validity of our VP22 expression construct. Flowcytometry analysis revealed that the isolated MSCs were CD29, CD44, and CD90 positive and were negative for the hematopoietic markers, CD34 and CD45. The co-culturing and immunofluorescence assay showed that VP22-myc, VP22-EGFP and EGFP-VP22 could traffic between COS-1 cells and MSCs, while the evidence of intercellular transportation of VP22-hBcl-xL and hBcl-xL-VP22 was not detected. Western blot analysis showed that VP22-hBcl-xL and hBcl-xL-VP22 were both insoluble in the cell lysate suggesting interactions of the fusion proteins with other cellular components. The intercellular trafficking of VP22-myc, VP22-EGFP and EGFP-VP22 between COS-1 cells and MSCs presents an intriguing prospect in the therapeutic application of VP22 as a delivery vehicle which enhances genetic modifications of MSCs. However, VP22-hBcl-xL and hBcl-xL-VP22 failed to

  13. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  14. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  15. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING: POSSIBLE WAYS OF RETHNINKING HOSPITALITY ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Peršić, Milena; Janković, Sandra; Vlašić, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainability reporting has emerged from developments in accounting, with roots over a period of the last forty years in a broader sense and in the narrow sense over the last ten years. While the term sustainability accounting is used to describe accounting methods that aim to create and provide high quality information to support a corporation in its movement towards sustainability, sustainability reporting, describes new formalized means of communication, whi...

  16. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  17. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...

  18. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... extent these expectations are being met through the comparative case study of two sustainability certifications in the biofuel industry – in the context of a wider set of experiences in the agro-food and forestry sectors. I show that ‘roundtabling’ entails an ever more complex web of governance systems...

  19. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychogenic movement may develop as part of a conversion disorder (in which a psychological event causes physical symptoms ... distracted. Many individuals with psychogenic tremor have a conversion disorder. Psychogenic dystonia involves involuntary muscle contractions that cause ...

  20. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  1. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used re...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  2. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  4. Generous sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    I define "generous sustainability" as a combination of two conditions: neither instantaneous maximin utility nor attainable maximin utility should decrease over time. I provide a formal definition and study applications to a Climate Economy with bounded and with unbounded growth. Generosity is shown

  5. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  6. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  7. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  8. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  9. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  10. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  11. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  12. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  13. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  14. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  15. In vitro and in situ intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by endothelial cells lining a polyester fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémy, M; Valli, N; Brethes, D; Labrugère, C; Porté-Durrieu, M C; Dobrova, N B; Novikova, S P; Gorodkov, A J; Bordenave, L

    1999-02-01

    In order to improve long-term patency of vascular grafts, the promising concept of endothelial cell seeding is actually under investigation. Our laboratory tested a polyester coated with albumin and chitosan which permits a rapid colonization by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and it seems relevant to test in vitro the expression of adhesive molecules expressed by cells with regard to the inflammatory process. We studied intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and focused our work on the determination of ICAM-1 sites expressed per adherent cell lining the biomaterial, thus in situ, in comparison to control HUVEC on plastic wells: the results obtained by binding experiments were correlated to flow cytometry analyses and showed that the polyester does not induce a proinflammatory state and that HUVEC covering the structure are able to respond to a stimulus.

  16. How relevant are vascular endothelial growth factor and intercellular adhesion molecule in the systemic capillary leak syndrome of psoriasis?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Aline Lopes; Pereira, Daniele; Medeiros, Paula Mota; Carneiro, Sueli; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease, characterized by erythematous scaly lesions, presented in eight different forms: plaques, guttate, pustular, erythrodermic, inverse, nail and scalp psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. Its development depends on genetic factors, external stimulus and immune response alteration.1 Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-12 and 23 may also be involved. In the worst cases, systemic complications linked to endothelial alterations may occur. A literature review was conducted for a better understanding of what roles VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule) have, among other cytokines, in systemic capillary leak syndrome, involved in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis, the most unstable forms of the disease. PMID:29364440

  17. The predominant mechanism of intercellular calcium wave propagation changes during long-term culture of human osteoblast-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Zanne; Hiken, Jeffrey F; Steinberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    Intercellular calcium waves (ICW) are calcium transients that spread from cell to cell in response to different stimuli. We previously demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells in culture propagate ICW in response to mechanical stimulation by two mechanisms. One mechanism involves autocrine...... activation of P2Y receptors, and the other requires gap junctional communication. In the current work we ask whether long-term culture of osteoblast-like cells affects the propagation of ICW by these two mechanisms. Human osteoblast-like cells were isolated from bone marrow. Mechanically induced ICW were...... assessed by video imaging of Fura-2 loaded cells after 1, 2 and 4 months culture. The P2Y2 receptor and the gap junction protein Cx43 were assessed by Western blot and real-time PCR. In resting conditions, P2Y mediated ICW prevailed and spread rapidly to about 13 cells. P2Y receptor desensitization by ATP...

  18. Towards sustainable Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtvee, Valdur

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 the Estonian Green Movement has had a working group on energy issues. This group has tried to influence the energy policy in Estonia towards sustainable development. But the process has been hard. Five years have passed since Estonia has started with taking on its shoulders international environmental obligations. Unfortunately, Estonia is one of the last countries in Europe still to join the obligation on transboundary pollution. A master plan on energy is now prepared in Estonia within the framework of PHARE programme, involving quite a few high level specialists from various institutions in Estonia and assisted by foreign specialists. But the energy sector has not been open to public discussion in Estonia up to now. It's very important not to lose from sight the environmental problems in connection with energy sector development plans. The Estonian Green Movement together with its umbrella organization, the Friends of the Earth Europe, have worked out a new energy strategy for Estonia, based on the concept of environmental space. This concept has been used by some countries already on working out the strategy for their economic progress. The limit values for a set of basic mineral resources and local fuels of Estonia have been calculated on the basis of environmental space and economic targets set for the year 2010

  19. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase augments the intercellular transmission and toxicity of polyglutamine aggregates in a cell model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, Elena R; Lazarev, Vladimir F; Nikotina, Alina D; Margulis, Boris A; Guzhova, Irina V

    2016-03-01

    The common feature of Huntington disease is the accumulation of oligomers or aggregates of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), which causes the death of a subset of striatal neuronal populations. The cytotoxic species can leave neurons and migrate to other groups of cells penetrating and damaging them in a prion-like manner. We hypothesized that the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), previously shown to elevate the aggregation of mHTT, is associated with an increased efficiency of intercellular propagation of mHTT. GAPDH, on its own or together with polyglutamine species, was shown to be released into the extracellular milieu mainly from dying cells as assessed by a novel enzyme immunoassay, western blotting, and ultrafiltration. The conditioned medium of cells with growing GAPDH-polyQ aggregates was toxic to naïve cells, whereas depletion of the aggregates from the medium lowered this cytotoxicity. The GAPDH component of the aggregates was found to increase their toxicity by two-fold in comparison with polyQ alone. Furthermore, GAPDH-polyQ complexes were shown to penetrate acceptor cells and to increase the capacity of polyQ to prionize its intracellular homolog containing a repeat of 25 glutamine residues. Finally, inhibitors of intracellular transport showed that polyQ-GAPDH complexes, as well as GAPDH itself, penetrated cells using clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This suggested a pivotal role of the enzyme in the intercellular transmission of Huntington disease pathogenicity. In conclusion, GAPDH occurring in complexes with polyglutamine strengthens the prion-like activity and toxicity of the migrating aggregates. Aggregating polygluatmine tracts were shown to release from the cells over-expressing mutant huntingtin in a complex with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The enzyme enhances the intracellular transport of aggregates to healthy cells, prionization of normal cellular proteins and finally cell death, thus

  20. A Single-Cell Gene-Expression Profile Reveals Inter-Cellular Heterogeneity within Human Monocyte Subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne T Gren

    Full Text Available Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population classified into three different subsets: Classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. These subsets are distinguished by their differential expression of CD14 and CD16, and unique gene expression profile. So far, the variation in inter-cellular gene expression within the monocyte subsets is largely unknown. In this study, the cellular variation within each human monocyte subset from a single healthy donor was described by using a novel single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis tool. We investigated 86 different genes mainly encoding cell surface markers, and proteins involved in immune regulation. Within the three human monocyte subsets, our descriptive findings show multimodal expression of key immune response genes, such as CD40, NFⱪB1, RELA, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9. Furthermore, we discovered one subgroup of cells within the classical monocytes, which showed alterations of 22 genes e.g. IRF8, CD40, CSF1R, NFⱪB1, RELA and TNF. Additionally one subgroup within the intermediate and non-classical monocytes also displayed distinct gene signatures by altered expression of 8 and 6 genes, respectively. Hence the three monocyte subsets can be further subdivided according to activation status and differentiation, independently of the traditional classification based on cell surface markers. Demonstrating the use and the ability to discover cell heterogeneity within defined populations of human monocytes is of great importance, and can be useful in unravelling inter-cellular variation in leukocyte populations, identifying subpopulations involved in disease pathogenesis and help tailor new therapies.

  1. Intercellular Odontoblast Communication via ATP Mediated by Pannexin-1 Channel and Phospholipase C-coupled Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki; Furuya, Tadashi; Kimura, Maki; Kojima, Yuki; Tazaki, Masakazu; Sato, Toru; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected from rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s), we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca(2+)]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca(2+)]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK) 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release channel (pannexin-1) inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, the increase in [Ca(2+)]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  2. Participation of intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response of human fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells with low-dose X-rays and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the viable cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a conditioning irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the growth ratio increased significantly to 45-53%, and a peak was reached at a conditioning dose of 13 cGy. Cells blocked off intercellular communication either in Ca 2+ ion-free medium or in TPA added medium during the conditioning irradiation of 13 cGy did not show the improvement of growth ratio. Addition of H-7, as an inhibitor of PKC, to the medium during the conditioning irradiation inhibited the induction of the radio-adaptive response. However, addition of either inhibitor of A kinase, H-89, or inhibitor of G kinase, H-8, failed to inhibit the induction of the radio-adaptive response. These results suggest that: (1) normal cells show an adaptive response to low-dose radiation, (2) intercellular communication may play a role in radio-adaptive responses, (3) the transduction of the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation via protein kinase C was involved in radio-adaptive responses, not via A kinase nor G kinase. (author)

  3. Intercellular odontoblast communication via ATP mediated by pannexin-1 channel and phospholipase C-coupled receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eSato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected form rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s, we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca2+]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca2+]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP release channel (pannexin-1 inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, the increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  4. Gap junction intercellular communication mediated by connexin43 in astrocytes is essential for their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoa T; Sin, Wun Chey; Lozinsky, Shannon; Bechberger, John; Vega, José Luis; Guo, Xu Qiu; Sáez, Juan C; Naus, Christian C

    2014-01-17

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with various neurological disorders including aging, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as traumatic and ischemic insults. Astrocytes have an important role in the anti-oxidative defense in the brain. The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) forms intercellular channels as well as hemichannels in astrocytes. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of Cx43 to astrocytic death induced by the ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the mechanism by which Cx43 exerts its effects. Lack of Cx43 expression or blockage of Cx43 channels resulted in increased ROS-induced astrocytic death, supporting a cell protective effect of functional Cx43 channels. H2O2 transiently increased hemichannel activity, but reduced gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC in wild-type astrocytes recovered after 7 h, but was absent in Cx43 knock-out astrocytes. Blockage of Cx43 hemichannels incompletely inhibited H2O2-induced hemichannel activity, indicating the presence of other hemichannel proteins. Panx1, which is predicted to be a major hemichannel contributor in astrocytes, did not appear to have any cell protective effect from H2O2 insults. Our data suggest that GJIC is important for Cx43-mediated ROS resistance. In contrast to hypoxia/reoxygenation, H2O2 treatment decreased the ratio of the hypophosphorylated isoform to total Cx43 level. Cx43 has been reported to promote astrocytic death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. We therefore speculate the increase in Cx43 dephosphorylation may account for the facilitation of astrocytic death. Our findings suggest that the role of Cx43 in response to cellular stress is dependent on the activation of signaling pathways leading to alteration of Cx43 phosphorylation states.

