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Sample records for sustained inos activity

  1. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    . The NOS isoform involved, and the role of stress-mediated corticosterone release in NOS activation, was verified with the administration of selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (12.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), and the steroid synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole...... (24 mg/kg/day i.p.), administered for 21 days prior to and during the stress procedure. RESULTS: Stress evoked a sustained increase in NOS activity, but reduced NMDA receptor density and total GABA levels. Aminoguanidine or ketoconazole, but not 7-nitroindazole or saline, blocked stress-induced NOS...

  2. Sodium nitroprusside has leishmanicidal activity independent of iNOS

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    Natália Yoshie Kawakami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania . Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, with millions of new cases worldwide each year. Treatments are ineffective due to the toxicity of existing drugs and the resistance acquired by certain strains of the parasite. METHODS: We evaluated the activity of sodium nitroprusside in macrophages infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis . Phagocytic and microbicidal activity were evaluated by phagocytosis assay and promastigote recovery, respectively, while cytokine production and nitrite levels were determined by ELISA and by the Griess method. Levels of iNOS and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Sodium nitroprusside exhibited in vitro antileishmanial activity at both concentrations tested, reducing the number of amastigotes and recovered promastigotes in macrophages infected with L. amazonensis . At 1.5µg/mL, sodium nitroprusside stimulated levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide, but not IFN-γ. The compound also increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, but not expression of iNOS, suggesting that the drug acts as an exogenous source of nitric oxide. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium nitroprusside enhances microbicidal activity in Leishmania -infected macrophages by boosting nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine.

  3. Macrophages activate iNOS signaling in adventitial fibroblasts and contribute to adventitia fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Li, Xiaodong; Sheng, Chengyu; Chen, Xiaohui; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Dingliang; Gao, Pingjin

    2016-12-30

    A large amount of NO is generated through the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway from the vascular adventitia in various vascular diseases. However, it is currently not fully understood how the iNOS signaling pathway is activated. In the present study, this question was addressed in the context of adventitial cellular interactions. A rat model of acute hypertension in the contralateral carotid arteries was established through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery. In this model, activated macrophages were found surrounded by a large quantity of iNOS-expressing adventitial fibroblasts (AFs), suggesting a possible causal relationship between macrophages and iNOS activation of the neighboring AFs. In an in vitro model, a macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 was first activated by LPS treatment. The supernatant was then harvested and applied to treat primary rat AFs. iNOS in AFs was activated robustly by the supernatant treatment but not by LPS itself. Treating AFs with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) also activated iNOS signaling, suggesting that the IL-1β pathway might be a possible mediator. As a consequence of the iNOS activation, total protein nitration and S-nitrosylation significantly increased in those AFs. Additionally, increased deposition of type I and type III collagens was observed in both in vitro and in vivo models. The collagen deposition was partially restored by an iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. These findings highlight the importance of iNOS signaling during vascular inflammation, and advance our understanding of its activation through a cellular interaction perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  5. Nitric oxide associated with iNOS expression inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and induces memory impairment during acute hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayabanu, M; Kumaran, D; Nair, R Unnikrishnan; Srinivas, P; Bhagat, Neeta; Aneja, R; Katyal, Anju

    2008-09-16

    The mechanisms responsible for cholinergic dysfunction associated learning and memory impairment during hypoxia are not well-understood. However it is known that inflammatory mediators like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) hamper the functions of cholinergic neurons. In this present experiment we made an effort to study the iNOS expression mediated retrograde and anterograde memory impairment in Balb/c mice following acute hypobaric hypoxia (at an altitude of 23,000ft for 6h) using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance step-through tasks. Our results demonstrated that hypoxia transiently impairs the retrograde memory without affecting the anterograde memory functions, accompanied with a substantial rise in iNOS expression and nitric oxide levels in cerebral cortex on days 2 and 3 post hypoxia. Treatment with aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor ), resulted in down-regulation of the iNOS expression, attenuation of the surge of nitric oxide (NO) in cerebral cortex and reversal of retrograde memory impairment due to hypoxia. Moreover the reduced AChE activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex were evident during post hypoxia re-oxygenation period, which was not observed in the hippocampus. Additionally, NO donor spermine NONOate could inhibit the AChE activity in brain homogenates in a concentration-dependent manner, which further substantiate that nitric oxide produced during post hypoxia re-oxygenation, primarily contributes to the observed inhibition of cortical AChE activity. Based on these experiments we hypothesize that the NO burst as a result of iNOS upregulation during hypoxia interrupts the memory consolidation by altering the cholinergic functions.

  6. Isolation, identification, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the shell of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z L; Liang, H B; Guo, W; Peng, Z F; Chen, J D; Zhang, Q Q

    2014-07-04

    In this study, two antioxidative substances, a homogeneous polysaccharide [abalone shell polysaccharide (ASP-1), corresponding to the first peak by size exclusion chromatography] and a non-polysaccharide compound [abalone shell compound (ACS-2), corresponding to the second peak by size exclusion chromatography], were extracted from the abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) shell. We primarily focused on the investigation of ASP-1. As a heteropolysaccharide, ASP-1 is comprised of 9.3% uronic acid and 86.4% saccharide, the latter including mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and two unknown monosaccharides, NO1 and NO2, with a mass ratio of 9.5:10.1:2.2:18.2:21.8:5.5:16.5:16.2. The antioxidant activity assays indicated that 5.0 mg/mL ASP-1 has significant scavenging effects on superoxide radicals (86.2%) compared to the positive control of ascorbic acid (95.6%).

  7. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-06-08

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  8. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

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    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  9. New constituents with iNOS inhibitory activity from mycelium of Antrodia camphorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sien-Sing; Wang, Guei-Jane; Wang, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Tzong-Huei

    2009-04-01

    In continuing our investigation on the bioactive constituents of mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, antroquinonol B (1), 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (2), 2,3-(methylenedioxy)-6-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol (4) along with antrodin D (5) were isolated by the guidance of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory assay and identified on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The effect of these compounds on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages was further evaluated. Compounds 4 and 5 significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, the IC(50) values being 32.2 +/- 0.1 and 26.3 +/- 1.6 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 possessed greater effects on NO inhibition, with IC(50) values of 16.2 +/- 0.8 and 14.7 +/- 2.8 microg/mL, respectively, but displayed cytotoxicity at considerably higher concentrations. Compound 3 showed the lowest percent cell viability of 45.5 +/- 1.8 % as observed in treated cells at a concentration of 16.8 microg/mL.

  10. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detector performances- hadrons · Atmospheric Parameters with INO ICAL (Muon only) · Octant sensitivity with hadron information · Mass hierarchy sensitivity · Synergy with other experiments: CPV · Human Resource development & Training · INO Outreach Activities · Why India should be interested in a project like INO ?

  11. Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration

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    Brown Guy C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-activated glia are seen in many CNS pathologies and may kill neurons through the release of cytotoxic mediators, such as nitric oxide from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and possibly superoxide from NADPH oxidase (NOX. We set out to determine the relative role of these species in inducing neuronal death, and to test the dual-key hypothesis that the production of both species simultaneously is required for significant neuronal death. Methods Primary co-cultures of cerebellar granule neurons and glia from rats were used to investigate the effect of NO (from iNOS, following lipopolysaccharide (LPS and/or cytokine addition or superoxide/hydrogen peroxide (from NOX, following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, ATP analogue (BzATP, interleukin-1β (IL-1β or arachidonic acid (AA addition on neuronal survival. Results Induction of glial iNOS caused little neuronal death. Similarly, activation of NOX alone resulted in little or no neuronal death. However, if NOX was activated (by PMA or BzATP in the presence of iNOS (induced by LPS and interferon-γ then substantial delayed neuronal death occurred over 48 hours, which was prevented by inhibitors of iNOS (1400W, NOX (apocynin or a peroxynitrite decomposer (FeTPPS. Neurons and glia were also found to stain positive for nitrotyrosine (a putative marker of peroxynitrite only when both iNOS and NOX were simultaneously active. If NOX was activated by weak stimulators (IL-1β, AA or the fibrillogenic prion peptide PrP106-126 in the presence of iNOS, it caused microglial proliferation and delayed neurodegeneration over 6 days, which was prevented by iNOS or NOX inhibitors, a peroxynitrite decomposer or a NMDA-receptor antagonist (MK-801. Conclusion These results suggest a dual-key mechanism, whereby glial iNOS or microglial NOX activation alone is relatively benign, but if activated simultaneously are synergistic in killing neurons, through generating peroxynitrite. This

  12. Shock wave trauma leads to inflammatory response and morphological activation in macrophage cell lines, but does not induce iNOS or NO synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Mattias; Plantman, Stefan; Gahm, Caroline; Sondén, Anders; Risling, Mårten; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2014-12-01

    Experimental CNS trauma results in post-traumatic inflammation for which microglia and macrophages are vital. Experimental brain contusion entails iNOS synthesis and formation of free radicals, NO and peroxynitrite. Shock wave trauma can be used as a model of high-energy trauma in cell culture. It is known that shock wave trauma causes sub-lytic injury and inflammatory activation in endothelial cells. Mechanical disruption of red blood cells can induce iNOS synthesis in experimental systems. However, it is not known whether trauma can induce activation and iNOS synthesis in inflammatory cell lines with microglial or macrophage lineage. We studied the response and activation in two macrophage cell lines and the consequence for iNOS and NO formation after shock wave trauma. Two macrophage cell lines from rat (NR8383) and mouse (RAW264.7) were exposed to shock wave trauma by the Flyer Plate method. The cellular response was investigated by Affymetrix gene arrays. Cell survival and morphological activation was monitored for 24 h in a Cell-IQ live cell imaging system. iNOS induction and NO synthesis were analyzed by Western blot, in cell Western IR-immunofluorescence, and Griess nitrite assay. Morphological signs of activation were detected in both macrophage cell lines. The activation of RAW264.7 was statistically significant (p 0.05). The growth rate of idle cells was unaffected and growth arrest was not seen. Trauma did not result in iNOS synthesis or NO induction. Gene array analyses showed high enrichment for inflammatory response, G-protein coupled signaling, detection of stimulus and chemotaxis. Shock wave trauma combined with low LPS stimulation instead led to high enrichment in apoptosis, IL-8 signaling, mitosis and DNA-related activities. LPS/IFN-ɣ stimulation caused iNOS and NO induction and morphological activation in both cell lines. Shock wave trauma by the Flyer Plate method caused an inflammatory response and morphological signs of activation in two

  13. MAP kinase phosphatase-2 plays a key role in the control of infection with Toxoplasma gondii by modulating iNOS and arginase-1 activities in mice.

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    Stuart Woods

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The dual specific phosphatase, MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2 has recently been demonstrated to negatively regulate macrophage arginase-1 expression, while at the same time to positively regulate iNOS expression. Consequently, MKP-2 is likely to play a significant role in the host interplay with intracellular pathogens. Here we demonstrate that MKP-2(-/- mice on the C57BL/6 background have enhanced susceptibility compared with wild-type counterparts following infection with type-2 strains of Toxoplasma gondii as measured by increased parasite multiplication during acute infection, increased mortality from day 12 post-infection onwards and increased parasite burdens in the brain, day 30 post-infection. MKP-2(-/- mice did not, however, demonstrate defective type-1 responses compared with MKP-2(+/+ mice following infection although they did display significantly reduced serum nitrite levels and enhanced tissue arginase-1 expression. Early resistance to T. gondii in MKP-2(+/+, but not MKP-2(-/-, mice was nitric oxide (NO dependent as infected MKP-2(+/+, but not MKP-2(-/- mice succumbed within 10 days post-infection with increased parasite burdens following treatment with the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. Conversely, treatment of infected MKP-2(-/- but not MKP-2(+/+ mice with nor-NOHA increased parasite burdens indicating a protective role for arginase-1 in MKP-2(-/- mice. In vitro studies using tachyzoite-infected bone marrow derived macrophages and selective inhibition of arginase-1 and iNOS activities confirmed that both iNOS and arginase-1 contributed to inhibiting parasite replication. However, the effects of arginase-1 were transient and ultimately the role of iNOS was paramount in facilitating long-term inhibition of parasite multiplication within macrophages.

  14. INO Project components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in Theni district of Tamil Nadu. Construction of the massive 50 kton magnetised Iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study properties of neutrinos. Construction of the INO centre- The Inter-Institutional Centre for High Energy Physics (IICHEP) at Madurai. Human Resource Development ( INO Graduate Training Program) ...

  15. saRNA guided iNOS up-regulation improves erectile function of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Mingchao; Yuan, Huixin; Zhan, Yin; Xu, Hua; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun; Li, Long-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Promoter targeted saRNAs mediate sequence specific up-regulation of gene expression. We explored the therapeutic effect of RNA activation mediated iNOS gene activation on improving erectile function in a rat model of diabetes mellitus. An optimal saRNA sequence specific for iNOS promoter was cloned into an adenoviral vector, resulting in AdU6/shiNOS and AdU6/shControl. The corresponding viruses were used to transduce cultured rat cavernous smooth muscle cells. Streptozotocin induced diabetes models were established in rats and used to test the effects of intracavernous delivery of iNOS saRNA viruses on erectile function. iNOS expression in the cavernous smooth muscle cells or penile tissue of treated rats was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracavernous pressure in response to cavernous nerve stimulation was measured using a data acquisition system on post-injection days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14. Adenovirus mediated expression of iNOS saRNA caused sustained up-regulation of iNOS in cavernous smooth muscle cells. Intracavernous injection of AdU6/shiNOS activated iNOS expression in vivo and significantly increased peak intracavernous pressure in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats via nitric oxide/intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation. Results show that saRNA mediated iNOS over expression in the penis can restore erectile function in streptozocin diabetic rats via the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute toxication of deltamethrin results in activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and up-regulation of caspase 3, iNOS gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harun; Altun, Serdar; Özdemir, Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that protects agricultural yields, including crops, fruits, and vegetables from insect-pests. It is known that deltamethrin toxication leads to metabolic disorders and has detrimental effects on the brain and liver in different organisms. However, the harmful effects of deltamethrin toxication on aquatic animals remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of deltamethrin toxication by performing a histopathological examination, an immunofluorescence assay, and a qRT-PCR on common carp. We observed that a low-dose (0.04μM) and a high-dose (0.08μM) of deltamethrin exposure caused lamellar cells hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in the gills, hyperemia, diffuse hydropic degenerations and focal necrosis in the hepatocytes, necrotic changes in the neurons, and also induced activation of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the gills, liver, and brain depending on the exposure time (24h, 48h, 72h and 96h). In addition, deltamethrin toxication caused the up-regulation of caspase-3 and the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) of the gene expression depending on the dose (0.04μM and 0.08μM) and the exposure time in the brain (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Our results indicated that long-term deltamethrin exposure could lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis on the different organs in common carp. Thus, deltamethrin toxication is dangerous for common carp populations, and the usage of deltamethrin should be controlled and restricted in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Work activities within sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Inflexinol on Nitric Oxide Generation and iNOS Expression via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation

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    Jae Woong Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflexinol, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon excisus. Many diterpenoids isolated from the genus Isodon (Labiatae have antitumor and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the antiinflammatory effect of inflexinol in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. As a result, we found that inflexinol (1, 5, 10 μM suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on iNOS and COX-2 expression, inflexinol also inhibited transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-κB via inhibition of IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into nucleus. These results suggest that inflexinol inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation, thereby inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells and astrocytes, and may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  19. Four new sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis and their iNOS inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiang-Hao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Su-Yu; Ding, Li-Qin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Three new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes named phaeocaulisins K-M (1-3), and one germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid with new ring system of 1,5- and 1,8-ether groups named phagermadiol (4), were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1, the first example of norsesquiterpene with tropone backbone, and compound 3 with a novel 1,2-dioxolane sesquiterpene alcohol were isolated from the genus Curcuma. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 value of 6.05 ± 0.43 μM. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for compounds 3 and 4 in C. phaeocaulis was also discussed.

  20. 8-Hydroxyquinoline inhibits iNOS expression and nitric oxide production by down-regulating LPS-induced activity of NF-κB and C/EBPβ in Raw 264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Woo, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jun Hee; Kim, Shin; Lee, Tae Jin; Jung, Eun Mi; Lee, Jin-Man; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2005-01-01

    In activated macrophage, large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting in acute or chronic inflammatory disorders. In Raw 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic inflammation, 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) inhibited the LPS-induced expression of both iNOS protein and mRNA in a parallel dose-dependent manner. 8HQ did not enhance the degradation of iNOS mRNA. To investigate the mechanism by which 8HQ inhibits iNOS gene expression, we examined the activation of MAP kinases in Raw 264.7 cells. We did not observe any significant change in the phosphorylation of MAPKs between LPS alone and LPS plus 8HQ-treated cells. Moreover, 8HQ significantly inhibited the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), but not activator protein-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein. Taken together, these results suggest that 8HQ acts to inhibit inflammation through inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression through blockade of C/EBPβ DNA-binding activity and NF-κB activation

  1. Dexmedetomidine attenuates neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury by suppressing NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS activation

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    Feng Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Dexmedetomidine (DEX possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of DEX in neuropathic pain is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine DEX an α2-adrenoceptor agonist could improve pain hypersensitivity and reduce inflammatory in a chronic constriction injury (CCI model of the sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dex was intrathecally administrated 1-h after operation. The paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL were measured on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after operation, respectively. On day 21, all the rats were decapitated to collect the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord to examine IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS mRNA levels using RT-PCR. The postoperative MWT and PWTL were significantly decreased in CCI, and DEX groups as compared to those before surgery and Sham group (P < 0.05. And DEX reversed this trend (P < 0.05. Interleukin 1 (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA expression significantly increased postsurgery in CCI group as compared to that of Sham group (P < 0.05; DEX blocked increased IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA levels (P < 0.05. DEX may alleviate neuropathic hypersensitivity and inflammation partially by inhibiting NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS expression in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain resulting from CCI of the sciatic nerve.

  2. Association of Inorganics Accumulation with the Activation of NF-κB Signaling Pathway and the iNOS Expression of Lung Tissue in Xuanwei Lung Cancer Patients

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    Jiapeng YANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Indoor air pollution induces asthma, leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and may promote lung cancer. Our previous studies found that the accumulation of inorganic particulate matter that is due to indoor air pollution can lead to damage to alveolar cells and activation of signaling pathway, and ultimately provoke tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to explore the accumulation of inorganics and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling pathway of lung tissue in Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Methods From December 2013 to November 2014, 48 cases Xuanwei patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University were enrolled in this study and compared with lung cancer patients from other regions. The ultrastructure of postoperative specimens was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM to explore the occurrence of inorganic particles. Serum cytokines were analyzed. Then, the expression levels of NF-κB-p65 protein and iNOS protein in postoperative specimens was explored by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Finally, 8-OHdG accumulation in lung cancer tissues and urine was measured. Results A large number of nanoscale inorganics were observed in alveolar type II cells and macrophages located in adjacent tissues of lung cancer with Xuanwei patients. Silicon (Si content was found in inorganic elemental analysis. The serum interleukin (IL-1β levels (31.50±19.16 pg/mL of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients were remarkably higher than those from other regions (11.33±6.94 pg/mL (P<0.01, with statistically significant difference. The pathological tissues of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients express NF-κB-p65, and iNOS expression were significantly higher than those of patients from non-Xuanwei regions. No significant difference was found between cancerous and normal adjacent tissues. Xuanwei lung

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoids: Genistein, Kaempferol, Quercetin, and Daidzein Inhibit STAT-1 and NF-κB Activations, Whereas Flavone, Isorhamnetin, Naringenin, and Pelargonidin Inhibit only NF-κB Activation along with Their Inhibitory Effect on iNOS Expression and NO Production in Activated Macrophages

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    Mari Hämäläinen

    2007-01-01

    The present study characterises the effects and mechanisms of naturally occurring phenolic compounds on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages. The results partially explain the pharmacological efficacy of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory compounds.

  4. Inositoylated platelet-activating factor (Ino-C2-PAF) modulates dynamic lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions and alleviates psoriasis-like skin inflammation in two complementary mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Susann; Schön, Margarete; Hildmann, Annette; Claßen, Anna; John, Swen-Malte; Danker, Kerstin; Schön, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasis, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-governed inflammatory disorder with prominent dysregulation of cutaneous vascular functions, has evolved into a model disorder for studying anti-inflammatory therapies. We present experimental in vitro and in vivo data on 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(2-(myo-inositolyl)-ethyl)-sn-glycero-3-(R/S)-phosphatidyl-choline (Ino-C2-PAF), the lead compound of a class of synthetic glycosylated phospholipids, in anti-inflammatory therapy. Ino-C2-PAF strongly induced apoptosis only in TNFα-stimulated, but not in untreated human vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, TNFα-induced endothelial adhesion molecules that mediated the rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes (vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and ICAM-1) were selectively downregulated by Ino-C2-PAF. Similarly, expression of L-selectin, VCAM-1 receptor α4β1 integrin , and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced without induction of apoptosis. Functionally, these changes were accompanied by significant impairment of rolling and adhesion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes on TNFα-activated endothelial cells in a dynamic flow chamber system. When the therapeutic potential of Ino-C2-PAF was assessed in two complementary mouse models of psoriasis, K5.hTGFβ1 transgenic and JunB/c-Jun-deficient mice, Ino-C2-PAF led to significant alleviation of the clinical symptoms and normalized the pathological cutaneous changes including vascularization. There were no overt adverse effects. These findings suggested that Ino-C2-PAF is a potential candidate in the therapy of inflammatory skin diseases that include abnormal vascular functions.

  5. On the sustainability of an activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Daniel S

    2014-06-12

    This paper develops a framework to determine the sustainability of a general activity. We define an activity as an action or process that uses one or more resources and that responds either wholly or partially to a demand. A definition for sustainability is developed and is contingent on whether or not an activity can be sustained according to the available resources, the duration of an activity, the cost of its execution, or whether substitution is possible. A sustainability condition is met when the duration, cost and the chain of dependent activities satisfies the demand. Two conditions for sustainability are developed: a strong condition when the demand is met with no substitution and a weak condition when the demand is met via substitution. In the latter case, we show that the set of all sustainable activities is a subset of a N-level union of sustainable activities and forms a topological cover.

  6. Active learners in sustainable electronics and it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ole

    This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project.......This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project....

  7. Ativação de plaquetas de eqüinos com laminite induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina Platelets activation in equine with induced laminitis and treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Paes Leme

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ativação de plaquetas em 20 eqüinos com laminite induzida, tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina. As alterações de plaquetas incluíram mudança de forma, alteração da relação entre os eixos maior e menor, aumento de perímetro, emissão de pseudópodes, aumento no número dealfa-grânulos e de grânulos de glicogênio e redução no número degama-grânulos. As plaquetas de eqüinos, quando ativadas, apresentaram perfil de organela diferente de plaquetas normais, e as drogas antiinflamatórias, não-esteroidais, demonstraram atividade na ativação plaquetária de eqüinos in vivo. O flunixin meglumina apresentou melhor atividade em modular a ativação plaquetária de eqüinos in vivo do que a fenilbutazona e o ketoprofeno.The platelets activation from 20 equines submitted to laminitis induction and treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin, was evaluated. The platelets changes included shape change, altered relations between axis, increased perimeter, pseudopodia, increased alpha-granules and glycogen-granules, and decreased in gamma-granules. Platelets when activated present a different organelle profile than normal ones. Equine activated platelets had different organelles profile than normal ones, and anti-inflammatory drugs can modulate the platelet activation, being the flunixin meglumin better than phenylbutazone and ketoprophen.

  8. Association of Activation of Induced COX-2, iNOS and Cytokines with NF-kappa B Depression by Taiwan Wild Grape Ethanolic Extract in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yi-Han; Lin, Yu-Chin; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2017-08-31

    Taiwan wild grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana; VTT) is an important traditional herbal medicine used to treat muscle injuries and acute and chronic pain of the ligaments. Information on its bioactivity and the underlying mechanisms, which have not been elucidated thus far, is needed to demonstrate its value for pharmacological and clinical use. This study presents evidence to clarify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanolic extract of VTT stem (VTTEtOH) and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in such biactivities. In the mice, VTTEtOH significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing response (P < 0.01), formalin-induced licking time (P < 0.01), and edema paw volume at 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. VTTEtOH obviously decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001), nuclear factor-kappa B (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (P < 0.001) and Nitric oxide (P < 0.001) in edema-paw tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects might involve significant inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 through suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of the levels of various inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide. Our findings provided pharmacological and histopathological evidences that VTTEtOH alleviates inflammatory pain-related diseases.

  9. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid

  10. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  11. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  12. Rutin and rutin-conjugated gold nanoparticles ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis in rats through inhibition of NF-κB and iNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Anum; Kunwar, Bimal; Mazhar, Maryam; Faizi, Shaheen; Ahmed, Dania; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Simjee, Shabana U

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-arthritic mechanism of bioflavonoids, rutin and rutin-conjugated gold nanoparticles (R-AuNPs) by determining their role in the modulation of NF-κB and iNOS expression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rats. Arthritis was induced by the subcutaneous administration of bovine type II collagen. Treatment was started with rutin, indomethacin + rutin (I + R) and R-AuNPs on the day of CIA induction. The severity of arthritis was determined by measuring the arthritic score on alternate days until mean arthritic score of 4 was observed. The NO and PO levels were also analyzed in serum samples. NF-κB and iNOS expression levels were determined in spleen tissue samples by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Marked reduction in the arthritic score as well as in the NO and PO levels was observed in the treated groups. A significant downregulation in the NF-κB and iNOS expression levels was also observed in the treatment groups compared to the arthritic control group. Collectively, the findings suggest potential clinical role of rutin and R-AuNPs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, showed anti-osteoarthritic activities through inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression, p38 and ERK phosphorylation and blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-ming; Ding, Qian-hai; Chen, Wei-ping; Luo, Ru-bin

    2013-10-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In present study, we investigated whether vorinostat can inhibit the catabolic effects of IL-1β in vitro, especially the inhibition of MMPs and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) through the attenuation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in human chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were either left untreated or treated with various concentrations of vorinostat followed by incubation with IL-1β (5ng/mL). Effects of vorinostat on IL-1β-induced gene and protein expression of iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were verified by quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Production of NO, MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 released in culture supernatant was estimated using commercially available kits. The roles of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the regulation of targeted genes and the mechanism involved in vorinostat mediated modulation of these genes were determined by Western blot using specific antibodies. We found that vorinostat down-regulated iNOS, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression and up-regulated TIMP-1 expression in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the release of NO, MMP-1 and MMP-13 secreted from IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes was also suppressed by vorinostat. Interestingly, vorinostat selectively inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 and ERK1/2 activation without affecting JNK activation. Furthermore, we observed that vorinostat inhibited NF-κB pathway by suppressing the degradation of I-κBα and attenuating NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that vorinostat may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of OA. © 2013.

  14. Let's talk about INO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-07-13

    A. Raychaudhuri. IASc Mid-year Meeting July 13, 2007. – p. 1/30 ... we have learned in the last six years. ... We have so many new questions, ... We are most certain of one thing: neutrinos will continue to sur- prise us. ... APS. Neutrino Study Group ..... 140 layers of 6cm iron, 2.5cm gap for active elements. 1.3T Magnetic field.

  15. The INO80 remodeller in transcription, replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Jérôme; Gasser, Susan M; Papamichos-Chronakis, Manolis

    2017-10-05

    The accessibility of eukaryotic genomes to the action of enzymes involved in transcription, replication and repair is maintained despite the organization of DNA into nucleosomes. This access is often regulated by the action of ATP-dependent nucleosome remodellers. The INO80 class of nucleosome remodellers has unique structural features and it is implicated in a diverse array of functions, including transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Underlying these diverse functions is the catalytic activity of the main ATPase subunit, which in the context of a multisubunit complex can shift nucleosomes and carry out histone dimer exchange. In vitro studies showed that INO80 promotes replication fork progression on a chromatin template, while in vivo it was shown to facilitate replication fork restart after stalling and to help evict RNA polymerase II at transcribed genes following the collision of a replication fork with transcription. More recent work in yeast implicates INO80 in the general eviction and degradation of nucleosomes following high doses of oxidative DNA damage. Beyond these replication and repair functions, INO80 was shown to repress inappropriate transcription at promoters in the opposite direction to the coding sequence. Here we discuss the ways in which INO80's diverse functions help maintain genome integrity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. EDF Group: activity and sustainable development 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a map illustrating the worldwide dimension of EDF, and an interview of the EDF's chairman, this report presents and comments some sustainable development indicators for EDF activity in 2010. Then, after a presentation of the world energy context, it presents and comments EDF's main activities: energy production and engineering, network management, trading. It presents and comments the operational performance of the company in different countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and other countries) and evokes additional activities. The next chapter deals with human resources and with innovation and R and D activities. The last chapter presents governance structures and financial results

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of shea butter through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the Nf-κB pathway in LPS-activated J774 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nandini; Chakrabarti, Rina; Das, Rakha H; Gautam, Hemant K

    2012-01-12

    Shea butter is traditionally used in Africa for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of shea butter (SBE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774. It was observed that SBE significantly reduced the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in the culture supernatants in a dose dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also inhibited by SBE. These anti-inflammatory effects were due to an inhibitory action of SBE on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 mRNA expressions. Moreover, SBE efficiently suppressed IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS. These findings explain the molecular bases of shea butter's bioactivity against various inflammatory conditions and substantiate it as a latent source of novel therapeutic agents.

  18. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is : incorporating and embedding sustainabilit...

  19. The heme oxygenase-1 inducer THI-56 negatively regulates iNOS expression and HMGB1 release in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and CLP-induced septic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Hwa Jin; Tsoyi, Konstantin; Kim, Young Min; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear DNA binding protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has recently been suggested to act as a late mediator of septic shock. The effect of ((S)-6,7-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxynaphthylmethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, also known as THI-56, in an experimental model of sepsis was investigated. THI-56 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties in response to LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, THI-56 significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of HMGB1 in activated macrophages. THI-56 activated NE-F2-regulated factor 2 (Nrf-2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). The specific knockdown of the HO-1 gene by HO-1 siRNA significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of THI-56 on iNOS expression and HMGB1 release in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Importantly, THI-56 administration protected animals from death induced by either a lethal dose of LPS or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Furthermore, the ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine, and HMGB1 levels in the blood were significantly increased in CLP-induced septic mice, and the administration of THI-56 reduced these levels in a concentration-dependent and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX)-sensitive manner. In addition, the administration of THI-56 significantly ameliorated not only lung damage but also macrophage infiltration in the livers of CLP-induced septic mice, and these effects were also abrogated in the presence of ZnPPIX. Thus, we conclude that THI-56 significantly attenuates the proinflammatory response induced by LPS and reduces organ damage in a CLP-induced sepsis model through the upregulation of Nrf-2/HO-1.

  20. ANDRA - Activity and sustainable development report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Renauld, Valerie; Sanz, Carole

    2012-07-01

    This annual report addresses the following aspects: governance (missions, localizations, institutional partners, clients, Meuse/Haute-Marne land planning scheme, underground research laboratory, Cigeo project), human resources (accident prevention, salaried personnel, customer relationship management, next steps for the Cigeo project), public service missions (polluted sites, waste confinement in Pargny-sur-Saulx, the radium diagnosis operation, a remote declaration as a new service to prepare the national inventory for 2012), industrial activities (the industrial design phase of the Cigeo project, the Manche storage centre, the Aube storage centre), environmental activities (the Observatory of the environment, the weak impact of the storage centres, the evolution of analysis laboratory of the industrial directorate), scientific policy, technological researches, experiments and developments, international activity and relationships, sustainable development, dialogue, transparency and communication, future generations, and prospective

  1. Expression of beta-catenin, COX-2 and iNOS in colorectal cancer: relevance of COX-2 adn iNOS inhibitors for treatment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Kwan; Gul, Yunus A; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Talib, Arni; Seow, Heng Fong

    2004-01-01

    Promising new pharmacological agents and gene therapy targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could modulate treatment of colorectal cancer in the future. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression fo beta-catenin and teh presence of COX-2 and iNOS in colorectal cancer specimens in Malaysia. This is a useful prelude to future studies investigating interventions directed towards COX-2 adn iNOS. A cross-section study using retrospective data over a 2-year period (1999-2000) involved 101 archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of colorectal cancers that were surgically resected in a tertiary referral. COX-2 production was detected in adjacent normal tissue in 34 sample (33.7%) and in tumour tissue in 60 samples (59.4%). More tumours expressed iNOS (82/101, 81.2%) than COX-2. No iNOS expression was detected in adjacent normal tissue. Intense beta-catenin immunoreactivity at the cell-to-cell border. Poorly differentiated tumours had significantly lower total beta-catenin (p = 0.009) and COX-2 scores (p = 0.031). No significant relationships were established between pathological stage and beta-catenin, COX-2 and iNOS scores. the accumulation of beta-catenin does not seem to be sufficient to activate pathways that lead to increased COX-2 and iNOS expression. A high proportion of colorectal cancers were found to express COX-2 and a significant number produced iNOS, suggesting that their inhibitors may be potentially useful as chemotherapeutic agents in the management of colorectal cancer.

  2. Women's participation in sustainable crop farming activities in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of women's participation in sustainable crop farming activities in Ogun state. Determined various sustainable crop farming activities engaged in by women categorised them on the basis of their level of participation and identified various means of improving their level of participation in crop ...

  3. India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bility study. This study includes possible location(s) for INO, physics issues and associated choice of detector; subsequent detector R&D, and detailed physics sim- ... project). The vertical overburden is around 1.3 km. All-around cover of more than 1 km exists, with the laboratory cavern to be dug at the end of a tunnel.

  4. Avaliação de dietas para eqüinos de uso militar em atividade física moderada Evaluation of diets for military horses in moderate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maia Galvão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar dietas de cavalos de uso militar em atividade física moderada. O experimento foi realizado no Regimento Escola de Cavalaria do Exército Brasileiro, onde foram avaliadas as dietas dos eqüinos do Esquadrão de Cerimonial. No ensaio de desempenho, foi utilizado delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, compostos de três tratamentos, sendo o bloco a idade dos animais e os tratamentos, as dietas experimentais. Na dieta I, quinze animais receberam dietas com ração comercial com feno de alfafa e coastcross incorporados ao pelete; na dieta II, quinze animais receberam ração comercial peletizada e, na dieta III, quatorze animais receberam ração comercial peletizada semelhante à dieta II, acrescida de 3,0 kg de aveia hidropônica. Em todas as dietas, foram adicionados 3,0 kg de feno de coastcross. Em seguida, foi conduzido o ensaio de digestão em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com os três tratamentos supracitados e quatro repetições, além da coleta total de fezes, para avaliação da digestibilidade dos nutrientes das dietas experimentais. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os animais alimentados com as dietas experimentais tiveram o peso vivo e escore corporal inalterados pelas variações dos conteúdos de nutrientes das mesmas. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade foram afetados pela dietas experimentais e, de acordo com os resultados observados, a dieta contendo ração comercial com feno incorporado ao pelete, mostrou-se mais digestível. O consumo de energia e proteína digestível nas dietas avaliadas foi adequado às atividades militares e o consumo de fibra dietética (expressa em FDN e FDA foi adequado às recomendações mínimas necessárias para os eqüinos.This study aims to evaluate diets for military horses in moderate activity. This experiment was conducted at Cavalry

  5. Transforming Sustainability Development Education in Malaysian Schools through Greening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Mahat; Shaharudin, Idrus; Mohmadisa, Hashim; Nasir, Nayan; Yazid, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the practice of sustainability among Malaysian Secondary Schools involved in the Sustainable Schools Program Environmental Award (SLAAS). The research attempts to identify the SLAAS effects on teachers' and students' behaviors after direct involvement with the activities of the program. The cluster sampling technique…

  6. ANDRA - 2012 activity and sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renauld, Valerie; Levert, Anne-Sophie; Muzerelle, Sophie; Cassoli, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    After a brief presentation of the main events during 2012, a recall of the ANDRA's mission (national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes), and a brief presentation of staffing data, this report presents and comments the activities of the ANDRA in the industrial domain (the Cigeo project for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, activities of the Aube centres and of the Manche storage centre, perspectives for low-activity long-life wastes, decontamination of polluted sites), in the scientific field (European projects, support to education and training, participation to a colloquium on clays, activities in the field of numerical simulation, activities of the 'Observatoire de l'Environnement'). The next part address the international activities, local commitments (in relationship with the different storage and industrial centres, or in the field of education and training), and activities related to communication and information

  7. Sustainability assessment of active packaging incorporating nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HAI

    2017-01-01

    Packaging plays an important role in ensuring food safety and quality. The development antimicrobial packaging enables actively inhibiting/killing the spoilage microorganisms, and thus extending food product's shelf life. Generally, 50% shelf life extension is possible. The interest for using metallic nanoparticles in active packaging derives from its superior antimicrobial efficacy and no negative impact on the food sensory properties. In this thesis, the packaging material of concern is...