  5. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  6. Fluid movement and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  8. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch-Caruso, Rita K; Criswell, Kay A; Grindatti, Carmen M; Brant, Kelly A

    2003-01-01

    Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20) rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures. PMID:14567758

  9. NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABILITY IN A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical and practical approach of the economic life, appears more often the idea of sustainable economic development, of reconciliation between man and nature in attracting and using its resources without interfering in its natural movement and evolution. In this paper we are trying to bring to light the relation between the economic development and the mineral resources, in terms of achieving sustainable development. The place and role of natural factors in the market economy is revealed by bringing to the forefront a number of arguments that demonstrate their vital position in the sustainable growth and development.

  10. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  11. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  12. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  13. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  14. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  15. The Mastery of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  16. The Full Inclusion Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rodney E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews background of the movement toward full inclusion of special education students into regular classrooms, including legal issues and successful educational practices. Suggests that full inclusion does not benefit all students and that inclusion should be one of several alternatives to meeting students' educational needs. Of approximately…

  17. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  18. Posture and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  19. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  20. Intercellular translocation of molecules via plasmodesmata in the multiseriate filamentous brown alga, Halopteris congesta (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasato, Chikako; Tanaka, Atsuko; Ito, Toshiaki; Katsaros, Christos; Motomura, Taizo

    2017-04-01

    Despite the high number of studies on the fine structure of brown algal cells, only limited information is available on the intercelluar transportation of molecules via plasmodesmata in brown algae. In this study, plasmodesmatal permeability of Halopteris congesta was examined by observing the translocation of microinjected fluorescent tracers of different molecular sizes. The tip region of H. congesta consists of a cylindrical apical cell, while the basal region is multiseriate. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD; 3, 10, and 20 kDa) and recombinant green fluorescent protein (27 kDa) were injected into the apical cell and were observed to diffuse into the neighboring cells. FD of 40 kDa was detected only in the injected apical cell. The plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit was considered to be more than 20 kDa and less than 40 kDa. The extent of translocation of 3 and 10 kDa FD from the apical to neighboring cells 2 h postinjection was estimated based on the fluorescence intensity. It was suggested that the diffusing capacity of plasmodesmata varied according to molecular size. In order to examine acropetal and/or basipetal direction of molecular movement, 3 and 10 kDa FD were injected into the third cell from the apical cell. Successive observations indicated that the diffusion of fluorescence in the acropetal direction took longer than that in the basipetal direction. No ultrastructural difference in plasmodesmata was noted among the cross walls. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and flow-mediated dilatation are related to the estimated risk of coronary heart disease independently from each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, D.R.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Poppel, G. van; Bots, M.L.; Kluft, C.; Princen, J.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) are measures of distinct functions of the endothelium, reflecting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated and pro-inflammatory status, respectively. The comparative value of the two measures

  2. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.J.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants

  3. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, L.J.H. van; Waart, F. de; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P. van; Graaf, J. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants

  4. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2...

  5. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available , sustainable design is not compulsory at university so we still have a long way to go”. Van Wyk is certainly knowledge- able on this subject. He graduated as an architect in 1980 and practised in the field for many years. He also served as a member... at universities, it will take several years before the first students graduate and even longer before they become experienced. This vacuum can only be overcome when government takes the lead.” Nevertheless Van Wyk realises this is too much to expect from...

  6. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  7. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  8. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kaido

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  9. A framework for assessing transportation sustainability rating systems for implementation in U.S. state departments of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability has increased in popularity as a key indicator for planning transportation projects. With that : movement, evaluating the sustainability of transportation projects has become necessary for state : departments of transportation (DOTs). ...

  10. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  11. Disorders of Upper Limb Movements in Ataxia-Telangiectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasef G Shaikh

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia is known for cerebellar degeneration, but clinical descriptions of abnormal tone, posture, and movements suggest involvement of the network between cerebellum and basal ganglia. We quantitatively assessed the nature of upper-limb movement disorders in ataxia-telangiectasia. We used a three-axis accelerometer to assess the natural history and severity of abnormal upper-limb movements in 80 ataxia-telangiectasia and 19 healthy subjects. Recordings were made during goal-directed movements of upper limb (kinetic task, while arms were outstretched (postural task, and at rest. Almost all ataxia-telangiectasia subjects (79/80 had abnormal involuntary movements, such as rhythmic oscillations (tremor, slow drifts (dystonia or athetosis, and isolated rapid movements (dystonic jerks or myoclonus. All patients with involuntary movements had both kinetic and postural tremor, while 48 (61% also had resting tremor. The tremor was present in transient episodes lasting several seconds during two-minute recording sessions of all three conditions. Percent time during which episodic tremor was present was greater for postural and kinetic tasks compared to rest. Resting tremor had higher frequency but smaller amplitude than postural and kinetic tremor. Rapid non-rhythmic movements were minimal during rest, but were triggered during sustained arm postures and goal directed arm movements suggesting they are best considered a form of dystonic jerks or action myoclonus. Advancing age did not correlate with the severity of involuntary limb movements. Abnormal upper-limb movements in ataxia-telangiectasia feature classic cerebellar impairment, but also suggest involvement of the network between the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

  12. The Path to Presence in Performance through Movement, Physiological Response, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeshl, Artemis; George, Gwen; Hicks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale,…

  13. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  15. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  16. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    : a document analysis for developing a typology of ecopreneurs with user business models, and an in-depth case study analysis. We identify four patterns of entrepreneurial user business models in e-mobility: predominantly simple use, complementary business, feedback to core business, and additional business....... We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...... and develop propositions. These propositions uncover some properties of ecopreneurs, the diffusion of environmental technologies, and industry transformations due to user business models....

  17. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  18. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  19. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  20. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  1. Viral miRNAs exploiting the endosomal-exosomal pathway for intercellular cross-talk and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegtel, D Michiel; van de Garde, Martijn D B; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2011-01-01

    The class of persistent gamma-herpesviruses has developed a variety of strategies that exploit host-cell regulatory pathways to ensure a long-lasting, well-balanced infection of their host. However when these pathways are deregulated, an otherwise harmless infection can lead to disease including cancer. We recently demonstrated that the human herpes virus 4 (HHV4) also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), encodes for small regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be transferred from an infected cell to uninfected neighboring cells. Upon arrival these miRNAs are functional in the recipient cell, in that they are able to down regulate specific target genes. These secreted miRNAs are transported to recipient cells via small nano-sized vesicles (known as exosomes) that are of endosomal origin, formed as intraluminal vesicles (ILV) inside multivesicular bodies (MVB). One question that needs to be addressed is how viral miRNAs are sorted into these exosomes. Mature miRNAs, including those of viral origin, are loaded into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) for gene silencing via blocking mRNA translation and/or initiating mRNA decay. Recent insights indicate that cytoplasmic RNA granules rich in RISC complexes are closely associated with endosomes. In fact, selective components of RISC, including GW182 and Argonaut proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs are present in exosomes. Thus miRNA function, mRNA stability and exosome-mediated intercellular communication converge at the level of endosomes. Since endosomes can be considered as key intracellular cross-roads that regulate communication of cells with their exterior, including neighboring cells, it is perhaps not surprising that viruses have found means to exploit this pathway to their benefit. Little is known however, how and if (micro) RNA species are specifically sorted into ILVs and what (micro)RNA-binding proteins are involved. Here we discuss recent developments relating to intracellular trafficking and function of

  2. Sustainable Cities in Theory and Practice : A Comparative Study of Curitiba and Portland

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The sustainable city is a relatively recent concept which has gained increasing attention the last decades both through the international community and through grass root movements. This study aims to explore how the sustainable city can be translated from theory to practice, using the United Nations universal guide lines for sustainable human settlements as a theoretic background to a comparative case study of Curitiba, Brazil and Portland, USA. The grass root movement of the eco-city concep...

  3. Chinas architectural heritage conservation movement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Guangya

    2017-01-01

    Chinas civilization is ancient. The countrys architectural heritage conservation activity is an integral part of the world conservation movement. This paper gives a general introduction of the movement in China from four aspects: (1) history, (2) important conservation projects assessments, (3) new ideas and principles being debated and discussed, and (4) issues facing the movement. The present paper summarizes the essential character of the movement in China and highlights the importance of ...

  4. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Antiglobalization movements are transnational social movements that challenge what they perceive as a monolithic global laissez-faire economic regime. From the 1990s, these movements have accused global political and economic networks of delivering too much power to dominant elites at the expense...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  5. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  6. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  7. Movement Arts and Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gail Neary; Kirschenbaum, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The study of creative movement, dramatic expression, and kinesthetic awareness can develop students' skills not only in movement but also in communication and leadership. Suggested kinesthetic activities follow the four phases of: physical movement, examining student responses, stimulating the imagination, and analyzing and sharing the experience.…

  8. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  9. A Discovery Approach to Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  10. EEG Oscillations Are Modulated in Different Behavior-Related Networks during Rhythmic Finger Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Martin; Scherer, Reinhold; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-11-16

    Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period. Additionally, we found movement phase-related amplitudes, which resembled the flexion and extension sequence of the fingers. Especially for faster movement cadences, movement phase-related amplitudes included high β (24-30 Hz) frequencies in prefrontal areas. Interestingly, the spectral profiles and source patterns of movement phase-related amplitudes differed from sustained activities, suggesting that they represent different frequency-specific large-scale networks. First, networks were signified by the sustained element, which statically modulate their synchrony levels during continuous movements. These networks may upregulate neuronal excitability in brain regions specific to the limb, in this study the right hand area. Second, movement phase-related networks, which modulate their synchrony in relation to the movement sequence. We suggest that these frequency-specific networks are associated with distinct functions, including top-down control, sensorimotor prediction, and integration. The separation of different large-scale networks, we applied in this work, improves the interpretation of EEG sources in relation to human motor behavior. EEG recordings provide high temporal resolution suitable to relate cortical oscillations to actual movements. Investigating EEG sources during rhythmic finger movements, we distinguish sustained from

  11. Transposon-Based Reporter Marking Provides Functional Evidence for Intercellular Bridges in the Male Germline of Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya I Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Sleeping Beauty transposon system was established as a robust and efficient method for germline transgenesis in different mammalian species. The generation of transgenic mice, rats, rabbits and swine carrying an identical Venus reporter construct delivered by transposon-mediated gene transfer enables comparative studies of gene expression in these lines of mammalian models. Whereas comparable expression patterns of the Venus reporter were found in somatic tissues, preliminary studies suggested that a striking difference in reporter expression may exist in mature spermatozoa of these species. Here we clearly show the differential expression of Venus reporter protein during spermatogenesis of the two compared species, the laboratory rabbit and mice. We provide evidence for the functionality of intercellular bridges in the male germline and genotype-independent transgenic phenotype of rabbit spermatids. Our data suggest that the reporter rabbit line may be a suitable tool to identify molecular mechanisms in testicular development, and may contribute to develop better animal models for male infertility in men.

  12. Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Have Impaired Acetate Catabolism: Implications for Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Synthesis and Autolysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer L.; Rice, Kelly C.; Slater, Sean R.; Fox, Paige M.; Archer, Gordon L.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Fey, Paul D.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2007-01-01

    The most common mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus gains resistance to vancomycin is by adapting its physiology and metabolism to permit growth in the presence of vancomycin. Several studies have examined the adaptive changes occurring during the transition to vancomycin-intermediate resistance, leading to a model of vancomycin resistance in which decreased cell wall turnover and autolysis result in increased cell wall thickness and resistance to vancomycin. In the present study, we identified metabolic changes common to vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains by assessing the metabolic and growth characteristics of two VISA strains (vancomycin MICs of 8 μg/ml) and two isogenic derivative strains with vancomycin MICs of 32 μg/ml. Interestingly, we observed the parental strains had impaired catabolism of nonpreferred carbon sources (i.e., acetate), and this impairment became more pronounced as vancomycin resistance increased. To determine if acetate catabolism impairment is common to VISA strains, we assessed the ability of VISA and vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA) clinical isolates to catabolize acetate. As expected, a significantly greater percentage of VISA strains (71%) had impaired acetate catabolism relative to VSSA (8%). This is an important observation because staphylococcal acetate catabolism is implicated in growth yield and antibiotic tolerance and in regulating cell death and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis. PMID:17130298

  13. Tunneling nanotubes provide a unique conduit for intercellular transfer of cellular contents in human malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Lou

    Full Text Available Tunneling nanotubes are long, non-adherent F-actin-based cytoplasmic extensions which connect proximal or distant cells and facilitate intercellular transfer. The identification of nanotubes has been limited to cell lines, and their role in cancer remains unclear. We detected tunneling nanotubes in mesothelioma cell lines and primary human mesothelioma cells. Using a low serum, hyperglycemic, acidic growth medium, we stimulated nanotube formation and bidirectional transfer of vesicles, proteins, and mitochondria between cells. Notably, nanotubes developed between malignant cells or between normal mesothelial cells, but not between malignant and normal cells. Immunofluorescent staining revealed their actin-based assembly and structure. Metformin and an mTor inhibitor, Everolimus, effectively suppressed nanotube formation. Confocal microscopy with 3-dimensional reconstructions of sectioned surgical specimens demonstrated for the first time the presence of nanotubes in human mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma tumor specimens. We provide the first evidence of tunneling nanotubes in human primary tumors and cancer cells and propose that these structures play an important role in cancer cell pathogenesis and invasion.

  14. Nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is a crucial regulator of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Beate M; Laschke, Matthias W; Rössler, Oliver G; Huang, Wenhui; Scheller, Anja; Menger, Michael D; Ampofo, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The proteoglycan nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is expressed on multiple cell types and mediates cell proliferation and migration. However, little is known about its function in gene regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that in pericytes and glioblastoma cells intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an essential protein for leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, underlies a NG2-dependent expression. As shown by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), silencing of NG2 in human placenta-derived pericytes increased the expression of ICAM-1. Pathway analyses revealed that this is mediated by extracellular-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 signaling. Moreover, leukocyte adhesion to NG2 siRNA-treated pericytes was significantly enhanced when compared to scrambled (scr) siRNA-treated control cells. In vivo, we detected increased ICAM-1 protein levels in the retina of mice lacking NG2 expression. To exclude that this novel mechanism is pericyte-specific, we additionally analyzed the expression of ICAM-1 in dependency of NG2 in two glioblastoma cell lines. We found that A1207 and M059K cells exhibit an inverse expression pattern of NG2 and ICAM-1. Finally, downregulation of NG2 in A1207 cells significantly increased ICAM-1 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that NG2 may represent a promising target for the modulation of ICAM-1-mediated immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Domino-Like Intercellular Delivery of Undecylenic Acid-Conjugated Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Deep Tumor Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tuying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Fuying; Yang, Hao; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-10-05

    Improving the intratumoral distribution of anticancer agents remains the critical challenge for developing efficient cancer chemotherapy. Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have attracted considerable attention in the biomedical field especially in drug delivery. Here, we described the lysosomal exocytosis-mediated domino-like intercellular delivery of undecylenic acid-conjugated PSiNPs (UA-PSiNPs) for deep tumor penetration. UA-PSiNPs with significantly improved stability in physiological conditions were internalized into tumor cells by macropinocytosis-, caveolae-, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and mainly colocalized with Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. Substantial evidence showed that UA-PSiNPs was excreted from cells via lysosomal exocytosis after cellular uptake. The exocytosed UA-PSiNPs induced a domino-like infection of adjacent cancer cells and allowed encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) to deeply penetrate into both three-dimensional tumor spheroids and in vivo tumors. In addition, DOX-loaded UA-PSiNPs exhibited strong antitumor activity and few side effects in vivo. This study demonstrated that UA-PSiNPs as a drug carrier might be applied for deep tumor penetration, offering a new insight into the design of more efficient delivery systems of anticancer drugs.

  16. The function of intercellular spaces along the ray parenchyma in sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Intercellular spaces along ray parenchyma (ISRP) are common in many conifer xylems, but their function is uncertain because the in-situ structural network among ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids has not been evaluated. Analysis of water distribution in ISRP from sapwood to heartwood is needed to elucidate the function of ISRP in sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood. We used cryo-scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photography, and water content measurement in xylem to analyze the presence of liquids in ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids from sapwood to heartwood in Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae). In sapwood, almost all ISRP were empty. "Cingulate-cavitated regions", which lose water along the tangential direction within one annual ring, formed in the earlywood tracheids, and their frequency increased toward the inner annual rings, whereas ray parenchyma cells were alive and not involved in the partial cavitation. In intermediate wood, almost all ISRP and earlywood tracheids and many of the ray cells were empty, and only some latewood tracheids retained liquid in their lumina. The ISRP were connected with tracheids via gas-filled ray parenchyma cells. The ISRP work as a pathway of gas for aspiration of ray parenchyma cells in sapwood. On the other hand, the occurrence of a gas network between ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids facilitates cavitation of tracheids, resulting in the generation of low-moisture, intermediate wood.

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL-8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis. Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on its surface promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. PIA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and\\/or time-dependent manner from U373 MG cells and primary normal human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Expression of dominant-negative versions of the TLR2 and TLR4 adaptor proteins MyD88 and Mal in U373 MG cells inhibited PIA-induced IL-8 production. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. PIA failed to induce IL-8 production from HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4. However, in U373 MG cells which express TLR2, neutralization of TLR2 impaired PIA-induced IL-8 production. In addition to IL-8, PIA also induced expression of other cytokines from U373 MG cells including IL-6 and MCP-1. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2.

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced microparticles promote endothelial monocyte adhesion via intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Enchen; Wang, Xu; Tian, Mingda; Kong, Jian; Li, Jizhao; Ji, Liang; Niu, Chenguang; Shen, Haitao; Dong, Shuying; Liu, Changjie; Vermorken, Alphons; Willard, Belinda; Zu, Lingyun; Zheng, Lemin

    2017-11-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) accumulates early in atherosclerotic lesions and plays an important role in the progressive formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Endothelial derived microparticles (EMPs) form a heterogeneous population of microparticle release and the subsequent regulation of the endothelial activation. EMPs were collected from the medium of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with oxLDL or PBS as control. We find that oxLDL increases the release of EMPs containing intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Confocal microscopy analysis further demonstrates that these EMPs interact with endothelial cells and increase the expression of ICAM-1 in HUVECs. The fact that injecting oxLDL-induced EMPs via the tail vein of ICR mice augments ICAM-1 expression on aortic endothelial cells confirms our results in vivo. Finally, oxLDL-induced EMPs from HUVECs increase the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells as determined by the adhesion assay. Our study suggests that oxLDL may augment the release of EMPs harboring increased levels of ICAM-1 that can be transferred to endothelial cells elsewhere. This leads to increased monocyte recruitment in other regions where oxLDL accumulation was initially more limited. EMPs may therefore serve as the mediator that propagates oxLDL-induced endothelial inflammation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Possible Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity and Cancer Promotion: Involvement of Gap Junction Intercellular Communications and Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zefferino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations indicate that heavy metals are able to alter cellular metabolic pathways through induction of a prooxidative state. Nevertheless, the outcome of heavy metal-mediated effects in the development of human diseases is debated and needs further insights. Cancer is a well-established DNA mutation-linked disease; however, epigenetic events are perhaps more important and harmful than genetic alterations. Unfortunately, we do not have reliable screening methods to assess/validate the epigenetic (promoter effects of a physical or a chemical agent. We propose a mechanism of action whereby mercury acts as a possible promoter carcinogen. In the present contribution, we resume our previous studies on mercury tested at concentrations comparable with its occurrence as environmental pollutant. It is shown that Hg(II elicits a prooxidative state in keratinocytes linked to inhibition of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and proinflammatory cytokine production. These combined effects may on one hand isolate cells from tissue-specific homeostasis promoting their proliferation and on the other hand tamper the immune system defense/surveillance checkmating the whole organism. Since Hg(II is not a mutagenic/genotoxic compound directly affecting gene expression, in a broader sense, mercury might be an example of an epigenetic tumor promoter or, further expanding this concept, a “metagenetic” effector.

  20. Effects of dexamethasone on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and inflammatory response in necrotizing acute pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudo, Laura; Yubero, Sara; Manso, Manuel A; Sanchez-Recio, Javier; Weruaga, Eduardo; De Dios, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Adhesion molecules are involved in the inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigated the effect of dexamethasone (Dx) on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression during AP and its consequences on leukocyte recruitment and pancreatic damage. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by 3.5% sodium taurocholate for 3 hours and 6 hours. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) was administered either 30 minutes before or 1 hour after inducing AP. Messenger RNA ICAM-1 expression in pancreas and lung, membrane-bound ICAM-1 in acinar cells, and ICAM-1 plasma levels were analyzed. Histological examination of the pancreas and neutrophil infiltration in pancreas and lung were also measured. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Dx down-regulated ICAM-1 expression in pancreas and lung from early AP. Dexamethasone given before AP reduced the pancreatic damage, but lung inflammation was not prevented. Therapeutic Dx treatment was ineffective in avoiding leukocyte recruitment into the pancreas and lung in rats with AP. High ICAM-1 concentration was found in plasma during AP, which was not reduced by Dx treatments. Dexamethasone down-regulates ICAM-1 expression, but it does not completely prevent leukocyte recruitment during sodium taurocholate-induced AP.