  8. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M. Keith [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Barnett, Russell [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  9. The mTOR kinase inhibitor rapamycin decreases iNOS mRNA stability in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive astrocytes are capable of producing a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators and potentially neurotoxic compounds, including nitric oxide (NO. High amounts of NO are synthesized following up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS. The expression of iNOS is tightly regulated by complex molecular mechanisms, involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR kinase modulates the activity of some proteins directly involved in post-transcriptional processes of mRNA degradation. mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase that plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism. It is also a key regulator of intracellular processes in glial cells. However, with respect to iNOS expression, both stimulatory and inhibitory actions involving the mTOR pathway have been described. In this study the effects of mTOR inhibition on iNOS regulation were evaluated in astrocytes. Methods Primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes were activated with different proinflammatory stimuli, namely a mixture of cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-1β or by LPS plus IFNγ. Rapamycin was used at nM concentrations to block mTOR activity and under these conditions we measured its effects on the iNOS promoter, mRNA and protein levels. Functional experiments to evaluate iNOS activity were also included. Results In this experimental paradigm mTOR activation did not significantly affect astrocyte iNOS activity, but mTOR pathway was involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. Rapamycin did not display any significant effects under basal conditions, on either iNOS activity or its expression. However, the drug significantly increased iNOS mRNA levels after 4 h incubation in presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli. This stimulatory effect was transient, since no differences in either iNOS mRNA or protein levels were detected after 24 h. Interestingly

  10. Challenges for sustainability of home based economic activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors accountable for successful and sustainable home based economic activities were determined. Impacts of home based economic activities were found to be significant in the education of the children, income security and social welfare of families. The study emphasized home economic entrepreneurial education, ...

  11. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ activated NO production; in this condition andrographolide (1–100 μM) inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 17.4±1.1 μM. Andrographolide also reduces the expression of iNOS protein level but without a significant effect on iNOS mRNA. The reduction of iNOS activity is thought to be caused by decreased expression of iNOS protein.In a protein stability assay, andrographolide moderately but significantly reduced the amount of iNOS protein as suggested by accelerating degradation. Furthermore, andrographolide also inhibited total protein de novo synthesis as demonstrated by [35S]-methionine incorporation.As a whole, these data suggest that andrographolide inhibits NO synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS protein and the reduction could occur through two additional mechanisms: prevention of the de novo protein synthesis and decreasing the protein stability via a post-transcriptional mechanism. It is also possible that inhibition of iNOS protein expression and NO production under immune stimulation and/or bacteria infection may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of andrographolide as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:10780958

  12. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  13. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  14. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of S. tenuifolia as well as its effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycleooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell damage in macrophage cells. Methods: The antioxidant activities of the plant extract ...

  15. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein Nulend, J.; van Rheden, R.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  16. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Rheden, R.E.M. van; Bronckers, A.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  17. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. iNOS EXPRESSION AND NO PRODUCTION CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIRECT EFFECTS OF BCG ON UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA CELL BIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gopitkumar; Zhang, Guangjian; Chen, Fanghong; Cao, YanLi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; See, William A.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evidence suggests that oxidative stress occurring as a consequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (iNOS/NO) contributes to the biologic effects of Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG). Objective of the current study is to examine iNOS expression, NO production and the biologic impact of NO, on established intermediate end points for the human urothelial carcinoma cell response to BCG. MATERIALS AND METHODS Quantitative rt-PCR and real time measurement of NO was used to assess iNOS and NO production respectively, in two human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines, in response to BCG. The effect of blocking NO production using the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W was determined for multiple intermediate end points characterizing BCGs direct effects on tumor cell biology. Activation of NF-κB and NRF2 signaling pathways, transactivation of genes including p21, CD54, IL6, IL8, CXCL1, CXCL3, CCL20 and cytotoxicity as measured by vital dye exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay were measured in response to BCG with and without iNOS inhibition. RESULTS Exposure of UC cells to BCG significantly increased both iNOS expression and NO production. Inhibition of iNOS activity with 1400W significantly inhibited BCG’s direct biologic effect on UC cells for all of the end points evaluated. CONCLUSIONS iNOS expression, NO production and the associated oxidative stress play a central role in the response of UC cells to BCG exposure. Manipulation of oxidative stress may afford an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of BCG. PMID:24054867

  19. Orientation of sustainable management of chemical company with international activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Veiga Dias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for new business possibilities, either through international activities and capture niche markets appear as a distinct trend among organizations that target growth. For this growing number of organizations intent on investing in new issues related to values such as citizenship, ethics and environmental concerns. There is the adoption of a more responsive to the community or even the acceptance of responsibility for the impacts of their production processes, inserting themselves in what was initially called the Social Responsibility within the business context and developed the concept of Elkington (1998 generated a discussion about a new movement that was called a sustainable paradigm. It was observed generally that sustainable management is still very close to supporting tools and not as part of the construction of corporate strategy although it is possible to realize that they seek a greater involvement in this direction when they start to review their strategies. This question can be perceived at different levels between the companies, but which shows the issue is the lack of direct indicators for investment and sustainable return. Sustainable management proved to be a source of opportunity for overseas business for the companies studied, as preparation for work with environmental legislation, global requirements, raw materials and environmentally friendly processes organizations prepared to market in the global sphere, and Brazil note that the innovative products for their production process and / or alternative raw material still do not get the spotlight. Acting in a sustainable manner enables the development of strategies agreed with conscious posture and changes in cultural terms in general, which can create new opportunities for those who can keep up with the global business scenario.

  20. Activity-based Sustainability Assessment of Highly Automated Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki; Alting, Leo

    Sustainability of technology is a multifaceted endeavor and a main requirement from industry is to make it a profitable business case with clearly defined targets. To achieve that, a new assessment framework and applicable method [1] is presented which has been developed closely with industry. It.......g. “transportation”) down to smallest production units by using activity-based target setting in a consistent way to lowers risks in the planning phase of products and production........ It uses a top-down decision-making process known from financial target setting for each cost center and the well-known life-cycle perspective according to ISO 14040 [2] in Sustainability Assessment. Thereby it is possible to allocate absolute environmental thresholds of functionalities (e...

  1. Demethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome suppresses iNOS induction in an in vitro inflamed human intestinal mucosa model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchit, Mayura; Changtam, Chatchawan; Kimseng, Rungruedi; Utaipan, Tanyarath; Lertcanawanichakul, Monthon; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chunglok, Warangkana

    2014-01-01

    It is known that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) plays an integral role during intestinal inflammation, an important factor for colon cancer development. Natural compounds from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) have long been a potential source of bioactive materials with various beneficial biological functions. Among them, a major active curcuminoid, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages or microglia cells. However, the role of DMC on iNOS expression and NO production in an in vitro inflamed human intestinal mucosa model has not yet been elucidated. This study concerned inhibitory effects on iNOS expression and NO production of DMC in inflamed human intestinal Caco-2 cells. An in vitro model was generated and inhibitory effects on NO production of DMC at 65 μM for 24-96 h were assessed by monitoring nitrite levels. Expression of iNOS mRNA and protein was also investigated. DMC significantly decreased NO secretion by 35-41% in our inflamed cell model. Decrease in NO production by DMC was concomitant with down-regulation of iNOS at mRNA and protein levels compared to proinflammatory cytokine cocktail and LPS-treated controls. Mechanism of action of DMC may be partly due to its potent inhibition of the iNOS pathway. Our findings suggest that DMC may have potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases, especially in the gut.

  2. Sustainability of a physical activity and nutrition program for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, M; Lee, A H; Jancey, J; Burke, L; Howat, P

    2013-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to determine the impact of a low cost, home-based physical activity and nutrition program for older adults at 6 months follow-up. A follow-up survey was conducted 6 months after program completion via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Fat and Fibre Barometer were used to measure physical activity levels and dietary behaviours, respectively. Self-reported height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were obtained. Changes over three time points of data collection (baseline, post-program, follow-up) and differences between the intervention and control groups were assessed. The use of program materials was also evaluated. Community and home-based. Insufficiently active 60 to 70 year olds (n = 176, intervention and n = 198, control) residing in suburbs within the Perth metropolitan area. A sustained improvement was observed for the intervention group in terms of fat avoidance behaviours (p interaction = .007). Significant improvements were found for strength exercises, fibre intake, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio at either post-program or follow-up, however the overall effect was not significant. At post-program, the intervention group increased time spent participating in moderate activity by 50 minutes (p > .05), which was followed by a significant decline at follow-up (p nutrition intervention resulted in a sustained improvement in fat avoidance behaviours and overall short-term gains in physical activity. Future studies for older adults are recommended to investigate gender-specific behavioural barriers as well as booster interventions which focus on physical activity.

  3. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  4. Nuclear technology for sustainable development and FNCA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been contributing to sustainable development and human welfare through their applications in agriculture, health care, food supply, industry, water resources and environmental conservation. Nuclear techniques are more advantageous and/or complementary with other techniques to achieve goals. For many applications nuclear technique is more environmentally friendly because it does not need chemical agents to induce necessary reactions. This paper also illustrates successful applications of nuclear techniques and activities of the regional nuclear cooperation in Asia, FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) to achieve common goals with limited resources. (author)

  5. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  7. A theory of working memory without consciousness or sustained activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübutschek, Darinka; Marti, Sébastien; Ojeda, Andrés; King, Jean-Rémi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Tsodyks, Misha; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors. During non-conscious working memory, such activity vanished. Our findings contradict models that identify working memory with sustained neural firing, but are compatible with recent proposals of ‘activity-silent’ working memory. We present a theoretical framework and simulations showing how slowly decaying synaptic changes allow cell assemblies to go dormant during the delay, yet be retrieved above chance-level after several seconds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23871.001 PMID:28718763

  8. Deletion of UCP2 in iNOS deficient mice reduces the severity of the disease during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Aheng

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier family that is widely expressed in neurons and the immune cells of humans. Deletion of Ucp2 gene in mice pre-activates the immune system leading to higher resistance toward infection and to an increased susceptibility to develop chronic inflammatory diseases as previously exemplified with the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Given that oxidative stress is enhanced in Ucp2-/- mice and that nitric oxide (NO also plays a critical function in redox balance and in chronic inflammation, we generated mice deficient for both Ucp2 and iNos genes and submitted them to EAE. Mice lacking iNos gene exhibited the highest clinical score (3.4+/-0.5 p<0.05. Surprisingly, mice deficient for both genes developed milder disease with reduced immune cell infiltration, cytokines and ROS production as compared to iNos-/- mice.

  9. A novel suicide gene therapy using iNOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, J.; Robson, T.; Barrett, E.; Adams, C.; Hirst, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    The role of NO in tumours is extremely complex; depending on the concentration it has major effects on vascular tone, endothelial proliferation, cell viability and radiosensitivity. As such, it is not surprising that its manipulation has been identified by many investigators as an exciting target for cancer therapy. The use of a gene therapy strategy utilising the iNOS gene to produce NO offers the potential for targeting NO production specifically within the tumour volume, combined with high NO-generating capacity. We have shown that iNOS gene therapy driven by a strong constitutive promoter (CMV) results in significant growth delay of the murine RIF-1 tumour in vivo. Due to the potent nature of NO any gene therapy strategy will require at lest one level of specificity. We have used the X-ray inducible WAF1/iNOS construct to confine NO generation to within the radiation field i.e. the tumour. A single injection of the X-ray inducible WAF1/iNOS construct followed, 16 h later, by an induction dose of 4 Gy X-rays resulted in significant enhancement of the cell killing effect of subsequent therapeutic doses of X-rays in the same tumour model. The effect was equivalent to a sensitiser enhancement ratio of ∼2.0, half the radiation dose being required to produce the biological effect when iNOS gene therapy was combined with radiation. Intra-tumoural injection of the WAF1/iNOS construct followed by 4 Gy X-rays also resulted in significant radiosensitisation in the HT29 xenograft model. We have so far demonstrated the cytotoxic and radiosensitising potential of iNOS gene therapy, however there are further benefits to the use of NO as an anti-cancer agent. These include anti-angiogenic effects and inhibition of tumour metastasis. Further studies will enable the design of a clinically appropriate protocol to be established

  10. Online track detection in triggerless mode for INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Padmini, S.; Joseph, A. N.; Mahesh, P.; Preetha, N.; Behere, A.; Sikder, S. S.; Majumder, G.; Behera, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    The India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a proposed particle physics research project to study the atmospheric neutrinos. INO-Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) will consist of 28,800 detectors having 3.6 million electronic channels expected to activate with 100 Hz single rate, producing data at a rate of 3 GBps. Data collected contains a few real hits generated by muon tracks and the remaining noise-induced spurious hits. Estimated reduction factor after filtering out data of interest from generated data is of the order of 103. This makes trigger generation critical for efficient data collection and storage. Trigger is generated by detecting coincidence across multiple channels satisfying trigger criteria, within a small window of 200 ns in the trigger region. As the probability of neutrino interaction is very low, track detection algorithm has to be efficient and fast enough to process 5 × 106 events-candidates/s without introducing significant dead time, so that not even a single neutrino event is missed out. A hardware based trigger system is presently proposed for on-line track detection considering stringent timing requirements. Though the trigger system can be designed with scalability, a lot of hardware devices and interconnections make it a complex and expensive solution with limited flexibility. A software based track detection approach working on the hit information offers an elegant solution with possibility of varying trigger criteria for selecting various potentially interesting physics events. An event selection approach for an alternative triggerless readout scheme has been developed. The algorithm is mathematically simple, robust and parallelizable. It has been validated by detecting simulated muon events for energies of the range of 1 GeV-10 GeV with 100% efficiency at a processing rate of 60 μs/event on a 16 core machine. The algorithm and result of a proof-of-concept for its faster implementation over multiple cores is presented. The paper also

  11. Sustained Rhythmic Brain Activity Underlies Visual Motion Perception in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Pérez-Schuster

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following moving visual stimuli (conditioning stimuli, CS, many organisms perceive, in the absence of physical stimuli, illusory motion in the opposite direction. This phenomenon is known as the motion aftereffect (MAE. Here, we use MAE as a tool to study the neuronal basis of visual motion perception in zebrafish larvae. Using zebrafish eye movements as an indicator of visual motion perception, we find that larvae perceive MAE. Blocking eye movements using optogenetics during CS presentation did not affect MAE, but tectal ablation significantly weakened it. Using two-photon calcium imaging of behaving GCaMP3 larvae, we find post-stimulation sustained rhythmic activity among direction-selective tectal neurons associated with the perception of MAE. In addition, tectal neurons tuned to the CS direction habituated, but neurons in the retina did not. Finally, a model based on competition between direction-selective neurons reproduced MAE, suggesting a neuronal circuit capable of generating perception of visual motion.

  12. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  13. Integrating Sustainability into the Marketing Curriculum: Learning Activities that Facilitate Sustainable Marketing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Norm; Metcalf, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In response to political, social, and competitive forces, many firms are developing sustainable marketing strategies. Marketing educators can play an important role in assisting these firms by developing curricula that build the knowledge and skills required to enable marketing graduates to contribute to sustainable marketing efforts. Marketing…

  14. Regulation of Rvb1/Rvb2 by a Domain within the INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex Implicates the Yeast Rvbs as Protein Assembly Chaperones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Y. Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hexameric AAA+ ATPases Rvb1 and Rvb2 (Rvbs are essential for diverse processes ranging from metabolic signaling to chromatin remodeling, but their functions are unknown. While originally thought to act as helicases, recent proposals suggest that Rvbs act as protein assembly chaperones. However, experimental evidence for chaperone-like behavior is lacking. Here, we identify a potent protein activator of the Rvbs, a domain in the Ino80 ATPase subunit of the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, termed Ino80INS. Ino80INS stimulates Rvbs’ ATPase activity by 16-fold while concomitantly promoting their dodecamerization. Using mass spectrometry, cryo-EM, and integrative modeling, we find that Ino80INS binds asymmetrically along the dodecamerization interface, resulting in a conformationally flexible dodecamer that collapses into hexamers upon ATP addition. Our results demonstrate the chaperone-like potential of Rvb1/Rvb2 and suggest a model where binding of multiple clients such as Ino80 stimulates ATP-driven cycling between hexamers and dodecamers, providing iterative opportunities for correct subunit assembly.

  15. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports research about the necessity of image making for sustainable mine developments in the Republic of Korea. One of the big risks in mining activities is mining area residents opposing mine developments and operations. Analysis of the media reports on disputes between mining companies and residents can determine causes of opposing mine developments, dispute process, and influences of disputes on processes of mining projects. To do this, civil complaints from 2009 to 2012 and 24 media reports since 2000 on opposing mining activities are analyzed. And, to analyze difficulties of mining companies, the survey is conducted to target to mining companies. 57 representatives of mining companies are participated in the survey. The result of analysis cited that the major reasons of anti-mining activities are environmental degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. And specifically because of water pollution (50%), crop damages (33%), and mining dust pollution (21%), communities of mining area are against mine developments and operations. However, 25% of residents have experience of the damage caused by mining activities and the remaining 75% of residents opposing mining activities simply have anxiety about mining pollution. In the past, construction-oriented, environment-unfriendly mining projects had lasted. And while mine reclamation had been postponed in abandoned mines, mining area residents had suffered from mining pollution. So, mining area residents are highly influenced by the prejudice that mining activities are harmful to mining area communities. Current mining projects in South Korea, unlike the past mining activity, focus on minimizing environmental damage and contributing to mining area communities financially. But, in many case of disputes between mining companies and mining area residents, the both cannot reach an agreements because of the negative prejudice. Moreover, some communities categorically refuse any mining activity. On the

  16. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX-2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX-2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX-2 expression and ROS production, as well as

  17. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti‑inflammatory effects in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX‑2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-04-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti‑inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX‑2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β] and anti‑inflammatory cytokines (IL‑6 and IL‑10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX‑2 expression

  18. Application of nuclear technology for sustainable development, and IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1998-01-01

    The role of radiation and isotopes for sustainable development in improving agriculture, industry and environmental conservation is presented. The radiation and isotope technology can increase productivity in a sustainable way. The IAEA programmes encompass mutation breeding, soil fertility and crop production, animal production, food irradiation, agrochemicals and insect pest control using nuclear technology

  19. Precision measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters at INO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A magnetized Iron CALorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based neutrino observa- tory (INO) is used to study neutrino oscillation sensitivity using atmospheric muon neutrino source. The ICAL detector will be able to detect muon tracks and hadron showers produced by neutrino interactions with the iron target.

  20. Inclusion of GENIE as neutrino event generator for INO ICAL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-22

    Feb 22, 2017 ... be the largest experimental facility of basic science in India which will carry out one of the front-rank experiments in the global field of particle and astro- particle physics. The iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector will be placed in the underground INO cavern, to observe neutrino oscillation pattern over at least one.

  1. Statement on INO from the three Indian science academies: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Savitha Sekhar Nair

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega-science research project planned to be undertaken by scientists from more than 25 Indian Central and. State Universities and Research Institutes. It is a purely scientific research project of fundamental significance, and one that has been supported and approved by.

  2. Inclusion of GENIE as neutrino event generator for INO ICAL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based neutrino observatory; GENIE. Abstract. The iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector is the proposed underground neutrino-physics experiment in the INO cavern. Its main goal is the determination of sign of 2–3 mass-squared difference, Δ m 32 2 ...

  3. Precision measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters at INO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A magnetized Iron CALorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based neutrino observa- tory (INO) is used to study neutrino oscillation sensitivity using atmospheric muon neutrino source. The ICAL detector will be able to detect muon ... The current best-fit values and errors in the oscillation parameters used for analysis are ...

  4. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    Herein, progress is presented on the design and implementation of technology for sustainable development in general and international development in particular. Necessarily interdisciplinary, the work draws upon the tools and techniques of Mechanical, Materials, and Civil Engineering; and History & Politics. The work was conducted along two paths, the first being the theory and methodology of sustainable development. A flexible design and dissemination framework was developed, Technology Seeding, defined as: development by the transfer and participatory adaptation of appropriate proven conceptual designs. The methodology was developed in part through two case studies which implemented, respectively, wood-turning lathes in Tanzania and upland rice planters in Thailand. The second path is the design and investigation of alkali-activated cements (AACs) for practical use. Those developed herein, for US markets, comprise ground granulated blast furnace slag, soda ash (sodium carbonate), and up to 68 wt.% granular limestone. Mixture Design of Experiment (DOE) was utilized to guide empirical and theoretical analysis of performance (e.g. compressive strength), economic & ecological aspects (e.g. cost, CO2 production, energy consumption), and chemistry (e.g. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffractograms). Models were derived to understand the impact of mix design on performance and for optimization. Successful formulations are hydraulic and cure at room temperature, with strengths as high as 41 MPa at 3 days and 65 MPa at 28 days. Some of these formulations, compared to OPC, are competitive in performance, reduce cost by up to 40%, and reduce both CO2 production and energy consumption by up to 97%. Major chemical products include calcium silicate hydrates / calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (C-(A)-S-H), gaylussite, and calcite (both newly formed and remaining from limestone). Calcite/dolomite and C-(A)-S-H both contribute to strength. A fraction of the limestone is consumed

  5. The circadian deadenylase Nocturnin is necessary for stabilization of the iNOS mRNA in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Niu

    Full Text Available Nocturnin is a member of the CCR4 deadenylase family, and its expression is under circadian control with peak levels at night. Because it can remove poly(A tails from mRNAs, it is presumed to play a role in post-transcriptional control of circadian gene expression, but its target mRNAs are not known. Here we demonstrate that Nocturnin expression is acutely induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs lacking Nocturnin exhibit normal patterns of acute induction of TNFα and iNOS mRNAs during the first three hours following LPS treatment, but by 24 hours, while TNFα mRNA levels are indistinguishable from WT cells, iNOS message is significantly reduced 20-fold. Accordingly, analysis of the stability of the mRNAs showed that loss of Nocturnin causes a significant decrease in the half-life of the iNOS mRNA (t(1/2 = 3.3 hours in Nocturnin knockout MEFs vs. 12.4 hours in wild type MEFs, while having no effect on the TNFα message. Furthermore, mice lacking Nocturnin lose the normal nighttime peak of hepatic iNOS mRNA, and have improved survival following LPS injection. These data suggest that Nocturnin has a novel stabilizing activity that plays an important role in the circadian response to inflammatory signals.

  6. ino Reinart : ma usun väärtuspõhise poliitika olemasolusse / Väino Reinart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinart, Väino, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Värske Eesti suursaadik Ameerika Ühendriikides Väino Reinart väljendab oma intervjuus seisukohta, et Ameerika viib maailmaareenil ellu inimlikele väärtustele tuginevat poliitikat ja et salatehingute sõlmimine on jäänud diplomaatia ajalukku. Lisa: Curriculum Vitae

  7. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  8. Cerebral and peripheral changes occurring in nitric oxide (NO synthesis in a rat model of sleeping sickness: identification of brain iNOS expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Amrouni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The implication of nitric oxide (NO in the development of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT using an animal model, was examined. The manner by which the trypanocidal activity of NO is impaired in the periphery and in the brain of rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei was analyzed through: (i the changes occurring in NO concentration in both peripheral (blood and cerebral compartments; (ii the activity of nNOS and iNOS enzymes; (iii identification of the brain cell types in which the NO-pathways are particularly active during the time-course of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NO concentration (direct measures by voltammetry was determined in central (brain and peripheral (blood compartments in healthy and infected animals at various days post-infection: D5, D10, D16 and D22. Opposite changes were observed in the two compartments. NO production increased in the brain (hypothalamus from D10 (+32% to D16 (+71%, but decreased in the blood from D10 (-22% to D16 (-46% and D22 (-60%. In parallel with NO measures, cerebral iNOS activity increased and peaked significantly at D16 (up to +700%. However, nNOS activity did not vary. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed iNOS activation in several brain regions, particularly in the hypothalamus. In peritoneal macrophages, iNOS activity decreased from D10 (-83% to D16 (-65% and D22 (-74% similarly to circulating NO. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The NO changes observed in our rat model were dependent on iNOS activity in both peripheral and central compartments. In the periphery, the NO production decrease may reflect an arginase-mediated synthesis of polyamines necessary to trypanosome growth. In the brain, the increased NO concentration may result from an enhanced activity of iNOS present in neurons and glial cells. It may be regarded as a marker of deleterious inflammatory reactions.

  9. Participatory processes and institutional debate activities as key complementary aspects for embedding sustainability in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, F.; Ferrer Balas, Dídac; Barceló García, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Introducing sustainable development into educational programs of universities tend to be approached under two complementary strategies: “top-down” and “bottom-up”. Top-down strategies promote the adaptation of the institutional framework to the new challenges that sustainable development generates into technical expertise areas. Bottom-up strategies focus on institutional activities oriented to convincing or supporting lecturers in integrating sustainable development in their d...

  10. RE-SONANCE--INo-ve-mber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to devise these experiments to match requirements of existing syllabi e.g., the activities prescribed in each chapter in NCAER textbooks. 2. The material required for a class of forty students (say) could be carried out in a suit case to the classroom, thereby avoiding the need for an elaborate laboratory and the ...

  11. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in monocytes during acute Dengue Fever in patients and during in vitro infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerqueira Denise IS

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be main targets for Dengue Virus (DENV replication. These cells are activated after infection, producing proinflammatory mediators, including tumour-necrosis factor-α, which has also been detected in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO, usually produced by activated mononuclear phagocytes, has antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Methods The expression of DENV antigens and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in human blood isolated monocytes were analysed by flow cytometry using cells either from patients with acute Dengue Fever or after DENV-1 in vitro infection. DENV-1 susceptibility to iNOS inhibition and NO production was investigated using NG-methyl L-Arginine (NGMLA as an iNOS inhibitor, which was added to DENV-1 infected human monocytes, and sodium nitroprussiate (SNP, a NO donor, added to infected C6/36 mosquito cell clone. Viral antigens after treatments were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Results INOS expression in activated monocytes was observed in 10 out of 21 patients with Dengue Fever and was absent in cells from ten healthy individuals. DENV antigens detected in 25 out of 35 patients, were observed early during in vitro infection (3 days, significantly diminished with time, indicating that virus replicated, however monocytes controlled the infection. On the other hand, the iNOS expression was detected at increasing frequency in in vitro infected monocytes from three to six days, exhibiting an inverse relationship to DENV antigen expression. We demonstrated that the detection of the DENV-1 antigen was enhanced during monocyte treatment with NGMLA. In the mosquito cell line C6/36, virus detection was significantly reduced in the presence of SNP, when compared to that of untreated cells. Conclusion This study is the first to reveal the activation of DENV infected monocytes based on induction of iNOS both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the susceptibility of DENV-1 to a NO production.

  12. Cycling for Students with ASD: Self-Regulation Promotes Sustained Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg; Butler-Kisber, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included…

  13. Is Environmental Dematerialization An Active Factor Of The Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Razvan BĂLĂȘESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, sustainable development reveals economic, social and ecologic aspects circumscribed to the sustainability of the stock of natural capital and to the energy matter entropic flows which affects the relation environment-economy-society in terms of externalities and of the socio-industrial metabolism. Thus, taking into account the principles of the technical-economic rationality and integrative socio-ecologic complexity, dematerialization is a concept, an instrument and a vector carrying socio-economic values based on the natural and social sciences. In this framework environmental dematerialization reveals the issue of socio- economic energetic centres - a result of relationship between nature and human rational sensible free will determinism.

  14. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  15. The role of an iNOS polymorphism at the post-diagnosis diabetes development in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Eriksen, Vibeke; Andersen, Marie Louise Max

    2016-01-01

    : At 1 month IL-1β was detected more frequently in CC-genotype individuals as compared to CT and TT individuals, 24/168 vs. 3/75 and 0/9, respectively (p=0.03). This effect was not present at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. The iNOS polymorphism was not associated to diabetic ketoacidosis status......Objective: A missense polymorphism (rs2297518) of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene causing a serine to leucine substitution at amino acic position 608 has previously been associated to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Activation of iNOS is a main effector pathway...

  16. ER stress upregulated PGE2/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Toru; Honda, Miya; Oba, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation has also been implicated. We investigated the possible correlation between ER stress and immune function using glial cells. We demonstrated that ER stress synergistically enhanced prostaglandin (PG) E2 + interferon (IFN) γ-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production. This effect was mediated through cAMP. Immune-activated glial cells produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, ER stress inhibited PGE2 + IFNγ-induced iNOS expression. Similar results were obtained when cells were treated with dbcAMP + IFNγ. Thus, cAMP has a dual effect on immune reactions; cAMP up-regulated IL-6 expression, but down-regulated iNOS expression under ER stress. Therefore, our results suggest a link between ER stress and immune reactions in neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. FOREIGN TRADE TEACHING ACTIVITY: DECIDING BETWEEN COST AND SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli da Veiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The world debate focused on preserving the environment, such a s that held during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20, in conjunction with Brazil’s growing foreign trade requires a study of all these topics in management courses. The central premise of this paper is to investigate the systematization of trade concepts through the use of business games. Two asymmetric scenarios for exporting and importing teams were developed using action research and qualitative data analysis. The longitudinal study was conducted on four separate, sequential classes from the Foreign Trade discipline of two universities from southern Brazilian. The students were able to discuss a variety of foreign trade topics and interact autonomously among themselves using business games that stimulate business negotiations through role playing dynamics, demonstrating that this teaching strategy can be used as a foreign trade teaching support tool. The final proposal was to change the game scenarios to focus on the decision between lowest costs and sustainable manufacturing processes without losing the aspects developed previously. The results showed that students’ decisions are more linked to their prior personal environmental concepts than to competition strategies developed for the company.

  18. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Regional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołkeiewicz-Kos, Nina

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between man and the surrounding cultural environment directs attention in urban and architectural design to the realm of interdisciplinary research. As a result, they should create architectural and urban solutions which provide aesthetic satisfaction. They should also generate social bonds, a sense of identity and maintain the specificity of the local building environment, where tradition and the context of surroundings is the starting point for creating a sustainable living environment. Presented problems focus on the analysis of formal, functional and spatial solutions, in which materials and technology were selected in an optimal way. The continuation of the subject concerns the relationship between the use of the local urban, architectural, material and technological solutions and the quality of the cultural space that meets the principles of sustainable development. Adaptation and transformation of old techniques and traditional materials to create contemporary designs is one of the forms of experimentation encountered in contemporary architecture. Its economic, social and ecological aspects are realised in the form of: satisfying the needs of the local community, renewal and maintenance of modern standards of the surrounding buildings, use of local materials and available space. This means striving to design and transform the space already in use, while reducing the impact on the environment. Analysed buildings and urban spaces are an attempt to answer: whether the strategies applied in the field of architectural, technological and material solutions provide the identification of the place and meet the users’ expectations?

  19. Association of Helicobacter pylori and iNOS Production by Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Gastric Mucosa in Chronic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdantseva, Lilia A.; Potapova, Oksana V.; Sharkova, Tatyana V.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic gastritis. With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages are formed in epithelium and lamina propria of the stomach. These cells are capable of secreting a number of active substances, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We examined the relationship between H. pylori and secretion of iNOS by cells of inflammatory infiltrates in chronic gastritis by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The data obtained indicate that stimulation of H. pylori immune system cells of the host organism during development of chronic gastritis causes increase in number of macrophages and lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric mucosa. This is accompanied with increased expression of inducible NO-synthase with excess free radicals in the tissues, which leads to secondary alterations and exacerbates the inflammation with impaired regeneration processes. PMID:25309933

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce COX-2 and iNOS expression via MAP Kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are engineered graphene cylinders with numerous applications in engineering, electronics and medicine. However, CNTs cause inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent lung, suggesting a potential human health risk. We hypothesized that multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs induce two key inflammatory enzymes in macrophages, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1,2. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to MWCNTs or carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs over a range of doses and time course. Uptake and subcellular localization of MWCNTs was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Protein levels of COX-2, iNOS, and ERK1,2 (total ERK and phosphorylated ERK were measured by Western blot analysis. Prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO levels in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA and Greiss assay, respectively. Results MWCNTs, but not CBNPs, induced COX-2 and iNOS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. COX-2 and iNOS induction by MWCNTs correlated with increased PGE2 and NO production, respectively. MWCNTs caused ERK1,2 activation and inhibition of ERK1,2 (U0126 blocked MWCNT induction of COX-2 and PGE2 production, but did not reduce the induction of iNOS. Inhibition of iNOS (L-NAME did not affect ERK1,2 activation, nor did L-NAME significantly decrease COX-2 induction by MWCNT. Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs, which are present in MWCNTs as a residual catalyst, also induced COX-2 via ERK-1,2. However, a comparison of COX-2 induction by MWCNTs containing 4.5 and 1.8% Ni did not show a significant difference in ability to induce COX-2, indicating that characteristics of MWCNTs in addition to Ni content contribute to COX-2 induction. Conclusion This study identifies COX-2 and subsequent PGE2 production, along with iNOS induction and NO production, as inflammatory mediators involved in the macrophage response to

  1. Optomechanical design of TMT NFIRAOS Subsystems at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Grenier, Martin; Cottin, Pierre; Leclerc, Mélanie; Martin, Olivier; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Boucher, Marc-André; Nash, Reston; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Hill, Alexis; Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Herriot, Glen; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    The adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is the Narrow-Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). Recently, INO has been involved in the optomechanical design of several subsystems of NFIRAOS, including the Instrument Selection Mirror (ISM), the NFIRAOS Beamsplitters (NBS), and the NFIRAOS Source Simulator system (NSS) comprising the Focal Plane Mask (FPM), the Laser Guide Star (LGS) sources, and the Natural Guide Star (NGS) sources. This paper presents an overview of these subsystems and the optomechanical design approaches used to meet the optical performance requirements under environmental constraints.

  2. Memory-induced mechanism for self-sustaining activity in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Steeg, G. Ver; Galstyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study a mechanism of activity sustaining on networks inspired by a well-known model of neuronal dynamics. Our primary focus is the emergence of self-sustaining collective activity patterns, where no single node can stay active by itself, but the activity provided initially is sustained within the collective of interacting agents. In contrast to existing models of self-sustaining activity that are caused by (long) loops present in the network, here we focus on treelike structures and examine activation mechanisms that are due to temporal memory of the nodes. This approach is motivated by applications in social media, where long network loops are rare or absent. Our results suggest that under a weak behavioral noise, the nodes robustly split into several clusters, with partial synchronization of nodes within each cluster. We also study the randomly weighted version of the models where the nodes are allowed to change their connection strength (this can model attention redistribution) and show that it does facilitate the self-sustained activity.

  3. Sustainable Rural Development through Promoting Non-Agricultural Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In rural Romania the main activity is agriculture, so much of the rural population is occupied in agriculture and earns income from this activity [35]. Due to small areas of agricultural land, lack of agricultural machinery and access to credit, many farms are subsistence. In the new 2014-2020 period, for job creation and for increasing the incomes of the rural population, it is necessary to diversify the activities and promote small-scale businesses.