  1. On the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 ( c i/ c a) derived from ecosystem flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zheng-Hong; Wu, Zhi-Xiang; Hughes, Alice C.; Schaefer, Douglas; Zeng, Jiye; Lan, Guo-Yu; Yang, Chuang; Tao, Zhong-Liang; Chen, Bang-Qian; Tian, Yao-Hua; Song, Liang; Jatoi, Muhammad Tahir; Zhao, Jun-Fu; Yang, Lian-Yan

    2017-12-01

    The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentrations ( c i/ c a) plays a key role in ecophysiology, micrometeorology, and global climatic change. However, systematic investigation on c i/ c a variation and its determinants are rare. Here, the c i/ c a was derived from measuring ecosystem fluxes in an even-aged monoculture of rubber trees ( Hevea brasiliensis). We tested whether c i/ c a is constant across environmental gradients and if not, which dominant factors control c i/ c a variations. Evidence indicates that c i/ c a is not a constant. The c i/ c a exhibits a clear " V"-shaped diurnal pattern and varies across the environmental gradient. Water vapor pressure deficit ( D) is the dominant factor controls over the c i/ c a variations. c i/ c a consistently decreases with increasing D. c i/ c a decreases with square root of D as predicted by the optimal stomatal model. The D-driving single-variable model could simulate c i/ c a as well as that of sophisticated model. Many variables function on longer timescales than a daily cycle, such as soil water content, could improve c i/ c a model prediction ability. Ecosystem flux can be effectively used to calculate c i/ c a and use it to better understand various natural cycles.

  2. Epigenetic toxicity of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on gap functional intercellular communication before and after biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics; Weber, W.J. Jr. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rummel, A.M.; Trosko, J.E.; Upham, B.L. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, but most research on their toxicity in the development of human-risk assessment models has focused on genotoxicity. Many nongenotoxic PAHs, however, have been shown to be epigenetically toxic by disrupting gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), an effect which has been affiliated with tumor promotion. The authors therefore used GJIC as an epigenetic biomarker to assess the toxic effect of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mixture of PAHs commonly found in coal tar and creosote products. The NAPL mixture consisted of toluene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. This mixture reversibly inhibited GJIC at a maximal and noncytotoxic dose of 60 {micro}M. Inhibition occurred within 5 min, indicating a post-translational modification of gap junction proteins. Biodegradation of globules of this mixture suspended in mineral media by a microorganism isolated from creosote-contaminated soils resulted in the removal of all but three heavy PAHs: acenaphthene, pyrene, and fluoranthene. A reconstituted mixture of these three compounds showed results on GJIC activity identical to the original mixture relative to dose-, rate-, and time-responses, indicating that the toxicity of the PAHs was additive. The results suggest that bioremediation techniques that leave residual components of such NAPL mixtures in contaminated media can quantitatively but not qualitatively reduce their epigenetic toxic risk. Nonetheless, such bioresistant residuals may be environmentally less mobile than the biodegraded components of the precursor NAPLs.

  3. Detection of cancerous biological tissue areas by means of infrared absorption and SERS spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicka, M.; Urboniene, V.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by measuring vibrational spectra (IR absorption or SERS) of intercellular fluid taken from the tissue. The method is based on spectral analysis of cancerous and normal tissue areas in order to find specific spectral markers. The samples were prepared by sliding the kidney tissue over a substrate - surface of diamond ATR crystal in case of IR absorption or calcium fluoride optical window in case of SERS. For producing the SERS signal the dried fluid film was covered by silver nanoparticle colloidal solution. In order to suppress fluorescence background the measurements were performed in the NIR spectral region with the excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. The most significant spectral differences - spectral markers - were found in the region between 400 and 1800 cm-1, where spectral bands related to various vibrations of fatty acids, glycolipids and carbohydrates are located. Spectral markers in the IR and SERS spectra are different and the methods can complement each other. Both of them have potential to be used directly during surgery. Additionally, IR absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode can be combined with waveguide probe what makes this method usable in vivo.

  4. A percolation-like model for simulating inter-cellular diffusion in the context of bystander signalling in tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, C.R.; Fleming, A.J.; Ebert, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Despite ongoing active research, the role of the radiation bystander effect in modifying local tissue response to an ionising radiation dose remains unclear. The present study aims to provide new insight by simulating the diffusion-mediated inter-cellular communication processes in 2D and 3D cell-like structures to calculate likely signal ranges in the diffusion limited case. Random walks of individual signalling molecules were tracked between cells with inclusion of molecule-receptor interactions. The resulting diffusion anomaly is a function of cell density, signal uptake probability and the spatial arrangement of cells local to the signal origin. Uptake probability effects dominate percolation effects in disordered media. Diffu sion through 2D structures is more conducive to anomalous diffusion than diffusion through 3D structures. Values for time-dependent diffusion constants and permeability are derived for typical simulation parameters. Even at low signal uptake probabilities the communication range is restricted to a mean value of less than 100 foun owing to complete signal uptake by 600 s. This should be considered in light of the potential influence of signal relaying, flo dynamics or vasculature-mediated signalling.

  5. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  6. Building a Climate Movement Through Relational Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany M Divakaran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community organizing is a process for achieving social change through the mobilization of resources and the formation of collective identity. Relational community organizing is a particular approach to developing new leaders and building organizational capacity for sustaining a powerful movement, and is especially relevant in the climate justice movement because relationships serve to bring actors from isolation and despair toward communal identity and hopeful action. Minnesota Interfaith Power & Light (MNIPL is a community organization that is using relational organizing to activate faith communities to take action on climate change. This paper describes the design and first phase of evaluation of MNIPL’s Movement Builder Program, a networked distributed leadership model that uses peer mentors to increase the efficacy of new organizers. Can a peer-to-peer network increase the leverage of organizers? Will supportive relationships move people to increased action and to develop the leadership of others? We provide an introduction to this inquiry as well as the foundational frameworks and historical context of this new approach.

  7. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research.

  8. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  9. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established....... This article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....

  10. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  11. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...

  12. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  14. CONTROLS ON CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  15. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  16. The Analysis of Intracellular and Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Human Anterior Lens Capsule Epithelial Cells with Regard to Different Types and Stages of the Cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Gosak

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated how modifications of the Ca2+ homeostasis in anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs are associated with different types of cataract (cortical or nuclear and how the progression of the cataract (mild or moderate affects the Ca2+ signaling. We systematically analyzed different aspects of intra- and inter-cellular Ca2+ signaling in the human LECs, which are attached to surgically isolated lens capsule (LC, obtained during cataract surgery. We monitored the temporal and spatial changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after stimulation with acetylcholine by means of Fura-2 fluorescence captured with an inverted microscope. In our analysis we compared the features of Ca2+ signals in individual cells, synchronized activations, spatio-temporal grouping and the nature of intercellular communication between LECs. The latter was assessed by using the methodologies of the complex network theory. Our results point out that at the level of individual cells there are no significant differences when comparing the features of the signals with regard either to the type or the stage of the cataract. On the other hand, noticeable differences are observed at the multicellular level, despite inter-capsule variability. LCs associated with more developed cataracts were found to exhibit a slower collective response to stimulation, a less pronounced spatio-temporal clustering of LECs with similar signaling characteristics. The reconstructed intercellular networks were found to be sparser and more segregated than in LCs associated with mild cataracts. Moreover, we show that spontaneously active LECs often operate in localized groups with quite well aligned Ca2+ activity. The presence of spontaneous activity was also found to affect the stimulated Ca2+ responses of individual cells. Our findings indicate that the cataract progression entails the impairment of intercellular signaling thereby suggesting the functional importance of altered Ca2

  17. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  18. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  19. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  20. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  1. Sustainable Campus: Engaging the Community in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Linda; Bajracharya, Bhishna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors necessary for engaging university campus community in sustainability. While general awareness in sustainability issues has improved in recent years through mass media coverage, this knowledge is not always translated into actual sustainable practice. Studies have indicated that…

  2. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  3. Rhythm, Movement and Synchrony. Effective Teaching Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses incorporation of academic curriculum elements into movement units, synchronous movement as a teaching tool, the movement-cognition connection, and identification and use of rhythm and movement elements in the classroom. (IAH)

  4. Upper limb movements can be decoded from the time-domain of low-frequency EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, Patrick; Schwarz, Andreas; Pereira, Joana; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2017-01-01

    How neural correlates of movements are represented in the human brain is of ongoing interest and has been researched with invasive and non-invasive methods. In this study, we analyzed the encoding of single upper limb movements in the time-domain of low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Fifteen healthy subjects executed and imagined six different sustained upper limb movements. We classified these six movements and a rest class and obtained significant average classification accuracies of 55% (movement vs movement) and 87% (movement vs rest) for executed movements, and 27% and 73%, respectively, for imagined movements. Furthermore, we analyzed the classifier patterns in the source space and located the brain areas conveying discriminative movement information. The classifier patterns indicate that mainly premotor areas, primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex convey discriminative movement information. The decoding of single upper limb movements is specially interesting in the context of a more natural non-invasive control of e.g., a motor neuroprosthesis or a robotic arm in highly motor disabled persons.

  5. The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism in the propagation of ionizing radiation-induced biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autsavapromporn, Narongchai

    Coordinated interactions of specific molecular and biochemical processes are likely involved in the cellular responses to stresses induced by different ionizing radiations with distinctive linear energy transfer (LET) properties. Here, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of gap junction intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism in modulating cell killing and repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) in confluent AG1522 human fibroblasts exposed to 1 GeV protons (LET˜0.2 keV/μm), 137Cs γ rays (LET˜0.9 keV/μm), 241Am α particles (LET˜122 keV/μm) or 1 GeV/u iron ions (LET˜151 keV/μm) at doses by which all cells in the exposed cultures are irradiated. As expected, α-particles and iron ions were more effective than protons and γ rays at inducing cell killing. Holding γ- or proton-irradiated cells in the confluent state for several hours after irradiation promoted increased survival and decreased chromosomal damage. However, maintaining α-particle or iron ion-irradiated cells in the confluent state for various times prior to subculture resulted in increased rather than decreased lethality, and was associated with. persistent DNA damage and increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Inhibiting gap junction communication with 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid or by knockdown of connexin43, a constitutive protein of junctional channels in these cells, protected against the toxic effects expressed in these cells during confluent holding. Up-regulation of antioxidant defense by ectopic over-expression of glutathione peroxidase, protected against cell killing by α-particles when cells were analyzed shortly after exposure. However, it did not attenuate the decrease in survival during confluent holding. Together, these findings indicate that the damaging effect of α particles results in oxidative stress, and the toxic effects in the hours following irradiation are amplified by intercellular communication, but the communicated molecule(s) is

  6. Loss-of-Function Mutations in SERPINB8 Linked to Exfoliative Ichthyosis with Impaired Mechanical Stability of Intercellular Adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigors, Manuela; Sarig, Ofer; Heinz, Lisa; Plagnol, Vincent; Fischer, Judith; Mohamad, Janan; Malchin, Natalia; Rajpopat, Shefali; Kharfi, Monia; Lestringant, Giles G; Sprecher, Eli; Kelsell, David P; Blaydon, Diana C

    2016-08-04

    SERPINS comprise a large and functionally diverse family of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we report three unrelated families with loss-of-function mutations in SERPINB8 in association with an autosomal-recessive form of exfoliative ichthyosis. Whole-exome sequencing of affected individuals from a consanguineous Tunisian family and a large Israeli family revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation, c.947delA (p.Lys316Serfs(∗)90), and a nonsense mutation, c.850C>T (p.Arg284(∗)), respectively. These two mutations are located in the last exon of SERPINB8 and, hence, would not be expected to lead to nonsense-mediated decay of the mRNA; nonetheless, both mutations are predicted to lead to loss of the reactive site loop of SERPINB8, which is crucial for forming the SERPINB8-protease complex. Using Sanger sequencing, a homozygous missense mutation, c.2T>C (p.Met1?), predicted to result in an N-terminal truncated protein, was identified in an additional family from UAE. Histological analysis of a skin biopsy from an individual homozygous for the variant p.Arg284(∗) showed disadhesion of keratinocytes in the lower epidermal layers plus decreased SERPINB8 levels compared to control. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated knockdown of SERPINB8 in keratinocytes demonstrated that in the absence of the protein, there is a cell-cell adhesion defect, particularly when cells are subjected to mechanical stress. In addition, immunoblotting and immunostaining revealed an upregulation of desmosomal proteins. In conclusion, we report mutations in SERPINB8 that are associated with exfoliative ichthyosis and provide evidence that SERPINB8 contributes to the mechanical stability of intercellular adhesions in the epidermis. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Hui [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Zhuo, Liling [College of Life Science, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, 277160 (China); Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  9. Stat3 is a positive regulator of gap junctional intercellular communication in cultured, human lung carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geletu Mulu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoplastic transformation of cultured cells by a number of oncogenes such as src suppresses gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC; however, the role of Src and its effector Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 upon GJIC in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has not been defined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high Src activity in NSCLC biopsy samples compared to normal tissues. Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Methods Gap junctional communication was examined by electroporating the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into cells grown on a transparent electrode, followed by observation of the migration of the dye to the adjacent, non-electroporated cells under fluorescence illumination. Results An inverse relationship between Src activity levels and GJIC was noted; in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6 had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC.

  10. Activated endothelial interleukin-1beta, -6, and -8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression are attenuated by lidocaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, Wei

    2012-02-03

    Endothelial cells play a key role in ischemia reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lidocaine (0 to 0.5 mg\\/mL) for 60 min, thereafter tumor necrosis factor-alpha was added at a concentration of 2.5 ng\\/mL and the cells incubated for 4 h. Supernatants were harvested, and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and post hoc unpaired Student\\'s t-test where appropriate. Lidocaine (0.5 mg\\/mL) decreased IL-1beta (1.89 +\\/- 0.11 versus 4.16 +\\/- 1.27 pg\\/mL; P = 0.009), IL-6 (65.5 +\\/- 5.14 versus 162 +\\/- 11.5 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001), and IL-8 (3869 +\\/- 785 versus 14,961 +\\/- 406 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001) concentrations compared with the control. IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in HUVECs treated with clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine (0.005 mg\\/mL) were similar to control. ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine-treated (0.05 mg\\/mL) HUVECs was less than on controls (198 +\\/- 52.7 versus 298 +\\/- 50.3; Mean Channel Fluorescence; P < 0.001). Activated endothelial IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and ICAM-1 expression are attenuated only by lidocaine at concentrations larger than clinically relevant concentrations.

  11. Gap junctional intercellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum stress regulate chronic cadmium exposure induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zehe; Diao, Haipeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Qingping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Qing

    2018-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, is known to induce renal toxicity by primarily targeting at renal proximal tubule. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) regulate many pathophysiological processes. Yet, how ER stress and GJIC regulate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we treated human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells with 1 μM CdCl 2 every other day for 12 days and found that Cd significantly increased cell apoptosis at 10 and 12 days. This cytotoxicity correlated with activation of ER stress and apoptotic signaling evidenced by upregulation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α), splice X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1s), and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) proteins. Interestingly, the AKT signaling was activated at 2- and 4-day and then inhibited at 10- and 12-day of Cd treatment; by contrast, Cd decreased GJIC levels at 2- and 4-day followed by a significant increase at 10- and 12-day treatment. Activation of AKT by SC79 or inhibition of GJIC by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) completely abolished Cd-induced AKT inhibition and IRE1α-ASK1 activation. Importantly, pretreatment with ER stress inhibitor or 18α-GA significantly mitigated Cd-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that GJIC collaborates with AKT signaling and ER stress in regulating prolonged Cd-treatment-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterograde axonal transport and intercellular transfer of WGA-HRP in trigeminal-innervated sensory receptors of rat incisive papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K Y; Byers, M R

    1985-04-08

    The ultrastructure and identification of WGA-HRP-labeled sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla (the most anterior part of hard palate) were studied using semiserial thin sections. Various sensory receptors were organized according to three locations: dome region (ventral), chemosensory corpuscle region (medial to orifice of incisive canal), and lateral labium (apposing the incisive canal). In the dome region, the sensory receptors were localized in three sensory zones that were associated with surface ridges (one medial and two lateral). In each of these zones, intraepithelial receptor axons and Merkel receptors occurred in the epithelium, while simple unencapsulated corpuscles, glomerular-Meissner corpuscles, and incisive (encapsulated) corpuscles occurred in the lamina propria. In the chemosensory corpuscle region, chemosensory corpuscles and intraepithelial receptor axons were located in the epithelium, and incisive corpuscles were present in the lamina propria. In the lateral labium, only intraepithelial receptor axons were prominent. In all these sensory receptors, the preterminal axons and axon terminals were labeled with the tracer protein. In addition, some nonneuronal cells closely associated with the axon terminals were selectively labeled, e.g., terminal Schwann cells, lamellar Schwann cells, Merkel cells, corpuscular basal cells and chemosensory cells. Other adjacent cells were not labeled, e.g., unspecialized epithelial cells, capsular cells, corpuscular sustentacular cells, and fibroblasts. In both labeled axons and cells, WGA-HRP was incorporated into vesicles, tubules, and vacuolar organelles. The specific intercellular transfer of tracer protein may indicate trophic interactions between axon terminals and support cells in sensory receptors. The specific organization of multiple sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla may provide a useful alternative system for studying somatosensory physiology.

  13. A people's movement for self-reliance in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development and activities of the Sarvodaya Movement, a grass-roots mutual-aid movement based on traditional Buddhist social values. Started by high school students and teachers in 1947 as a community-service organization the Movement is open to all individuals and has attracted thousands of volunteers in 1200 villages. Sarvodaya Shramadana emphasizes improvement in the standard of living through the development of local resources by the community itself, strengthening of the family and the village unit, discouragement of large-scale industrialization and removal of forms of exploitation, such as caste, race discrimination, large-scale land ownership, and so on. Key to all of the Movement's activities is the concept of self-reliance, self-realization, nondependence at both the individual and the village level. The mutual sharing of labor not only accomplishes the work of the community, creating the physical infrastructure for economic improvement, but serves as a revolutionary technique to awaken people to their own potential. The movement organizes villages into functional groups by age and occupation and trains community workers who are chosen by the villages themselves. In each village, work starts on short-term strategies to relieve debt, provide health care and educate the population and long-term strategies to generate sustained, unified community spirit and sufficient income to avoid use of outside credit. The Movement's specific projects include surveys of nutritional deficiencies, the community kitchen program, preschool program, day care centers, children's library service and community health programs. The Movement is now changing from a centrally-coordinated organization toward decentralized organization based in 52 Extension Centers and run, at the national level, by an Executive Council of 35, a 6-man board and 9 coordinators. The Movement was self-financed by members for the 1st 10 years but has used outside financing in the

  14. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways. ...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective........ The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  15. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  16. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  17. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    in non-ideal scenarios, we show that generally the estimation of models of this type is both feasible and ecologically informative. We illustrate the approach using real movement data from 11 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Results indicate a directional bias towards a group centroid for reindeer......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...

  18. Fostering Sustainable Travel Behavior: Role of Sustainability Labels and Goal-Directed Behavior Regarding Touristic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Penz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals around the globe engage in sustainable consumption in their everyday life, e.g., when it comes to individual transportation. Although tourism behavior contributes to global carbon emissions to a considerable extent, consumers’ awareness of sustainability in the tourism industry is still underresearched. Placing eco-labels next to tourist offers on websites might direct consumer’s perception towards more sustainable offers. By employing eye-tracking techniques and surveys, this research aimed at linking information about sustainable tourist offers, perception of eco-labels and subsequent perception and preferences of tourism services. In Study 1, eight existing hotel offers with sustainability certification (four different labels were selected and their websites presented to 48 participants (four websites each, whose eye movements were tracked. After looking at each website, they rated the overall appearance of the website. Based on the results, in the second study, participants’ (n = 642 awareness of labels, their values and attitudes regarding sustainable behavior were found to influence their preference for certified tour operators. In addition, individuals’ ideas of their perfect holidays were captured to allow a better understanding of their motivation. This research proposes implementing appropriate sustainable labeling in the tourism industry to increase awareness about sustainability among travelers and subsequently increase sustainable travel behavior.

  19. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  20. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  1. Proprioceptive Movement Illusions Due to Prolonged Stimulation: Reversals and Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Smith, Janette L.; Taylor, Janet L.; Gandevia, Simon C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Adaptation to constant stimulation has often been used to investigate the mechanisms of perceptual coding, but the adaptive processes within the proprioceptive channels that encode body movement have not been well described. We investigated them using vibration as a stimulus because vibration of muscle tendons results in a powerful illusion of movement. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied sustained 90 Hz vibratory stimulation to biceps brachii, an elbow flexor and induced the expected illusion of elbow extension (in 12 participants). There was clear evidence of adaptation to the movement signal both during the 6-min long vibration and on its cessation. During vibration, the strong initial illusion of extension waxed and waned, with diminishing duration of periods of illusory movement and occasional reversals in the direction of the illusion. After vibration there was an aftereffect in which the stationary elbow seemed to move into flexion. Muscle activity shows no consistent relationship with the variations in perceived movement. Conclusion We interpret the observed effects as adaptive changes in the central mechanisms that code movement in direction-selective opponent channels. PMID:17940601

  2. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  3. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  5. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  6. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  7. Build Artifacts in Sustainable Urban Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro-Croisel, Rebecca; Hernes, Tor

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores innovation and social behaviourist theory in relation to sustainable urban projects in the highly institutionalized public sector (towns). Using empirical data from France, we examine the dynamics of a design process in which unexpected practices generated innovative urban...... into a movement of collective action, which presupposed the acquisition of a new identity. Ultimately, our objective is to combine social behaviourist theory and innovation theory and to facilitate innovative design in urban projects....

  8. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  9. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  10. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  11. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  12. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  13. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  14. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  15. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  17. Army Sustainment. Volume 44, Issue 3. May-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Clark W. LeMasters, Jr. The History of Ordnance in America—Karl Rubis Logistics Movements in a Changing Afghan Environment —Captain Owen A. Rose What...relevance of individual learning and deliv- ers multiple learning stimuli to reach audio, visual, and kinesthetic learners. It maximizes opportunities to...supports operations during the Vietnam War. May–June 2012 1716 Army Sustainment Logistics Movements in a Changing Afghan Environment by

  18. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate......-teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... is a new obligation the teachers are facing some pedagogical challenges (Jensen, 2015). The new school reform forces the teachers to teach in a way they are not educated, trained in or experienced. The teachers’ role is changing. This study investigates how teachers in different subjects and with different...