  4. ANDRA - Annual sustainable development and activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    After two texts on the themes of change and dialogue signed by ANDRA's CEO and CBA (Chairman of the Board of Administrators), this report proposes a large overview of the French national radioactive waste management Agency, ANDRA, in the fields of governance (missions, installations, institutional representatives, customers, launching of the Meuse/Haute-Marne inter-district development scheme, 2009 report on the Cigeo project), of human resources (place of women and men, payroll, the Customer Industrial Solutions department, a new approach to customer relations, Cigeo project), of public service missions (site cleaning up, containment of radioactive wastes, radium diagnosis), of industry (Cigeo project, Manche disposal facility, very-low-level waste disposal facility in the Aube district, a crane to move a roof-canopy, low- and intermediate-level waste disposal facility in the Aube district, test of crisis communication, ASN inspections), of the environment (permanent environmental observatory, radiological impact of disposal facilities), of scientific policy (strategic research agenda, relationships with higher education, opinion of experts on ANDRA research), of technological research (new experiments in laboratory, patent in metrology, computer tools, geological knowledge and modelling of the Meuse and Haute-Marne districts, radioactive waste behaviour, issues of intellectual property), of experiments and development, of international commitment and relationships (with South Korea, Eastern Europe, Hungary and Morocco, European directive on radioactive wastes), of sustainable development (local contracts, sponsorship and partnership), of dialogue, transparency and communication, of commitment for future generations, and of future perspectives

  5. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Lu; Liu, Ke

    2009-04-21

    Arctigenin, a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) which has been widely used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for dispelling wind and heat included in Chinese Pharmacophere, was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities but its molecular mechanism remains unknown yet. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells were used for the experiments. Griess assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was used to determine the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was tested by colorimetric method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. Arctigenin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, including TNF-alpha and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also strongly inhibited the expression of iNOS and iNOS enzymatic activity, whereas the expression of COX-2 and COX-2 enzymatic activity were not affected by arctigenin. These results indicated that potent inhibition on NO, TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not COX-2 expression and COX-2 activity, might constitute the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Arctigenin suppressed the overproduction of NO through down-regulation of iNOS expression and iNOS enzymatic activity in LPS-stimulated macrophage.

  7. Action Research to Encourage Pupils' Active Participation in the Sustainable School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Christina; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Liarakou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore the contribution of action research to the development of active participation of pupils in the context of the sustainable school. Action research is looked at not simply as a methodological tool for the exploration of participation, but as a key element of the educational actions that promote the active participation…

  8. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  9. Sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs depresses three blood copper enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, R A; Hinchcliff, K W; Blostein-Fujii, A

    2005-01-01

    Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12-15 d depressed activities for both plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in dogs consuming commercial dog foods and meats. A shorter, 3-d training run for dogs fed a commercial balanced diet also depressed ceruloplasmin activities but not superoxide dismutase activities. Dogs fed the same diet but that did not run showed no changes in either parameter. Activities of a third copper enzyme, plasma diamine oxidase, also decreased after a 3-d training run. In summary, blood activities of three copper enzymes were depressed by sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs.

  10. Oct-2 forms a complex with Oct-1 on the iNOS promoter and represses transcription by interfering with recruitment of RNA PolII by Oct-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrari, Fatima; Chantôme, Aurelie; Knights, Andrew; Jeannin, Jean-François; Pance, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Oct-1 (POU2f1) and Oct-2 (POU2f2) are members of the POU family of transcription factors. They recognize the same DNA sequence but fulfil distinct functions: Oct-1 is ubiquitous and regulates a variety of genes while Oct-2 is restricted to B-cells and neurones. Here we examine the interplay and regulatory mechanisms of these factors to control the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2). Using two breast cancer cell lines as a comparative model, we found that MCF-7 express iNOS upon cytokine stimulation while MDA-MB-231 do not. Oct-1 is present in both cell lines but MDA-MB-231also express high levels of Oct-2. Manipulation of Oct-2 expression in these cell lines demonstrates that it is directly responsible for the repression of iNOS in MDA-MB-231. In MCF-7 cells Oct-1 binds the iNOS promoter, recruits RNA PolII and triggers initiation of transcription. In MDA-MB-231 cells, both Oct-1 and Oct-2 bind the iNOS promoter, forming a higher-order complex which fails to recruit RNA PolII, and as a consequence iNOS transcription does not proceed. Unravelling the mechanisms of transcription factor activity is paramount to the understanding of gene expression patterns that determine cell behaviour. PMID:26271992

  11. Search for the sterile neutrino mixing with the ICAL detector at INO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, S.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, Anushree [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India); Datar, V.M. [INO Cell, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mishra, D.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Mohanty, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-05-15

    The study has been carried out on the prospects of probing the sterile neutrino mixing with the magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), using atmospheric neutrinos as a source. The so-called 3 + 1 scenario is considered for active-sterile neutrino mixing and lead to projected exclusion curves in the sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle plane. The analysis is performed using the neutrino event generator NUANCE, modified for ICAL, and folded with the detector resolutions obtained by the INO collaboration from a full GEANT4-based detector simulation. A comparison has been made between the results obtained from the analysis considering only the energy and zenith angle of the muon and combined with the hadron energy due to the neutrino induced event. A small improvement has been observed with the addition of the hadron information to the muon. In the analysis we consider neutrinos coming from all zenith angles and the Earth matter effects are also included. The inclusion of events from all zenith angles improves the sensitivity to sterile neutrino mixing by about 35% over the result obtained using only down-going events. The improvement mainly stems from the impact of Earth matter effects on active-sterile mixing. The expected precision of ICAL on the active-sterile mixing is explored and the allowed confidence level (C.L.) contours presented. At the assumed true value of 10 {sup circle} for the sterile mixing angles and marginalization over Δm{sup 2}{sub 41} and the sterile mixing angles, the upper bound at 90% C.L. (from two-parameter plots) is around 20 {sup circle} for θ{sub 14} and θ{sub 34}, and about 12 {sup circle} for θ{sub 24}. (orig.)

  12. Starch encapsulation of microbial pesticides for sustained activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, M.R.; Shasha, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Many environmental and biological factors act to reduce the insecticidal potential of microbial pesticides. Each of these factors can be addressed through formulation. Over the past five years, we have investigated formulation of microbial insecticides within starch matrices. While chemical pesticides have been encapsulated in starch for many years, the biological nature of microbial insecticides has prohibited the use of the harsh chemicals or extreme pH necessary to ensure gelatinization of the starch and subsequent entrapment of active ingredient. Pregelatinized starches and flours have facilitated formulation of microbial pesticides. Three distinct types of starch formulations have been developed: a sprayable and two granular baits. Bioassays of cotton or cabbage leaf tissue treated with the sprayable formulations demonstrated increased residual activity of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) after simulated (greenhouse) or actual (field) rainfall. Similarly, experiments with small field plots of cabbage treated with the sprayable formulations demonstrated efficacy similar to that of conventional chemical insecticides. The granular formulations have been tested extensively against European corn borer in whorl stage corn. Sunlight screens incorporated within the granules significantly increased residual activity of Btk when granules were exposed to direct sunlight. Under field conditions, feeding stimulants allowed a decrease in Btk concentration without significant loss of inset control. Work with these formulations is continuing with the addition of viruses and fungi to our research program. Clearly, improvements to formulations of microbial pesticides will enhance the acceptance and reliability of these important pest control tools. 22 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  13. CHANGES IN QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING SUSTAINED RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kröll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs

  14. Sustaining guideline implementation: A multisite perspective on activities, challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kathryn S; Davies, Barbara; Ploeg, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    To examine activities conducted, challenges encountered and supports used when sustaining nursing practice guideline implementation in multiple healthcare organisations over 3 years. Numerous models and frameworks exist to guide the implementation of guidelines, yet very few focus on sustaining improved practice changes. It is not known if one intervention or multiple interventions are required, nor the long-term activities, challenges and supports for sustaining improved practices. Qualitative descriptive study. We conducted focus group interviews with steering committee members and individual interviews with leaders and direct care providers at the end of a 3-year guideline implementation study. The National Health Service Sustainability Model was used to guide data collection and analysis. The eight sites included three teaching hospitals, a community hospital, a long-term care facility, two community health agencies and a community health centre. Individual interviews were conducted with 36 leaders and 26 direct care providers. Focus group interviews were conducted with steering committee members (n = 70) at each site. Guideline implementation activities (n = 45) included developing new outcome monitoring systems, conducting chart audits, communicating progress to internal stakeholders, appointing interprofessional staff to steering committees, developing educational sessions and resources for staff and patients, revising policies and procedures, and developing partnerships with external organisations. Supports included lessons learned from previous and concurrent change initiatives, and commitment, involvement and positive attitudes of staff and leaders. Activities identified by the participants addressed all 10 factors in the Sustainability Model in the three areas of process, staff and organisation. The challenges and supports encountered provide insights into the process of guideline implementation and sustainability. A multilevel action plan for staff

  15. Teaching Sustainability Using an Active Learning Constructivist Approach: Discipline-Specific Case Studies in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalamas Hedden

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our rationale for using an active learning constructivist approach to teach sustainability-related topics in a higher education. To push the boundaries of ecological literacy, we also develop a theoretical model for sustainability knowledge co-creation. Drawing on the experiences of faculty at a major Southeastern University in the United States, we present case studies in architecture, engineering, geography, and marketing. Four Sustainability Faculty Fellows describe their discipline-specific case studies, all of which are project-based learning experiences, and include details regarding teaching and assessment. Easily replicated in other educational contexts, these case studies contribute to the advancement of sustainability education.

  16. Effect of sildenafil citrate on interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide synthesis and iNOS expression in SW982 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Park, Shin-Young; Han, Chang-Woo; Chung, Hyun Kee; Ryu, Dae-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sildenafil citrate on IL-1β-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression in human synovial sarcoma SW982 cells. IL-1β stimulated the cells to generate NO in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IL-1β-induced NO synthesis was inhibited by guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, LY83583. When the cells were treated with 8-bromo-cGMP, a hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, NO synthesis was increased upto 5-fold without IL-1β treatment suggesting that cGMP is an essential component for increasing the NO synthesis. Synoviocytes and chondrocytes contain strong cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which has biochemical features of PDE5. When SW982 cells were pretreated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a PDE5 specific inhibitor, sildenafil citrate significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions. From this result, we noticed that PDE5 activity is required for IL-1β-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions in human synovial sarcoma cells, and sildenafil citrate may be able to suppress an inflammatory reaction of synovium through inhibition of NO synthesis and iNOS expression by cytokines. PMID:18587266

  17. Interleukin-1β-induced iNOS expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells: involvement of STAT and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Tyagi, Alpna; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    For understanding of signaling molecules important in lung cancer growth and progression, IL-1β effect was analyzed on iNOS expression and key signaling molecules in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and established the role of specific signaling molecules by using specific chemical inhibitors. IL-1β exposure (10 ng/ml) induced strong iNOS expression in serum starved A549 cells. Detailed molecular analyses showed that IL-1β increased expression of phosphorylated STAT1 (Tyr701 and Ser727) and STAT3 (Tyr705 and Ser727) both in total cell lysates and nuclear lysates. Further, IL-1β exposure strongly activated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) and Akt as well as increased nuclear levels of NF-κB and HIF-1α in A549 cells. Use of specific chemical inhibitors for JAK1 kinase (piceatannol), JAK2 kinase (AG-490), MEK1/2 (PD98059) and JNK1/2 (SP600125) revealed that IL-1β-induced iNOS expression involved signaling pathways in addition to JAKSTAT and ERK1/2-JNK1/2 activation. Overall, these results suggested that instead of specific pharmacological inhibitors, use of chemopreventive agents with broad spectrum efficacy to inhibit IL-1β-induced signaling cascades and iNOS expression would be a better strategy towards lung cancer prevention and/or treatment. (author)

  18. Effect of sildenafil citrate on interleukin-1beta-induced nitric oxide synthesis and iNOS expression in SW982 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Park, Shin-Young; Han, Chang-Woo; Chung, Hyun Kee; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ryu, Dae-Hyun; Han, Joong-Soo

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sildenafil citrate on IL-1beta-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression in human synovial sarcoma SW982 cells. IL-1? stimulated the cells to generate NO in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IL-1beta-induced NO synthesis was inhibited by guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, LY83583. When the cells were treated with 8-bromo-cGMP, a hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, NO synthesis was increased upto 5-fold without IL-1beta treatment suggesting that cGMP is an essential component for increasing the NO synthesis. Synoviocytes and chondrocytes contain strong cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which has biochemical features of PDE5. When SW982 cells were pretreated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a PDE5 specific inhibitor, sildenafil citrate significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions. From this result, we noticed that PDE5 activity is required for IL-1?-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions in human synovial sarcoma cells, and sildenafil citrate may be able to suppress an inflammatory reaction of synovium through inhibition of NO synthesis and iNOS expression by cytokines.

  19. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  20. Urban farming activity towards sustainable wellbeing of urban dwellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Mohamad, M.; Latip, R. A.; Ariffin, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    In Malaysia, urban farming is viewed as a catalyst towards achieving the well-being of urban dwellers and natural environment. Urban farming is a strategy for Malaysia’s food and economic security, and as one of the foci in the agriculture transformation whereby urban dwellers are encouraged to participate in this activity. Previous study proved that urban farming can help to address social problems of food security, urban poverty and high living cost, also provides leisure and recreation among urban dwellers. Thus, this study investigates the best urban farming practices suitable for urban setting, environment and culture of urban dwellers. Data collection was done via questionnaire survey to urban farmers of a selected community garden in Subang Jaya, Selangor. Meanwhile, on-site observations were carried out on gardening activities and the gardens’ physical attributes. The study sample encompasses of 131 urban farmers of 22 community gardens in Subang Jaya. It was found that most of the community gardens practiced crops planting on the ground or soil base planting and dwellers in the lower income group with monthly low household income constitutes the majority (83.2%) of the respondents. Social and health benefits are the highest motivating factors for urban farmers. This study provides unprecedented insights on urban farming practices and motivations in a Malaysian setting.

  1. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.

  2. CPEB1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS induction in rat primary astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Hyun Joo, So; Shin, Chan Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 is increased by LPS stimulation in rat primary astrocytes. → JNK regulates expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 in reactive astrocytes. → Down-regulation of CPEB1 using siRNA inhibits oxidative stress and iNOS induction by LPS stimulation. → CPEB1 may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in reactive astrocytes induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Upon CNS damage, astrocytes undergo a series of biological changes including increased proliferation, production of inflammatory mediators and morphological changes, in a response collectively called reactive gliosis. This process is an essential part of the brains response to injury, yet much is unknown about the molecular mechanism(s) that induce these changes. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) in the regulation of inflammatory responses in a model of reactive gliosis, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. CPEB1 is an mRNA-binding protein recently shown to be expressed in astrocytes that may play a role in astrocytes migration. After LPS stimulation, the expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 was increased in rat primary astrocytes in a JNK-dependent process. siRNA-induced knockdown of CPEB1 expression inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of iNOS as well as NO and ROS production, a hallmark of immunological activation of astrocytes. The results from the study suggest that CPEB1 is actively involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in astrocytes, which might provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism after brain injury.

  3. Criptococose pulmonar granulomatosa em um eqüino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommers Glaucia Denise

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de pneumonia granulomatosa por Cryptococcus neoformans em um eqüino, macho, Quarto de Milha, de 8 anos de idade com história de laminite crônica por 2 anos. Na necropsia, havia múltiplos nódulos macios e gelatinosos distribuídos aleatoriamente nos pulmões. Histologicamente, observaram-se cavidades císticas preenchidas por numerosas estruturas leveduriformes circundadas por um espesso halo claro e por reação inflamatória granulomatosa leve. Em seções coradas por azul alciano e PAS, observou-se densa cápsula mucinosa circundando estruturas leveduriformes com morfologia típica de C. neoformans.

  4. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-01-01

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  5. Energy and human activity: Steps toward a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improving energy efficiency is enormous, but exploitation of this resource has slowed in recent years. This is regrettable for several reasons. First, not incorporating higher efficiency now often means passing up opportunities that will be more expensive or even impossible to implement in the future. This is especially true for long-lived capital, such as new buildings. Second, reduced research and development into new efficiency options will make it more difficult to accelerate the pace of efficiency improvements in the future. Finally, the flow of more efficient technologies to the non-OECD countries will be hindered by the slowdown in efficiency improvement in the OECD countries. Well-designed policies can help recapture the momentum that has been lost. Some key steps for stimulating more careful use of energy are: rationalize energy pricing and gradually internalize environmental externalities; improve present energy-using capital; implement energy-efficiency standards or agreements for new products and buildings; encourage higher energy efficiency in new products and buildings; promote international cooperation for R ampersand D technology transfer; adjust policies that encourage energy-intensive activities; and promote population restraint worldwide. 25 refs

  6. Optimism predicts sustained vigorous physical activity in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Progovac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimism and cynical hostility are associated with health behaviors and health outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. This analysis assesses their association with longitudinal vigorous physical activity (PA in postmenopausal women of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI. Subjects include 73,485 women nationwide without history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD, and no missing baseline optimism, cynical hostility, or PA data. The Life Orientation Test-Revised Scale measured optimism. A Cook Medley questionnaire subscale measured cynical hostility. Scale scores were divided into quartiles. Vigorous PA three times or more per week was assessed via self-report at study baseline (1994–1998 and through follow-up year 6. Descriptive analysis mapped lifetime trajectories of vigorous PA (recalled at ages 18, 25, 50; prospectively assessed at baseline, and 3 and 6 years later. Hierarchical generalized linear mixed models examined the prospective association between optimism, cynical hostility, and vigorous PA over 6 years. Models adjusted for baseline sociodemographic variables, psychosocial characteristics, and health conditions and behaviors. Vigorous PA rates were highest for most optimistic women, but fell for all women by approximately 60% between age 50 and study baseline. In adjusted models from baseline through year 6, most vs. least optimistic women were 15% more likely to exercise vigorously (p < 0.001. Cynical hostility was not associated with lower odds of longitudinal vigorous PA after adjustment. Results did not differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Higher optimism is associated with maintaining vigorous PA over time in post-menopausal women, and may protect women's health over the lifespan.

  7. Biopolymer-activated graphitic carbon nitride towards a sustainable photocathode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500 °C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation.

  8. Biopolymer-Activated Graphitic Carbon Nitride towards a Sustainable Photocathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500°C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation. PMID:23831846

  9. Confinement of InO3, InO6, and InBO3 clusters in a glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Puglisi, Rosaria; Balerna, Antonella; Pollini, Ivano

    2002-01-01

    We report on the formation and detection of molecular aggregates of InO x (x=3,6) in a glass matrix. This result was achieved by simple melting of In 2 O 3 in a B 2 O 3 matrix, at dilution 0.05%. At higher concentrations, we have been able to confine clusters of the mixed compound InBO 3 , obtaining quantum dots of the indium borate embedded in the substrate. The average size of these agglomerates, evaluated in about 30 A, does not change, increasing the dilution in the range 0.3-2.0 %. These results are of particular importance for the confinement of quantum dots in a glass matrix. The characterization of the samples was performed by extended x-ray-absorpion fine-structure and x-ray-diffraction spectroscopies

  10. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  11. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wixted

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  12. SUSTAINED HYPERLIPEMIA INDUCED IN RABBITS BY MEANS OF INTRAVENOUSLY INJECTED SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Aaron; Correll, James W.; Ladd, Anthony T.

    1951-01-01

    The intravenous injection of the surface-active agents Tween 80 and Triton A20 into rabbits fed a normal diet resulted in marked and sustained elevations of the cholesterol, phospholipid, and total lipid content of their blood. The increase in phospholipid in general paralleled that of the blood cholesterol. The implications of the findings are briefly discussed. PMID:14824409

  13. A molecular pharmacology study into the anti-inflammatory actions of Euphorbia hirta L. on the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells through selective iNOS protein inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei-Fen; Cheng, Yih-Dih; Shen, Chia-Rui; Cherng, Jong-Yuh

    2010-07-01

    Euphorbia hirta L. has been widely used in India and Chinese society. The molecular pharmacology basis of its anti-inflammatory effect is revealed in this work. The ethanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Eh) and its active component were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) as an established inflammation model. After activation, nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA were measured by using a colorimetric assay (Griess reagent), western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The alteration in the content of PGE(2), TNFalpha, and IL-6 was concurrently monitored by ELISA. In results, we found that in the concentration range without showing cytotoxicity, Eh produced a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect via its active component of beta-amyrin and showed a dose-related inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. This phenomenon is in accordance with a substantial inhibition of iNOS protein. However, the expression of iNOS gene was unaffected by Eh treatments. Compared with indomethacin, Eh has much more potency and a specific action of NO inhibition but Eh works less specifically on PGE(2), IL-6, and TNF-alpha inhibition. The extract of Euphorbia hirta L. and its component beta-amyrin are able to block most of the iNOS protein functions and NO induction, and could therefore be new selective NO inhibitors with great potential in treating arthritis inflammation.

  14. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaguo; Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin belongs to glucuronic acid glycosides and after hydrolysis baicalein and glucuronic acid come into being. It has such effects as clearing heat and removing toxicity, anti-inflammation, choleresis, bringing high blood pressure down, diuresis, anti-allergic reaction and so on. In this study, we investigated whether baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and its mechanism. Rat model of acute myocardial infarction was induced by isoproterenol. Casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size measurement were used to measure the protective effect of baicalin on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction. iNOS protein expression in rat was analyzed using western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activation levels were explored using commercial ELISA kits. In the acute myocardial infarction experiment, baicalin effectively ameliorates the level of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT, reduced infarct size in acute myocardial infarction rat model. Meanwhile, treatment with baicalin effectively decreased the iNOS protein expression, inflammatory factors and oxidative stresses in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. However, baicalin emerged that anti-apoptosis activity and suppressed the activation of caspase-3 in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The data suggest that the protective effect of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated iNOS Induction Is Increased by Glucosamine under Normal Glucose Conditions but Is Inhibited by Glucosamine under High Glucose Conditions in Macrophage Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Kwon, Mi-Youn; Kim, Kyung-Hong; Lee, Yunkyoung; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Jieun E.; Oh, Eok-Soo; Han, Inn-Oc

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory effect of glucosamine (GlcN) for the production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) under various glucose conditions in macrophage cells. At normal glucose concentrations, GlcN dose dependently increased LPS-stimulated production of NO/iNOS. However, GlcN suppressed NO/iNOS production under high glucose culture conditions. Moreover, GlcN suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNAs under 25 mm glucose conditions yet did not inhibit up-regulation under 5 mm glucose conditions. Glucose itself dose dependently increased LPS-induced iNOS expression. LPS-induced MAPK and IκB-α phosphorylation did not significantly differ at normal and high glucose conditions. The activity of LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and DNA binding of c-Rel to the iNOS promoter were inhibited under high glucose conditions in comparison with no significant changes under normal glucose conditions. In addition, we found that the LPS-induced increase in O-GlcNAcylation as well as DNA binding of c-Rel to the iNOS promoter were further increased by GlcN under normal glucose conditions. However, both O-GlcNAcylation and DNA binding of c-Rel decreased under high glucose conditions. The NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression under high glucose conditions but it did not influence iNOS induction under normal glucose conditions. In addition, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited NF-κB DNA binding and c-Rel O-GlcNAcylation only under high glucose conditions. By blocking transcription with actinomycin D, we found that stability of LPS-induced iNOS mRNA was increased by GlcN under normal glucose conditions. These results suggest that GlcN regulates inflammation by sensing energy states of normal and fuel excess. PMID:27927986

  16. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  17. Sustainable design training cards as a way to promote active learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    to understand sustainability in a corporate organisation working with materials and products for the fashion market (authors, 2016). Here the training cards translate these findings to become operationalised in the organisation as a communication tool. The training cards were developed as a methods-focused side...... project that followed a design project conducted by two fashion designers running from August to December 2016. Based on an existing collection of sustainable training cards used in teaching, a draft version of the cards was introduced to the designers in September 2016. In the following months interviews...... and in teaching sustainability in fashion and textiles design education. In the paper we want to discuss, why and how training cards can promote active learning and be used to obtain knowledge on chosen and often complex topics in a simplified manner. This will be based on our experiences with the developed...

  18. Endothelial glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 protects against oxidative stress and modulates iNOS expression through NF-κB translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongzhen; Yang Yusong; Xu Ya; Lick, Scott D.; Awasthi, Yogesh C.; Boor, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Our recent work in endothelial cells and human atherosclerotic plaque showed that overexpression of glutathione-S-tranferases (GSTs) in endothelium protects against oxidative damage from aldehydes such as 4-HNE. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a crucial role during inflammation and immune responses by regulating the expression of inducible genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). 4-HNE induces apoptosis and affects NF-κB mediated gene expression, but conflicting results on 4-HNE's effect on NF-κB have been reported. We compared the effect of 4-HNE on iNOS and the NF-κB pathway in control mouse pancreatic islet endothelial (MS1) cells and those transfected with mGSTA4, a α-class GST with highest activity toward 4-HNE. When treated with 4-HNE, mGSTA4-transfected cells showed significant upregulation of iNOS and nitric oxide (NO) through (NF)-κB (p65) translocation in comparison with wild-type or vector-transfected cells. Immunohistochemical studies of early human plaques showed lower 4-HNE content and upregulation of iNOS, which we take to indicate that GSTA4-4 induction acts as an enzymatic defense against high levels of 4-HNE, since 4-HNE accumulated in more advanced plaques, when detoxification and exocytotic mechanisms are likely to be overwhelmed. These studies suggest that GSTA4-4 may play an important defensive role against atherogenesis through detoxification of 4-HNE and upregulation of iNOS

  19. Sustainability Activities In The Mining Sector: Current Status And Challenges Ahead Limestone Mining In Nusakambangan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuningrum, Theresia Vika; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Potential Karst area in Nusakambangan has an important role in maintaining the balance of nature. But with the existence of mining activities, will automatically change the environmental conditions there. In order for the utilization of resources to meet the rules of optimization between the interests of mining and sustainability of the environment so in every mining sector activities required a variety of environmental studies. The purpose of this study is to find out how the analysis of environmental management due to limestone mining activities in Nusakambangan so that it can be known the management of mining areas are optimal, wise based on ecological principles, and sustainability. In qualitative research methods, data analysis using description percentage, with the type of data collected in the form of primary data and secondary data.

  20. THE ACTIVE INTEGRATED CIRCULAR PROCESS – EXPRESSION OF MAXIMUM SYNTHESIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Done Ioan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available "The accelerated pace of economic growth, prompted by the need to ensure reducing disparities between the various countries, has imposed in the last two decades the adoption of sustainable development principles, particularly as a result of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992 and the UNESCO Declaration in the fall of 1997. In specific literature, in essence, sustainable development is considered "an economic and social process that is characterized by a simultaneous and concerted action at global, regional and local level. Its objective is to provide living conditions both for the present and forth future. Sustainable development “encompasses the economic, ecological, social and political aspects, linked through cultural and spiritual relationships."(Coşea, 2007In Romania, achieving sustainable development is a major, difficult objective, because it must be done in terms of convergence to the demands of the economic, social, cultural and political context of the EU, and in terms of the completion of the transition to a functioning and competitive market economy. In this context, it is imposed the economic competitiveness through reindustrialization and not least, by harnessing the active integrated circular process. Gross value added and profit chain in the structures of active integrated circular process must reflect the interests of the forces involved(employers, employees and the statethereby forming the basis of respect for the correlation between sustainable development, economic growth and increasing national wealth. The elimination or marginalization of certain links in the value chain and profit causes major disruptions or bankruptcy, with direct implications for recognizing and rewarding performance. Essentially, the building of active integrated circular process will determine the maximization of the profit – the foundation of satisfying all economic interests.

  1. The Importance of the United Nations Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Space Activities and Other International Initiatives to Promote Space Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainability of space activities is an emerging issue to which actors in the global space community –including governments, agencies, and industry– are devoting increasing amounts of attention and resources. Considering the sustainability of space activities involves taking into account the present population of space debris, the size of the debris population in the most commonly-used Earth orbits in the future, and the possibility of collision events between objects in space. Addressing space debris and other threats to space sustainability involves both technological and political solutions. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (copuos has led a major effort to define such solutions and has established a working group tasked with the development of non-binding long-term sustainability (lts guidelines. This article includes an overview of the concept of space sustainability, a discussion of the need, development, and current status of the lts guidelines, as well as an analysis of some of the guidelines themselves. It concludes with a broader discussion of space as an area without state sovereignty – one of the key aspects that have influenced the development of non-binding measures to address the space sustainability challenge. In this context, and given the governance questions that arise from the interaction between states and non-state actors in this domain, this discussion should be of interest to international relations scholars and practitioners.

  2. Structural characterization and osteogenic bioactivity of a sulfated polysaccharide from pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Sufeng; Huang, Lu; Ai, Chunqing; Pan, Jinfeng; Su, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhongfu; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-02-15

    Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to promote osteogenesis. To find novel adjuvants to enhance the activity of BMP-2, the present study investigated the structure BMP-2-induced osteogenic activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from the gonad of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) named AGSP. Through analysis of aldobiouronic acids released from AGSP, monosaccharide composition comparison of AGSP and its reduced product, and methylation analysis and NMR analysis of AGSP and its desulfated derivative, the main structure residue of AGSP was determined as →3)-GlcA(1→3)-Gal(1→ with sulfated branches comprised of prevelant Gal and minor Glc, and →4)-β-GlcA(1→2)-α-Man(1→ residue was also found. AGSP possessed a sulfate content of 12.4% with a relative molecular weight of 6.6kDa. AGSP strengthened alkaline phosphatase activity induced by BMP-2 in a dose dependent manner at 10-200μg/mL with 425% enhancement being observed at 200μg/mL, indicating AGSP could be an adjuvant candidate to enhance osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of iNOS alleviates cognitive deficits and depression in diabetic mice through downregulating the NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Yan; Zhang, Fang; Ying, Chang Jiang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Dong, Jing; Shi, Yue; Tang, Mang; Hu, Xiao Tong; Pan, Zhi Hua; Xu, Na Na; Zheng, Kui Yang; Tang, Ren Xian; Song, Yuan Jian

    2017-03-30

    Diabetes mellitus often results in a number of complications involving impaired brain function, including cognitive deficits and depression. However, the potential mechanisms for diabetes-related cognitive deficits and depression are not fully understood. Neurons in the hippocampal, cortical and amygdala functional regions are more susceptible to damage during hyperglycemia. Neuroprotection in the brain can rescue cognitive deficits and depression induced by hyperglycemia. This study investigated the potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related congnitive deficits and depression, determined whether the inflammatory factor inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, play key roles in cognitive deficits and depression associated. In the present study, diabetic animal models were induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 150mg/kg) in mice, and aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of iNOS, was given by intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. Blood glucose, activities of NOS and the levels of NO in serum and brain regions were measured. The spatial memory was detected using the Morris water maze test, depressive behavior was evaluated by the tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), closed field test (CFT) and open field test (OFT). We also detected neuronal survival and cleaved caspase-3 positive ratios in three brain regions and the levels of iNOS, sGC, cGMP and PKG in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Data indicated that diabetic mice exerted impairments in spatial memory, decreased locomotor activity and increased immobile time in diabetic mice. In addition, diabetic mice had significantly decreased surviving neuronal density and showed signs of obvious neuronal injury in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. iNOS overexpression and its associated signaling pathway NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were

  4. Physical activity, sustained sedentary behavior, and pain modulation in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Laura D; Shields, Morgan R; Stegner, Aaron J; Cook, Dane B

    2012-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been conceptualized as a disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by augmented sensory processing and an inability to effectively modulate pain. We previously reported that physical activity is related to brain processing of pain, providing evidence for a potential mechanism of pain management. The purpose of this study was to extend our work by manipulating pain modulation and determining relationships to both physical activity and sustained sedentary behavior. Eleven women with FM completed accelerometer measures of physical activity and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of painful heat, administered alone and during distracting cognitive tasks. Results showed that physical activity was significantly (P sedentary time, significant negative relationships were observed in areas involved in both pain modulation and the sensory-discriminative aspects of pain including the DLPFC, thalamus, and superior frontal and pre- and post-central gyri. These results suggest that physical activity and sedentary behaviors are related to central nervous system regulation of pain in FM. Our results support a promising benefit of physical activity and highlight the potentially deleterious effects of sustained sedentary behavior for pain regulation in FM. Studies aimed at increasing physical activity or reducing sedentary behavior and determining the impact of these on pain regulation are warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91phox and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia–ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Che; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Hou, Yu-Chang; Peng, Yu-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 μg/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91 phox ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood–brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91 phox and iNOS via activation of the NF-κB pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91 phox and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-κB activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: ► Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. ► Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. ► Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. ► Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. ► Prodigiosin down-regulated gp91 phox and iNOS by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

  6. Donkey milk kefir induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by decreasing iNOS in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esener, Obb; Balkan, B M; Armutak, E I; Uvez, A; Yildiz, G; Hafizoglu, M; Yilmazer, N; Gurel-Gurevin, E

    2018-04-12

    Donkey milk and donkey milk kefir exhibit antiproliferative, antimutagenic and antibacterial effects. We investigated the effects of donkey milk and donkey milk kefir on oxidative stress, apoptosis and proliferation in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Thirty-four adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, administered 0.5 ml water; group 2, administered 0.5 ml water + EAC cells; group 3, administered 0.5 ml donkey milk + EAC cells; group 4, administered 0.5 ml donkey milk kefir + EAC cells. We introduced 2.5 x 10 6 EAC cells into each animal by subcutaneous injection. Tap water, donkey milk and donkey milk kefir were administered by gavage for 10 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 11. After measuring the short and long diameters of the tumors, tissues were processed for histology. To determine oxidative stress, cell death and proliferation iNOS and eNOS, active caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed using immunohistochemistry. A TUNEL assay also was used to detect apoptosis. Tumor volume decreased in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. Tumor volume increased in the donkey milk group compared to the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels were higher in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. The number of apoptotic cells was less in the donkey milk group, compared to the control, whereas it was highest in the donkey milk kefir group. Donkey milk administration increased eNOS levels and decreased iNOS levels, compared to the control group. In the donkey milk kefir group, iNOS levels were significantly lower than those of the control and donkey milk groups, while eNOS levels were similar to the control group. Donkey milk kefir induced apoptosis, suppressed proliferation and decreased co-expression of iNOS and eNOS. Donkey milk promoted development of the tumors. Therefore, donkey milk kefir appears to

  7. Sildenafil Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Role of iNOS and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. However, its usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was reported to prevent or decrease tissue injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential protective effects of sildenafil on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days with and without sildenafil. Sildenafil administration resulted in nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-intoxicated rats as it significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels, with a concomitant increase in renal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to gentamicin-treated rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination revealed that sildenafil treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was markedly enhanced. The protective effects of sildenafil were verified histopathologically. In conclusion, sildenafil protects rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part, through its antioxidant activity, inhibition of iNOS expression, and induction of eNOS production.

  8. Individuals with more severe depression fail to sustain nucleus accumbens activity to preferred music over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Skerrett, Kristy A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Patrón, Víctor G; Meyers, Kortni K; Peltier, Scott; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A; Starkman, Monica N

    2018-05-30

    We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation. Counter intuitively, we found that NAcc activity during early music listening was associated with greater depression severity. In whole-brain analyses, anhedonia scores predicted activity in regions within the default mode network, supporting previous findings. Our results support theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation. It also highlights that pleasant classical music can engage critical neural reward circuitry in MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eupatolide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-06-25

    Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Public Policies: Legalization and Judicial Activism for Sustainable De-velopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, we intend to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development.

  11. Reasearch Activities for the Establishment of The Center for Sustainable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Seliger

    2005-08-08

    In 2003, Bronx Community College received a grant of $481,000 through the United States Department of Energy for the purpose of conducting research- related activities leading to the creation of the Center for Sustainable Energy at Bronx Community College. The award, which was administered on behalf of Bronx Community College by the Research Foundation of the City University of New York, was initially for one year, from October 2003 through September 30, 2004. It received a no-cost extension to June 30, 2005. This report presents a summary of the activities and accomplishments attributable to the award.

  12. NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND iNOS mRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-8-STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH iNOS siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biological pathway i...

  13. Local and Sustained Activity of Doxycycline Delivered with Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Gould, David J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-04-11

    Achieving localized delivery of small molecule drugs has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce off target and side effects associated with systemic distribution. Herein, we explore the potential use of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled microcapsules for the delivery of doxycycline. Absorbance of doxycycline onto core dextran sulfate of preassembled microcapsules provides an efficient method to load both synthetic and biodegradable microcapsules with the drug. Application of an outer layer lipid coat enhances the sustained in vitro release of doxycycline from both microcapsule types. To monitor doxycycline delivery in a biological system, C2C12 mouse myoblasts are engineered to express EGFP under the control of the optimized components of the tetracycline regulated gene expression system. Microcapsules are not toxic to these cells, and upon delivery to the cells, EGFP is more efficiently induced in those cells that contain engulfed microcapsules and monitored EGFP expression clearly demonstrates that synthetic microcapsules with a DPPC coat are the most efficient for sustain intracellular delivery. Doxycycline released from microcapsules also displayed sustained activity in an antimicrobial growth inhibition assay compared with doxycycline solution. This study reveals the potential for LbL microcapsules in small molecule drug delivery and their feasible use for achieving prolonged doxycycline activity.