  19. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  20. Low dose/low fluence ionizing radiation-induced biological effects: The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard

    Mechanistic investigations have been considered critical to understanding the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. To gain greater insight in the biological effects of exposure to low dose/low fluence space radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) properties, we examined short and long-term biological responses to energetic protons and high charge (Z) and high energy (E) ions (HZE particles) in human cells maintained in culture and in targeted and non-targeted tissues of irradiated rodents. Particular focus of the studies has been on mod-ulation of gene expression, proliferative capacity, induction of DNA damage and perturbations in oxidative metabolism. Exposure to mean doses of 1000 MeV/nucleon iron ions, by which a small to moderate proportion of cells in an exposed population is targeted through the nucleus by an HZE particle, induced stressful effects in the irradiated and non-irradiated cells in the population. Direct intercellular communication via gap-junctions was a primary mediator of the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells. Compromised prolif-erative capacity, elevated level of DNA damage and oxidative stress evaluated by measurements of protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation and activity of metabolic enzymes persisted in the progeny of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. In contrast, progeny of cells exposed to high or low doses from 150-1000 MeV protons retained the ability to form colonies and harbored similar levels of micronuclei, a surrogate form of DNA damage, as control, which correlated with normal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, a significant increase in the spontaneous neoplastic transformation frequency was observed in progeny of bystander mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) co-cultured with MEFs irradiated with energetic iron ions but not protons. Of particular significance, stressful effects were detected in non-targeted tissues of rats that received partial

  1. Gingko biloba extracts protect auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by inhibiting perturbation of gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S J; Kim, S W; Lee, J B; Lim, H J; Kim, Y J; Tian, C; So, H S; Park, R; Choung, Y-H

    2013-08-06

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may play an important role in the hearing process. Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes hearing loss and Gingko biloba extracts (EGb 761) have been used as an antioxidant and enhancer for GJIC. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of EGb 761 in protecting against cisplatin-induced apoptosis and disturbance of GJIC. House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 auditory cells were cultured and treated with cisplatin (50 μM) and EGb (300 μg/ml) for 24h, and then analyzed by immunocytochemistry (Annexin V/propidium iodide) and Western blots. GJIC was evaluated by scrape-loading dye transfer (SLDT). Basal turn organ of Corti (oC) explants from neonatal (p3) rats were exposed to cisplatin (1-10 μM) and EGb (50-400 μg/ml). The number of intact hair cells was counted by co-labeling with phalloidin and MyoVIIa. EGb prevented cisplatin-induced apoptosis in immunostaining and decreased caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase bands, which were increased in cisplatin-treated cells in Western blots. EGb prevented abnormal intracellular locations of connexin (Cx) 26, 30, 31, and 43 in cells treated with cisplatin and increased quantities of Cx bands. EGb also prevented cisplatin-induced disturbance of GJIC in SLDT. In oC explants, EGb significantly prevented hair cell damage induced by cisplatin. In animal studies, EGb significantly prevented cisplatin-induced hearing loss across 16 and 32 kHz. These results show that cisplatin induces ototoxicity including hearing loss as well as down-regulation of GJIC and inhibition of Cxs in auditory cells. EGb prevents hearing loss in cisplatin-treated rats by inhibiting down-regulation of Cx expression and GJIC. The disturbance of GJIC or Cx expression may be one of the important mechanisms of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F MurilloDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell

  3. An analysis of chick limb bud intercellular adhesion underlying the establishment of cartilage aggregates in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, J A; von der Mark, K

    1990-07-01

    To examine the mechanism of intercellular adhesion in the establishment of limb skeletal elements we have investigated the process of limb bud cell aggregation in vitro. Limb bud cells are aggregation-competent immediately after their trypsin:collagenase dissociation in the absence of calcium. This aggregation is largely Ca2(+)-independent (CI) and is completely and reversibly inhibited by cycloheximide. In contrast, when limb bud cells are first allowed to recover from Ca2(+)-free trypsin:collagenase dissociation, aggregation of the surviving population is exclusively Ca2(+)-dependent (CD) and completely and reversibly inhibited by cycloheximide. The presence of exogenous calcium during initial cell dissociation retains a functional CD aggregation mechanism. However, incubation of such cells with EGTA releases the CD component and converts the cells to a predominantly CI aggregation. Rabbits were immunized with limb bud cells exhibiting the recovered CD aggregation mechanism and the resulting immune sera were screened for their effect on cell aggregation. Relative to pre-immune sera, intact immune IgG agglutinated dissociated limb bud cells whilst immune Fab fragments inhibited their aggregation. The aggregation-inhibiting antiserum recognizes five major limb bud cell surface components with apparent molecular weights of 72K, 50K, 23K, 14.5K and 8.5K (K = 10(3) Mr), respectively. Limb bud cell surface plasma membranes were isolated by sucrose gradient density centrifugation and detergent-solubilized proteins coupled to Sepharose 4B with cyanogen bromide. Equivalent cell surface plasma membrane proteins were 125I-iodinated and applied to the affinity column. Limb bud cell surface protein affinity chromatography in the presence of exogenous calcium yields a single protein with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 8.5 K. This protein molecule elutes at 0.6 M NaCl, indicating a high affinity, is recognized by the aggregation-inhibiting antiserum, and is

  4. Progress and perils in the juvenile justice and mental health movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisso, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in the United States is experiencing a social movement aimed at responding to the mental and emotional problems of delinquent youths. Ironically, this movement arose in the wake of a decade of reform in juvenile justice that had set aside the system's 100-year tradition of rehabilitation for delinquents in the interests of their punishment and a primary emphasis on public safety. This article describes the recent juvenile justice and mental health movement, discusses the circumstances that motivated it, and provides examples of its progress. Now that the movement has taken hold, however, its future is threatened by several unintended consequences of the motives and strategies of those who succeeded in promoting the movement. Those potential perils are described with an eye to reducing their impact, thereby sustaining the movement and its potentially positive effects.

  5. The interaction between popular economy, social movements and public policies: A case study of the waste pickers' movement

    OpenAIRE

    van Zeeland, Angelique J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of expansion and sustainability of Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE). It focuses on the interaction between popular economy and SSE, and stresses the importance of collective action and public policies to enable the transition from the informal economy toward SSE. The main focus is on the waste pickers' movement. Experiences from Latin America, Asia and Africa show the possibilities of incorporating a significant contingent of informal waste pickers in sol...

  6. The movement continues. IPPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayatullah, A

    1997-06-01

    In her speech initiating the Kato Award in honor of Mme. Shidzue Kato, Dr. Attiya Inayatullah, president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) noted that Kato is one of the great women who served as a "founding mother" of the IPPF. The Kato award also highlights the IPPF's appreciation for the sustained strategic support received from the Japanese people and government. Through the momentum of grassroots family planning associations (FPAs), the IPPF has grown from eight FPAs in 1952 to 60 in 1974 and 160 today. That the conceptual work of population planners has also grown can be seen by examining the themes of the world population conferences. In 1974, the idea that development is the best contraceptive was considered novel. By 1984, planners were discussing the interrelationship between population, economic development, and quality of life. Then the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development produced a Program of Action that shifted attention from demographic, target-driven goals to democratic, client-centered goals emphasizing women's needs. The Program of Action's chapter on gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women is considered the strongest international statement on women's status. Another advance seen in 1994 was recognition of the need for partnerships between governments and the private sector. Inayatullah called upon the 160 IPPF FPAs to actively pursue such a partnership.

  7. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  8. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  10. Modeling Tourism Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, O. A.; Shembeleva, E. A.

    The basic approaches to decision making and modeling tourism sustainable development are reviewed. Dynamics of a sustainable development is considered in the Forrester's system dynamics. Multidimensionality of tourism sustainable development and multicriteria issues of sustainable development are analyzed. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of policies, sustainable tourism development strategies within an integrated and dynamic framework are discussed. Main modules that may be utilized for integrated modeling sustainable tourism development are proposed.

  11. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  12. The Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Associates with but Does Not Integrate into Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Ana; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Tamborero, Silvia; Pallás, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We propose a topological model in which the TMV MP HRs intimately associate with the cellular membranes, allowing maximum exposure of the hydrophilic domains of the MP to the cytoplasmic cellular components. IMPORTANCE To facilitate plant viral infection and spread, viruses encode one or more movement proteins (MPs) that interact with ER membranes. The present work investigated the membrane association of the 30K MP of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and the results challenge the previous topological model, which predicted that the TMV MP behaves as an integral membrane protein. The current data provide greatly needed clarification of the topological model and provide substantial evidence that TMV MP is membrane associated only at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane and that neither of its domains is integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen. Understanding the topology of MPs in the ER is vital for understanding the role of the ER in plant virus transport

  13. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  14. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  15. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  16. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement. PMID:23893301

  17. Sustainable Marketing : The Importance of Being a Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Reutlinger, Janina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...

  18. Sustainability: A new imperative in contaminated land remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Deyi; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed the emerging green and sustainable remediation movement in the US and Europe. • Identified three sources of pressures for emphasizing sustainability in the remediation field. • Presented a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation. • Developed an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making. - Abstract: Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economic systems. However, historical industrial operations have resulted in large areas of contaminated land that are only slowly being remediated. In recent years, sustainability has drawn increasing attention in the environmental remediation field. In Europe, there has been a movement towards sustainable land management; and in the US, there is an urge for green remediation. Based on a questionnaire survey and a review of existing theories and empirical evidence, this paper suggests the expanding emphasis on sustainable remediation is driven by three general factors: (1) increased recognition of secondary environmental impacts (e.g., life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, energy consumption, and waste production) from remediation operations, (2) stakeholders’ demand for economically sustainable brownfield remediation and “green” practices, and (3) institutional pressures (e.g., social norm and public policy) that promote sustainable practices (e.g., renewable energy, green building, and waste recycling). This paper further argues that the rise of the “sustainable remediation” concept represents a critical intervention point from where the remediation field will be reshaped and new norms and standards will be established for practitioners to follow in future years. This paper presents a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation, and an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making

  19. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  20. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system...... onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies...... and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective....

  1. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  2. Livestock biodiversity and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence

  3. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  4. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  5. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  6. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  7. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    instrument in the pursuit of sustainability.  Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  8. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Karthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  9. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  10. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mui, Michelle S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyze the threat posed by certain social movements during the post-Mao reform era and the various methods of social control used by the Chinese government to deal...

  11. Selection of Sustainable Processes using Sustainability ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products can be obtained by process pathways involving varying amounts and types of resources, utilities, and byproduct formation. When such competing process options such as six processes for making methanol as are considered in this study, it is necessary to identify the most sustainable option. Sustainability of a chemical process is generally evaluated with indicators that require process and chemical property data. These indicators individually reflect the impacts of the process on areas of sustainability, such as the environment or society. In order to choose among several alternative processes an overall comparative analysis is essential. Generally net profit will show the most economic process. A mixed integer optimization problem can also be solved to identify the most economic among competing processes. This method uses economic optimization and leaves aside the environmental and societal impacts. To make a decision on the most sustainable process, the method presented here rationally aggregates the sustainability indicators into a single index called sustainability footprint (De). Process flow and economic data were used to compute the indicator values. Results from sustainability footprint (De) are compared with those from solving a mixed integer optimization problem. In order to identify the rank order of importance of the indicators, a multivariate analysis is performed using partial least square variable importance in projection (PLS-VIP)

  12. Muscle Activation and Movement Coordination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to empirically develop a method of using electromyography to identify how humans coordinate their muscles during certain sequences of movement and the effect of an injured anterior cruciate ligament to muscle coordination. In this study, more simple movements of the lower extremities are examined and relatively accurate hypothesizes can be made solely based on anatomical theory. However, a general method for electromyographic studies would open up the possibili...

  13. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  14. Orthodontic tooth movement and bioelectricity.