  14. Novel bio-active lipid nanocarriers for the stabilization and sustained release of sitosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatusu, I; Badea, N; Stan, R; Meghea, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, new stable and efficiently bio-active lipid nanocarriers (NLCs) with antioxidant properties have been developed for the transport of active ingredients in food. The novel NLCs loaded with β-sitosterol/β-sitosterol and green tea extract (GTE) and prepared by a combination of natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and squalene) and biological lipids with food grade surfactants, were physico-chemically examined by DLS, TEM, electrokinetic potential, DSC and HPLC and found to have main diameters less than 200 nm, a spherical morphology, excellent physical stability, an imperfect crystalline lattice and high entrapment efficiency. The novel loaded-NLCs have demonstrated the potential to develop a high blocking action of chain reactions, trapping up to 92% of the free-oxygen radicals, as compared to the native β-sitosterol (AA%=36.5). Another advantage of this study is associated with the quality of bio-active NLCs based on grape seed oil and squalene to manifest a better sitosterol—sustained release behaviour as compared to their related nanoemulsions. By coupling both in vitro results, i.e. the enhanced antioxidant activity and superior release properties, this study emphasizes the sustainability of novel bio-active nanocarriers to gain specific bio-food features for development of functional foods with a high applicability spectrum. (paper)

  15. Icaritin causes sustained ERK1/2 activation and induces apoptosis in human endometrial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Shan Tong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Icaritin, a compound from Epimedium Genus, has selective estrogen receptor (ER modulating activities, and possess anti-tumor activity. Here, we examined icaritin effect on cell growth of human endometrial cancer Hec1A cells and found that icaritin potently inhibited proliferation of Hec1A cells. Icaritin-inhibited cell growth was associated with increased levels of p21 and p27 expression and reduced cyclinD1 and cdk 4 expression. Icaritin also induced cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspases as evidenced by the cleavage of endogenous substrate Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and cytochrome c release, which was abrogated by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Icaritin treatment also induced expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax with a concomitant decrease of Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, icaritin induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (the MAPK/ ERK1/2 in Hec1A cells and U0126, a specific MAP kinase kinase (MEK1/2 inhibitor, blocked the ERK1/2 activation by icaritin and abolished the icaritin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that icaritin induced sustained ERK 1/2 activation and inhibited growth of endometrial cancer Hec1A cells, and provided a rational for preclinical and clinical evaluation of icaritin for endometrial cancer therapy.

  16. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidan AS

    2016-04-01

    demonstrated a sustained release profile for nicotinamide. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction demonstrated a significant interaction between the drug and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin that might modulate the sustained release behavior. Furthermore, the formulations provided a sustained antibacterial activity that depended on nicotinamide-loading concentration, release rate, and incubation time. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of polymeric nanoemulsified system to sustain the release and antibacterial activity of nicotinamide. Keywords: nicotinamide, polymeric nanoemulsified systems, Plackett–Burman design, antibacterial activity, sustained release

  17. Compartmentalized activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex sustain lipogenesis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Guccini, Ilaria; Mitri, Diletta Di; Brina, Daniela; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Sarti, Manuela; Pasquini, Emiliano; Alajati, Abdullah; Pinton, Sandra; Losa, Marco; Civenni, Gianluca; Catapano, Carlo V; Sgrignani, Jacopo; Cavalli, Andrea; D'Antuono, Rocco; Asara, John M; Morandi, Andrea; Chiarugi, Paola; Crotti, Sara; Agostini, Marco; Montopoli, Monica; Masgras, Ionica; Rasola, Andrea; Garcia-Escudero, Ramon; Delaleu, Nicolas; Rinaldi, Andrea; Bertoni, Francesco; Bono, Johann de; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Alimonti, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The mechanisms by which mitochondrial metabolism supports cancer anabolism remain unclear. Here, we found that genetic and pharmacological inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1), a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), inhibits prostate cancer development in mouse and human xenograft tumor models by affecting lipid biosynthesis. Mechanistically, we show that in prostate cancer, PDC localizes in both the mitochondria and the nucleus. Whereas nuclear PDC controls the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor (SREBF)-target genes by mediating histone acetylation, mitochondrial PDC provides cytosolic citrate for lipid synthesis in a coordinated manner, thereby sustaining anabolism. Additionally, we found that PDHA1 and the PDC activator pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 (PDP1) are frequently amplified and overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels in prostate tumors. Together, these findings demonstrate that both mitochondrial and nuclear PDC sustain prostate tumorigenesis by controlling lipid biosynthesis, thus suggesting this complex as a potential target for cancer therapy.

  18. Self-sustainability of a research reactor facility with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term self-sustainability of a small reactor facility is possible because there is a large demand for non-destructive chemical analysis of bulk materials that can only be achieved with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The Ecole Polytechnique Montreal SLOWPOKE Reactor Facility has achieved self-sustainability for over twenty years, benefiting from the extreme reliability, ease of use and stable neutron flux of the SLOWPOKE reactor. The industrial clientele developed slowly over the years, mainly because of research users of the facility. A reliable NAA service with flexibility, high accuracy and fast turn-around time was achieved by developing an efficient NAA system, using a combination of the relative and k0 standardisation methods. The techniques were optimized to meet the specific needs of the client, such as low detection limit or high accuracy at high concentration. New marketing strategies are presented, which aim at a more rapid expansion. (author)

  19. Sustained Striatal Activity Predicts Eudaimonic Well-Being and Cortisol Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Lapate, Regina C; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Eudaimonic well-being—a sense of purpose, meaning, and engagement with life—is protective against psychopathology and predicts physical health, including lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Although it has been suggested that the ability to engage the neural circuitry of reward may promote well-being and mediate the relationship between well-being and health, this hypothesis has remained untested. To test this hypothesis, we had participants view positive, neutral, and negative images while fMRI data were collected. Individuals with sustained activity in the striatum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to positive stimuli over the course of the scan session reported greater well-being and had lower cortisol output. This suggests that sustained engagement of reward circuitry in response to positive events underlies well-being and adaptive regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24058063

  20. Consumer Culture, Sustainability and Business Practice: How Companies can Promote the Symbolic Value of Sustainability in Consumption Activities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Macário de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on sustainability began recently to focus on the consumption patterns of contemporary society as a major causative factors of social and environmental problems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss some opportunities that companies have to influence these changes consumption patterns towards sustainability, taking as a basis the view discussed in studies of Rindova and Ravasi (2008 who consider firms as producers of culture. To this end, we performed a theoretical essay. The results show that companies can influence the formation of specific cultures with the symbolic construction of sustainable practices, contributing to the formation of a culture of sustainable consumption. This occurs from innovation in their ways of working, considering that evoke meanings that products appear to be influenced by strategic choices of producers, such as the concepts and philosophies of design (Ravasi; Rindova, 2008, which includes the development new technologies and practices (Michaelis, 2003 based on the principles of eco-efficiency (Barber, 2008; Clark, 2008, as well as changes in values and discourses that shape the cultures of business, government, media and civil society (Michaelis, 2003, also aligned with the ethical principles and shared environmental responsibility (Tukkeret al, 2008.

  1. Sustainability of Physical Activity Promoting Environments and Influences on Sustainability Following a Structural Intervention in Residential Children's Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…

  2. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental issues in the agricultural sector in Iran is the absence of optimal water and soil resources utilization and lack of new agricultural science and technology adoption through major prevailing transformations in agricultural land exploitation system. The studies conducted in the history of agricultural development in Iran cast light on the fact that the farming system’s role in the agricultural development in Iran is of great importance. And water and soil resources utilization has been one of the fundamental issues of agriculture which has enjoyed major consideration after the implementation of land restructuring. The agriculture farming systems are referred to as the focus of all activities related to sustainable agricultural development in Iran and it is believed that the shift and transition from traditional agriculture to modern and profitable agriculture through appropriate, improved and newly developed agricultural establishments are the major activities which can increase productivity and improve the overall performance of the agricultural sector and thus contribute to sustainable development more than any other factor. Hence, such significance will be more evident when the small and scattered farmlands in many cases have imposed some limitations in the application of agricultural techniques and machinery, equipping and developing the infrastructure and efficient use of resources with appropriate performance forcing agricultural policymakersto be always looking for ways to deal with it. Therefore, identifying the relative advantage of any farming system specified for each area and region in the country seems important. Accordingly, the Mazandaran province is regarded as one of the production hubs in producing crops such as rice, wheat and canola in the country playing a major role in supplying food. With a detailed analysis of research literature, the economic, ecological, social, technical and policy

  3. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Attanasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving—on the performance (workability, compressive strength of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa, confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md. The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production.

  4. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): protocol for a multi-centre, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Götschi, Thomas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; de Nazelle, Audrey; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Standaert, Arnout; Stigell, Erik; Uhlmann, Tina; Gerike, Regine; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-11-14

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals' everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution. A set of online questionnaires incorporating gold standard approaches from the physical activity and transport fields have been developed, piloted and are now being deployed in a longitudinal study in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich). In total, 14000 adults are being recruited (2000 in each city). A first questionnaire collects baseline information; follow-up questionnaires sent every 13 days collect prospective data on travel behaviour, levels of physical activity and traffic safety incidents. Self-reported data will be validated with objective data in subsamples using conventional and novel methods. Accelerometers, GPS and tracking apps record routes and activity. Air pollution and physical activity are measured to study their combined effects on health biomarkers. Exposure-adjusted crash risks will be calculated for active modes, and crash location audits are performed to study the role of the built environment. Ethics committees in all seven cities have given independent approval for the study. The PASTA study collects a wealth of subjective and objective data on active mobility and physical activity. This will allow the investigation of numerous correlates of active mobility and physical activity using a data set that advances previous efforts in its richness, geographical coverage

  5. Effect of Progesterone Therapy on TNF-α and iNOS Gene Expression in Spinal Cord Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farahabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI as a destructive crash result in neurons degeneration. The SCI lead to the onset of biochemical and molecular cascades such as inflammation that in turn has a key role in neurodegeneration development. The previous studies demonstrated the role of TNF-α and iNOS genes in intensifying the process after SCI. As a consequence, these genes overexpression intensify the inflammation and neuron degeneration process. In the present study, 32 male Wistar rats were chased and divided into four groups of eight. The SCI were induced in three groups and another group used as a sham. The progesterone hormone used as a therapeutic agent in rats with SCI. The results showed that injection of 10 μg/kg/12h progesterone hormone reduced the TNF-α and iNOS gene expression significantly and confirmed the role of progesterone in the reduction of inflammation. Also, the numbers of intact neurons in progesterone group were higher than other groups that demonstrated the protective effects of progesterone on neuron death. The BBB test was performed and demonstrated that progesterone is an effective factor to the improvement of locomotor response. These results of the study confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of progesterone hormone and suggested that it can be used as a therapeutic factor for SCI.

  6. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  7. Increased intracellular Ca2+decreases cisplatin resistance by regulating iNOS expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xie, Qi; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Yuting; Xu, Na; Xu, Lu; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Sun, Liankun

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that intracellular Ca 2+ signals and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are involved in cell apoptosis. However, the role of iNOS in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells were more resistant to cisplatin than were SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The expression of intracellular Ca 2+ and iNOS was more strongly induced by cisplatin in SKOV3 cells than in SKOV3/DDP cells. TAT-conjugated IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDP S ) increased cisplatin-induced iNOS expression and apoptosis in SKOV3/DDP cells. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) decreased cisplatin-induced iNOS expression and apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. Thus, iNOS induction may be a valuable strategy for improving the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune activation underlies a sustained clinical response to Yttrium-90 radioembolisation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Valerie; Lee, Yun Hua; Pan, Lu; Nasir, Nurul J M; Lim, Chun Jye; Chua, Camillus; Lai, Liyun; Hazirah, Sharifah Nur; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Goh, Brian K P; Chung, Alexander; Lo, Richard H G; Ng, David; Filarca, Rene L F; Albani, Salvatore; Chow, Pierce K H

    2018-02-13

    Yttrium-90 (Y90)-radioembolisation (RE) significantly regresses locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and delays disease progression. The current study is designed to deeply interrogate the immunological impact of Y90-RE, which elicits a sustained therapeutic response. Time-of-flight mass cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to analyse the immune landscapes of tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs), tumour tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at different time points before and after Y90-RE. TILs isolated after Y90-RE exhibited signs of local immune activation: higher expression of granzyme B (GB) and infiltration of CD8 + T cells, CD56 + NK cells and CD8 + CD56 + NKT cells. NGS confirmed the upregulation of genes involved in innate and adaptive immune activation in Y90-RE-treated tumours. Chemotactic pathways involving CCL5 and CXCL16 correlated with the recruitment of activated GB + CD8 + T cells to the Y90-RE-treated tumours. When comparing PBMCs before and after Y90-RE, we observed an increase in tumour necrosis factor-α on both the CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as an increase in percentage of antigen-presenting cells after Y90-RE, implying a systemic immune activation. Interestingly, a high percentage of PD-1 + /Tim-3 + CD8 + T cells coexpressing the homing receptors CCR5 and CXCR6 denoted Y90-RE responders. A prediction model was also built to identify sustained responders to Y90-RE based on the immune profiles from pretreatment PBMCs. High-dimensional analysis of tumour and systemic immune landscapes identified local and systemic immune activation that corresponded to the sustained response to Y90-RE. Potential biomarkers associated with a positive clinical response were identified and a prediction model was built to identify sustained responders prior to treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  9. Effects of polysaccharides from abalone viscera (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) on MGC 803 cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Juan; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Jing; Mao, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Qing-Xi; Wang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    The polysaccharides (AVP) was obtained from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) viscera, using the alkaline protease to enzymolysis, sevage method and repeated freezing and thawing method to remove protein and hydrogen peroxide method to depigment. The total sugar content was 46.27±1.5% and uronic acid, sulfate radical, hexosamine and protein contents were 17.44±0.22%, 16.98±0.15%, 0.65±0.02% and 1.64±0.13% in AVP respectively. The main monosaccharide compositions of AVP were d-galactose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-glucuronic acid. MTT assay showed AVP had a significant anti-tumor activity to gastric carcinoma cells, especially to MGC 803, while it had no influence upon proliferation of normal stomach cells GES 1. The results of Morphological changes, cell migration ability and AO/EB staining indicated that MGC803 cells underwent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner induced by AVP. Moreover, the western blotting results showed that the expressions of survivin, Bcl-2 and VEGF were decreased, while the expression of Bax and p53 were increased in a dose-dependent manner of AVP. The results suggested that AVP might be a potential anti-tumor agent securely and naturally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  11. Effects of progesterone on iNOS, COX-2, and collagen expression in the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Stephen G; Wentz, Melissa J; Mackay, Lynette B; Schlembach, Dietmar; Maul, Holger; Fittkow, Cordula; Given, Randal; Vedernikov, Yurij; Saade, George R; Garfield, Robert E

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the control of cervical ripening and parturition under normal (normal term pregnancy) and abnormal (preterm labor and prolongation of pregnancy) conditions by (a) measuring changes in the collagen both visually and quantitatively, (b) localizing and characterizing iNOS and COX-2 under normal conditions, and (c) characterizing the changes in iNOS and COX-2 under abnormal conditions. Cervices are obtained from estrus and timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4-10 per group). Preterm labor is induced with Onapristone (3 mg/rat; progesterone antagonist) and the prolongation of pregnancy with progesterone (2.5 mg, twice daily). Collagen changes are measured and visualized with the picrosirius polarization method. RT-PCR is used to characterize the mRNA expression (plabor, increasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p<0.05). The increase demonstrated a positive correlation (Spearman r = 0.456; p=0.03). Progesterone prolonged pregnancy, decreasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p=0.036). In conclusion, there may be an interaction between the nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in cervical ripening and parturition.

  12. Expression of leptin and iNOS in oral melanomas in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V R; Wilson, H; Pfent, C; Roethele, J; Carwile, J; Qin, Y; Grimm, E; Ellerhorst, J A

    2013-01-01

    Oral melanoma (OM) in dogs is an aggressive malignancy, with clinical behavior resembling cutaneous melanomas in humans. Melanoma in humans is promoted by an inflammatory environment that is contributed to by leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). To determine if the patterns of leptin and iNOS expression are similar in OM in dogs and cutaneous melanomas in humans. Twenty client-owned dogs. Retrospective case study. Immunostaining of the OM tumors from each dog was scored for percentage and intensity of leptin and iNOS expression. Mitotic index was used as an indicator of tumor aggression. Leptin was detected in ≥75% of the tumor cells in specimens from 11 dogs. One tumor expressed leptin in ≤25% of the cells. The intensity of leptin expression was variable with 6, 9, and 5 cases exhibiting low-, moderate-, and high-intensity staining, respectively. OM with the lowest percentage of iNOS positive cells displayed the highest mitotic indices (P = .006, ANOVA). The expression of leptin is a common finding in melanomas in dogs. These data suggest that the possibility of future clinical applications, such as measuring the concentrations of plasma leptin as a screening tool or leptin as a target for therapy. The relevance of iNOS is not as clear in dogs with OM, for which other directed therapeutics might be more appropriate. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Trends and Characteristics of Maxillofacial Fractures Sustained During Sports Activities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-03-11

    Sports activity increases the risk of maxillofacial fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze trends and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports activity to develop more effective treatments and possibly to prevent injury. Data of 248 patients with maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports activity were retrospectively analyzed based on their clinical records and radiographs. The patients were 226 males (91.1%) and 22 females (8.9%). Their ages ranged from 6 to 70 years and the majority were in their second decade. The fractures were sustained in various sports which included baseball in 85 patients (34.3%), rugby in 40 (16.1%), soccer in 30 (12.1%), softball in 22 (8.9%), golf in 10 (4.0%), hockey in 8 (3.2%), combat sports in 28 (11.3%), and others in 29 (11.7%). The cause of injuries was collision with another player in 97 patients (39.1%), hit by a ball in 89 (35.9%), intended attack in 20 (8.1%), hit by equipment of another player in 15 (6.0%), a fall in 14 (5.6%), and collision with ground equipment in 13 (5.2%). The site of fractures was the mandible in 145 patients (58.5%), midface in 100 (40.3%), and both in 3 (1.2%). Among 210 fracture sites in the mandible, 77 (36.6%) were in the angle, 68 (32.4%) in the symphysis, and 65 (30.9%) in others. Among 103 fractures in the midface, 58 (56.3%) were in the zygoma, 26 (25.2%) in alveolar bone, and 19 (18.4%) in others. Treatment was observation in 67 patients (27.0%), maxillomandibular fixation in 64 (25.8%), open reduction and internal fixation in 63 (25.4%), intramaxillary splinting in 40 (16.1%), transcutaneous reduction in 10 (4.0%), and other procedures in 4 (1.6%). Maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports activity showed characteristic features dependent on the type of sport and cause of injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Bistability Analysis of Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Networks in Limited-Sustained-Activity Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yun; Wu Liang; Wu Dan; Zhu Shiqun

    2011-01-01

    Bistable behavior of neuronal complex networks is investigated in the limited-sustained-activity regime when the network is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The standard stability analysis is performed on the two metastable states separately. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show consistently that the difference between time scales of excitatory and inhibitory populations can influence the dynamical behaviors of the neuronal networks dramatically, leading to the transition from bistable behaviors with memory effects to the collapse of bistable behaviors. These results may suggest one possible neuronal information processing by only tuning time scales. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  16. RE-SONAN-CE--INo-ve-mber--zo-oz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOOK REVIEWS. 80 Ecology and Sustainable Development. M D Subash Chandran. 82 From Smiling Birds to Dancing Gods: A View of Evolution. Amitabh Joshi. Front Cover. -,... --. Back Cover. A schematic drawing of the Large Electron. Positron Collider ring, depicting the posi- tions of the four detectors Aleph, Delp i, L3.

  17. Quercetin modulates iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN expressions and attenuates oxidative stress in warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd-Elbaset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is mediated through the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced cell injury. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin (QR compared to N-acetylcysteine (NAC against hepatic I/R injury in rats and to assess iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions, as a possible mechanism of its hepatoprotective effect. Hepatic ischemia was surgically performed by occlusion of hepatic pedicle (hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct that supplies the left and medial lobes (approximately 70% of the total liver mass, for 30 min with a vascular clamp followed by releasing the clamp and the liver was reperfused for 30 min. QR-pretreatment increased eNOS protein expression with simultaneous decrease in iNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions. It also decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. In addition, it restored the depleted content of reduced glutathione (GSH and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. A notable finding is that QR alleviated I/R-induced histopathological changes. Therefore, the present study illustrates the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin compared to N-acetylcysteine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and by modulating iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions.

  18. Intoxicação experimental por monensina em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra Jr Pedro Soares

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete eqüinos foram tratados experimentalmente com monensina sódica. Dois desses animais receberem 3-4 kg/eqüino/dia de uma ração comercial sabidamente implicada em surtos naturais da intoxicação por monensina em eqüinos e que continha 180 ppm±20 da droga. Um eqüino recebeu uma única dose de 5 mg/kg e um outro recebeu 4 doses diárias de 1 mg/kg de monensina sódica originária de um premix. Esses quatro eqüinos morreram ou foram sacrificados in extremis, 3-8 dias após o início da administração da droga. Um quinto eqüino recebeu dose única de 5 mg/kg de monensina, ficou levemente doente e se recuperou. Dois eqüinos não desenvolveram sinais da intoxicação. Um desses eqüinos tinha recebido 40 doses diárias de 0,5 mg/kg de monensina e o outro recebeu 3 kg/dia de uma ração da mesma marca que a usada nas fazendas onde surtos de intoxicação por monensina foram detectados (mas de uma outra partida, mais tarde determinada como contendo menos de 5 ppm de monensina. O aparecimento dos sinais clínicos ocorreu de 2 a 5 dias após a administração da droga e a duração do quadro clínico variou de 24 a 76 horas. Os sinais clínicos incluíam taquicardia, arritmia, gemidos, incoordenação, sudorese, decúbito esternal, decúbito lateral, pedaleios e morte. Em cinco dos eqüinos intoxicados observaram-se marcadas elevações da atividade plasmática de creatina fosfoquinase e, em um eqüino, houve leve aumento da atividade plasmática de aspartato aminotransferase. Os principais achados de necropsia consistiram em áreas brancas ou amarelas, focais ou focalmente extensas e bilateralmente simétricas nos músculos esqueléticos. Essas lesões eram associadas a edema gelatinoso e translúcido das fáscias intermusculares. Quadríceps femoral, adutor, pectíneo, grácil, semi-membranáceo, supra-espinhal, subescapular, braquicefálico e quadríceps femoral estavam entre os músculos esqueléticos mais afetados. Os exames histol

  19. Broad sustainability versus sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.

    2002-01-01

    The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) regulatory region variation in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodgar, Morteza; Ross, Cody T; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Marcelino, Gretchen; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an enzyme that plays a key role in intracellular immune response against respiratory infections. Since various species of nonhuman primates exhibit different levels of susceptibility to infectious respiratory diseases, and since variation in regulatory regions of genes is thought to play a key role in expression levels of genes, two candidate regulatory regions of iNOS were mapped, sequenced, and compared across five species of nonhuman primates: African green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). In addition, we conducted an in silico analysis of the transcription factor binding sites associated with genetic variation in these two candidate regulatory regions across species. We found that only one of the two candidate regions showed strong evidence of involvement in iNOS regulation. Specifically, we found evidence of 13 conserved binding site candidates linked to iNOS regulation: AP-1, C/EBPB, CREB, GATA-1, GATA-3, NF-AT, NF-AT5, NF-κB, KLF4, Oct-1, PEA3, SMAD3, and TCF11. Additionally, we found evidence of interspecies variation in binding sites for several regulatory elements linked to iNOS (GATA-3, GATA-4, KLF6, SRF, STAT-1, STAT-3, OLF-1 and HIF-1) across species, especially in African green monkeys relative to other species. Given the key role of iNOS in respiratory immune response, the findings of this study might help guide the direction of future studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of African green monkeys to several viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycoprotein isolated from Ulmus davidiana Nakai regulates expression of iNOS and COX-2 in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2007-06-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of a 116-kDa glycoprotein isolated from Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated A/J mouse. In LPS (1 microg/ml)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, we found that UDN glycoprotein has dose-dependent blocking effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, the results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis showed that UDN glycoprotein dose-dependently inhibits DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and manganese-superoxide dismutases (Mn-SOD) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Similar results after treatment with UDN glycoprotein were also brought in the DSS-stimulated A/J mouse colitis. The increased disease activity index (DAI) and the shortened large intestine in DSS (5%)-treated A/J mouse were normalized by treatment with UDN glycoprotein [40 mg/kg body weight (BW)]. These intestinal protective activities of UDN glycoprotein are caused by blockage of plasmic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, accompanying the inhibition of colonic inflammatory signal mediators (NF-kappaB, iNOS, and COX-2). These results in this study were presumably come from anti-oxidative effect of UDN glycoprotein in either LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells or DSS-stimulated A/J mouse colitis. Therefore, we speculate that UDN glycoprotein has anti-inflammatory potential at the early inflammation stage.

  2. Intermittent but not sustained hypoxia activates orexin-containing neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiji; Futatsuki, Takahiro; Ushikai, Jumpei; Kuroki, Chiharu; Minami, Toshiaki; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-15

    Hypothalamic orexin-containing neurons are activated by CO2 and contribute to hypercapnic ventilatory activation. However, their role in oxygen-related regulation of breathing is not well defined. In this study, we examined whether an experimental model mimicking apnea-induced repetitive hypoxemia (intermittent hypoxia [IH]) activates orexin-containing neurons. Mice were exposed to IH (5×5min at 10% O2), intermittent hyperoxia (IO; 5×5min at 50% O2), sustained hypoxia (SH; 25min at 10% O2), or sham stimulation. Their brains were examined using double immunohistochemical staining for orexin and c-Fos. The results indicated that IH (25.8±3.0%), but not SH (9.0±1.5%) activated orexin-containing neurons when compared to IO (5.5±0.6%) and sham stimulation (5.9±1.4%). These results correlate with those of our previous work showing that IH-induced respiratory long-term facilitation is dependent on orexin-containing neurons. Taken together, orexin contributes to repetitive hypoxia-induced respiratory activation and the hypoxic activation of orexin-containing neurons is pattern dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustained involvement in youth sports activities predicts reduced chronic job strain in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Telama, R; Hirvensalo, M; Hintsanen, M; Hintsa, T; Pulkki-Råback, L; Mansikkaniemi, K; Viikari, J S A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Raitakari, O T

    2010-12-01

    We examined the long-term effects of youth leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sports participation on the prevalence of chronic work stress in adulthood. Participants (326 men and 338 women) aged 9 to 18 years were initially enrolled in 1980 and followed until 2007. Data were collected using questionnaires and bicycle ergometry in a subgroup. High youth LTPA and sports participation predicted lower chronic job strain in both sexes. The association was mediated by type A leadership. Participation and persistence in organized youth sports followed a similar pattern. In the subgroup, adult physical fitness only partly accounted for the association. Sustained involvement in youth physical activity and sport lasting at least 3 years is associated with reduced chronic job strain in adulthood. The association was partially explained by type A leadership and physical fitness.

  4. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eLassowskat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phosphoproteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g. WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the PEN pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens. Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org.

  5. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE): results from two feasibility pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey A; Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna

    2017-03-10

    Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants' sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p nutrition guidelines for young children. SAGE successfully translated national PA guidelines to practice for young children but was less successful with nutrition guidelines. High adoption and implementation and favorable parent

  6. Structure of extremely nanosized and confined In-O species in ordered porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M.; Renteria, M.; Miro, E.E.; Requejo, F.G.; Traverse, A.

    2003-01-01

    Perturbed-angular correlation, x-ray absorption, and small-angle x-ray scattering spectroscopies were suitably combined to elucidate the local structure of highly diluted and dispersed InO x species confined in the porous of the ZSM5 zeolite. This novel approach allow us to determined the structure of extremely nanosized In-O species exchanged inside the 10-atom-ring channel of the zeolite, and to quantify the amount of In 2 O 3 crystallites deposited onto the external zeolite surface

  7. Iron-Catalyzed C-O Bond Activation: Opportunity for Sustainable Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisz, Elwira; Szostak, Michal

    2017-10-23

    Oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as some of the most valuable cross-coupling partners in organic synthesis due to several major strategic and environmental benefits, such as abundance and potential to avoid toxic halide waste. In this context, iron-catalyzed C-O activation/cross-coupling holds particular promise to achieve sustainable catalytic protocols due to its natural abundance, inherent low toxicity, and excellent economic and ecological profile. Recently, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of new methods for functional-group-tolerant iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions by selective C-O cleavage. These methods establish highly attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions by using halides as electrophilic partners. In particular, new easily accessible oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as substrates in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, which significantly broaden the scope of this catalysis platform. New mechanistic manifolds involving iron catalysis have been established; thus opening up vistas for the development of a wide range of unprecedented reactions. The synthetic potential of this sustainable mode of reactivity has been highlighted by the development of new strategies in the construction of complex motifs, including in target synthesis. The most recent advances in sustainable iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of C-O-based electrophiles are reviewed, with a focus on both mechanistic aspects and synthetic utility. It should be noted that this catalytic manifold provides access to motifs that are often not easily available by other methods, such as the assembly of stereodefined dienes or C(sp 2 )-C(sp 3 ) cross-couplings, thus emphasizing the synthetic importance of this mode of reactivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO detection in circulating monocyte subsets from Brazilian patients with Dengue-4 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gomes Fialho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, dengue is characterized by its rapid dispersion around the world. Dengue severity is associated to a cytokine “storm” leading to vascular hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma leakage and shock, but also producing viral clearance. Macrophage/monocyte activation occurs during infection. Monocyte lineage cells are among those that allow virus replication. We investigated circulating human monocyte subsets - classical CD14+CD16− and non-classical CD14+CD16+ - during DENV-4 infection in patients. Intracellular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and indoleamine 2,3–dioxygenase (IDO were detected in both monocyte subsets. Circulating CD14+CD16+ monocyte frequency is mildly increased during DENV-4 infection. INOS is more intensely detected in CD14+CD16− than in CD16+ monocytes and IDO in CD14+CD16+. DENV-4 patients show increase in NO, TNF-α, IFN-y, IP-10/CXL10, IL-10 and MCP-1/CCL2 plasma levels when compared to healthy individuals. The classical monocyte subset, CD14+CD16− was shown to be inversely correlated with IL-10 and IP-10/CXCL10 levels, while the non-classical CD14+CD16+ is positively correlated with IL-10 cytokine. TNF-α, IL-10 cytokines and IP-10/CXL10 chemokine are positively correlated with the CD14+iNOS+ monocyte population. Both CD14+ cells - CD16−iNOS+ and CD16+iNOS+ subsets - presented positive correlation with IL-10, IP-10/CXL10 and MCP-1/CCL2, besides TNF-α associated with CD16−iNOS+ cells. CD14+CD16−IDO+and CD16+IDO+ populations correlated positively with IL-10. Furthermore, CD16−IDO+ monocyte subset also presented a positive correlation with TNF-α and IP-10/CXCL10. According to these data, we considered that iNOS and IDO are activated in monocyte CD16− and CD16+ subsets, likely exerting both antiviral effects and modulating exacerbated immunological responses during dengue fever.

  9. Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of fronto-striatal brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Shackman, Alexander J; Light, Sharee N; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-12-29

    Anhedonia, the loss of pleasure or interest in previously rewarding stimuli, is a core feature of major depression. While theorists have argued that anhedonia reflects a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, evidence is mixed as to whether anhedonia is caused by a reduction in hedonic capacity. An alternative explanation is that anhedonia is due to the inability to sustain positive affect across time. Using positive images, we used an emotion regulation task to test whether individuals with depression are unable to sustain activation in neural circuits underlying positive affect and reward. While up-regulating positive affect, depressed individuals failed to sustain nucleus accumbens activity over time compared with controls. This decreased capacity was related to individual differences in self-reported positive affect. Connectivity analyses further implicated the fronto-striatal network in anhedonia. These findings support the hypothesis that anhedonia in depressed patients reflects the inability to sustain engagement of structures involved in positive affect and reward.

  10. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report and sustainable development 2013. Financial report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the financial report, of the Andra for the year 2013

  11. Sustained antimicrobial activity and reduced toxicity of oxidative biocides through biodegradable microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Ali, Shanom; Wilson, Peter; Buanz, Asma; Gaisford, Simon; Mistry, Dharmit; Fellows, Adrian; Day, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Entrapment of the pre-cursor compounds into hierarchically structured degradable microparticles was achieved using an innovative dry manufacturing process involving thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) that circumvented compound decomposition associated with conventional microparticle manufacture. The microparticles provided controlled release of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid that led to rapid and sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli) without associated cytotoxicity in vitro nor intracutaneous reactivity in vivo. The results from this study demonstrate for the first time that microparticles loaded with acetyl and peroxygen donors retain their antimicrobial activity whilst eliciting no host toxicity. In doing so, it overcomes the detrimental effects that have prevented oxidative biocides from being used as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The manuscript explores a novel approach to utilize the antimicrobial activity of oxidative species for sustained killing of multiple drug-resistant organisms without causing collateral tissue damage. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to load pre-cursor compounds into porous polymeric structures that results in their release and conversion into oxidative species in a

  12. The Influence of Board of Directors, Independent Board of Commissioners, Leverage, and Corporate Activities To Disclosure of Sustainability Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria Nissa Awalia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was intended to examine the influences of board of directors, board of independent commissioner, leverage, and activity of company toward sustainability report disclosure. Sustainability Report Disclosure is the dependent variable sinthis research were measured by GRIG 3.1 Content Index and Checklists. For the independent variables in this research, using board of directors were measured by sum of directors meetings, board of in dependent commissioner were measured by proportion of independent commissioner, leverage were measured by debt to equity, activity of company were measured by total asset turnover. This research uses secondary data which is financial statement. and sustainability report from Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Companies in 2010-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 39 observations. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that board of directors, and leverage have no significant influence to sustainability report disclosure. The other hand activity of company has positive influence and significant to sustainability report disclosure. And Board of independent commissioner has negative influence and significant to sustainability reporting disclosure.

  13. Towards transdisciplinarity in Arctic sustainability knowledge co-production: Socially-Oriented Observations as a participatory integrated activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana; Volkov, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The paper is an attempt to tie together main biogeophysical and social science projects under the auspice of interdisciplinary sustainability science development. Special attention is put to the necessity of the transdisciplinary knowledge co-production based on activities and problem-solutions approaches. It puts attention to the role of monitoring activities in sustainability interdisciplinary science and transdisciplinary knowledge evolution in the Arctic. Socially focused monitoring named Socially-Oriented Observations creating a transdisciplinary space is viewed as one of sources of learning and transformations towards sustainability making possible to shape rapid changes happening in the Arctic based on sustainability knowledge co-production. Continuous Socially-Oriented Observations integrating scientific, education and monitoring methods enables to define adaptation and transformation pathways in the Arctic - the most rapidly changing region of our planet. Socially-Oriented Observations are based on the existing and developing interdisciplinary scientific approaches emerged within natural science and social science projects, sustainable development and resilience concepts putting principle attention to building sustainable and resilient socio-ecological systems. It is argued that the Arctic sustainability science is a valuable component of the whole and broader system of the Arctic Sustainability knowledge co-produced with the help of transdisciplinary approaches integrating science, local/traditional knowledge, entrepreneurship, education, decision-making. Socially-Oriented Observations are designed to be a transdisciplinary interactive continuous participatory process empowering deliberate choices of people that can shape the changes and enable transformation towards sustainability. Approaches of Socially-Oriented Observations and methods of implementation that have been developed since the IPY 2007/2008 and being practiced in different regions of the

  14. Curcumin, a Curcuma longa constituent, acts on MAPK p38 pathway modulating COX-2 and iNOS expression in chronic experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Barquero, Laura; Villegas, Isabel; Sánchez-Calvo, Juan Manuel; Talero, Elena; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Motilva, Virginia; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2007-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as the p38 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) modulate the transcription of many genes involved in the inflammatory process. Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to study the effects and mechanisms of action of curcumin, on chronic colitis in rats. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). We determined the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitrites in colon mucosa, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase(COX)-1 and-2 by western blotting and inmmunohistochemistry. Finally, we studied the involvement of MAPKs signaling in the protective effect of curcumin in chronic colonic inflammation. Curcumin (50-100 mg/kg/day) were administered by oral gavage 24 h after trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) instillation, and daily during 2 weeks before sacrifice. Curcumin significantly attenuated the damage and caused substantial reductions of the rise in MPO activity and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-alpha. Also curcumine was able to reduce nitrites colonic levels and induced down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression, and a reduction in the activation of p38 MAPK; however, no changes in the activation of JNK could be observed. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling by curcumin could explain the reduced COX-2 and iNOS immunosignals and the nitrite production in colonic mucosa reducing the development of chronic experimental colitis.