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth H; Shetty K

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of orthodontics is now focused on the biology of tooth movement. Advanced molecular biology techniques has showed the researchers new avenue towards finding answers to the questions asked for the last few decades. Now it is possible for the researches to explore the lacunae in the field. One such field is, pharmaco-therapeutically or electrophysiologically enhancing the rate of tooth movement, improving the stability of the results, augmenting the anchorage. The voltage ...

  15. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chalil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO. India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for Indonesia and Malaysia, the two biggest CPO exporters in the world. This research using monthly price data from the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, EU28, India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Market integrations are tested with Cointegration Test, Vector Error Correction Model and Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results show that these markets are integrated, but European countries are unlikely to lead the price movement. Therefore, the concern on sustainable certification from the European countries still slowly spreads to other main importers, resulting in low absorption of CSPO. Keywords: market integration; sustainable palm oil; seemingly unrelated regression; vector Error correction model

  16. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  17. The Sustainable Development Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development concept approaches quality of life in complexity, as economic, social and environmental issues, promoting the idea of balance between economic development, social equity, efficient utilization and environment conservation.     An essential condition for achieving sustainable development is the right mix of macroeconomic policies coherent, consistent with resources to ensure sustainability of materials and energy used for growth.

  18. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  19. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  20. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  1. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  2. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  3. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Education for Sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability into African Universities (MESA) and the. Education for Sustainable Development in Africa (ESDA) project. Developed by the United. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the MESA brings environment and sustainability concerns into the mainstream in terms of teaching, ...

  7. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  8. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  9. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  10. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  11. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  12. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  13. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I; Cashman, Neil R

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1.

  14. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  15. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  16. The Social in Assessing for Sustainability. Fisheries in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Barclay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion that sustainability rests on three pillars – economic, environmental and social – has been widely accepted since the 1990s. In practice, however, the economic and environmental aspects have tended to dominate the sustainability agenda, and social aspects have been sidelined. Two reasons for this are: 1 there is a lack of data collected about which to build meaningful pictures of social aspects of sustainability for populations over time, and 2 there is a lack of recognition of the role of social factors in sustainability, and a related lack of understanding of how to analyse them in conjunction with economic and environmental factors. This paper surveys the literature about sustainability in fisheries, focussing on Australia, and focussing on the way social aspects have been treated. The paper finds that the problems that have been identified for assessing the social in sustainability in general are certainly manifest in fisheries. Management of Australian fisheries has arguably made great improvements to biological sustainability over the last decade, but much remains to be done to generate similar improvements in social sustainability for fishing communities. This is the case for government-run resource management as well as for initiatives from the private sector and conservation organizations as part of movements for corporate social responsibility and ethical consumerism. A significant challenge for improving sustainability in Australian fisheries, therefore, lies in improving data collection on social factors, and in bridging disciplinary divides to better integrate social with economic and biological assessments of sustainability.

  17. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...

  1. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  2. Sustainable Approaches for Surface Transportation Mortality in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines sustainable approach for surface transportation road mortality in Nigeria. Road transportation as a major mode of transportation and is the most used mode of transportation for the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. As a result of this, major obstacles and problems have ...

  3. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The 15-M movement in its cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreno-Caballud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exploration of the wide cultural context of the “indignados” or 15-M movement in the Spanish state. It starts by proposing that 15-M is one of the symptoms of a widespread erosion of the hegemonic “Culture of the transition”, which established a series of tacit agreements around the necessity of a vertical and expert society, based in the political parties system and financial capitalism. This erosion has been fostered by the emergence of the new digital technologies of communication, which have allowed the propagation of horizontal and empowering practices of cooperation. Instead of reproducing a public sphere traditionally ruled by the opinions of individual “experts”, people are using Internet for the creation of “knowledge communities” in which no one knows everything, but everyone shares what they know. Through this sharing cultures sometimes emerge projects in which communities are able of managing their resources in a sustainable way, by creating “commons”. 15-M showed its special sensibility towards forms of quotidian cooperation and common creation by trying to collectively manage the sustainability of common life in squares and camps. The movement should actually be understood, like the rest of the international “squares” movements that emerged in 2011, as a way of resisting the attempts of neoliberal elites at privatizing common wealth on a global scale.

  5. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  6. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  7. Occupy Education: Living and Learning Sustainability. Global Studies in Education. Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tina Lynn

    2012-01-01

    "Occupy Education" is motivated by the sustainability crisis and energized by the drive for social justice that inspired the Occupy movement. Situated within the struggle for sustainability taking place amid looming resource shortages, climate change, economic instability, and ecological breakdown, the book is a timely contribution to community…

  8. Sustainable Development Drivers, The Role of Leadership on Government, Business and NGO Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development cannot be prescribed – rather, it results from conscious personal choices in government, business and NGOs. This thought-provoking book explores both the origins and future of the global sustainable development movement, and provides an original overview of the driving forces

  9. [What is sustainability science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use

  10. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  11. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  12. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  13. Studies on exploratory eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the pioneering studies on eye movements by Prof. Takuya Kojima, which clarified the scarcity of adjustability of alertness level in schizophrenia. Shimazono first thought that closed-eye eye movement may provide objective and physiological indicator for brain activities during awake state. Prof. Kojima thought that depressive patients may also have latent inner tension and was also intrigued by the contrast of the scarcity of exploratory eye movement in schizophrenic patients. He found out that depressive patients are tense at rest but that accustomization takes place in them, while accustomization does not take place in schizophrenic patients. Isse researched on closed-eye eye movements in relation with alertness and disturbance of consciousness. Prof. Kojima invented eye camera to measure the exploratory eye movement and created Responsive Search Score (RSS), an indicator of the parts which the subject covers during the responsive search. Prof. Kojima's research on differentiation of schizophrenic patients was carried out as WHO and the result was replicated in different ethnicities. Clinical molecular genetic studies suggest that RSS reflects the disposition of susceptibility for schizophrenia and possible linkage between RSS and chromosome 22q. Brain imaging studies showed correlation between RSS and the volume of the right parietal eye field, right frontal eye field including the right supplementary eye field and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Based on these findings Prof. Kojima invented an apparatus which can monitor eye movements and show diagnostic sensitivity 75% and specificity 80% for schizophrenia. The apparatus is expected to be applied clinically in the future.

  14. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  15. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  16. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  17. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... performance. •Our results suggest that abiotic and biotic soil characteristics can shape climate change-driven plant movements by affecting growth of nonlocal migrants, a mechanism which should be integrated into predictions of future range shifts....

  18. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  19. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  20. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  1. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  2. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  3. MOBILITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ion Stancu, PhD.; Lect. Adriana Lăzărescu, PhD.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development focuses on meeting the needs of present without compromising future generations’ prospects of meeting the same needs plus those which will be present then. The concept of sustainable development was internationally established within the report “Our Common Future” of the World Commission on Environment and Development (a commission convened in 1983 by the General Assembly of United Nations). Reaching global sustainability, satisfying the needs of present without compro...

  4. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  5. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    of fur as material used to establish social distinctions from at least medieval times to the present, and been subject to moral condemnation and controversy. Our case inquiry review recent research projects and industry initiatives that seek to determine whether the fur can be seen as sustainable or not....... The paper discusses whether fur is about to lose or reclaim its legitimacy in an era of sustainable luxury, and concludes with reflections on depth and sustainable luxury?...

  6. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....

  7. Sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, Naim H. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Al Gobaisi, Darwish; Carvalho, Maria G. [International Foundation for Water Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cumo, Maurizio [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    The paper presents an overview of sustainable energy development and is aimed to emphasize the important aspects relevant to this activity. A short introduction, related to the present energy outlook with a survey of available data, is presented. This gives the possibility to assess the motivation for a sustainable energy development. Special attention is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its generic meaning. In this respect, particular attention is devoted to the discussion of different aspects of sustainability in the present world. In order to present an engineering approach to the sustainable development, attention is devoted to the review of sustainability criterions as they have to be introduced in the future products. The main emphasis is given to review a potential development in the energy engineering science which may lead to a sustainable energy development. Seven major areas are listed with specific problems and their relevance to the sustainable energy development. This includes the following areas: energy resources and development: efficiency assessment; clean air technologies; information technologies; new and renewable energy resources; environment capacity; mitigation of nuclear power threat to the environment. The education system is the milestone for any economic development. In this respect, sustainable energy development will require special attention to be devoted to the new development of the education system. The distance learning education system is envisages as the potential option for the knowledge dissemination of the new energy technologies. (Author)

  8. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  9. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....

  10. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  11. New York State's COSH Movement: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Unions, health and safety activists, and professionals came together to create Coalitions for Occupational Safety and Health (COSH groups) in a number of cities across the United States beginning in the 1970s. The COSHes have played an important and unique role in advocating worker health and safety since that time, through activities including technical assistance, training and education, and campaigns on workplace and public policies. In New York State, activist coalitions created eight COSH groups distributed around the state. This paper presents a history of New York's COSHes based on interviews with key participants. The interviews shed light on the origins of the COSH movement in New York, the development and activities of the COSHes, and the organizational trajectory of individual New York COSHes in response to both extra and intraorganizational challenges. Participants' accounts of these issues may be useful for those seeking to sustain the COSH movement.

  12. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog rotigaptide (ZP123) stimulates gap junction intercellular communication in human osteoblasts and prevents decrease in femoral trabecular bone strength in ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2005-01-01

    Gap junctions play an important role in bone development and function, but the lack of pharmacological tools has hampered the gap junction research. The antiarrhythmic peptides stimulate gap junction communication between cardiomyocytes, but effects in noncardiac tissue are unknown. The purpose...... of this study was to examine whether antiarrhythmic peptides, which are small peptides increasing gap junctional conductivity, show specific binding to osteoblasts and investigate the effect of the stable analog rotigaptide (ZP123) on gap junctional intercellular communication in vitro and on bone mass...... weight) or by continuous ip infusion (158 nmol per kilogram body weight per day). During metabolic stress, a high affinity-binding site (KD=0.1 nM) with low density (15 fmol/mg protein) for [125I]di-I-AAP10 was demonstrated. During physiological conditions, specific binding sites for [125I]AAP10 could...

  13. The Tumor Antigen NY-ESO-1 Mediates Direct Recognition of Melanoma Cells by CD4+ T Cells after Intercellular Antigen Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteneau, Jean Francois; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Gannagé, Monique

    2016-01-01

    NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells are of interest for immune therapy against tumors, because it has been shown that their transfer into a patient with melanoma resulted in tumor regression. Therefore, we investigated how NY-ESO-1 is processed onto MHC class II molecules for direct CD4(+) T cell recognition of melanoma cells. We could rule out proteasome and autophagy-dependent endogenous Ag processing for MHC class II presentation. In contrast, intercellular Ag transfer, followed by classical MHC class II Ag processing via endocytosis, sensitized neighboring melanoma cells for CD4(+) T cell recognition. However, macroautophagy targeting of NY-ESO-1 enhanced MHC class II presentation. Therefore, both elevated NY-ESO-1 release and macroautophagy targeting could improve melanoma cell recognition by CD4(+) T cells and should be explored during immunotherapy of melanoma. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. HIV-1 evades virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses by targeting systemic and intestinal B cells via long-range intercellular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Santini, Paul A; Sullivan, John S; He, Bing; Shan, Meimei; Ball, Susan C; Dyer, Wayne B; Ketas, Thomas J; Chadburn, Amy; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Knowles, Daniel M; Chiu, April; Sanders, Rogier W; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection but also facilitates viral spread. Here we found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgA class switching in systemic and intestinal lymphoid follicles by shuttling Nef from infected macrophages to B cells through a guanine-exchange factor-dependent pathway involving the amino-terminal anchor, central core and carboxy-terminal flexible loop of Nef. By showing stronger virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses in patients with Nef-deficient virions, our data suggest that HIV-1 exploits intercellular 'highways' as a 'Trojan horse' to deliver Nef to B cells and evade humoral immunity systemically and at mucosal sites of entry.