  15. Active involved community partnerships: co-creating implementation infrastructure for getting to and sustaining social impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Renée I; Flint, Aprille Y; Lapiz, A Mark; Lyons, Sheryl; Jarboe, Karen Lofts; Aldridge, William A

    2017-09-01

    Active involved community partnerships (AICPs) are essential to co-create implementation infrastructure and translate evidence into real-world practice. Across varied forms, AICPs cultivate community and tribal members as agents of change, blending research and organizational knowledge with relationships, context, culture, and local wisdom. Unlike selective engagement, AICPs enable active involvement of partners in the ongoing process of implementation and sustainability. This includes defining the problem, developing solutions, detecting practice changes, aligning organizational supports, and nurturing shared responsibility, accountability, and ownership for implementation. This paper builds on previously established active implementation and scaling functions by outlining key AICP functions to close the research-practice gap. Part of a federal initiative, California Partners for Permanency (CAPP) integrated AICP functions for implementation and system change to reduce disproportionality and disparities in long-term foster care. This paper outlines their experience defining and embedding five AICP functions: (1) relationship-building; (2) addressing system barriers; (3) establishing culturally relevant supports and services; (4) meaningful involvement in implementation; and (5) ongoing communication and feedback for continuous improvement. Planning for social impact requires the integration of AICP with other active implementation and scaling functions. Through concrete examples, authors bring multilevel AICP roles to life and discuss implications for implementation research and practice.

  16. Alternating activation is related to fatigue in lumbar muscles during sustained sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringheim, Inge; Indahl, Aage; Roeleveld, Karin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between variability in muscle activity and fatigue during a sustained low level contraction in the lumbar muscles. Twenty-five healthy participants (13 men 12 women) performed a 30min sitting task with 5 degrees inclination of the trunk. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded bilaterally from the lumbar muscles with 2 high density surface EMG grids of 9×14 electrodes. Median frequency (MDF) decrease, amplitude (RMS) increase and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used as fatigue indices. Alternating activation and spatial and temporal variability were computed and relations with the fatigue indices were explored. During sitting, the mono- and bipolar RMS slightly increased while the MDF remained unchanged indicating no systematic muscle fatigue, although the average RPE increased from 6 to 13 on a scale ranging between 6 and 20. Higher frequency of alternating activation between the left and right side was associated with increased RPE (p=0.03) and decreased MDF (p=0.05). A tendency in the same direction was seen between increased spatial and temporal variation within the grids and increased RPE and decreased MDF. Present findings provide evidence for a relationship between variability in muscle activity and fatigue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transient and sustained cortical activity elicited by connected speech of varying intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiitinen Hannu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robustness of speech perception in the face of acoustic variation is founded on the ability of the auditory system to integrate the acoustic features of speech and to segregate them from background noise. This auditory scene analysis process is facilitated by top-down mechanisms, such as recognition memory for speech content. However, the cortical processes underlying these facilitatory mechanisms remain unclear. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examined how the activity of auditory cortical areas is modulated by acoustic degradation and intelligibility of connected speech. The experimental design allowed for the comparison of cortical activity patterns elicited by acoustically identical stimuli which were perceived as either intelligible or unintelligible. Results In the experiment, a set of sentences was presented to the subject in distorted, undistorted, and again in distorted form. The intervening exposure to undistorted versions of sentences rendered the initially unintelligible, distorted sentences intelligible, as evidenced by an increase from 30% to 80% in the proportion of sentences reported as intelligible. These perceptual changes were reflected in the activity of the auditory cortex, with the auditory N1m response (~100 ms being more prominent for the distorted stimuli than for the intact ones. In the time range of auditory P2m response (>200 ms, auditory cortex as well as regions anterior and posterior to this area generated a stronger response to sentences which were intelligible than unintelligible. During the sustained field (>300 ms, stronger activity was elicited by degraded stimuli in auditory cortex and by intelligible sentences in areas posterior to auditory cortex. Conclusions The current findings suggest that the auditory system comprises bottom-up and top-down processes which are reflected in transient and sustained brain activity. It appears that analysis of acoustic features occurs

  18. Microcystin-LR Induces Apoptosis via NF-κB /iNOS Pathway in INS-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial toxins, especially the microcystins, are found in eutrophied waters throughout the world, and their potential to impact on human and animal health is a cause for concern. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR is one of the common toxic microcystin congeners and occurs frequently in diverse water systems. Recent work suggested that apoptosis plays a major role in the toxic effects induced by MC-LR in hepatocytes. However, the roles of MC-LR in pancreatic beta cells have not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of MC-LR on cell apoptosis in the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1. Our results demonstrated that MC-LR promoted selectively activation of NF-κB (increasing nuclear p50/p65 translocation and increased the mRNA and protein levels of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. The chronic treatment with MC-LR stimulated nitric oxide (NO production derived from iNOS and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in INS-1 cells. Meanwhile, this effect was inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which reversed the apoptosis induced by MC-LR. Our observations indicate that MC-LR induced cell apoptosis via an iNOS-dependent pathway. A well-known nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, is activated and mediates intracellular nitric oxide synthesis. We suggest that the apoptosis induced by chronic MC-LR in vivo presents a possible cause of β-cell dysfunction, as a key environmental factor in the development of diabetes mellitus.

  19. The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsackers, H; Beneke, P; Maboeta, M; Louw, J P E; Reinecke, A J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard soil characteristics on the burrowing and dispersal behavior of earthworms. Moreover, the direct toxic action of copper oxychloride on different endpoints of the earthworms (survival and growth) was studied. Copper oxychloride had a negative impact on these endpoints (decreased growth and survival related to increased copper body content) as well as on the behavioral aspect (decreased burrowing rate and avoidance of copper-containing soil). Moreover, there was an inverse relation between burrowing activity and soil bulk density that could also be related to the copper content. This may lead to a decrease in sustainable soil quality in vineyards.

  20. The Stability, Sustained Release and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Curcumin Nanoliposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a multifunctional and natural agent considered to be pharmacologically safe. However, its application in the food and medical industry is greatly limited by its poor water solubility, physicochemical instability and inadequate bioavailability. Nanoliposome encapsulation could significantly enhance the solubility and stability of curcumin. Curcumin nanoliposomes exhibited good physicochemical properties (entrapment efficiency = 57.1, particle size = 68.1 nm, polydispersity index = 0.246, and zeta potential = −3.16 mV. Compared with free curcumin, curcumin nanoliposomes exhibited good stability against alkaline pH and metal ions as well as good storage stability at 4 °C. Curcumin nanoliposomes also showed good sustained release properties. Compared with free curcumin, curcumin nanoliposomes presented an equal cellular antioxidant activity, which is mainly attributed to its lower cellular uptake as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. This study provide theoretical and practical guides for the further application of curcumin nanoliposomes.

  1. RTE - Activity and sustainable development report 2012 - In line with the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This publication gathers in a single document the 2012 Activity and Sustainable development report of RTE, the Management report with the consolidated financial statements, and the Report from the chairman of the supervisory board

  2. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  3. "Sustainability On Earth" WebQuests: Do They Qualify as Problem-Based Learning Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2015-02-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), namely the Internet, can play a valuable educational role in several school subjects, including science education. The same applies to problem-based learning (PBL), that is, a student-centered active learning methodology that can prepare students for lifelong learning. WebQuests (WQs) combine PBL and Internet use, and they can reduce the probability of having students surfing the Internet without any clear purpose. The objective of this paper is to investigate to what extent WQs available from Portuguese schools' and universities' websites, focusing on the "Sustainability on Earth" eighth-grade school science theme, are consistent with a PBL perspective. Results from content analysis of 92 WQs indicate that the WQs selected for this paper are rarely consistent with PBL requirements. Teachers should be both aware of this issue and ready to improve the WQs available before using them in their science classes so that greater educational advantage can be generated from this powerful tool.

  4. Blocking iNOS and endoplasmic reticulum stress synergistically improves insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires M. Zanotto

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, these results reinforce the tissue-specific regulation of insulin signaling in obesity, with iNOS being sufficient to account for insulin resistance in muscle, but in liver and adipose tissue ER stress and insulin resistance can be induced by both iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent mechanisms.

  5. ino Kaldoja - master of the Mercedes Dealership / Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Taivo, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    AS-i Silberauto juhi ja põhiomaniku Väino Kaldoja juhtimispõhimõtteist, ettevõtte personalipoliitikast ning kliendisuhetest. Tabel: ASi Silberauto majandustulemused. Lisa: Silberauto ettevõtete grupp. Vt. samas: Mida Silberauto müüb?

  6. Presidendi otsevalimine võib saada tegelikkuseks / Väino Linde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linde, Väino

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka Sakala (2003/Sep/18) lk. 2 ; Koit (2003/Sep/20) lk. 3 ; Vooremaa (2003/Sep/20) lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees (2003/Sep/20) lk. 15. Riigikogu põhiseaduskomisjoni liige Väino Linde presidendi otsevalimise seaduse eelnõust

  7. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption induces iNOS expression in the penis: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonca, Süheyla; Yazir, Yusufhan; Göçmez, Semil Selcan; Dalçik, Ekim Nur; Utkan, Tijen; Dalçik, Hakki

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on metabolic alterations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), immunohistochemical distribution, and morphological damage to penile erectile tissue in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 rats (control group, n = 8) received tap water ad libitum, and group 2 rats (n = 8) were fed with 20% ethanol. Increasing levels of alcohol were given to the rats over 12 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was then performed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique on 5-pm thickness tissue sections. Stained sections were examined by imaging microscope. Alcohol consumption resulted in a significant increase in iNOS immunoreactivity in the penile erectile tissue. Increased iNOS expression was determined in the tunica albuginea, cavernosal smooth muscle cells, trabeculae of connective tissue, arterioles, and the urethral epithelium. Moreover, chronic alcohol consumption resulted in decreasing serum testosterone and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels with increasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption can affect penile erectile tissue by increasing iNOS immunoreactivity and induce histopathological damage such as penile fibrosis. These abnormalities are also related to the defense mechanism against morphological damage.

  8. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  9. RTE - Activity and sustainable development report 2014. Management report consolidated financial statements 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After an interview of RTE's CEO, an overview of governance issues within the company, and a presentation of its business model, the activity report addresses the various aspects of RTE activities during 2014: grid expertise, a fair and balanced service, performance at the right price, cooperation between all players, a long term commitment, and perspectives. It also focuses on the corporate aspects: collective intelligence, workforce involvement, safety culture. The management report contains financial and legal information (significant events of 2014, economic environment, business and results, financing, financial structure, outlook for 2015, risk analysis), company information (employment, work organisation, labour relations, health and safety, training, diversity and equal opportunities, compliance with International Labour Organisation conventions), environmental information (general environmental policy, pollution and waste management, sustainable use of resources, climate change, protection and development of biodiversity), and societal information (local, economic and social impact of RTE's business, relations with people and organisations concerned by RTE's business, out-sourcing and suppliers, fair practices, other action to promote human rights). The third report presents the supervisory board (members and missions, operation, committees), the Executive Board (members and remuneration principles), the operation of general assemblies. It describes the internal control of RTE (organisation, actors), presents the policy of risk management and control, activities of audit and control within RTE. It finally presents external controls made by different public bodies

  10. Preparation and characterization of kasuga-silica-conjugated nanospheres for sustained antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guanglong; Li, Deguang; Liu, Yao; Guo, Mingcheng; Duan, Yongheng; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2014-11-01

    Controlled release formulation of pesticides is highly desirable for attaining the most effective utilization of the pesticide as well as reducing environmental pollution. Nano-sized controlled release formulations can provide better penetration through cuticle and deliver the active ingredients efficiently to the targeted tissue. In this study, a novel strategy for the preparation of a nanoconjugate derived from kasugamycin with amino-modified silica was developed. The kasugamycin was connected with amino-modified silica matrix by an amide bond, which could avoid the initial burst release effectively and prolong the duration remarkably. The results showed the kasuga-silica can protect kasugamycin against photo-degradation effectively and the release rate of the active ingredient of nanoconjugate was related to the temperature, pH value, and the particle size (52.5-315.4 nm). With reduced particle size as well as increased temperature and acidity, the release of the active ingredient was faster. This amide linkage of kasuga-silica could be degraded by amidase effectively. This nanoconjugate displayed a better and a sustained bactericidal efficacy against E. coli than kasugamycin technical, which makes it a potential candidate as a controlled release conjugate for kasugamycin in the future.

  11. Imunorreatividade para endotelina-1 no plasma e fluido folicular de eqüinos e bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Amélia Martins Rosa e Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A endotelina-1, um peptídeo isolado recentemente, tem sido observada em diferentes tecidos e está envolvida em várias funções reprodutivas. Propusemo-nos a determinar as concentrações da endotelina-1 por radioimunoensaio no plasma de eqüinos e bovinos e no fluido folicular de eqüinos. Foram testados 2 tipos de inibidores de degradação protéica no plasma e fluido folicular. A imunorreatividade média foi de 47,5%, a dose mínima detectável foi de 1 pg/tubo e o coeficiente de variação inter e intra-ensaio foi de 2,36% e 7,26%, respectivamente. O paralelismo entre a curva padrão e as curvas determinadas com diferentes volumes de plasma e fluido folicular valida o radioimunoensaio de endotelina-1 para estas espécies. Segundo nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de literatura que detecta por radioimunoensaio a endotelina-1 no plasma e fluido folicular de eqüinos e plasma de bovinos. Os resultados do presente trabalho sugerem a utilização do método de radioimunoensaio utilizando-se kits comerciais para a determinação das concentrações da endotelina-1 no plasma de eqüinos e bovinos e fluido folicular de eqüinos, pelo fato de este apresentar alta sensibilidade, precisão e reprodutibilidade, podendo assim ser utilizado no estudo de múltiplas funções da endotelina-1 nestas espécies animais e, em especial, no sistema endócrino-reprodutivo.

  12. The impact of green logistics-based activities on the sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshubiri, Faris

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities) and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money ) as a important signals in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015. Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE) and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH) based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC) in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP) , cultural and religious affairs (CRA) and social security and welfare (SSW) in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of sustainable development system in the country

  13. The impact of green logistics-based activities on the sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshubiri, Faris

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities) and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money ) as a important signals in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015. Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE) and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH) based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC) in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP) , cultural and religious affairs (CRA) and social security and welfare (SSW) in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of sustainable development system in the country

  14. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE: results from two feasibility pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE, a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. Methods SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR and delivered to children (N = 89 in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6 in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. Results SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants’ sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p < .05. Parent reports did not suggest changes in F&V consumption, parenting PA practices, or home F&V availability, possibly due to low parent engagement. ECEC had moderate

  15. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Song [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sungbo, E-mail: sungbo@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences & Neuromarker Resource Bank (NRB), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jun, E-mail: pyj71@kribb.re.kr [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. - Highlights: • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits NO production through the regulation of iNOS expression. • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. • Ginsenosides Rg3 suppress on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced ROS levels in cells.

  16. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  17. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yea-Hwey [Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chern, Chang-Ming [Division of Neurovascular Disease, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Kuo-Tong [Department of Chinese Martial Arts, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chang [Department of Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan General Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioscience Technology, Chuan-Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Peng, Yu-Ta [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yuh-Chiang, E-mail: yuhcs@nricm.edu.tw [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 {mu}g/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91{sup phox}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91{sup phox} and iNOS via activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-{kappa}B activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. Black

  18. Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

  19. Principles of sustainable development of the territory and priorities of architectural and urban construction activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, Dmitry; Yushkova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at detecting conceptual conflicts within the architectural and urban construction activity (AUCA), defining their reasons and substantiating ways to decrease adverse effects they caused. Methods of causes and effects analyses are used, as well as evolutional and comparative analyses. They allow defining the laws to form activity model in modern environment, whose elements are ranked. Relevance of the paper is based on defining scientific and theoretical grounds of necessity to improve methodology of AUCA via its adaption to the imperatives of state management. System analyses enabled to prove practicability of considering factors of institution environment for reorganization of the model of AUCA, which provide the fullest implementation of sustainable development principles. It was proved that territorial planning is not only the leading type of AUCA, but also integrator for functioning structures of state management within planning of social and economic development. As main result of the paper consist in detection of the perspective ways for evolution of modern methodology due to increasing interdisciplinary aspect leading to the qualitative renewal of territorial management principles.

  20. Interleukin-4 activated macrophages mediate immunity to filarial helminth infection by sustaining CCR3-dependent eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph D; Pionnier, Nicolas; Furlong-Silva, Julio; Sjoberg, Hanna; Cross, Stephen; Halliday, Alice; Guimaraes, Ana F; Cook, Darren A N; Steven, Andrew; Van Rooijen, Nico; Allen, Judith E; Jenkins, Stephen J; Taylor, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection. Post-infection, peritoneal Mϕ populations proliferated and became alternatively-activated (AAMϕ). Filarial AAMϕ development required adaptive immunity and interleukin-4 receptor-alpha. Depletion of Mϕ prior to infection suppressed eosinophilia and facilitated worm survival. Add back of filarial AAMϕ in Mϕ-depleted mice recapitulated a vigorous eosinophilia. Transfer of filarial AAMϕ into Severe-Combined Immune Deficient mice mediated immunological resistance in an eosinophil-dependent manner. Exogenous IL-4 delivery recapitulated tissue AAMϕ expansions, sustained eosinophilia and mediated immunological resistance in Mϕ-intact SCID mice. Co-culturing Brugia with filarial AAMϕ and/or filarial-recruited eosinophils confirmed eosinophils as the larvicidal cell type. Our data demonstrates that IL-4/IL-4Rα activated AAMϕ orchestrate eosinophil immunity to filarial tissue helminth infection.

  1. Anxiety and cognitive efficiency: differential modulation of transient and sustained neural activity during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, C L; Barch, D M; Burgess, G C; Schaefer, A; Mennin, D S; Gray, J R; Braver, T S

    2008-09-01

    According to the processing-efficiency hypothesis (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), anxious individuals are thought to require greater activation of brain systems supporting cognitive control (e.g.,dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC) in order to maintain equivalent performance to nonanxious subjects. A recent theory of cognitive control (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007) has proposed that reduced cognitive efficiency might occur as a result of changes in the temporal dynamics of DLPFC recruitment. In this study, we used a mixed blocked/ event-related fMRI design to track transient and sustained activity in DLPFC while high- and low-anxious participants performed a working memory task. The task was performed after the participants viewed videos designed to induce neutral or anxiety-related moods. After the neutral video, the high-anxious participants had reduced sustained but increased transient activation in working memory areas, in comparison with low-anxious participants. The high-anxious group also showed extensive reductions in sustained activation of "default-network" areas (possible deactivation). After the negative video,the low-anxiety group shifted their activation dynamics in cognitive control regions to resemble those of the high-anxious group. These results suggest that reduced cognitive control in anxiety might be due to a transient, rather than sustained, pattern of working memory recruitment. Supplementary information for this study may be found at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  2. Collateral biodiversity benefits associated with 'free-market' approaches to sustainable land use and forestry activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziell, Izabella; Swingland, Ian R

    2002-08-15

    Concern over the ever more rapid and widespread losses of biodiversity has instigated various remedial actions: whether in situ conservation, such as the establishment of protected areas, or ex situ, such as the conservation of germplasm in gene banks. In the past, such activities were funded and managed by the public sector; however, in recent years, public support has declined and this has spawned a growing interest in conservation opportunities that might arise from 'free-market' approaches to sustainable land use and management. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the key framework for articulating policies and actions on biodiversity; however, progress in developing suitable economic and market incentives for biodiversity conservation and its sustainable use has been slow, with activities such as bioprospecting and ecotourism making some, albeit limited, headway. Given the United Nations Framework for Climate Change or United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC's) high profile within the public and private sectors, there is some potential for using it to help advance CBD objectives and provide the much-needed economic incentives for conservation, through some of the market-based mechanisms presented under the Kyoto Protocol. Significant potential lies in the fact that many 'natural' forests and certain other ecosystems are both major stores of carbon and areas of valuable biodiversity. Thus, any attempt at conserving these areas has the potential to yield both carbon and biodiversity benefits. So far, however, the conservation of natural forests is not included in the Kyoto Protocol's definition of sinks. Instead the creation of sinks - through the establishment of fast-growing monocultures - may well lead to biodiversity losses, especially if partly degraded lands are cleared for this purpose. If real progress is to be made, our understanding of the relationship between land use and biodiversity benefits needs to be

  3. Exploring corporate sustainability integration into business activities. Experiences from 18 small and medium sized enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, S.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Cramer, J.M.

    Although companies have shown a growing awareness of the importance of Corporate Sustainability (CS), integration of CS into their business activities is still problematic. Most of the CS research focuses on large corporations, with limited discussions of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).

  4. Novel cellular targets of AhR underlie alterations in neutrophilic inflammation and iNOS expression during influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Martin, Kyle C.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    The underlying reasons for variable clinical outcomes from respiratory viral infections remain uncertain. Several studies suggest that environmental factors contribute to this variation, but limited knowledge of cellular and molecular targets of these agents hampers our ability to quantify or modify their contribution to disease and improve public health. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environment sensing transcription factor that binds many anthropogenic and natural chemicals. The immunomodulatory properties of AhR ligands are best characterized with extensive studies of changes in CD4+ T cell responses. Yet, AhR modulates other aspects of immune function. We previously showed that during influenza virus infection, AhR activation modulates neutrophil accumulation in the lung, and this contributes to increased mortality in mice. Enhanced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in infected lungs are observed during the same timeframe as AhR-mediated increased pulmonary neutrophilia. In this study, we evaluated whether these two consequences of AhR activation are causally linked. Reciprocal inhibition of AhR-mediated elevations in iNOS and pulmonary neutrophilia reveal that, although they are contemporaneous, they are not causally related. We show using Cre/loxP technology that elevated iNOS levels and neutrophil number in the infected lung result from separate, AhR-dependent signaling in endothelial and respiratory epithelial cells, respectively. Studies using mutant mice further reveal that AhR-mediated alterations in these innate responses to infection require a functional nuclear localization signal and DNA binding domain. Thus, gene targets of AhR in non-hematopoietic cells are important new considerations for understanding AhR-mediated changes in innate anti-viral immunity. PMID:23233726

  5. Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Shao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shao-Heng; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing interest of the scientific community on production of activated carbon using biochar as potential sustainable precursors pyrolyzed from biomass wastes. Physical activation and chemical activation are the main methods applied in the activation process. These methods could have significantly beneficial effects on biochar chemical/physical properties, which make it suitable for multiple applications including water pollution treatment, CO 2 capture, and energy storage. The feedstock with different compositions, pyrolysis conditions and activation parameters of biochar have significant influences on the properties of resultant activated carbon. Compared with traditional activated carbon, activated biochar appears to be a new potential cost-effective and environmentally-friendly carbon materials with great application prospect in many fields. This review not only summarizes information from the current analysis of activated biochar and their multiple applications for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for development of activated biochar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  7. Splitting the W-ino multiplet by higher-dimensional operators in anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkooz, Micha; Hochberg, Yonit

    2009-01-01

    In a class of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) models, the splitting in the W-ino multiplet turns out to be very small, such as the often-quoted 170 MeV in minimal AMSB, which originates from minimal supersymmetric standard model loops. Such a small mass gap is potentially a window into higher scale physics, as it may be sensitive to higher-dimensional operators. We show that still within AMSB one can get a much larger splitting in the W-ino multiplet - a few GeV - if the scale of the new physics is comparable to the gravitino mass (which is indeed often the scale of new physics in anomaly mediation).

  8. Repeated activation of a CS-US-contingency memory results in sustained conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els eJoos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka & Zinbarg, 2006. One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder.However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a CS-US-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a ‘rehearsed’ CS+ as compared to a ‘non-rehearsed’ CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal ‘purely mental’. In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally rehearse

  9. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  10. Ocular Permeation and Sustained Anti-inflammatory Activity of Dexamethasone from Kaolin Nanodispersion Hydrogel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Arunima; Sahoo, Rudra Narayan; Nanda, Ashirbad; Mohapatra, Rajaram; Singh, Ranveer; Mallick, Subrata

    2018-03-09

    Kaolin can adhere to the mucosa and protect it by absorbing toxins, bacteria, and viruses. Ocular delivery and anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone hydrogel system could be advantageous after kaolin incorporation. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films of dexamethasone have been prepared without and with kaolin by solvent casting method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized for evaluating thermal property, crystallinity, and morphology of the film preparations respectively. In vitro drug release and corneal permeation ex vivo were carried out in phosphate buffer saline of pH 7.4 (PBS) at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 h. Anti inflammatory effect of the prepared film was evaluated using carrageenan induced rabbit eye. Disappearance of melting endotherm in the DSC thermogram is the indication of almost complete amorphization of drug in all the films. High-intensity reflections with characteristic peaks of pure drug crystal have resulted extensively reduced ordering of the crystal lattice in the X-ray pattern of all the films. Photomicrographs revealed that the plate-shaped geometry of the drug crystal has almost been lost in absence and presence of the nano-kaolin particles in the films. Kaolin incorporation controlled the drug release up to 6 h. Ocular permeation was diffusion controlled and extended for 6 h or more without exhibiting significant "Burst effect". Adsorption of drug onto the surface of nano-kaolin prolonged the permeation due to cation exchange and hydrogen bonding. Signs of inflammation of the carrageenan induced rabbit eye have been disappeared almost completely after 2 h of film application. Local controlled delivery sustained anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone has been achieved using kaolin incorporated HPMC film.

  11. Sustained activation of Akt elicits mitochondrial dysfunction to block Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Luckhart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d, energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3-5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial

  12. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i3.8. Research Article. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol. Extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Kyoung-Seok Tae and Sung-Jin Kim*. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, ...

  13. Effects of a selective iNOS inhibitor versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fuhong; Huang, Hongchuan; Akieda, Kazuki; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Donadello, Katia; Piagnerelli, Michael; De Backer, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2010-09-01

    Inhibition of NOS is not beneficial in septic shock; selective inhibition of the inducible form (iNOS) may represent a better option. We compared the effects of the selective iNOS inhibitor BYK191023 with those of norepinephrine (NE) in a sheep model of septic shock. Twenty-four anesthetized, mechanically ventilated ewes received 1.5 g/kg body weight of feces into the abdominal cavity to induce sepsis. Animals were randomized into three groups (each n = 8): NE-only, BYK-only, and NE + BYK. The sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with sidestream dark-field videomicroscopy. MAP was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups, but there were no significant differences in cardiac index or systemic vascular resistance. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was lower in BYK-treated animals than in the NE-only group. PaO2/FiO2 was higher and lactate concentration lower in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Mesenteric blood flow was higher in BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Renal blood flow was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups. Functional capillary density and proportion of perfused vessels were higher in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group 18 h after induction of peritonitis. Survival times were similar in the three groups. In this model of peritonitis, selective iNOS inhibition had more beneficial effects than NE on pulmonary artery pressures, gas exchange, mesenteric blood flow, microcirculation, and lactate concentration. Combination of this selective iNOS inhibitor with NE allowed a higher arterial pressure and renal blood flow to be maintained.

  14. No difference in the level of physical activity between children who have or have never sustained a fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsborg, P-H; Røtterud, J H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates whether children with an acute fracture have a different level of physical activity compared to children who have never sustained a fracture, as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C). The PAQ-C scores of 683 children (295 girls) aged 6-12 years (mean age 9.4 years) who presented to our institution with an acute fracture were compared to the PAQ-C scores of 151 random children (81 girls) aged 6-12 years (mean 9.1 years) in the same area who had never sustained a fracture. Multivariate regression analysis was employed, controlling for age and gender. The mean PAQ-C score of the children who presented to the institution with an acute fracture was 2.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80-2.91). For the children who had never sustained a fracture, the mean PAQ-C score was 2.78 (95% CI, 2.69-2.87). If there is a true difference in the level of physical activity between children who have or have never sustained a fracture, the PAQ-C questionnaire is not sensitive enough to identify it. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  16. Role of iNOS and eNOS expression in a group of Egyptian diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa I. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The presence of iNOS is associated with tubular damage resulting in renal failure. The upregulation of NO in diabetes mellitus type 2 may explain the endothelial dysfunction that is associated with almost all diabetic complications.

  17. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  18. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  19. Tempol reduces injury area in rat model of spinal cord contusion injury through suppression of iNOS and COX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hong-Hua; Kang, Ku-Seong; Sohn, Yoon-Kyung; Li, Ming

    2013-09-01

    The present study focused on the biologic effects of tempol on anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide generation in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). The animal model of SCI was induced by dropping a 10-g rod (2.0 mm in diameter) at a height of 25 mm. Tempol was injected intraperitoneally a dose of 100 mg/kg at 15 min before SCI. Controls was injected with saline. The contused spinal segments were removed according to time courses, and the expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed along with the size of irreversibly damaged region. After SCI, the relative amounts of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA were peaked at 8 h after post-injury, and then decreased up to 7 days post-injury, and normal level at 14 days. Expression of COX-2 protein was peaked at 8 h post-injury. With the tempol pre-treatment, the immunoreactivity of COX-2 and nitrotyrosine in paraffin-embedded tissue slices was profoundly decreased. The irreversibly damaged area of the spinal cord was peaked at 3 days after SCI. With tempol pre-treatment, the irreversibly damaged area shows a statistically significant decrease at 3 days after SCI. These evidences indicate that tempol pre-treatment reduces irreversibly damaged area on the contusion SCI in rat. The mechanisms of biologic reactions of tempol might be related to the decreased expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in spinal cord cells, neurons and glia. It is expected that the tempol effect on the SCI is not only antioxidant activity but also anti-inflammatory reaction.

  20. Effekt der selektiven Hemmung der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS) in einem experimentellen Model der Pulmonalen Hypertonie

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Die Rolle der verschiedenen Stickstoffmonoxidsynthasen (NOS) in der Pathogenese der Pulmonalen Hypertonie wird kontrovers diskutiert. Insbesondere die Rolle der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS oder NOS2) ist wenig untersucht. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit erfolgten Untersuchungen in einem etablierten experimentellen Modell der Pulmonalen Hypertonie durch Injektion des Alkaloids Monocrotalin in der Ratte. In diesem klinisch relevanten Modell der PH konnte eine signifikant erhöhte Expression der iNOS...

  1. Sustainable waste management by production of activated carbon from agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ntuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry waste presents a problem for disposal and negatively impacts on the environment if left to rot or burn. The aim of this study was to reduce environmental problems associated with agroforestry waste by promoting the innovative use of such waste in the production of activated carbons (ACs using a low-cost production technique, and ultimately delivering more affordable water and effluent treatment adsorbents. Four varieties of ACs from four different agroforestry materials – pine (Pinus contorta cones (PC, Abies (Abies cilicica seeds (AS, maple (Acer ginnala seeds (MS and peach (Prunus persica stones (PS – were prepared by single-step steam pyrolysis and characterised. The raw materials were evaluated for AC yield while the respective ACs were evaluated on the basis of iodine number, phenol specific area, ash content, pH, moisture content and removal of metal ions, nitrates and sulphates from aqueous solution. The AC yields for PS, PC, AS and MS were found to be 23.0%, 18.0%, 17.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The yield for PS (23% is within the specified commercial limits of 20% to 40%. The phenol specific areas of the ACs ranged between 381 m2/g and 415 m2/g higher than the commercial lower limit (300 m2/g generally specified. The ACs also showed the capacity to remove heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Removal of both nitrates and sulphates in raw water was greater than 50%. Although no quantitative analysis has been performed to date, it is envisaged that the production of AC from agroforestry wastes can contribute to the sustainable management of environmental pollution by these residues and the concomitant delivery of cheaper adsorbents.

  2. Prevalence and Management of Coracoid Fracture Sustained During Sporting Activities and Time to Return to Sport: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Patel, Sunny H; Wetzel, Robert J; Voos, James E

    2018-03-01

    Coracoid fractures sustained during sporting activities are rare. Previous reports are limited to individual case reports, small case series, and retrospective analyses. To systematically review the literature and identify coracoid fractures sustained during sporting activities to determine fracture prevalence, sporting activities/mechanisms, management, and time to return to sport. Systematic review. A systematic review was conducted investigating all studies in the literature published between January 1970 and April 2017 that reported on athletes sustaining coracoid fractures during sporting activity. The systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and used PubMed, Biosis Previews, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases. Inclusion criteria were studies detailing (1) coracoid fractures with reported sporting activity causing injury, (2) fracture management (operative vs nonoperative), and (3) patient outcome. Exclusion criteria were (1) studies concerning fractures secondary to nonsporting activities (mechanical falls, motor vehicle accidents) and (2) studies not reporting fracture management or patient outcomes. Sporting activities, the presence or absence of associated acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury, fracture management, patient outcomes, and time to return to sport were analyzed. A total of 21 cases of coracoid fractures sustained during sporting activity were identified; acute trauma was responsible for 71% (n = 15/21) of fractures, and the remaining injuries were secondary to fatigue fractures. Concurrent AC joint injury was present in 60% (n = 9/15) of athletes sustaining acute trauma and in no athlete with fatigue fractures. Fractures were treated conservatively in 76% (n = 16/21) of patients, with only 19% (n = 3/16) of athletes reporting complications. Mean overall time to return to sport was 2.8 ± 2.0 months; no significant differences in return to sport were noted in

  3. Arctigenin exerts protective effects against myocardial infarction via regulation of iNOS, COX‑2, ERK1/2 and HO‑1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmin; Yang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of arctigenin against myocardial infarction (MI), and its effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Left anterior coronary arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats were ligated, in order to generate an acute MI (AMI) model. Arctigenin was administered to AMI rats at 0, 50, 100 or 200 µmol/kg. Western blotting and ELISAs were performed to analyze protein expression and enzyme activity. Arctigenin was demonstrated to effectively inhibit the levels of alanine transaminase, creatine kinase‑MB and lactate dehydrogenase, and to reduce infarct size in AMI rats. In addition, the activity levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were significantly suppressed, and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased by arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin treatment also suppressed the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‑2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO‑1), and increased the protein expression levels of phosphorylated‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (p‑ERK1/2) in AMI rats. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that arctigenin may inhibit MI, and exhibits antioxidative and anti‑inflammatory effects through regulation of the iNOS, COX‑2, ERK1/2 and HO‑1 pathways in a rat model of AMI.

  4. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Chatio

    Full Text Available The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana.This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data.Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities.Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the

  5. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  6. Teaching and Implementation Models for Sustainable PSS Development: Motivations, Activities and Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have seen increasing efforts to consider the potential negative effects of products’ manufacture, use and disposal on the local and global environment (Ehrenfeld, 2001). Over this time efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainability to the domain...... of product development, thus adding new dimensions, such as social and moral values, to the original agenda of environmental improvement. The redefinition of the role of the product developer, from environmentally conscious product developer to sustainably aware product developer has led to new insights...... into the way in which products are developed and used – and to where environmental effects occur in the lifetime of a product. The product developer has thus a more complex role in relation to sustainability, as the focus for improvement of a product may not (and very often does not) lie in the physical...

  7. Education activities for environment and sustainability: A Snapshot of eight New South Wales councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Herriman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in brief the findings of a research project undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. The research was commissioned by and undertaken on behalf of the New South Wales (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW. The aim of the project was to investigate current practices of environmental and sustainability education and engagement within local government in NSW. The research was commissioned by DECCW as the preliminary phase of a larger project that the department is planning to undertake, commencing in 2010.