  15. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in scleroderma skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Deleuran, Mette; Heickendorff, Lene

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were present in scleroderma skin, and to compare their levels to concentrations measured in plasma and clinical parameters, we examined suction blister fluid and plasma...... from 13 patients with systemic sclerosis and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and biopsies were from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin. The levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both plasma and suction blister fluid from...... systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy volunteers. ICAM-1 was localized to vessels and perivascular mononuclear infiltrates by immunohistochemical methods. IL-2R was expressed by CD3-positive cells. The elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R in suction blister fluid point towards activation...

  16. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) - A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes....... Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has...... as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein...

  17. Protuberancias intercelulares pécticas en especies neotropicales de Marattia (Marattiaceae- Pteridophyta Intercellular pectic protuberances in neotropical species of Marattia (Marattiaceae-Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Lavalle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las protuberancias intercelulares pécticas (PIP presentes en las células del mesofilo de especies neotropicales de Marattia fueron estudiadas con MEB. Morfológicamente se encontraron 3 tipos principales: verrugas, filamentos y conexiones pécticas. El uso de su variación morfológica con carácter taxonómico resulta de utilidad como complemento de otros rasgos del esporófito.Intercellular pectic protuberances (IPP found in mesophyll cells of neotropical species of Marattia were studied with SEM. The IPP were examinated to determine if they could provide diagnostic characters. Morphologically, three major types are described: pectic warts, filaments and connections (strands. The use of morphological variation with taxonomic character is useful as a complement of other sporophyte traits.

  18. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  19. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at the University of Utah. Body movements involve force, balance, gravity and motion. “Biomechanics is effectively applying the physics of mechanics ...

  20. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  1. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  2. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  3. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  4. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mui, Michelle S

    2006-01-01

    .... What characteristics of a social movement threaten the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)? Does the CCP have a preferred method of social control, and has that method withstood the test of time? Does the increasing number of protests signify that China is losing control over its population? What does the future hold?

  5. Treatable inherited rare movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinnah, H A; Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash P; Cardoso, Francisco; Da Prat, Gustavo; de Koning, Tom J; Espay, Alberto J; Fung, Victor; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Gershanik, Oscar; Jankovic, Joseph; Kaji, Ryuji; Kotschet, Katya; Marras, Connie; Miyasaki, Janis M; Morgante, Francesca; Munchau, Alexander; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Rodriguez Oroz, Maria C; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Schöls, Ludger; Stamelou, Maria; Tijssen, Marina; Uribe Roca, Claudia; de la Cerda, Andres; Gatto, Emilia M

    There are many rare movement disorders, and new ones are described every year. Because they are not well recognized, they often go undiagnosed for long periods of time. However, early diagnosis is becoming increasingly important. Rapid advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms

  6. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The

  7. Proteomic analysis of HIV-1 Nef cellular binding partners reveals a role for exocyst complex proteins in mediating enhancement of intercellular nanotube formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukerji Joya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Nef protein contributes to pathogenesis via multiple functions that include enhancement of viral replication and infectivity, alteration of intracellular trafficking, and modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Nef stimulates formation of tunneling nanotubes and virological synapses, and is transferred to bystander cells via these intercellular contacts and secreted microvesicles. Nef associates with and activates Pak2, a kinase that regulates T-cell signaling and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, but how Nef promotes nanotube formation is unknown. Results To identify Nef binding partners involved in Pak2-association dependent Nef functions, we employed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of Nef immunocomplexes from Jurkat cells expressing wild-type Nef or Nef mutants defective for the ability to associate with Pak2 (F85L, F89H, H191F and A72P, A75P in NL4-3. We report that wild-type, but not mutant Nef, was associated with 5 components of the exocyst complex (EXOC1, EXOC2, EXOC3, EXOC4, and EXOC6, an octameric complex that tethers vesicles at the plasma membrane, regulates polarized exocytosis, and recruits membranes and proteins required for nanotube formation. Additionally, Pak2 kinase was associated exclusively with wild-type Nef. Association of EXOC1, EXOC2, EXOC3, and EXOC4 with wild-type, but not mutant Nef, was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays in Jurkat cells. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of EXOC2 in Jurkat cells abrogated Nef-mediated enhancement of nanotube formation. Using bioinformatic tools, we visualized protein interaction networks that reveal functional linkages between Nef, the exocyst complex, and the cellular endocytic and exocytic trafficking machinery. Conclusions Exocyst complex proteins are likely a key effector of Nef-mediated enhancement of nanotube formation, and possibly microvesicle secretion. Linkages revealed between Nef and the exocyst complex suggest a new paradigm of

  8. Recovery effect of onion peel extract against H2 O2 -induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication is mediated through quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Keunhwa; Kim, Jong Eun; Kang, Heerim; Chung, Min-Yu; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-05-01

    Cellular oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species has been reported to inhibit gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). In turn, the inhibition of GJIC can be attenuated by functional food compounds with antioxidant properties. In this study, we compared the protective effects of onion peel extract (OPE) and onion flesh extract (OFE) on oxidative stress-mediated GJIC inhibition, and investigated the mechanisms of action responsible. OPE restored H2 O2 -induced GJIC inhibition to a higher degree than OFE in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. OPE was found to inhibit H2 O2 -induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cx43. A radical scavenging assay demonstrated superiority of OPE over OFE, suggesting that the observed effects might be mediated via an antioxidant mechanism. Quercetin is the major compound that is likely to be responsible for the protective effect against H2 O2 -mediated GJIC inhibition. This study suggests that OPE, a material often discarded, may be of value for the future development of functional food products. This study demonstrates that onion peel extract (OPE) exhibits a protective effect against the inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) mediated by H2 O2 , which is likely to occur via its antioxidant activity. OPE contains significant concentrations of bioactive phenolic compounds. Reductions in oxidative stress can lead to recovery of GJIC, which has been reported to be implicated in the prevention and treatment of cancers. These findings suggest that onion peel, a common waste product, could be used as potential resources for functional food development. Onion peel could be processed into a quercetin-rich powder or a pill for the prevention of cancer and other oxidative stress-related diseases. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Different Modalities of Intercellular Membrane Exchanges Mediate Cell-to-cell P-glycoprotein Transfers in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Galas, Ludovic; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Rioult, Damien; Bultelle, Florence; Magal, Pierre; Webb, Glenn; Le Foll, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon by which tumor cells exhibit resistance to a variety of chemically unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs. The classical form of multidrug resistance is connected to overexpression of membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which acts as an energy dependent drug efflux pump. P-glycoprotein expression is known to be controlled by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Until now processes of P-gp gene up-regulation and resistant cell selection were considered sufficient to explain the emergence of MDR phenotype within a cell population. Recently, however, “non-genetic” acquisitions of MDR by cell-to-cell P-gp transfers have been pointed out. In the present study we show that intercellular transfers of functional P-gp occur by two different but complementary modalities through donor-recipient cells interactions in the absence of drug selection pressure. P-glycoprotein and drug efflux activity transfers were followed over 7 days by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in drug-sensitive parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells co-cultured with P-gp overexpressing resistant variants. An early process of remote transfer was established based on the release and binding of P-gp-containing microparticles. Microparticle-mediated transfers were detected after only 4 h of incubation. We also identify an alternative mode of transfer by contact, consisting of cell-to-cell P-gp trafficking by tunneling nanotubes bridging neighboring cells. Our findings supply new mechanistic evidences for the extragenetic emergence of MDR in cancer cells and indicate that new treatment strategies designed to overcome MDR may include inhibition of both microparticles and Tunneling nanotube-mediated intercellular P-gp transfers. PMID:22228759

  10. Ecopedagogy: A Movement between Critical Dialogue and Complexity: Proposal for a Categories System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, María de los Ángeles Vilches; Herrería, Alfonso Fernández; Rodríguez, Francisco Miguel Martínez

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research has been undertaken with the purpose of developing an integrated system of categories based on ecopedagogy. Founded on the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire, this movement moves towards complex thinking and holism. Its theoretical bases are set on principles of sustainability, biosensibility, ethics of care and global…

  11. Hot Spots and Hot Moments in Scientific Collaborations and Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John N.; Hackett, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are essential but little understood components of research; they catalyze and sustain creative scientific work and fuel the scientific and intellectual social movements (SIMs) that propel scientific change. Adopting a micro-sociological focus, we examine how emotions shape two intellectual processes central to all scientific work:…

  12. Sickness induced by head movements after different centrifugal G x-loads and durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, Suzanne A E; Bos, Jelte E.

    2007-01-01

    It has been found that sustained centrifugation on Earth may evoke sickness symptoms that are similar to those of the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS). As in SAS, incidence of this 'Sickness Induced by Centrifugation' (SIC) is about 50% and the symptoms are particularly evoked by head movements. By

  13. Understanding the geographical development of social movements: a web-link analysis of Slow Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, B.; Dormans, S.E.M.; Lagendijk, A.; Thelwall, M.

    2017-01-01

    Slow Food (SF) is a global, grassroots movement aimed at enhancing and sustaining local food cultures and traditions worldwide. Since its establishment in the 1980s, Slow Food groups have emerged across the world and embedded in a wide range of different contexts. In this article, we explain how the

  14. Health care consumerism movement takes a step forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Cutler, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    One of the contributing factors to both the increase in health care costs and the backlash to managed care was the lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care service, the effect of health care costs on profits and wages, and the need to engage consumers more actively as consumers in health care decisions. This article reviews the birth of the health care consumerism movement and identifies gaps in health care consumerism today. The authors reveal some of the keys to building a sustainable health care consumerism framework, which involves enlisting consumers as well as other stakeholders.

  15. Analysis of sustainable urban mobility plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Marijana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic problems, rather than in a conventional manner, i.e. through the construction of infrastructure and customization requirements, began to be implemented in a different way, by applying measures to motivate users to -use passenger car less, and that more of their daily activities are reached by nonmotorized modes of movement. Sustainable urban transport plans (SUP were introduced in legislation of the EU, strategic documents that help create a better quality of life in cities. For the purposes of this study, a review of the literature related to existing plans of some major European cities was carried out, as well as small, focusing on cities of the surroundings. On this basis, the similarities and differences were ephasized in proposed measures to reach the goals of sustainable development of transportation systems. In conclusion recommendations are given on the possibility of use of experiences and applications in all the individual local communities.

  16. Assessing sustainable freight policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine transportation demand management strategies related to long haul freight. It investigates freight : movements and truck vehicle miles traveled (TVMT) changes in response to certain transportation policies, inc...

  17. Sustaining Education for Sustainability in Turbulent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…

  18. Sustainability as Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Joanne; Rasche, Andreas; Kenny, Kevina

    2019-01-01

    Sustainability, as it relates to both social and environmental issues, is treated very differently among companies that incorporate the subject into their business strategies. In this case, we explore sustainability at Unilever whose management addresses it not as a risk to be managed or cost...

  19. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  20. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...