  8. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  9. Unique transcriptional profile of sustained ligand-activated preconditioning in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Ashton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning induced by 3-5 days of opioid receptor (OR agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%. Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des, natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds. Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3, cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3, together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1 and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid. Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia, which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2 and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu, and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1 and Txnip. CONCLUSIONS: Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  10. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atorvastatin Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Suppressing iNOS Expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disorder with high mortality rate. To date, despite the fact that extensive research trials are ongoing, pulmonary fibrosis continues to have a poor response to available medical therapy. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known for its broad pharmacological activities, remains a remedy against multiple diseases. The present study investigated the antifibrotic potential of atorvastatin against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that atorvastatin administration significantly ameliorated the bleomycin mediated histological alterations and blocked collagen deposition with parallel reduction in the hydroxyproline level. Atorvastatin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA level and lung indices. Atorvastatin also markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lung tissues and, thus, prevented nitric oxide (NO release in response to bleomycin challenge. Furthermore, atorvastatin exhibited target down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF (CCN2 and phosphorylation extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK expression. Taken together, atorvastatin significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, via the inhibition of iNOS expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK signaling pathway. The present study provides evidence that atorvastatin may be a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  12. Overview of CSIR’s activities towards smart sustainable energy for rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available be linked to investigations in the field of renewable energy. CSIR has increasingly focused on the area of technology for sustainable development, thereby moving away from the bias of the formal sector, towards a more balanced approach that includes all...

  13. Expanding entrepreneurial, innovative and sustainable (EIS) ecosystems: A cultural-historical activity theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audhoe, Romano; Thompson, N.A.; Verduyn, Karen; Leitão, João; Alves, Helena; Krueger, Norris; Park, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    The value of Entrepreneurial, Innovative and Sustainable (EIS) ecosystems has seen increasing recognition from policymakers and researchers alike. Like-minded policymakers employing New Public Management (NPM) understand that the intricate links between diverse EIS stakeholders play a vital role in

  14. Sustainability: Teaching an Interdisciplinary Threshold Concept through Traditional Lecture and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintova, Ekaterina M.; Mueller, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties in teaching global sustainability in the introductory political science classes is the different emphases placed on this concept and the absence of the consensus on where the overall balance between environmental protection, economic development, and social justice should reside. Like many fuzzy concepts with which students…

  15. Pro-active Reflexivity: : advancing the sciene-for-sustainability agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul; Cörvers, R.; de Kraker, J.; Kemp, R.; Martens, P.; van Lente, H.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting more sustainable development makes special demands on scientists, often requiring scientists and researcher to work in qualitatively-different from usual ways of scientific working. In turn these requirements call for changes in science funding and management practices. Changes in science

  16. Is ‘Bio-Based’ Activity a Panacea for Sustainable Competitive Growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippidis, George; M’Barek, Robert; Ferrari, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Taking a European Union focus, this paper explicitly models competing uses of biomass to quantify its contribution toward a sustainable low carbon model of economic growth. To this end, a state-of-the-art multisector multiregion modelling tool is combined with a specially developed bio-based variant

  17. Motor unit activity in biceps brachii of left-handed humans during sustained contractions with two load types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey R; Cleland, Brice T; Mani, Diba; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of single motor units during sustained isometric contractions that required either force or position control in left-handed individuals. The target force for the two sustained contractions (24.9 ± 10.5% maximal force) was identical for each biceps brachii motor unit (n = 32) and set at 4.7 ± 2.0% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force above its recruitment threshold (range: 0.5-41.2% MVC force). The contractions were not sustained to task failure, but the duration (range: 60-330 s) was identical for each motor unit and the decline in MVC force immediately after the sustained contractions was similar for the two tasks (force: 11.1% ± 13.7%; position: 11.6% ± 9.9%). Despite a greater increase in the rating of perceived exertion during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.006), the amplitude of the surface-recorded electromyogram for the agonist and antagonist muscles increased similarly during the two tasks. Nonetheless, mean discharge rate of the biceps brachii motor units declined more during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.01) and the variability in discharge times (coefficient of variation for interspike interval) increased only during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.008). When combined with the results of an identical study on right-handers (Mottram CJ, Jakobi JM, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. J Neurophysiol 93: 1381-1392, 2005), the findings indicate that handedness does not influence the adjustments in biceps brachii motor unit activity during sustained submaximal contractions requiring either force or position control. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Eesti moodsa ajaloo IX konverents 20.-21. juunil 2005 Tallinnas / Väino Sirk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirk, Väino, 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Ajaloo Instituudis toimunud konverentsist "Eestlaste kultuuriline, majanduslik ja poliitiline enesemääramine : ootused ja tegelikkus (19. sajandi keskpaigast tänapäevani)". Ettekannetega esinesid Toomas Anepaio (1889. aasta õigusreform - rahvuslikud ootused ja riiklikud vastused), Lea Leppik, Johan Eellend, Tiit Rosenberg, Olavi Arens (Eesti vähemusrahvaste õigused ja enesemääramine Eesti riigi asutamise algaastail), Tiina Metso, Jaak Valge, Martin Klesment, Olaf Mertelsmann, Väino Sirk, Kari Kaunismaa, Anu Kannike, Terje Anepaio, Hans Jörgensen, Rein Ruutsoo, Priit Raudkivi

  19. SCOPEOUT: sustainability and spread of quality improvement activities in long-term care- a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranley, Lisa A; Hoben, Matthias; Yeung, Jasper; Estabrooks, Carole A; Norton, Peter G; Wagg, Adrian

    2018-03-12

    Interventions to improve quality of care for residents of long-term care facilities, and to examine the sustainability and spread of such initiatives, remain a top research priority. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the extent to which activities initiated in a quality improvement (QI) collaborative study using care aide led teams were sustained or spread following cessation of the initial project and to identify factors that led to its success. This study used an exploratory mixed methods study design and was conducted in seven residential long-term care facilities in two Canadian provinces. Sustainability and spread of QI activities were assessed by a questionnaire over five time points for 18 months following the collaborative study with staff from both intervention with non-intervention units. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with care managers at six and 12 months. QI team success in applying the QI model was ranked as high, medium, or low using criteria developed by the research team. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and General Estimating Equations were used to analyze the data. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. In total, 683 surveys were received over the five time periods from 476 unique individuals on a facility unit. Seven managers were interviewed. A total of 533 surveys were analyzed. While both intervention and non-intervention units experienced a decline over time in all outcome measures, this decline was significantly less pronounced on intervention units. Facilities with medium and high success ranking had significantly higher scores in all four outcomes than facilities with a low success ranking. Care aides reported significantly less involvement of others in QI activities, less empowerment and less satisfaction with the quality of their work life than regulated care providers. Manager interviews provided evidence of sustainability of QI activities on the intervention units in four of

  20. Local people's knowledge with regard to land use activities in southwest Madagascar - Conceptual insights for sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Vietta, Nadine V M; Tahirindraza, H Stone; Stoll-Kleemann, Susanne

    2017-09-01

    Environmental conditions in the Mahafaly Plateau region in southwest Madagascar are harsh, with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The local people's land use capabilities and skills are adapted to these conditions. Nevertheless, they are currently confronted by drastic climatic changes, including longer dry seasons, which have resulted in food and water scarcities. It is therefore essential to ensure sustainable land management in the region. At present, the main land use activities are agriculture, livestock farming, natural resource collection including timber and non-timber forest products, and the practice of local customs. Land use activities have always resulted in land conversion, yet over time this ecological transformation also leads to the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of the present article is therefore twofold. First, it aims to examine local people's knowledge with regard to land use activities and the transmission of this knowledge from one generation to the next; second, it considers the extent to which local people's knowledge may contribute to the development of sustainable land management. Our research is based on more than 80 qualitative interviews with local inhabitants of the Mahafaly Plateau region. Our analysis of local people's knowledge identifies four categories: ecological knowledge, knowledge related to natural resource usage, knowledge of names, and the interconnection between knowledge and belief. Furthermore, these knowledge categories provide conceptual insights for sustainable land management. Along with the long-term persistence of natural resources and their functions and the satisfaction of basic needs through resource usage, both the recognition of mental images as a regulating mechanism and the maintenance of the relation between the natural and the supernatural world have a role to play in sustainable land management in the study area. Local knowledge transmission processes serve to foster ongoing learning and

  1. Expression of TLR 2, TLR 4 and iNOS in cervical monocytes of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women and their role in host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Bhengraj, Apurb R; Vats, Vikas; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

    2011-12-01

    To study the innate immune response -TLR2 TLR 4 and iNOS expression in female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. TLR 2, TLR 4, and iNOS expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in C. trachomatis-infected asymptomatic, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), and fertility disorders (FD) women. Expression of TLR signaling pathway genes was checked in vivo in C. trachomatis-infected cervical monocytes. Further, inos gene expression and nitric oxide release was assessed in vitro in THP-1 cell line upon chlamydial infection. TLR2, TLR4, and iNOS expression was significantly (P cervical monocytes upon chlamydial infection. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Adaptations of upper trapezius muscle activity during sustained contractions in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falla, Deborah Lorraine; Andersen, Helle; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2010-01-01

    x 5 grid of electrodes during 90 degrees shoulder abduction sustained for 60s. The control subjects repeated the abduction task following injections of isotonic and hypertonic (painful) saline into the upper trapezius muscle. The EMG amplitude was computed for each electrode pair and provided...... amplitude increased relatively more in the cranial than caudal region of the upper trapezius muscle for the control subjects (shift in the distribution of EMG amplitude: 2.3+/-1.3mm; P...

  3. Sales Forecasting in the Context of Seasonal Activities and Company Sustainable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Stancu, Ion; Stancu, Dumitra; Dumitrescu, Dalina; Tinca, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the use of the “time series model” to forecast the quarterly and yearly sales for a company with business seasonality. These sales forecasts will represent the fundamental basis for estimating the external financing, using the percentage to sales method. Sales growth rates are afterwards analysed in the context of ensuring a sustainable and self-financed growth. We focus on establishing the forecasted financial structure of the external financial requireme...

  4. Ergonomics and environmental sustainability: a case study of raft fisherman activity at Ponta Negra Beach, Natal-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Joyce Elanne Mateus; Bispo, Cristina de Souza; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba; Mattos, Karen Maria da Costa

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the significance of methods used by the Ergonomic Analysis of Work for the construction of the scenario of craft fishing with rafts, held by 42 fishermen on the beach of Ponta Negra, Natal - RN; and relate the knowledge in ergonomics to environmental aspects / impacts, aiming the sustainability in this activity. This research is characterized as a case study, of the descriptive and exploratory type and of applied nature. To collect data, we used observational methods, in order to expand information about the activity, and interaction, as conversational action and photographic/videos records to clarify points not covered by observation. It was observed problematic as the reduction of fishing productivity, alterations of the sea, difficulty in docking the rafts, and inadequate waste disposal, noting that this activity needs care regarding the use of the environment. The obtained results contributed to the organization of environmental education workshops, seeking to enhance good individual / collective environmental practices focused on the sustainability of the environment in which they live. Add the need for proposals aimed for managing the activity, involving fishermen, institutions and society, to ensure the improvement of the environment, hence the quality of life of the population.

  5. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  6. Valores referenciais da análise do líquido peritoneal de eqüinos sadios

    OpenAIRE

    Neves,Mariana Machado; Marques Jr.,Antônio de Pinho; Alves,Geraldo Eleno Silveira; Faria,Evenilde Picardi

    2000-01-01

    Considerando a casuística de distúrbios abdominais em eqüinos, e o fato da paracentese ser uma técnica fácil e segura para o animal, a análise do líquido peritoneal torna-se um importante exame auxiliar no diagnóstico e direcionamento da conduta clínica. Como no Brasil não existem valores de referência desse exame em eqüinos sem raça definida, este trabalho objetivou o estabelecimento desses valores para esses animais. Foram usados sessenta eqüinos sem raça definida, procedentes da Região Met...

  7. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  8. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  9. Water sector fund (CT-hi dro) and wastewater reuse activities: initiatives to promote environment ally sustainable development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Sector Fund (CT-Hidro) is presented as an innovative mechanism to foster the scientific and technological sector of the country as well as a model instrument to promote environmentally sustainable development in Brazil and in other developing countries. CT-Hidro is shown as an instrument that provides support for scientific and technological development research activities in the following areas: experimental technological development, scientific and technological research projects, development of basic industrial technology and implantation of research infrastructure. CT-Hidro is presented as a key mechanism to finance wastewater reuse projects as an imperative action to fight poverty and promote social inclusion in Brazil. The concept of wastewater reuse for beneficial purposes is presented. Its growing importance as an essential part of the planning of the integrated and sustainable water resources management is also evidenced. In this perspective, the need for sanitation, wastewater treatment and its reuse in agriculture for food production are presented as imperative measures that must be taken in Brazil in order to promote sustainable development, fight poverty, improve public health conditions and enhance environmental quality in the country. (author)

  10. Sales Forecasting in the Context of Seasonal Activities and Company Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the use of the “time series model” to forecast the quarterly and yearly sales for a company with business seasonality. These sales forecasts will represent the fundamental basis for estimating the external financing, using the percentage to sales method. Sales growth rates are afterwards analysed in the context of ensuring a sustainable and self-financed growth. We focus on establishing the forecasted financial structure of the external financial requirements both in the context of using the reinvested profit complemented with credit, maintaining the debt rate constant, and in the context of total internal funding of the company economic growth, from reinvested profit.

  11. No sustained attention differences in a longitudinal randomized trial comparing mindfulness based stress reduction versus active control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal G MacCoon

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR is a secular form of meditation training. The vast majority of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. Previous studies have found that meditation training over several months is associated with improvements in cognitive control and attention.We used a visual continuous performance task (CPT to test the effects of eight weeks of mindfulness training on sustained attention by comparing MBSR to the Health Enhancement Program (HEP, a structurally equivalent, active control condition in a randomized, longitudinal design (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105 focusing on a non-clinical population typical of MBSR participants. Researchers were blind to group assignment. 63 community participants were randomized to either MBSR (n = 31 or HEP (n = 32. CPT analyses were conducted on 29 MBSR participants and 25 HEP participants. We predicted that MBSR would improve visual discrimination ability and sustained attention over time on the CPT compared to HEP, with more home practice associated with greater improvements. Our hypotheses were not confirmed but we did find some evidence for improved visual discrimination similar to effects in partial replication of other research. Our study had sufficient power to demonstrate that intervention groups do not differ in their improvement over time in sustained attention performance. One of our primary predictions concerning the effects of intervention on attentional fatigue was significant but not interpretable.Attentional sensitivity is not affected by mindfulness practice as taught in MBSR, but it is unclear whether mindfulness might positively affect another aspect of attention, vigilance. These results also highlight the relevant procedural modifications required by future research to correctly investigate the role of sustained attention in similar samples.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT

  12. Butyrate-Loaded Chitosan/Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Suitable Tool for Sustained Inhibition of ROS Release by Activated Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacco, Pasquale; Decleva, Eva; Tentor, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    that butyrate inhibits neutrophil ROS release in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Given the short half-life of butyrate, chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles are next designed and developed as controlled release carriers able to provide cells with a long-lasting supply of this SCFA. Notably, while the inhibition...... of neutrophil ROS production by free butyrate declines over time, that of butyrate-loaded chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles (B-NPs) is sustained. Additional valuable features of these nanoparticles are inherent ROS scavenger activity, resistance to cell internalization, and mucoadhesiveness. B-NPs appear...

  13. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Hui-Yi; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 microM, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  14. Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali activated sustainable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental evaluation into alkali silica : reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali-activated slag and fly ash binder concrete. The : susceptibility of alkali-activated fly ash and slag concrete binders to dele...

  15. Application of Sustainable Natural Resources in Agriculture: Acaricidal and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Naphthoquinones and Their Analogs against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Ying-Qian; Guo, Xiao; Miao, Xiao-Lou; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Guan-Zhou; Yang, Cheng-Jie; Li, Jun-Cai; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai

    2018-01-25

    As important secondary plant metabolites, naphthoquinones exhibit a wide range of biological activities. However, their potential as sustainable alternatives to synthetic acaricides has not been studied. This study for the first time investigates the acaricidal activity of naphthoquinones against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo activity, the skin irritation effects, the cytotoxicity and the inhibitory activities against mite acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the two compounds that displayed the best insecticidal activity in vitro were evaluated. Among fourteen naphthoquinones and their analogs, juglone and plumbagin were observed to possess the strongest acaricidal activities against P. cuniculi with LC 50 values of 20.53 ppm and 17.96 ppm, respectively, at 24 h. After three treatments, these two chemicals completely cured naturally infested rabbits in vivo within 15 days, and no skin irritation was found in any of the treated rabbits. Compared to plumbagin, juglone presented no or weak cytotoxicity against HL-7702 cells. Moreover, these two chemicals significantly inhibited AChE and GST activity. These results indicate that juglone has promising toxicity against P. cuniculi, is safe for both humans and animals at certain doses, and could be used as a potential alternative bio-acaricide for controlling the development of psoroptic mange in agricultural applications.

  16. Neuron to astrocyte communication via cannabinoid receptors is necessary for sustained epileptiform activity in rat hippocampus.

    OpenAIRE

    Coiret Guyllaume; Ster Jeanne; Grewe Benjamin; Wendling Fabrice; Helmchen Fritjof; Gerber Urs; Benquet Pascal

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Astrocytes are integral functional components of synapses, regulating transmission and plasticity. They have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, although their precise roles have not been comprehensively characterized. Astrocytes integrate activity from neighboring synapses by responding to neuronally released neurotransmitters such as glutamate and ATP. Strong activation of astrocytes mediated by these neurotransmitters can promote seizure-like activ...

  17. Cardiac-Specific SOCS3 Deletion Prevents In Vivo Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through Sustained Activation of Cardioprotective Signaling Molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Nagata

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI adversely affects cardiac performance and the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Although myocardial signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 is potently cardioprotective during IRI, the inhibitory mechanism responsible for its activation is largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the myocardial suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3, an intrinsic negative feedback regulator of the Janus kinase (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, in the development of myocardial IRI. Myocardial IRI was induced in mice by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by different reperfusion times. One hour after reperfusion, the rapid expression of JAK-STAT-activating cytokines was observed. We precisely evaluated the phosphorylation of cardioprotective signaling molecules and the expression of SOCS3 during IRI and then induced myocardial IRI in wild-type and cardiac-specific SOCS3 knockout mice (SOCS3-CKO. The activation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 rapidly peaked and promptly decreased during IRI. This decrease correlated with the induction of SOCS3 expression up to 24 h after IRI in wild-type mice. The infarct size 24 h after reperfusion was significantly reduced in SOCS3-CKO compared with wild-type mice. In SOCS3-CKO mice, STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was sustained, myocardial apoptosis was prevented, and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1 was augmented. Cardiac-specific SOCS3 deletion led to the sustained activation of cardioprotective signaling molecules including and prevented myocardial apoptosis and injury during IRI. Our findings suggest that SOCS3 may represent a key factor that exacerbates the development of myocardial IRI.

  18. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  19. Mucoralean fungi for sustainable production of bioethanol and biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2018-02-01

    Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition to a high ethanol yield, the fungi produce several commercially valuable by-products, including chitosan, microbial oil (mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids), and protein. Moreover, the fungal extracts can replace the expensive nutrients required in fermentation. Besides, their morphologies can be altered from filamentous to yeast like and are adjustable based on the process requirement. The focus of this review is on applying Mucorales in producing ethanol and the biomass by-products thereof.

  20. Sustainable implementation of school-based physical activity: A four-stage Delphi consensus process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Møller, Niels Christian

    condensed into a total amount of 63 factors, arranged into nine overall categories, and prioritized by the national expert group in the questionnaire (1.School leadership, 2.Co-workers, 3.Resources, 4.Policy level, 5.Organizational/cultural level, 6.Pupils, 7.Physical surroundings, 8.Intervention context......, and 9.External factors). Based on five expert interviews, outliers from the questionnaire was examined. Finally, at the workshop, five of the nine overall categories were rated as particularly relevant and important (School leadership, Co-workers, Policy level, Resources and Organizational....../cultural level). Conclusions All nine overall categories are deemed as decisive for sustainable implementation of school-based PA. However, School leadership were singled out as a particular important category, since commitment at this level is deemed a pre-requisite for many of the other factors....

  1. Sustainable synthesis of silver nanoparticles using macroalgae Spirogyra varians and analysis of their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Salari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, silver nanoparticles (SNPs were synthesized through bio-reduction of silver ions using the Spirogyra varians. The procedure used is simple and sustainable making it suitable for economic production of SNPs. The structure and morphology of SNPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR. These nanoparticles indicated an absorption peak at 430 nm in the UV–visible spectrum. The crystallite average size was estimated about 17.6 nm and SEM image confirmed synthesis of relatively uniform nanoparticles. The antibacterial effect of SNPs was also tested on several micro-organisms by measuring the inhibition zone, MIC and MBC. The results confirmed that SNPs can act as a powerful antibacterial agent against various pathogenic bacteria.

  2. 120 aastat professor Nikolai Maimi sünnist / Väino J. Riismandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riismandel, Väino, 1920-2017

    2004-01-01

    Professor Maim (26. veeb. 1884 Tartus - 10. jaan. 1976 USA) on lõpetanud Moskva ülikooli õigusteaduskonna (1909), Tartu Ülikooli riigiõiguse erialal (1915). Ta on töötanud Vene keisririigi siseministeeriumi teenistuse eriülesandeis ametnikuna, Eesti Vabriigis siseministri abina, välisministeeriumi juriskonsultina. Maimi peamiseks ülesandeks kujunes korraldamisjärgus oleva Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna organiseerimine. Peale 1944. aastal Eestist põgenemist oli ta õppejõuks Marburgi ülikoolis riigiteaduse ja riigiõiguse alal. LL.M. (George Washingtoni ülikool) Väino J. Riismandel on District of Columbia advokatuuri liige, oli professor Maimi õpilane ja töökaaslane Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisatud: professor Maimi trükis ilmunud tööd lk. 65

  3. Sensitivity to neutrino decay with atmospheric neutrinos at the INO-ICAL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sandhya; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Chandan; Lakshmi, S. M.; Thakore, Tarak

    2018-02-01

    Sensitivity of the magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) to invisible decay of the mass eigenstate ν3 using atmospheric neutrinos is explored. A full three-generation analysis including Earth matter effects is performed in a framework with both decay and oscillations. The wide energy range and baselines offered by atmospheric neutrinos are shown to be excellent for constraining the ν3 lifetime. We find that with an exposure of 500 kton -yr the ICAL atmospheric experiment could constrain the ν3 lifetime to τ3/m3>1.51 ×10-10 s /eV at the 90% C.L. This is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the bound from MINOS. The effect of invisible decay on the precision measurement of θ23 and |Δ m322| is also studied.

  4. Phytochemicals with NO inhibitory effects and interactions with iNOS protein from Trigonostemon howii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Yang, Xueyuan; Wang, Peixia; Dong, Bangjian; Su, Guochen; Tuerhong, Muhetaer; Jin, Da-Qing; Xu, Jing; Lee, Dongho; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Lin, Jianping; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2017-12-01

    A phytochemical investigation to obtain new NO inhibitors led to the isolation of nine compounds including one new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1) and two new cleistanthane diterpenoids (2 and 3) from the stems of Trigonostemon howii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of new compounds 1-3 were established via comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 2 and 3 possess a rare 3,4-seco-cleistanthane diterpenoid skeleton. All of the compounds showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The further molecular docking studies indicated the strong interactions between some bioactive compounds with the iNOS protein, which revealed the possible and potential mechanism of NO inhibition of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carrapatos exóticos em eqüinos importados de Portugal para o Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, M.B.; Pinter, A.; Roncati, N.V.; Pereira, M.C.; Faccini, J.L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Em abril de 1999, cinco espécimens de carrapatos foram colhidos de dois eqüinos que haviam chegado há um dia de Portugal em uma propriedade rural no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os carrapatos foram enviados vivos ao laboratório e foram identificados como Hyalomma marginatum e Rhipicephalus bursa. Esta última espécie foi criada em laboratório para obtenção de novos adultos para confirmação da identificação. Tanto H. marginatum como R. bursa são espécies consideradas restritas ao Velho Mund...

  6. Placentite fúngica em eqüino: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Jayme Augusto; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Lopes, Jackson Baia; Filadepho, André Luiz; Gueretz, Juliano Santos

    2009-01-01

    O fungo Aspergillus fumigatus é saprófita e oportunista e é o de maior ocorrência em infecções fúngicas nos animais, com capacidade de produzir endotoxinas. Possui hifas septadas e pode ser encontrado no solo, na vegetação, nos alimentos e também em material fermentado de origem vegetal, como silagem, feno e adubo químico. A transmissão ocorre mais comumente pela inalação ou ingestão. Nos eqüinos, a infecção da bolsa gutural resulta numa síndrome clínica caracterizada por sangramento nasal re...

  7. Doença periapical em eqüinos: estudo de quatro casos

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliosa,G.M.; Alves,G.E.S.; Oliveira,H.P.; Gheller,V.A; Braga,C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Estudaram-se quatro casos de doença periapical (DP) em eqüinos submetidos à apicectomia e extração dentária. O diagnóstico baseou-se na anamnese, nos exames físico geral e oral e na radiologia. A apicectomia foi ineficaz devido à falta de tratamento endodôntico e a extração dentária mostrou-se a melhor conduta de tratamento, apesar da dificuldade de cura completa da infecção. A DP pode ter causas adicionais a serem definidas, além das classificadas como primária e secundária pela literatura....

  8. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ANESTESIA EM EQÜINOS COM DETOMIDINA E TILETAMINA-ZOLAZEPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Seis eqüinos foram anestesiados, via intravenosa, com o cloridrato de detomidina 1% (0,03mg/kg, associado à combinação tiletamina-zolazepam 5% (1mg/kg. Foram registrados o tempo para obtenção do decúbito lateral e o tempo para retorno à posição de estação. As freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a temperatura retal, os vaiores arteriais de pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3, excesso de bases e SATO2, foram analisados no período anterior à sedação (valor basal, durante a anestesia e ao retorno à posição de estação. Dois eqüinos foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos. O tempo médio para a obtenção do decúbito lateral foi de 53,80 ± 9,06 segundos. O período médio em decúbito lateral foi de 28,50 ± 5,05 minutos e o tempo para retorno à estação foi de 39,16 ± 4,59 minutos. A análise hemogasométrica arterial revelou a ocorrência de hipoxemia no período anestésico. As freqüências cardíaca, respiratória e temperatura retal mantiveram-se estáveis no período estudado.

  10. Association of polymorphisms in iNOS and NQO1 with bladder cancer risk in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhon-Min Huang

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a significant combined effect of NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes and the 12-repeat allele of iNOS (CCTTTn polymorphism on BC exists, especially in those with the habit of cigarette smoking.

  11. Leptospira Interrogans Induces Fibrosis in the Mouse Kidney through Inos-Dependent, TLR- and NLR-Independent Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton d'Andon, Martine; Quellard, Nathalie; Fernandez, Béatrice; Ratet, Gwenn; Lacroix-Lamandé, Sonia; Vandewalle, Alain; Boneca, Ivo G.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Werts, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospira (L.) interrogans are bacteria responsible for a worldwide reemerging zoonosis. Rodents carry L. interrogans asymptomatically in their kidneys and excrete bacteria in the urine, contaminating the environment. Humans get infected through skin contact and develop a mild or severe leptospirosis that may lead to renal failure and fibrosis. L. interrogans provoke an interstitial nephritis, but the induction of fibrosis caused by L. interrogans has not been studied in murine models. Innate immune receptors from the TLR and NLR families have recently been shown to play a role in the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in the lung, liver and kidneys under different pathophysiological situations. We recently showed that TLR2, TLR4, and NLRP3 receptors were crucial in the defense against leptospirosis. Moreover, infection of a human cell line with L. interrogans was shown to induce TLR2-dependent production of fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, we thought to assess the presence of renal fibrosis in L. interrogans infected mice and to analyze the contribution of some innate immune pathways in this process. Methodology/principal findings Here, we characterized by immunohistochemical studies and quantitative real-time PCR, a model of Leptospira-infected C57BL/6J mice, with chronic carriage of L. interrogans inducing mild renal fibrosis. Using various strains of transgenic mice, we determined that the renal infiltrates of T cells and, unexpectedly, TLR and NLR receptors, are not required to generate Leptospira-induced renal fibrosis. We also show that the iNOS enzyme, known to play a role in Leptospira-induced interstitial nephritis, also plays a role in the induction of renal fibrosis. Conclusion/significance To our knowledge, this work provides the first experimental murine model of sustained renal fibrosis induced by a chronic bacterial infection that may be peculiar, since it does not rely on TLR or NLR receptors

  12. A quality improvement project sustainably decreased time to onset of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglas, Victor D; Parker, Ann M; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Zanni, Jennifer M; Turnbull, Alison E; Nelliot, Archana; Ciesla, Nancy; Needham, Dale M

    2014-10-01

    Rehabilitation started early during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with improved outcomes and is the basis for many quality improvement (QI) projects showing important changes in practice. However, little evidence exists regarding whether such changes are sustainable in real-world practice. To evaluate the sustained effect of a quality improvement project on the timing of initiation of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). This was a pre-post evaluation using prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients with ALI admitted pre-quality improvement (October 2004-April 2007, n = 120) versus post-quality improvement (July 2009-July 2012, n = 123) from a single medical ICU. The primary outcome was time to first active physical therapy intervention, defined as strengthening, mobility, or cycle ergometry exercises. Among ICU survivors, more patients in the post-quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group received physical therapy in the ICU (89% vs. 24%, P quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group, there was a shorter median (interquartile range) time to first physical therapy (4 [2, 6] vs. 11 d [6, 29], P quality improvement period was associated with shorter time to physical therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.38 [4.98, 14.11], P quality improvement period. The following variables were independently associated with a longer time to physical therapy: higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.93 [0.89, 0.97]), higher FiO2 (0.86 [0.75, 0.99] for each 10% increase), use of an opioid infusion (0.47 [0.25, 0.89]), and deep sedation (0.24 [0.12, 0.46]). In this single-site, pre-post analysis of patients with ALI, an early rehabilitation quality improvement project was independently associated with a substantial decrease in the time to initiation of active physical therapy intervention that was sustained over 5 years. Over the entire pre

  13. Activation of Aurora A kinase through the FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chien-Yu [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program of Biotechnology in Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yu-Fen; Lee, Don-Ching [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jen-Wei [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Ing-Ming, E-mail: ingming@nhri.org.tw [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program of Biotechnology in Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) binds and activates FGF receptors, thereby regulating cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven SV40 T antigen has been shown to result in tumorigenesis in the brains of transgenic mice. FGF1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven green fluorescent protein (F1BGFP) has also been used in isolating neural stem cells (NSCs) with self-renewal and multipotency from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide six lines of evidence to demonstrate that FGF1/FGFR signaling is implicated in the expression of Aurora A (AurA) and the activation of its kinase domain (Thr288 phosphorylation) in the maintenance of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and NSCs. First, treatment of FGF1 increases AurA expression in human GBM cell lines. Second, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we observed that F1BGFP reporter facilitates the isolation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells with higher expression levels of FGFR and AurA. Third, both FGFR inhibitor (SU5402) and AurA inhibitor (VX680) could down-regulate F1BGFP-dependent AurA activity. Fourth, inhibition of AurA activity by two different AurA inhibitors (VX680 and valproic acid) not only reduced neurosphere formation but also induced neuronal differentiation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells. Fifth, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that F1BGFP(+) GBM cells possessed different NSC cell surface markers. Finally, inhibition of AurA by VX680 reduced the neurosphere formation of different types of NSCs. Our results show that activation of AurA kinase through FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of GBM cells. Implications: This study identified a novel mechanism for the malignancy of GBM, which could be a potential therapeutic target for GBM. - Highlights: • We report that FGF1 treatment can stimulate AurA kinase expression in human GBM cells. • FGF1/FGFR signaling is involved in the activation of AurA kinase. • FGF1 sustains the self

  14. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of cordycepin and its delivery system for sustained in vitro anti-lung cancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Porasuphatana, Supatra; Srichana, Teerapol; Nakpheng, Titpawan

    2015-03-01

    In the previous study, we have found that the cordycepin which was extracted from Cordyceps mycelia produced by growing Cordyceps militaris on the dead larva of Bombyx mori silkworms showed the anti-proliferative effect toward lung cancer cells without toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this work, the cordycepin was tested for its in vitro mutagenicity and in vivo toxicity. From the Ames test and subacute toxicity test using oral administration in a rat model, the cordycepin was proved to be a non-mutagenic and non-toxic compound. The hematology and blood chemistry as well as the microanatomical characteristic of the tissues of rats fed with cordycepin every day for consecutive 30 days were comparable to those of the normal ones. Then, the cordycepin was incorporated in gelatin type A (GA) and gelatin type B (GB) nanoparticles aimed to sustain its release and activity. The cordycepin incorporated in both GA and GB nanoparticles showed the sustained release profiles. GA nanoparticles could encapsulate cordycepin at higher encapsulation efficiency due to the attractive electrostatic interaction between the positive-charged GA and the negative-charged cordycepin. However, GA nanoparticles released cordycepin at the higher amount possibly because of the large surface area of small size nanoparticles. Comparing to GB nanoparticles, the higher amount of cordycepin released from GA nanoparticles showed the higher anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on A549 lung cancer cells. In conclusion, GA nanoparticles were suggested as a suitable carrier for the sustained release of cordycepin. The GA nanoparticles releasing cordycepin could be an effective and non-invasive material for the treatment of lung cancer cells.

  16. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

  17. MONITORING OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN TARGU-JIU - WAY OF MAINTAINING REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Constanta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the external factors of influence on an area. To minimize adverse effects and to enhance positive ones may be adopted various policies. A basic approach already highlighted, referring to encourage community participation in the tourism sector. Most important ways to enhance economic benefits are strong links between tourism and other economic sectors, encourage employment of local labor, property ownership and management of tourism enterprises by the local and tourist expenditure growth mainly through the purchase of articles of local production [5]. Between tourism and the environment are closely linked. Impact tourism can have both positive and negative, depending on how it is planned, developed and managed. Have taken various measures to protect the environment, such as the development of appropriate systems for utilities and transport, proper use of land and application of principles and standards development, managing the flow of visitors and tourists access their control objectives. Negative impacts of tourism can be minimized through planning, development and proper management. Turism development should be monitored continuously, and if problems arise, they must be addressed to ensure sustainable development [6].

  18. Neuron to astrocyte communication via cannabinoid receptors is necessary for sustained epileptiform activity in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiret, Guyllaume; Ster, Jeanne; Grewe, Benjamin; Wendling, Fabrice; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs; Benquet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral functional components of synapses, regulating transmission and plasticity. They have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, although their precise roles have not been comprehensively characterized. Astrocytes integrate activity from neighboring synapses by responding to neuronally released neurotransmitters such as glutamate and ATP. Strong activation of astrocytes mediated by these neurotransmitters can promote seizure-like activity by initiating a positive feedback loop that induces excessive neuronal discharge. Recent work has demonstrated that astrocytes express cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, which are sensitive to endocannabinoids released by nearby pyramidal cells. In this study, we tested whether this mechanism also contributes to epileptiform activity. In a model of 4-aminopyridine induced epileptic-like activity in hippocampal slice cultures, we show that pharmacological blockade of astrocyte CB1 receptors did not modify the initiation, but significantly reduced the maintenance of epileptiform discharge. When communication in astrocytic networks was disrupted by chelating astrocytic calcium, this CB1 receptor-mediated modulation of epileptiform activity was no longer observed. Thus, endocannabinoid signaling from neurons to astrocytes represents an additional significant factor in the maintenance of epileptiform activity in the hippocampus.

  19. Neuron to astrocyte communication via cannabinoid receptors is necessary for sustained epileptiform activity in rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyllaume Coiret

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are integral functional components of synapses, regulating transmission and plasticity. They have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, although their precise roles have not been comprehensively characterized. Astrocytes integrate activity from neighboring synapses by responding to neuronally released neurotransmitters such as glutamate and ATP. Strong activation of astrocytes mediated by these neurotransmitters can promote seizure-like activity by initiating a positive feedback loop that induces excessive neuronal discharge. Recent work has demonstrated that astrocytes express cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptors, which are sensitive to endocannabinoids released by nearby pyramidal cells. In this study, we tested whether this mechanism also contributes to epileptiform activity. In a model of 4-aminopyridine induced epileptic-like activity in hippocampal slice cultures, we show that pharmacological blockade of astrocyte CB1 receptors did not modify the initiation, but significantly reduced the maintenance of epileptiform discharge. When communication in astrocytic networks was disrupted by chelating astrocytic calcium, this CB1 receptor-mediated modulation of epileptiform activity was no longer observed. Thus, endocannabinoid signaling from neurons to astrocytes represents an additional significant factor in the maintenance of epileptiform activity in the hippocampus.

  20. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Annual sustainable development and activity report 2012. Management report and financial statements 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2012

  1. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Annual sustainable development and activity report 2011. Management report and financial statements 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2011

  2. Alkali-Activated Natural Pozzolan/Slag Binder for Sustainable Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Meysam

    This study aimed to fully replace Portland cement (PC) with environmentally friendly binders capable of improving longevity of concrete. The new binders consisted of different proportions of natural Pozzolan and slag which were alkaline-activated with various combinations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. A step-by-step research program was designed to (1) develop alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag pastes with adequate fresh and strength properties, (2) produce alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag mortars to assess the effects of dominant variables on their plastic and hardened properties, and (3) finally produce and assess fresh, mechanical, dimensional, transport and durability properties of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag concretes. The major variables included in this study were binder combination (natural Pozzolan/slag combinations of 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70), activator combination (sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide combinations of 20/80, 25/75 and 30/70), and sodium hydroxide concentration (1, 1.75 and 2.5M). The experimental program assessed performance of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag mixtures including fresh properties (flow and setting times), unit weights (fresh, demolded and oven-dry), mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strengths, and modulus of elasticity), transport properties (absorption, rapid chloride penetration, and rapid chloride migration), durability (frost resistance, chloride induced corrosion, and resistance to sulfuric acid attack), and dimensional stability (drying shrinkage). This study also compared the performance of alkali-activated natural Pozzolan/slag concretes with that of an equivalent reference Portland cement concrete having a similar flow and strength characteristics. The results of this study revealed that it was doable to find optimum binder proportions, activator combinations and sodium hydroxide concentrations to achieve adequate plastic and hardened properties. Nearly for all studied

  3. Intracellular Complement Activation Sustains T Cell Homeostasis and Mediates Effector Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaelle; Leung, Marilyn; Bertram, Paula G.; Fara, Antonella F.; Subias, Marta; Pickering, Matthew C.; Drouet, Christian; Meri, Seppo; Arstila, T. Petteri; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Ma, Margaret; Cope, Andrew; Reinheckel, Thomas; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Afzali, Behdad; Atkinson, John P.; Kemper, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically active C3a and C3b. Resting T cells contained stores of endosomal and lysosomal C3 and CTSL and substantial amounts of CTSL-generated C3a. While “tonic” intracellular C3a generation was required for homeostatic T cell survival, shuttling of this intracellular C3-activation-system to the cell surface upon T cell stimulation induced autocrine proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, T cells from patients with autoimmune arthritis demonstrated hyperactive intracellular complement activation and interferon-γ production and CTSL inhibition corrected this deregulated phenotype. Importantly, intracellular C3a was observed in all examined cell populations, suggesting that intracellular complement activation might be of broad physiological significance. PMID:24315997

  4. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  5. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  6. Sustained Treatment with Insulin Detemir in Mice Alters Brain Activity and Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sartorius

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified unique brain effects of insulin detemir (Levemir®. Due to its pharmacologic properties, insulin detemir may reach higher concentrations in the brain than regular insulin. This might explain the observed increased brain stimulation after acute insulin detemir application but it remained unclear whether chronic insulin detemir treatment causes alterations in brain activity as a consequence of overstimulation.In mice, we examined insulin detemir's prolonged brain exposure by continuous subcutaneous (s.c. application using either micro-osmotic pumps or daily s.c. injections and performed continuous radiotelemetric electrocorticography and locomotion recordings.Acute intracerebroventricular injection of insulin detemir activated cortical and locomotor activity significantly more than regular insulin in equimolar doses (0.94 and 5.63 mU in total, suggesting an enhanced acute impact on brain networks. However, given continuously s.c., insulin detemir significantly reduced cortical activity (theta: 21.3±6.1% vs. 73.0±8.1%, P<0.001 and failed to maintain locomotion, while regular insulin resulted in an increase of both parameters.The data suggest that permanently-increased insulin detemir levels in the brain convert its hyperstimulatory effects and finally mediate impairments in brain activity and locomotion. This observation might be considered when human studies with insulin detemir are designed to target the brain in order to optimize treatment regimens.

  7. Artemisia: Active and Interactive Monitoring of the Forests in Protected Areas Aimed at the Sustainable Management of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Cirillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To pursue the usage of forests resources in the processes of economic and social development it is determining that the principles of natural heritage protection join in a concept of progress, based on evolution and technological innovation; the realization of innovative investigation and representation tools turns out to be useful to ease the integration of forests’ resources in shared development processes aimed at enhancing the cooperation of local actors, and to ease the territory’s sustainable growth and the development of the natural heritage. The integrated management of the actions aimed at protecting and easing the ecologic and recreative functioning of forests, which are increasingly exposed to pressures caused by several catastrophic factors, requires the tuning of modelling and active monitoring systems of the forests based on social networks and volunteering for the processes of data updating.

  8. "Sustainability on Earth" Webquests: Do They Qualify as Problem-Based Learning Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), namely the Internet, can play a valuable educational role in several school subjects, including science education. The same applies to problem-based learning (PBL), that is, a student-centered active learning methodology that can prepare students for lifelong learning. WebQuests (WQs) combine PBL…

  9. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources. However, their extraction and processing through mining activities especially, of the solid minerals are going on at different scales of intensity. Some of these operations, and their negative impacts to the environment which include: land degradation, ecological disruption ...

  10. Aerobic Exercise Sustains Performance of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Eric D; Perales, Jaime; Alshehri, Mohammed; Giles, Abdul-Mannaan; Siengsukon, Catherine F; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-28

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) experience progressive loss of independence-performing activities of daily living. Identifying interventions to support independence and reduce the economic and psychosocial burden of caregiving for individuals with AD is imperative. The purpose of this analysis was to examine functional disability and caregiver time in individuals with early-stage AD. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 26 weeks of aerobic exercise (AEx) versus stretching and toning (ST). We measured functional dependence using the Disability Assessment for Dementia, informal caregiver time required using the Resources Utilization in Dementia Lite, and cognition using a standard cognitive battery. We saw a stable function in the AEx group compared with a significant decline in the ST group (4%; F = 4.2, P = .04). This was especially evident in more complex, instrumental activities of daily living, with individuals in the AEx group increasing 1% compared with an 8% loss in the ST group over 26 weeks (F = 8.3, P = .006). Change in memory was a significant predictor of declining instrumental activities of daily living performance (r = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.08 ∞, P = .01). Informal caregiver time was not different between the AEx and ST groups. Our analysis extends recent work by revealing specific benefits for instrumental activities of daily living for individuals in the early stages of AD and supports the value of exercise for individuals with cognitive impairment.

  11. Delivering Sustainable Practice? A Case Study of the Scottish Active Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999, concerns about Scotland's future health and economic performance have profoundly impacted on the new Scottish Executive. Research highlighting an obesity crisis facing young Scots has, together with the work of Scotland's Physical Activity Task Force and Physical Education Review Group, encouraged the education of all young Scots to be…

  12. Adventurous activities, embodiment and nature: spiritual, sensual and sustainable? Embodying environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Humberstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines research on adventurous physical activities in nature from the perspective of the sentient body. Drawing upon ethnographic and autoethnographic research, I examine what has been termed 'peak' happenings or 'flow' which many who practise adventurous activities claim to experience through their whole body when in the 'zone'. I consider the concept of 'edgework', voluntary risk-taking, and insightful mobile and social understanding of the relationships between body, emotions and the elements, where the adventurous activity is experienced and interpreted as oneness with nature or expressed as 'spiritual' not only in high but also low risk nature-based sport. I then consider if and in what ways these knowledges may bring about greater understanding and action in relation to social and environmental justice. I argue that adventurous activities/nature-based sport may provide processes and practices that are alternative or complementary to traditional sporting 'body techniques' or 'body pedagogics'. I suggest that modern embodied adventurous practices in nature challenge dominant narratives of body/mind separation and potentially provide a pedagogic process fostering kinetic empathy. Finally I draw attention to the paradox of (re-presenting sensorial experiences of sport in nature and ask for consideration on how we interconnect with the environment when we participate in adventureous nature-based sports.

  13. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  14. Using Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes of Hair to Teach about Sustainable Agriculture through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jennifer M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    The call for reform of science education is nearly three decades old (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), but the implementation of such education improvements in the form of active learning techniques in large enrollment classes remains difficult. Here we present a class project designed to increase student involvement and…

  15. Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Rick Dahlamn; James A. Mattson; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and leaving slash at the stump on nutrient deficient sites. Technology...

  16. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann-Hwang Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO3 (48.5%, SiO2 (21.1%, Al2O3 (13.8%, SO3 (10.06%, Fe2O3 (2.25% and others (4.29%. SA fly ash consists of Al2O3 (19.7%, SiO2 (36.3%, Fe2O3 (28.4% and others (15.6%. SB fly ash consists of Al2O3 (15%, SiO2 (25.4%, Zn (20.6%, SO3 (10.9%, Fe2O3 (8.78% and others (19.32%. The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7–14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste. The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements.

  17. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yann-Hwang; Huang, Ran; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2015-02-16

    This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB) or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO₃ (48.5%), SiO₂ (21.1%), Al₂O₃ (13.8%), SO₃ (10.06%), Fe₂O₃ (2.25%) and others (4.29%). SA fly ash consists of Al₂O₃ (19.7%), SiO₂ (36.3%), Fe2O3 (28.4%) and others (15.6%). SB fly ash consists of Al₂O₃ (15%), SiO₂ (25.4%), Zn (20.6%), SO₃ (10.9%), Fe₂O₃ (8.78%) and others (19.32%). The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7-14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste). The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements.

  18. Recycling of Sustainable Co-Firing Fly Ashes as an Alkali Activator for GGBS in Blended Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yann-Hwang; Huang, Ran; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of co-firing fly ashes from different boilers, circulating fluidized beds (CFB) or stokers as a sustainable material in alkali activators for ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The mixture ratio of GGBS and co-firing fly ashes is 1:1 by weight. The results indicate that only CF fly ash of CFB boilers can effectively stimulate the potential characteristics of GGBS and provide strength as an alkali activator. CF fly ash consists of CaO3 (48.5%), SiO2 (21.1%), Al2O3 (13.8%), SO3 (10.06%), Fe2O3 (2.25%) and others (4.29%). SA fly ash consists of Al2O3 (19.7%), SiO2 (36.3%), Fe2O3 (28.4%) and others (15.6%). SB fly ash consists of Al2O3 (15%), SiO2 (25.4%), Zn (20.6%), SO3 (10.9%), Fe2O3 (8.78%) and others (19.32%). The mixtures of SA fly ash and SB fly ash with GGBS, respectively, were damaged in the compressive strength test during seven days of curing. However, the built up strength of the CF fly ash and GGBS mixture can only be maintained for 7–14 days, and the compressive strength achieves 70% of that of a controlled group (cement in hardening cement paste). The strength of blended CF fly ash and GGBS started to decrease after 28 days, and the phenomenon of ettrigite was investigated due to the high levels of sulfur content. The CaO content in sustainable co-firing fly ashes must be higher than a certain percentage in reacting GGBS to ensure the strength of blended cements. PMID:28787970

  19. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  20. Effects of a probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis) on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Mo; Li, Xian; Han, Yin; Wu, Fucun; Liu, Ying

    2018-02-17

    To study the effects of a probiotic (Bacillus lincheniformis) on the survival and growth of Haliotis discus hannai Ino, the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes and the resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were assessed. Abalones (shell length: 27.64 ± 1.59 mm, body weight: 4.17 ± 0.32 g) were selected for use in an 8-week culture experiment and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment. In both experiments, the control group (C) was fed with a basal feed and the experimental groups were fed with experimental food prepared by spraying the probiotic on the basal feed at different concentrations: 10 3 (B1), 10 5 (B2), and 10 7 (B3) cfu/mL. The survival rate, total number of blood lymphocytes, activity of acid phosphatase, and expression level of heat shock protein 70 were significantly higher in B1, B2, and B3 than in C (P < 0.05). The specific growth rate of shell length, food intake, food conversion rate, phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, activities of myeloperoxidase and catalase (CAT), and expression levels of CAT and thioredoxin peroxidase of abalones in B2 were significantly higher than those in B1 and C (P < 0.05). Although the level of O 2 - produced by the respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes in B2 was not significantly different from those in B1 and B3, they were significantly higher than that in C (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the nitric oxide levels produced by the respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes, and the expression levels of Mn-SOD in B1 and B3 were significantly higher than those in C but significantly lower than those in B2 (P < 0.05). Fourteen days after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, the cumulative mortality of abalones in B2 was significantly lower than those in B1 and C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the food containing 10 5  cfu/mL Bacillus licheniformis promoted food intake and growth of abalones and also improved

  1. [Construction of A eukaryotic expression vector carrying the iNOS gene and its effect on A549 lung cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sujuan; Yang, Weihan; Wang, Yu; Ou, Wenjing; Ma, Qingping; Zhu, Wen

    2012-05-01

    The iNOS gene is associated with NO-mediated antitumor effects. The aims of this study are to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid that carries the iNOS gene and to detect the expression levels and antitumor effects of the iNOS gene on A549 lung cancer cells. A DNA fragment of the human iNOS coding sequence was amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The DNA fragment was subsequently cloned into the multiple cloning sites of the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed using restriction enzyme treatment, PCR, and sequencing and was then transfected into A549 lung cancer cells. The expression of the iNOS gene in the A549 lung cancer cells after transfection was verified by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The effects of iNOS on cell apoptosis, proliferation, and migration were identified by staining with Hoechst 3235, an MTT assay, and a scratch assay, respectively. The results of the restriction enzyme digestion, PCR, and sequencing verified the successful construction of the eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX-iNOS. The iNOS gene expression level was increased in the transfected A549 cells. Further experiments also showed increased cell apoptosis among the A549 lung cancer cells transfected with pVAX-iNOS. Meanwhile, the proliferation and migration of A549 cells were significantly inhibited by the enhanced iNOS gene expression. The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pVAX-iNOS was successfully constructed and transfected into A549 cells. The enhanced iNOS gene expression significantly promoted cell apoptosis, whereas the proliferation and migration of A549 cells were inhibited. These findings contribute to the development of novel and effective gene therapies for lung cancer.

  2. Efficacy and safety analysis by age cohort of inotuzumab ozogamicin in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled in INO-VATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Elias J; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stelljes, Matthias; Stock, Wendy; Liedtke, Michaela; Gökbuget, Nicola; O'Brien, Susan; Wang, Tao; Paccagnella, M Luisa; Sleight, Barbara; Vandendries, Erik; Advani, Anjali S; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2018-01-30

    Inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in patients aged 18 to 78 years with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the INO-VATE trial. This subset analysis compared the efficacy and safety of InO in younger and older patients. Intent-to-treat analyses of morphologic responses and overall survival (OS) included 326 randomized patients, and safety assessments included 307 patients receiving 1 or more doses of the study treatment. Of the 326 patients, 164 received InO at a starting dose of 1.8 mg/m 2 /cycle (0.8 mg/m 2 on day 1 and 0.5 mg/m 2 on days 8 and 15 of a 21- to 28-day cycle [≤6 cycles]); 60 patients were aged ≥55 years, and 104 were aged <55 years. For older and younger patients, the median duration of InO therapy and the types and frequencies of adverse events of any grade were generally similar. Although the remission rates, median duration of remission (DOR), and progression-free survival were similar with InO for those aged <55 years and those aged ≥55 years, OS was longer for younger patients (median, 8.6 vs 5.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.610). Among patients proceeding to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after InO treatment (28% of older patients and 58% of younger patients), the incidence of veno-occlusive disease was greater in older patients (41% vs 17%). The study database was not locked at the time of this analysis. InO was tolerable in older patients with relapsed/refractory ALL. Although OS was longer for younger patients versus older patients, InO demonstrated high response rates with similar DOR in the 2 age groups. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  3. RTE - Activity and sustainable development report 2016 + Business report - Consolidated accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers several reports. The first one is an activity report which proposes an overview of RTE activities by outlining the contribution to the improvement of territory, customer, and electric power system performance, the contribution to innovation in terms of energy and digital transition (for example, development of smart grids), and development perspectives in terms of use of open data, of development of partnerships, and of work organisation. The next report is a business report which gives and comments financial and legal information (discussion of various accounting aspects and elements), social information (employment, work organisation, social relationships, safety, health, life quality, training, equal opportunities), environmental information (general policy, circular economy, struggle against climate change and adaptation, protection and development of biodiversity), and societal information. The last part contains a table of consolidated accounts followed by a detailed discussion and comment of its content

  4. Assessing dark tourism as a sustainable economic activity for emerging destinations using a multi criteria approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seraphin, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry only started to be considered as an economic activity in 1911 (Scutariu, 2009). The reasons why people have been travelling and are still travelling to certain places are for sport and leisure; culture; Visiting Friends and Relatives; business; health; religion; education (Barrow, 2008). These different reasons contribute to the branding of some destinations by visitors and potential visitors. On that basis, it is legitimate to wonder whether being branded as a dark touri...

  5. The IAEA activities towards enhanced utilisation, sustainability and applications of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Mank, G.; Adelfang, P.; Alldred, K.; Bradley, E.E.; Goldman, I.N.; Khvan, A.; Peld, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will give a brief introduction to the programmatic structure of the Research Reactor (RR) related activities of the IAEA sub-programme 'Research Reactors', under which the project on 'Enhancement of utilization and applications of RRs' will be presented in more detail. Both recent achievements and future planed actions will be reported with the major emphasis on RR utilisation related issues, specific applications of RRs, networks and coalitions, and assistance to the Member States (MS) planning their 1st RR. (author)

  6. Analysis of the Human Mucosal Response to Cholera Reveals Sustained Activation of Innate Immune Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Daniel L; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Genereux, Diane P; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Ellis, Crystal N; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Alam, Nur Haq; Paul, Anik; Hossain, Lazina; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Charles, Richelle C; Weil, Ana A; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    To better understand the innate immune response to Vibrio cholerae infection, we tracked gene expression in the duodenal mucosa of 11 Bangladeshi adults with cholera, using biopsy specimens obtained immediately after rehydration and 30 and 180 days later. We identified differentially expressed genes and performed an analysis to predict differentially regulated pathways and upstream regulators. During acute cholera, there was a broad increase in the expression of genes associated with innate immunity, including activation of the NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling pathways, which, unexpectedly, persisted even 30 days after infection. Focusing on early differences in gene expression, we identified 37 genes that were differentially expressed on days 2 and 30 across the 11 participants. These genes included the endosomal Toll-like receptor gene TLR8 , which was expressed in lamina propria cells. Underscoring a potential role for endosomal TLR-mediated signaling in vivo , our pathway analysis found that interferon regulatory factor 7 and beta 1 and alpha 2 interferons were among the top upstream regulators activated during cholera. Among the innate immune effectors, we found that the gene for DUOX2, an NADPH oxidase involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in intestinal epithelial cells during cholera. Notably, the observed increases in DUOX2 and TLR8 expression were also modeled in vitro when Caco-2 or THP-1 cells, respectively, were stimulated with live V. cholerae but not with heat-killed organisms or cholera toxin alone. These previously unidentified features of the innate immune response to V. cholerae extend our understanding of the mucosal immune signaling pathways and effectors activated in vivo following cholera. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  8. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Cengiz

    Full Text Available Hypoxia ischemia (HI-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX. 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+ efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+/Ca(2+ exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+ overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+ homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis, which reduces Na(+-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.

  9. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Pelin; Kintner, Douglas B; Chanana, Vishal; Yuan, Hui; Akture, Erinc; Kendigelen, Pinar; Begum, Gulnaz; Fidan, Emin; Uluc, Kutluay; Ferrazzano, Peter; Sun, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI)-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX). 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+) efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα) during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+) overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+) homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis, which reduces Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.

  10. The effects of feeding Lactobacillus pentosus on growth, immunity, and disease resistance in Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Gao; Mo, Zhang; Xian, Li; Yin, Han; Fucun, Wu; Ying, Liu

    2018-04-04

    To study the effects of probiotic-added food on the survival and growth of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), the expression levels of nonspecific immune genes and the anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection were examined. During an 8-week culturing experiment in an indoor aquarium and a 2-week V. parahaemolyticus artificial infection experiment, the control group was fed with untreated food once a day, while the experimental groups (L1, L2 and L3) were fed with Lactobacillus pentosus added food. The concentration of probiotics in the experimental food was 10 3  cfu/g (L1), 10 5  cfu/g (L2) and 10 7  cfu/g (L3), respectively. The results showed that the survival rate, shell length-specific growth rate, and the food conversion rate (FCR) of abalones in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than the control group. The food intake of abalones in L3 was significantly lower than that in L1, L2 and the control group, but there was no significant difference in FCR identified between L1, L2 and L3. In the L. pentosus-added groups, the total number of blood lymphocytes, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, and expression levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TP x ) were significantly higher than the control group, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower than the control group. The phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, catalase activity and the expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of abalones in the control group were significantly lower than that in L1 and L2, but there was no significant difference when compared with L3. The levels of O 2 - , NO produced by respiratory burst of blood lymphocytes and the expression levels of catalase (CAT) in L1 and L2 were significantly higher than both L3 and the control group. Seven days after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, all abalones in the control group were dead. After 14 days the cumulative mortality rate of abalones in the L

  11. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James; McBrearty, Madeleine; Malo, Kit; Abravanel, Michael; Moudrakovski, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of psychosocial influences - personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings - influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their 'parents' or 'guardians' participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents' PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.

  12. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Finamore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes’ proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future.

  13. Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: A Sustainable Solution. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane Bio Reactors (MBRs are mainly used for industrial wastewaters applications where their costs can be more easily afforded. High costs are basically due to energy consumption and membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling is responsible for reducing treated water production and increasing maintenance as well as operation costs. According to previous researches, the addition of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC in high dosages could reduce membrane fouling; but such concentrations are economically unsustainable for operative conditions. A MBR pilot plant, fed by mixed liquor of a full-scale activated sludge process from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was operated dosing low PAC concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg·L−1, respectively. Experiments were also carried out at two different temperatures corresponding to summer and winter conditions. Results indicated that PAC addition was effective at the low dosages (2 and 5 mg·L−1 by reducing the permeate flux loss (from 16 up to 27%, respectively while higher PAC concentrations turns out in a useless cost increase.

  14. Sustainable conversion of agriculture wastes into activated carbons: energy balance and arsenic removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, M M; Villot, A; Gerente, C; Andres, Y; Diop, S N; Diawara, C K

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the production of activated carbons (AC) from Senegal agricultural wastes such as cashew shells, millet stalks and rice husks and to implement them in adsorption processes devoted to arsenic (V) removal. AC were produced by a direct physical activation with water steam without other chemicals. This production of AC has also led to co-products (gas and bio-oil) which have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and thermodynamical properties for energy recovery. Considering the arsenic adsorption results and the energy balance for the three studied biomasses, the first results have shown that the millet stalks seem to be more interesting for arsenate removal from natural water and an energy recovery with a GEE elec of 18.9%. Cashew shells, which have shown the best energy recovery (34.3%), are not suitable for arsenate removal. This global approach is original and contributes to a recycling of biowastes with a joint recovery of energy and material.

  15. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Alberto; Bensehaila, Sarra

    2017-01-01

    The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes' proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future. PMID:28182098

  16. Two enzymes with redundant fructose bisphosphatase activity sustain gluconeogenesis and virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Uday; Marrero, Joeli; Calhoun, Susannah; Eoh, Hyungjin; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro Sorio; Rhee, Kyu; Ehrt, Sabine

    2015-08-10

    The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) likely utilizes host fatty acids as a carbon source during infection. Gluconeogenesis is essential for the conversion of fatty acids into biomass. A rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate by a fructose bisphosphatase (FBPase). The Mtb genome contains only one annotated FBPase gene, glpX. Here we show that, unexpectedly, an Mtb mutant lacking GLPX grows on gluconeogenic carbon sources and has detectable FBPase activity. We demonstrate that the Mtb genome encodes an alternative FBPase (GPM2, Rv3214) that can maintain gluconeogenesis in the absence of GLPX. Consequently, deletion of both GLPX and GPM2 is required for disruption of gluconeogenesis and attenuation of Mtb in a mouse model of infection. Our work affirms a role for gluconeogenesis in Mtb virulence and reveals previously unidentified metabolic redundancy at the FBPase-catalysed reaction step of the pathway.

  17. Sustained molecular oxygen activation by solid iron doped silicon carbide under microwave irradiation: Mechanism and application to norfloxacin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Huijie; Pan, Hong; Ma, Xiaoxue; Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Linling; Crittenden, John C

    2017-12-01

    Sustained molecular oxygen activation by iron doped silicon carbide (Fe/SiC) was investigated under microwave (MW) irradiation. The catalytic performance of Fe/SiC for norfloxacin (NOR) degradation was also studied. Rapid mineralization in neutral solution was observed with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.2239 min -1 under 540 W of MW irradiation for 20 min. Increasing Fe/SiC rod and MW power significantly enhanced the degradation and mineralization rate with higher yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fe shell corrosion and subsequent Fe 0/II oxidation by molecular oxygen with MW activation was the key factor for NOR degradation through two-electron-transfer by Fe 0 under acidic conditions and single-electron-transfer by Fe II under neutral-alkaline solution. Removal rate of NOR was significantly affected by solution pH, showing higher degradation rates at both acidic and alkaline conditions. The highest removal efficiencies and rates at alkaline pH values were ascribed to the contribution of bound Fe II species on the Fe shell surface due to the hydroxylation of Fe/SiC. ·OH was the main oxidizing specie for NOR degradation, confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and radical scavenger tests. DFT calculations were conducted on the reaction/activation energies of the transition/final states of NOR/degradation products, combined with intermediate identification with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS), the piperazinyl ring was the most reactive site for ·OH attack, followed by further ring-opening and stepwise oxidation. In this study, Fe/SiC were proved to be an excellent catalyst for the treatment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics with MW activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IAEA activities on education and training in radiation and waste safety: Strategic approach for a sustainable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, Khammar; Sadagopan; Geetha

    2003-01-01

    The statutory safety functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) include the establishment of and provision for the application of safety standards for protection of health, life and property against ionizing radiation. The safety standards are based on the presumption that a national infrastructure is in place enabling the Government to discharge its responsibilities for protection and safety. Education and training is an essential element of the infrastructure. The IAEA education and training activities follows the resolutions of its General Conferences and reflects the latest IAEA standards and guidance. In response to GC(44)/RES/13, the IAEA prepared a 'Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation and Waste Safety' aiming at establishing, by 2010, sustainable education a training programmes in Member States. This Strategy was endorsed by General Conference resolution GC(45)/RES/10C that, inter alia, urged the Secretariat to implement the Strategy on Education and Training and to continue to strengthen, subject to available resources, its current effort in this area, and in particular to assist Member States' national, regional and collaborating centres in conducting such education and training activities in the relevant official languages of the IAEA. In the last General Conference 2002, the IAEA was urged to continue to implement the Strategy, including the convening of the Steering Committee. The first Technical Committee meeting took place during the week 25-29 November 2002. (author)

  19. MMP-2, MMP-9, and iNOS expression in human dental pulp subjected to orthodontic traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Angelo; Mauro, Annamaria; Spatola, Giovanni Francesco; Provenzano, Salvatore; Caradonna, Carola; Gerbino, Aldo; Buscemi, Maria

    2009-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that some metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) enzymes in dental pulp samples do not vary when subjected to orthodontic treatment. Human dental pulps were taken from male and female patients (N=10; age 10-14 years). A straight wire technique was used with nickel-titanium or steel archwires. The increase of pressure applied on teeth was gradual. Five patients were subjected to premolar extractions after 14 months of treatment and one after 24 months. Samples were Bouin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and afterwards processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-MMP-2, anti-MMP-9, and anti-iNOS antibodies. A reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and iNOS expression occurred in treated samples. This became more evident with increased treatment time. The hypothesis is rejected. The reduction of expression of those proteins revealed a time-dependent relationship.

  20. Sustained wound healing activity of curcumin loaded oleic acid based polymeric bandage in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Chandana; Das, Manasi; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-10-01

    Wound healing is an intricate multistage process that includes inflammation, cell proliferation, matrix deposition and remodeling phases. It is often associated with oxidative stress and consequent prolonged inflammation, resulting in impaired wound healing. Curcumin has been reported to improve wound healing in different animal models. In order to increase the efficacy of curcumin in the healing arena a curcumin loaded oleic acid based polymeric (COP) bandage was formulated. The in vivo wound healing potency was compared with void bandage and control (cotton gauze treatment) in a rat model. Biochemical parameters and histological analysis revealed increased wound reduction and enhanced cell proliferation in COP bandage treated groups due to its efficient free radical scavenging properties. Comparative acceleration in wound healing was due to early implementation of fibroblasts and its differentiation (increased level of α-smooth muscle actin). Western blotting and semiquantitative PCR analysis clearly indicate that COP bandage can efficiently quench free radicals leading to reduced antioxidative enzyme activity. Further evidence at mRNA and protein level indicates that our system is potent enough to reduce the inflammatory response mediated by the NFκB pathway during wound healing. With this background, we anticipate that such a versatile approach may seed new arena for topical wound healing in the near future.

  1. Arctigenin promotes degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase through CHIP-associated proteasome pathway and suppresses its enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangyang; Li, Guilan; Lü, Chaotian; Xu, Hui; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-10-01

    Arctigenin, a natural dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Previous works showed that arctigenin decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS at transcription level. However, whether arctigenin could regulate iNOS at the post-translational level is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that arctigenin promoted the degradation of iNOS which is expressed under LPS stimulation in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Such degradation of iNOS protein is due to CHIP-associated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependency. Furthermore, arctigenin decreased iNOS phosphorylation through inhibiting ERK and Src activation, subsequently suppressed iNOS enzyme activity. In conclusion, our research displays a new finding that arctigenin can promote the ubiqitination and degradation of iNOS after LPS stimulation. iNOS activity regulated by arctigenin is likely to involve a multitude of crosstalking mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estenose de piloro em eqüino adulto Pyloric stenosis in a mature horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Miluzzi Yamada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de estenose hipertrófica de piloro diagnosticado por gastroscopia em um eqüino Quarto de Milha, de quatro anos de idade, que apresentava inapetência, emagrecimento progressivo, cólica, bruxismo e sialorréia. A gastroduodenite ulcerativa crônica e os espasmos prolongados foram as supostas causas da hipertrofia da musculatura circular do piloro, causando a estenose. O tratamento com substâncias antiulcerativas é paliativo e o acesso cirúrgico ao piloro no animal adulto é complexo, sendo o prognóstico duvidoso.A case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis diagnosed by gastroscopy was reported in a 4-years-old Quarter Horse gelding, with signs of inappetence, chronic weight loss, colic, bruxism and sialorrhea. Gastroduodenal ulceration and spasms were supposed as causes of pyloric muscular hypertrophy and stenosis. Antiulcerative medications are merely palliative and the complex surgical approach to the site of stenosis makes the prognostic to be doubtful.

  3. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  4. RTE - 2013 Activity Report, 2013 Activity and Sustainable Development Report, financial results for 2013, Report of the Chairman of the Supervisory Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    RTE is the operator of the high and extra high-voltage transmission system in France. RTE operates, develops and maintains it. This role places RTE at the heart of smart power, supplying its customers: generators, distribution system operators, industrial customers and traders. RTE deploys its expertise to achieve smart power, with three objectives: - To optimise the power system so that everything operates at the lowest cost, every second, whatever the weather brings, whatever the level of supply and demand. - To guarantee a secure power supply, by offering tools and mechanisms that can be used to adjust generation and power consumption. - To adapt the grid to energy transition through constant innovation. RTE counts 8,400 employees. This document gathers both French and English versions of the 2013 Activity and Sustainable Development Report and the English version of the 2013 financial results and of the Report of the Chairman of the Supervisory Board

  5. Sustained protein kinase D activation mediates respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Fariba; DeSando, Samantha A; Ivanov, Andrei I; Chapman, Timothy J; Knowlden, Sara A; Beck, Lisa A; Georas, Steve N

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function is a new frontier in asthma and respiratory viral infections. Despite recent progress, little is known about how respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acts at mucosal sites, and very little is known about its ability to influence airway epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied the effect of RSV infection on the airway epithelial barrier using model epithelia. 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cells were grown on Transwell inserts and infected with RSV strain A2. We analyzed (i) epithelial apical junction complex (AJC) function, measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran, and (ii) AJC structure using immunofluorescent staining. Cells were pretreated or not with protein kinase D (PKD) inhibitors. UV-irradiated RSV served as a negative control. RSV infection led to a significant reduction in TEER and increase in permeability. Additionally it caused disruption of the AJC and remodeling of the apical actin cytoskeleton. Pretreatment with two structurally unrelated PKD inhibitors markedly attenuated RSV-induced effects. RSV induced phosphorylation of the actin binding protein cortactin in a PKD-dependent manner. UV-inactivated RSV had no effect on AJC function or structure. Our results suggest that RSV-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption involves PKD-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling, possibly dependent on cortactin activation. Defining the mechanisms by which RSV disrupts epithelial structure and function should enhance our understanding of the association between respiratory viral infections, airway inflammation, and allergen sensitization. Impaired barrier function may open a potential new therapeutic target for RSV-mediated lung diseases.

  6. Effect of Antioxidants on Testicular iNOS and eNOS after High-Fat Diet in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Maryam; Hosseini, Mahnaz; Inan, Sevinc; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Vahidinia, Ali Asghar; Lahoutian, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process by which germ cells produce spermatozoa and can be disturbed at every level. Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS), implicate in interactions with Oxidative Stress (OS) which is one of the main factors in the etiology of male infertility. The High Fat Diet (HFD) is a major factor of obesity which in turn is important for enhancing OS. Antioxidants and garlic could attenuate or reverse effects of HFD. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants and garlic on testicular inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in Wistar albino rats fed on HFD. Groups (each n = 8) were: SD (100% access to standard diet), F-HFD, (100% access to HFD) and R-HFD (70% access to HFD), F-HFD +antioxidants, F-HFD+garlic and R-HFD+antioxidants. The HFD consisted of a 60% fatty diet in 3 forms: Without antioxidants, with antioxidants and with garlic. The testicular iNOS and eNOS were studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. Also used ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and Tukey's test (where necessary) to analyze the data (pantioxidants groups. The eNOS increased in R-HFD,F-HFD and F-HFD+garlic groups. The H-E evaluation in R-HFD group showed a decrease in spermatogenesis score count and seminiferous tubules diameters (μm) in comparison with the SD and F-HFD groups. R-HFD+antioxidants group had lower score than F-HFD+antioxidants and F-HFD+garlic groups. Restricted fat diet consumption causes increase in weight and impairs spermatogenesis. Results of this study reveal that adding the antioxidants can't improve histological changes of testis. The iNOS expression in seminiferous tubules in restricted fat diet along with antioxidants, suggest a potential role of iNOS in spermatogenesis and male infertility.

  7. Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Sallis, James F; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Kiser, Elizabeth J; Ray, Chester A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Ding, Ding; Matthews, Stephen A; Bopp, Melissa; George, Daniel R; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-08-14

    High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA. A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants' online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on primary and secondary

  8. Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA. Methods/Design A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants’ online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on

  9. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  10. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  11. Sustainable Systems for exploration, stays with increased duration in LEO and Earth application -an overview about life support activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, Klaus; Duenne, Matthias

    Solar system exploration with extended stays in totally closed habitats far away from Earth as well as longer stays in LEO requires intensive preparatory activities. Activities supporting life in a more or less close meaning are essential in this context -on a scientific as well as on a technical level. These needed activities are supporting life by e.g.: i) increasing knowledge about the impact of single and combined effects of different exploration related environmental conditions (e. g. microgravity, radiation, reduced pressure and temperature, lunar soil etc.) on biological systems. This is needed to enable safe life of humans itself as well as safe operating of required bioregenerative life support systems. Thus, different human cell types as well as representatives of bioregenerative life support system protagonists (algae, bacteria as well as higher organisms) needs to be addressed. ii) provision of required consumables (oxygen, food, energy equivalents etc.) on site, mainly via bioregenerative life support systems, Bio-ISRU-units etc. Preparation is needed on a scientific as well as technological level. iii) ensuring reduced negative effects on humans (and partially also equipment), which could be caused by living in a closed habitat in general (and thus being not space related per se): E. g. detection systems for the quality of water and air, antimicrobial and selfhealing as well as anti-icing materials without dangerous hazard substances, psychological health enhancing components etc. Referring payloads for above mentioned investigations (scientific evaluation and technology demonstration) must be developed. Extended stays and extended closure in habitats without the possibility of material transport into and out of the system are leading to the necessity of more autonomous technologies and sustainable processes. Latter one will rely mainly on biological processes and structures, which increases additionally the necessity of an intensive scientific and

  12. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  13. HIF‑1 signaling pathway involving iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 mediates the neuroprotection provided by erythropoietin in the retina of chronic ocular hypertension rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Dongmei; Li, Yanfeng; Chen, Xiaolong; Gao, Dianwen; Yang, Yang; Li, Xun

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of erythropoietin (EPO) on the electroretinogram b‑wave (ERG‑b), and on the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and caspase‑9 in chronic ocular hypertension rats. Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) was used to establish the chronic ocular hypertension rat model based on the intraocular pressure (IOP) value. ERG‑b and mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF‑1α, iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 in normal, EVC‑treated and EVC combined with EPO (EVC+EPO)‑treated rats were measured by electroretinography, RT‑PCR and western blotting, respectively. Moreover, the correlations of HIF‑1α with IOP, ERG‑b, iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 were evaluated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF‑1α, iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 in EVC‑treated rats were increased significantly compared with normal rats. The peak expression levels of HIF‑1α, iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 were respectively obtained 7, 7, 7 and 14 days postoperatively. Compared with EVC‑treated rats, EPO administration weakened the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF‑1α, iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9. The mRNA expression level of HIF‑1α demonstrated a significant positive correlation with IOP and ERG‑b. HIF‑1α was positively correlated with iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9 at the mRNA and protein levels. The protective effect of EPO on the retina of chronic ocular hypertension rats may be mediated by the HIF‑1 signaling pathway involving iNOS, COX‑2 and caspase‑9.

  14. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  15. Kazan period of life-sustaining activity of professor V.I. Ra-zumovsky — a pioneer of Russian neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov V.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There were presented historical data of life-sustaining activity of professor V. I. Razumovsky — a pioneer of Russian neurosurgery, who began to perform and then was performing systematically neurosurgical operations in the Kazan clinic under the guidance of outstanding neurologists V. M. Bekhterev and L. O. Darkshevich.

  16. iNOS ablation does not improve specific force of the extensor digitorum longus muscle in dystrophin-deficient mdx4cv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    Full Text Available Nitrosative stress compromises force generation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and delocalized neuronal NOS (nNOS have been implicated. We recently demonstrated that genetic elimination of nNOS significantly enhanced specific muscle forces of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle of dystrophin-null mdx4cv mice (Li D et al J. Path. 223:88-98, 2011. To determine the contribution of iNOS, we generated iNOS deficient mdx4cv mice. Genetic elimination of iNOS did not alter muscle histopathology. Further, the EDL muscle of iNOS/dystrophin DKO mice yielded specific twitch and tetanic forces similar to those of mdx4cv mice. Additional studies suggest iNOS ablation did not augment nNOS expression neither did it result in appreciable change of nitrosative stress markers in muscle. Our results suggest that iNOS may play a minor role in mediating nitrosative stress-associated force reduction in DMD.

  17. iNOS ablation does not improve specific force of the extensor digitorum longus muscle in dystrophin-deficient mdx4cv mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejia; Shin, Jin-Hong; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Nitrosative stress compromises force generation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and delocalized neuronal NOS (nNOS) have been implicated. We recently demonstrated that genetic elimination of nNOS significantly enhanced specific muscle forces of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of dystrophin-null mdx4cv mice (Li D et al J. Path. 223:88-98, 2011). To determine the contribution of iNOS, we generated iNOS deficient mdx4cv mice. Genetic elimination of iNOS did not alter muscle histopathology. Further, the EDL muscle of iNOS/dystrophin DKO mice yielded specific twitch and tetanic forces similar to those of mdx4cv mice. Additional studies suggest iNOS ablation did not augment nNOS expression neither did it result in appreciable change of nitrosative stress markers in muscle. Our results suggest that iNOS may play a minor role in mediating nitrosative stress-associated force reduction in DMD.

  18. The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Eva; Paczynski, Martin; Wiese, Heike; Jackendoff, Ray; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-05-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with processing light verb constructions such as "give a kiss". These constructions consist of a semantically underspecified light verb ("give") and an event nominal that contributes most of the meaning and also activates an argument structure of its own ("kiss"). This creates a mismatch between the syntactic constituents and the semantic roles of a sentence. Native speakers read German verb-final sentences that contained light verb constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a kiss"), non-light constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a rose"), and semantically anomalous constructions (e.g., *"Julius gave Anne a conversation"). ERPs were measured at the critical verb, which appeared after all its arguments. Compared to non-light constructions, the light verb constructions evoked a widely distributed, frontally focused, sustained negative-going effect between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. We interpret this effect as reflecting working memory costs associated with complex semantic processes that establish a shared argument structure in the light verb constructions.

  19. A Study on the Relationship between Design Elements of Outdoor Leisure Spaces and Types of Leisure Activities in Sustainable Community Development - A Case Study on Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. H.; Zhang, H.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable community development encompasses three aspects: “Lifestyle”, “Production” and “Ecology”. Among them, “Lifestyle” is closest to people and reflects basic human needs. Creating outdoor spaces that encourage residents to engage in leisure activities will not only provide them with spiritual sustenance but also fulfil one of the key criteria in sustainable community development. This study explores the relationship between design elements of outdoor leisure spaces and types of leisure activities from residents' perspective with the goal to inform future spatial planning. The study collected 365 valid questionnaires from Tainan residents. Factor analysis was used to extract factors from design elements of outdoor leisure spaces, and regression analysis was applied to understand the effect level. The result shows design elements have positive effect on the types of leisure activities. In addition, different elements exert different influences on the choice of activities.

  20. Application of the MIKE SHE hydrological model in exploring sustainable development of water resources for agricultural activities in the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng, F. M.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable abstraction of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation in the White Volta Basin (WVB) holds promise for a fledging agricultural industry in the basin. This is because erratic rainfall patterns attending climate change/variability has imposed mixed fortunes in terms of rain-fed agricultural activities currently practiced in the WVB. Addressing the sustainability of groundwater for commercial abstraction will require the integration of surface and subsurface flows and analysis of the impacts of climate change scenarios on the resource, employing a surface-subsurface flow model. Here, we present early results from surface flow simulation over the basin using the physically-based surface-subsurface flow model MIKE SHE.

  1. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, L.; Gerhard, J.; Torero, J.; Scholes, G.; Murray, C.

    2013-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a relatively new remediation approach for soil contaminated with organic industrial liquids. This technology uses smouldering combustion, a controlled, self-sustaining burning reaction, to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and thereby render soil clean. While STAR has been proven at the bench scale, success at industrial scales requires the process to be scaled-up significantly. The objective of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation into how liquid smouldering combustion phenomena scale. A suite of detailed forward smouldering experiments were conducted in short (16 cm dia. x 22 cm high), intermediate (16 cm dia. x 127 cm high), and large (97 cm dia. x 300 cm high; a prototype ex-situ reactor) columns; this represents scaling of up to 530 times based on the volume treated. A range of fuels were investigated, with the majority of experiments conducted using crude oil sludge as well as canola oil as a non-toxic surrogate for hazardous contaminants. To provide directly comparable data sets and to isolate changes in the smouldering reaction which occurred solely due to scaling effects, sand grain size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration and air injection rates were controlled between the experimental scales. Several processes could not be controlled and were identified to be susceptible to changes in scale, including: mobility of the contaminant, heat losses, and buoyant flow effects. For each experiment, the propagation of the smouldering front was recorded using thermocouples and analyzed by way of temperature-time and temperature-distance plots. In combination with the measurement of continuous mass loss and gaseous emissions, these results were used to evaluate the fundamental differences in the way the reaction front propagates through the mixture of sand and fuel across the various scales. Key governing parameters were compared between the small, intermediate, and large

  2. IAEA Activities on Education and training in Radiation and Waste Safety: Strategic approach for a sustainable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marabit, K.; Sadagopan, G.

    2003-01-01

    The statutory safety functions of the International Atomic Energy(IAEA) include the establishment of and provision for the application of safety standards for protection of health, life and property against ionizing radiation. The safety standards are based on the presumption that a national infrastructure is in place, enabling the Government to discharge its responsibilities for protection and safety. Education and training is an essential element of the infrastructure. the IAEA education and training activities follow the resolutions of its General Conference and reflect the latest IAEA standards and guidance. Several General Conference resolutions have emphasized the importance of education and training (e. g. GC(XXXV)/RES/552 in 1991; GC(XXXVI)/RES/584 in 1992; GC(43)/RES/13 in 1999 and more recently GC(44)/RES/13 in 2000). In response to GC(44)/RES/13, the IAEA prepared a Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation and Waste Safety (Strategy on Education and Training) aiming at establishing, by 2010, sustainable education and training programmes in its Member States. This Strategy was endorsed by the General Conference resolution GC(45)/RES/10C that, inter alia, urged the Secretariat to implement the Strategy on Education and Training, and to continue to strengthen, subject to available resources, its current effort in this area, and in particular to assist Member States national, regional and collaborating centres in conducting such education and training activities in the relevant official languages of the IAEA. A technical meeting was held in Vienna in March 2002 and concluded with an action plan for implementing the strategy up to 2010, the immediate action being the formation of a Steering Committee by the middle of 2002. This Steering Committee has the general remit to advise on the development and implementation of the strategy, as well as monitoring its progress. The first technical meeting of the Steering Committee took place on 25

  3. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  4. Effect of ambient pressure variation on closed loop gas system for India based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, B.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Kalmani, S. D.; Shinde, R. R.; Joshi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Pilot unit of a closed loop gas mixing and distribution system for the INO project was designed and is being operated with 1.8meters × 1.9meters RPCs for about two years. A number of studies on controlling the flow and optimisation of the gas mixture through the RPC stack were carried out during this period. The gas system essentially measures and attempts to maintain absolute pressure inside the RPC gas volume. During typical Mumbai monsoon seasons, the barometric pressure changes rather rapidly, due to which the gas system fails to maintain the set differential pressure between the ambience and the RPC gas volume. As the safety bubblers on the RPC gas input lines are set to work on fixed pressure differentials, the ambient pressure changes lead to either venting out and thus wasting gas through safety bubblers or over pressuring the RPCs gas volume and thus degrading its performance. The above problem also leads to gas mixture contamination through minute leaks in gas gap. The problem stated above was solved by including the ambient barometric pressure as an input parameter in the closed loop. Using this, it is now possible to maintain any set differential pressure between the ambience and RPC gas volumes between 0 to 20mm of water column, thus always ensuring a positive pressure inside the RPC gas volume with respect to the ambience. This has resulted in improved performance of the gas system by maintaining the constant gas flow and reducing the gas toping up frequency. In this paper, we will highlight the design features and improvements of the closed loop gas system. We will present some of the performance studies and considerations for scaling up the system to be used with the engineering module and then followed by Iron Calorimeter detector (ICAL), which is designed to deploy about 30,000 RPCs of 1.8meters × 1.9 meters in area.

  5. Simulation studies of reconstruction of hadron shower direction in INO ICAL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. M.; Dighe, A.; Indumathi, D.; Lakshmi, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) at India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will be a 50 kt magnetised iron detector for the detection of atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos interact via both charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions with the target iron to produce the detectable final state particles. While CC νμ (bar nuμ) leave a muon track and a hadron shower in the detector, the NC will leave only a hadron shower apart from the secondary invisible neutrino. A GEANT4 based simulation studies to reconstruct hadron showers in CC and NC, using two techniques namely the Orientation Matrix Method (OMM) and the Raw Hit Method (RHM) are presented here. While OMM requires information about the interaction vertex obtained from muon track reconstruction, RHM requires only the shower hit positions and timings and no vertex information and hence can be used for NC events as well. Hadrons from neutrino events generated with NUANCE neutrino generator are analysed. For hadrons in the energy range 0.5–15 GeV produced in CC νμ and bar nuμ interactions, a Δθ'h resolution of around 19o‑9o (around 20.5o‑12o) is obtained in the |cosθ'h|=[0.8, 1] bin with OMM (RHM). For NC events in the same true energy and direction bins, Δθ'h resolution varies from around 20.5o‑13o, from RHM only. OMM (RHM) gives a resolution of about 55o‑20o (38o‑14o) for the angle between the muon and the hadron shower, βμ h', in the [E'had;cos θ'h] range [0.5–15 GeV; [0.8,1.0

  6. Why Did Zika Not Explode in Cuba? The Role of Active Community Participation to Sustain Control of Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Pérez, Dennis; Guzman, Maria G; Barrington, Clare

    2017-08-01

    As the global public health community develops strategies for sustainable Zika prevention and control, assessment of the Cuban response to Zika provides critical lessons learned. Cuba's early and successful response to Zika, grounded in the country's long-standing dengue prevention and control program, serves as a model of rapid mobilization of intersectoral efforts. Sustaining this response requires applying the evidence generated within the Cuban dengue program that active community participation improves outcomes and is sustainable and cost-effective. There is also a need for implementation science efforts to assess the transferability of lessons learned from Zika prevention and control to other pathogens and from one context to another in addition to how to take these efforts to scale.

  7. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  8. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Ming-Tai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-07-01

    The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 10(9) cell g(-1) of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher haemocytes, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity and total protein levels were recorded after one week of probiotic administration. On the other hand, mortality after the challenges with V. harveyi in the group fed with control diet ranged from 77 to 80%, while mortality rates observed in the groups fed with diets supplemented with WA64 and WA65 ranged from 27 to 50% and 30-43%, respectively. The results demonstrated potential for S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 to improve innate immunity and disease resistance in H. discus hannai. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating the Corporate Social Responsibility Activities of the UK Division of an International Brewing Company through Sustainability Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Ogunrinade

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting has risen to prominence in recent years, and has been particularly identified as having the potential to make significant positive contributions to organisational reputation. This project aims to answer the question of how Molson Coors Brewing Company (UK) (MCBC) can best develop its own sustainability reporting in order to enhance the company’s standing both within the alcohol industry and the wider society. In pursuing this aim I draw upon a peer group reporting c...

  11. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 μm), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 μm. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-Based Procedures for Field Activities: Results from Three Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. Nearly all activities in the nuclear power industry are guided by procedures, which today are printed and executed on paper. This paper-based procedure process has proven to ensure safety; however, there are improvements to be gained. Due to its inherent dynamic nature, a CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. Compared to the static state of paper-based procedures (PBPs), the presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps.

  13. Brief secondhand smoke exposure depresses endothelial progenitor cells activity and endothelial function: sustained vascular injury and blunted nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Amabile, Nicolas; Lee, Andrew C; Real, Wendy May; Schick, Suzaynn F; Lao, David; Wong, Maelene L; Jahn, Sarah; Angeli, Franca S; Minasi, Petros; Springer, Matthew L; Hammond, S Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A; Grossman, William; Balmes, John R; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2008-05-06

    This study sought to analyze the effects of acute secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) over 24 h. Secondhand smoke increases the risk of vascular disease and is a major public health concern, but the mechanism(s) of action are not fully understood. Healthy nonsmokers (age SEM 30.3 +/- 1.3 years, n = 10) were exposed to 30 min of SHS yielding cotinine levels commonly observed in passive smokers and to smokefree air on 2 separate days. Measurements were taken before exposure (baseline), immediately after (0 h), and at 1 h, 2.5 h, and 24 h after. The EPCs (CD133(+)/KDR(+), CD34(+)/KDR(+)) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs: CD31(+)/CD41(-), CD144(+), CD62e(+)) were determined in blood using flow cytometry. The EPC chemotaxis toward vascular endothelial growth factor was measured. Endothelial function was assessed as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound. Secondhand smoke exposure increased EPCs and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and completely abolished EPC chemotaxis during 24 h after exposure. Secondhand smoke increased EMPs and decreased FMD. Although FMD returned to baseline at 2.5 h, EMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained elevated at 24 h, suggesting endothelial activation and injury with functional impairment of the vascular endothelium. Exposure to smokefree air had no effect. Incubation of EPCs from nonexposed subjects with plasma isolated from SHS-exposed subjects in vitro decreased chemotaxis by blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated nitric oxide production. Brief exposure to real-world levels of SHS leads to sustained vascular injury characterized by mobilization of dysfunctional EPCs with blocked nitric oxide production. Our results suggest that SHS not only affects the vascular endothelium, but also the function of EPCs.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SME SECTOR – FUNDAMENT AND NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE RELAUCHING OF THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of economic and financial welfare, the creation of new jobs, the assimilation of technological progress, economic, the increase of competitiveness internationally or reducing social inequities are a few aspects that highlight the necessity to stimulate the SME sector Small business sector dynamism is increasingly considered a factor which determine reviving and strengthening economic development. The development of private business medium in Romania has been adversely affected by extreme volatility and low capacity of predictability. To these were also added effects of the economic crisis, resulting in a severe reduction in the number of SMEs and a worsening of performance indicators. In the paper are presented a series of data, providing an overview of the SME sector in Romania and its contribution to the achievement of the economic growth process in the medium term. The research realised at the level of this important component of the economic environment has revealed that in Romania there are manifested a number of issues regarding the level of productivity, the profitability, contribution to gross value added and competitiveness on external plan. An analysis of economic and financial performance indicators (turnover, gross investments, gross value added, gross result of the exercise at the level of SMEs reflects the recording of negative values after 2008, which demonstrates once again the fragility of the economy in the face of major events but also the impact of the measures promoted by the government, the effects being very often contrary to those expected. The conclusions drawn from the study highlights the need to support the SME sector to ensure a sustainable economic growth and the stimulus measures differences by categories, activity sectors and growth rhythm.

  15. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of tQ > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  16. The selective poly(ADP)ribose-polymerase 1 inhibitor INO1001 reduces spinal cord injury during porcine aortic cross-clamping-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christian; Scheuerle, Angelika; Hauser, Balázs; Schelzig, Hubert; Szabó, Csaba; Radermacher, Peter; Kick, Jochen

    2007-05-01

    It is well-established that poly(ADP)ribose-polymerase (PARP) assumes major importance during ischemic brain damage, and the selective PARP-1 inhibitor PJ34 reduced spinal cord damage in murine aortic occlusion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the effect of the PARP-1 inhibitor INO1001 on aortic-occlusion-related porcine spinal cord injury. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study in an animal laboratory. Ten anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented pigs. Animals underwent 45 min of thoracic aortic cross-clamping after receiving vehicle (n=5) or intravenous INO1001 (n=5, total dose 4 mg/kg administered both before clamping and during reperfusion). During reperfusion continuous intravenous norepinephrine was incrementally adjusted to maintain blood pressure at or above 80% of the preclamping level. Plasma INO1001 levels were analyzed by HPLC. After 4[Symbol: see text]h of reperfusion spinal cord biopsy samples were analyzed for neuronal damage (hematoxyline-eosine and Nissl staining), expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p21 and p27 (immunohistochemistry), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling assay). Plasma INO1001 levels were 0.8-2.3 and 0.30-0.76 mM before and after clamping, respectively. While 3-5% of the spinal cord neurons were irreversibly damaged in the INO1001 animals, the neuronal cell injury was three times higher in the control group. Neither p21 and p27 expression nor apoptosis showed any intergroup difference. The selective PARP-1 inhibitor INO1001 markedly reduced aortic occlusion-induced spinal cord injury. Given the close correlation reported in the literature between morphological damage and impaired spinal cord function, INO1001 may improve spinal cord recovery after thoracic aortic cross-clamping.

  17. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user's workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  18. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  19. Selective iNOS inhibition prevents hypotension in septic rats while preserving endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, V; Hahnenkamp, K; Schneuing, M; Fischer, L G; Rich, G F

    2001-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mediates hypotension and metabolic derangements in sepsis. We hypothesized that selective iNOS-inhibition would prevent hypotension in septic rats without inhibiting endothelium-dependent vasodilation caused by the physiologically important endothelial NOS. Rats were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 6 h and the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL), the nonselective NOS-inhibitor N:(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or control. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh, endothelium-dependent), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, endothelium-independent), and isoproterenol (ISO, endothelium-independent beta agonist) were determined. Exhaled NO, nitrate/nitrite-(NOx) levels, metabolic data, and immunohistochemical staining for nitrotyrosine, a tracer of peroxynitrite-formation were also determined. In control rats, L-NAME increased MAP, decreased the response to ACh, and increased the response to SNP, whereas L-NIL did not alter these variables. LPS decreased MAP by 18% +/- 1%, decreased vasodilation (ACh, SNP, and ISO), increased exhaled NO, NOx, nitrotyrosine staining, and caused acidosis and hypoglycemia. L-NIL restored MAP and vasodilation (ACh, SNP, and ISO) to baseline and prevented the changes in exhaled NO, NOx, pH, and glucose levels. In contrast, L-NAME restored MAP and SNP vasodilation, but did not alter the decreased response to ACh and ISO or prevent the changes in exhaled NO and glucose levels. Finally, L-NIL but not L-NAME decreased nitrotyrosine staining in LPS rats. In conclusion, L-NIL prevents hypotension and metabolic derangements in septic rats without affecting endothelium-dependent vasodilation whereas L-NAME does not. Sepsis causes hypotension and metabolic derangements partly because of increased nitric oxide. Selective inhibition of nitric oxide produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme prevents

  20. Aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. Leptospira sp. as a cause of equine abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Argenta Pescador

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. em um feto de 6 meses proveniente de um estabelecimento localizado próximo a Porto Alegre/RS. As lesões macroscópicas se caracterizaram por icterícia e hemorragias distribuídas difusamente sobre a pele, mucosa oral, tecido subcutâneo, pulmão, coração e sistema gastrintestinal. O fígado estava aumentado de tamanho, friável e de coloração amarelada. Os rins apresentavam hemorragias petequiais na superfície capsular e na superfície de corte observaram-se palidez da região cortical e medular. Cortes de rim e sistema nervoso central, corados por Warthin-Starry, revelaram a presença de espiroquetas nos túbulos, glomérulos e substância branca do encéfalo. Cultivo aeróbio de amostras de fígado e pulmão não revelaram crescimento bacteriano significativo. O teste de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi positivo e a sorologia fetal resultou numa titulação de 80 para o sorovar copenhageni e 40 para os sorovares icterohaemorragiae e pomona.This report describes an abortion on 6-month-old equine aborted fetus that has been caused by Leptospira sp. Main lesions included jaundice and hemorrhages diffusely scattered throughout the skin, oral mucosa, subcutaneous tissues, lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system. The liver was enlarged, pliable and yellow colored. The cortical and medullar of the kidneys were pale and petechial hemorrhages were present on the capsular surface. Warthin-Starry stained slices of the kidneys and central nervous system revealed the presence of spirochaetes within the tubules, glomeruli and white matter of the encephalo. Aerobic cultivation from samples of the liver and lungs were negative. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was positive and the fetus’s serological test resulted titers of 80 against sorotype copenhageni and 40 against the sorotypes icterohaemorragiae and pomona.

  1. Sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, Naim H. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Al Gobaisi, Darwish; Carvalho, Maria G. [International Foundation for Water Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cumo, Maurizio [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    The paper presents an overview of sustainable energy development and is aimed to emphasize the important aspects relevant to this activity. A short introduction, related to the present energy outlook with a survey of available data, is presented. This gives the possibility to assess the motivation for a sustainable energy development. Special attention is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its generic meaning. In this respect, particular attention is devoted to the discussion of different aspects of sustainability in the present world. In order to present an engineering approach to the sustainable development, attention is devoted to the review of sustainability criterions as they have to be introduced in the future products. The main emphasis is given to review a potential development in the energy engineering science which may lead to a sustainable energy development. Seven major areas are listed with specific problems and their relevance to the sustainable energy development. This includes the following areas: energy resources and development: efficiency assessment; clean air technologies; information technologies; new and renewable energy resources; environment capacity; mitigation of nuclear power threat to the environment. The education system is the milestone for any economic development. In this respect, sustainable energy development will require special attention to be devoted to the new development of the education system. The distance learning education system is envisages as the potential option for the knowledge dissemination of the new energy technologies. (Author)

  2. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  3. Elucidating the mechanism of wound contraction: rapid versus sustained myosin ATPase activity in attached-delayed-released compared with free-floating fibroblast-populated collagen lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Ehrlich, H; Sun, Bonnie; Kainth, Koijan S; Kromah, Fatuma

    2006-01-01

    Wound contraction closes open wounds by the generation of contractile forces within granulation tissue. We investigated the mechanism of wound contraction using the in vitro fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) contraction model. The contraction of the free-floating (FF)-FPCL is through rapid myosin ATPase activity, while the contraction of the attached-delayed-released (ADR)-FPCL is through sustained myosin ATPase activity. All FPCLs were cast identically and the contraction of FF-FPCLs was recorded daily for 4 days and the contraction of ADR-FPCLs was recorded 1 hour after release on day 4. At day, 4 cell numbers were determined and cells undergoing apoptosis were identified and counted. Differences in sustained and rapid myosin ATPase activity were shown by added inosine triphosphate-induced cell contraction in permeabilized fibroblast monolayer preparations. At 2 days, the FF-FPCLs were mostly contracted, while an ADR-FPCL completed contraction 1 hour after release at day 4. Contracted myofibroblasts, identified by alpha-smooth muscle actin-stained stress fibers, were identified in contracted ADR-FPCL, whereas elongated fibroblasts were identified in contracted FF-FPCLs. Vanadate inhibited both inosine triphosphate-induced cell contraction and ADR-FPCL contraction, but neither inhibited ATP-induced cell contraction or FF-FPCL contraction. Genistein inhibited FF-FPCL contraction, but not ADR-FPCL contraction. Advancing tyrosine phosphorylation in fibroblasts promotes rapid myosin ATPase activity, while advancing tyrosine dephosphorylation in myofibroblasts promotes sustained myosin ATPase. The ADR-FPCL had a reduced cell count and a greater proportion of cells had entered apoptosis compared with FF-FPCL. These experiments show that FF-FPCL contraction is through elongated fibroblasts and rapid myosin ATPase, requiring tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast, the mechanism for ADR-FPCL contraction is through cell contraction by sustained myosin ATPase

  4. Revisão de 26 casos clínicos de duodeno-jejunite proximal em eqüinos (1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Wilson Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os dados de 26 eqüinos com duodeno-jejunite proximal (DJP, examinados no HOVET-FMVZ-USP entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2000, foram revisados. Durante esse período, foram atendidos 1555 animais, dos quais 205 apresentavam distúrbios gastrintestinais (13,2%. Os casos de DJP representaram 1,7% do total de eqüinos atendidos. A idade, os achados clínico-laboratoriais e a evolução clínica foram comparados entre eqüinos sobreviventes (grupo 1 e eqüinos não sobreviventes (grupo 2. Vinte eqüinos (76,9% sobreviveram. Todos os animais foram submetidos exclusivamente a tratamento médico. A análise dos resultados foi feita através de comparação entre médias pelo teste t de Student com significância de 5%. Houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em relação aos seguintes parâmetros analisados: contagem total de leucócitos no sangue, creatinina sérica e freqüência cardíaca. A principal complicação nos animais recuperados foi laminite (30,8%.

  5. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  6. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  7. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  8. Presenting "recious Knowledge": Using Film to Model Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy and Youth Civic Activism for Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I examine the potential for developing preservice social studies teachers' understanding of transformational resistance, Latin@ civil rights movements, and culturally sustaining pedagogy through a project using the film Precious Knowledge. This documentary depicts high school students in a Mexican American Studies (MAS) program…

  9. Comparative Modulation of Levels of Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Treated Wistar Rats by Vitamin B12, Beta-Carotene, and Spirulina fusiformis: Role of NF-κB, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Martin, Sherry; Evan Prince, Sabina

    2017-11-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) are known hepatotoxic agents. We compared the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis and its active components vitamin B12 and beta-carotene in attenuating INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity. We also tried to elucidate the inflammatory mechanism behind anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. INH and RIF were administered to Wistar albino rats for 28 days to induce hepatotoxicity. S. fusiformis, vitamin B12, and beta-carotene were co-administered with INH and RIF and their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory roles were studied through blood and liver analysis. Changes induced by INH and RIF in antioxidants, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) and expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) were also studied. Supplement treatment caused restoration of liver function parameters to normal levels along with reversal of inflammatory changes in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Liver PCNA, iNOS, and NF-κB expression were reduced in the supplement treated tissues compared to INH and RIF treated rats as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Correlation of IL-6 levels, PCNA, and iNOS with NF-κB showed its pivotal role in the inflammatory process. Study shows the pivotal role of NF-kB and the equivalence in antioxidant efficacy of vitamin B12 and beta-carotene compared to Spirulina fusiformis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3825-3833, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. TNF receptor 1, IL-1 receptor, and iNOS genetic knockout mice are not protected from anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalns, John; Scruggs, Julie; Millenbaugh, Nancy; Vivekananda, Jeeva; Shealy, David; Eggers, Jeffrey; Kiel, Johnathan

    2002-03-22

    Anthrax produces at least two toxins that cause an intense systemic inflammatory response, edema, shock, and eventually death. The relative contributions of various elements of the immune response to mortality and course of disease progression are poorly understood. We hypothesized that knockout mice missing components of the immune system will have an altered response to infection. Parent strain mice and knockouts were challenged with LD95 of anthrax spores (5 x 10(6)) administered subcutaneously. Our results show that all genetic knockouts succumbed to anthrax infection at the same frequency as the parent. TNF antibody delayed death but TNF receptor 1 knockout had no effect. IL-1 receptor or iNOS knockouts died sooner. Anthrax was more abundant in the injection site of TNF-alpha and iNOS knockouts compared to parent suggesting that attenuated cellular response increases rate of disease progression. With the exception of edema and necrosis at the injection site pathological changes in internal organs were not observed. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. The effects of dexamethasone therapy on permeability, blood flow and iNOS expression in experimental glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroops, G R; Kelly, P A; Holmes, M C; Shinoda, J; Whittle, I R

    2001-01-01

    Most studies of dexamethasone (DXN) effects on experimental glioma have used doses 10-500 higher (on mg/kg basis) than those used for patients with brain tumour. The relevance of findings to patients with glioma are therefore uncertain. In order to evaluate the effects of clinical doses of DXN (0.22 mg kg(-1)day(-1)) on the pathophysiology of an experimental glioma we have treated rodents with established C6 gliomas for 3 days. The effects of therapy on local cerebral blood flow (LCBF), tumour blood flow (TBF), tumour capillary permeability (TCP), and inducible nit ric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression were evaluated. DXN caused a significant reduction in TCP (21 +/- 1.9 to 7.7 +/- 2.2 ml.gm(-1)min(-1)10(-3)) and iNOS mRNA production within and around tumour, but no significant change in either TBF or LCBF. The reduction in TCP was identical to that reported after higher doses of DXN and is probably mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Further in vivo stud ies using either behavioural or neuropathological paradigms in rodents with established cerebral glioma should be treated with similar doses of DXN to optimise clinical relevance.

  12. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  13. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report 2008 - Fostering dialogue and outreach. Management report - Financial statements at December 31, 2008. Annual Sustainable Development Report 2008 - From strategy to initial actions: Andra's sustained commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity report, with the management and financial statements report, and the Sustainable Development Report of the Andra for the year 2008

  14. Is the concept of sustainable tourism sustainable? Developing the Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat, Lucian; Gourdon, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Given the complexity of the issues surrounding the concept of sustainable tourism, the current paper tries to provide a unified methodology to assess tourism sustainability, based on a number of quantitative indicators. The proposed methodological framework (Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool – STBT) will provide a number of benchmarks against which the sustainability of tourism activities in various countries can be assessed. A model development procedure is proposed: identification of th...

  15. Sustained activation of GABAA receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediates light-induced phase delays of the circadian clock: a novel function of ionotropic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Daniel L; Ehlen, J Christopher; Larkin, Tony E; McNeill, John K; Pamplin, John R; Walker, Colton A; Walker, Phillip V; Dhanraj, Daryl R; Albers, H Elliott

    2015-07-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a circadian clock that generates endogenous rhythmicity and entrains that rhythmicity with the day-night cycle. The neurochemical events that transduce photic input within the SCN and mediate entrainment by resetting the molecular clock have yet to be defined. Because GABA is contained in nearly all SCN neurons we tested the hypothesis that GABA serves as this signal in studies employing Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Activation of GABAA receptors was found to be necessary and sufficient for light to induce phase delays of the clock. Remarkably, the sustained activation of GABAA receptors for more than three consecutive hours was necessary to phase-delay the clock. The duration of GABAA receptor activation required to induce phase delays would not have been predicted by either the prevalent theory of circadian entrainment or by expectations regarding the duration of ionotropic receptor activation necessary to produce functional responses. Taken together, these data identify a novel neurochemical mechanism essential for phase-delaying the 'master' circadian clock within the SCN as well as identifying an unprecedented action of an amino acid neurotransmitter involving the sustained activation of ionotropic receptors. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    , has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...

  17. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  18. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text...

  19. Ketorolac eye drops reduce inflammation and delay re-epithelization in response to corneal alkali burn in rabbits, without affecting iNOS or MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barbalho Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purposes: To assess the effects of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine without preservatives on the expression of iNOS and MMP-9 in alkali burn ulcers. Methods: Twelve eyes of 120-day-old male rabbits were treated (TG every 6 h with 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine and 12 other eyes were treated with saline solution (CG, immediately after the occurrence of ulcers by 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Re-epithelialization was monitored using fluorescein every 6 h. After 24 h, six corneas (n=6 of each group were collected (M1. The others (n=6 were collected after reepithelialization (M2. At both moments, the inflammatory infiltrate and the conditions of the newly formed epithelium were histologically analyzed. iNOS and MMP-9 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Mean epithelialization time in TG was 55 ± 0.84 h. In CG, it was 44 ± 1.06 h (p=0.001. At M1, corneas of TG had lower inflammatory exudation compared with (p 0.05 and lower numbers of epithelial layers compared with CG. The mean iNOS in stromal cells did not differ in TG over both moments compared with CG (p>0.05 At M2, the central corneal region expressed more iNOS in both groups compared with the peripheral region. No significant differences were observed in iNOS scores of epithelial immunostaining between the groups and across M1 and M2 (p=0.69. Epithelial immunostaining scores for MMP-9 did not differ in TG compared with CG (p=0.69. The average immunostaining score of MMP-9 in stromal cells showed no differences between groups or moments. There was no correlation between immunostaining of iNOS and MMP-9 or between the amount of inflammatory cells and immunostaining of iNOS. Conclusions: Use of 0.5% keratolac tromethamine reduced inflammation and delayed reepithelialization in a cornea alkali burn model without impacting the expression of iNOS or MMP-9.

  20. Sustainable Lifestyle Marketing of Individuals: the Base of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI. The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual (SLOI. The SLOI is an individual’s sustainability-oriented pattern of living represented by his or her activities, interests and opinions. The SLOI refers to a sustainable pattern of life (daily activities within the family, a sustainable pattern of consumption, a sustainable pattern of work and production (as employees in organizations and a sustainable pattern of behavior in the society and the environment they live in. The SLOI reflects an individual’s choices with respect to spending time, money and energy in accordance with the sustainable pattern of life. The SLOI stands for sustainable behavioral patterns on the basis of attitudes and values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of the population towards sustainable lifestyles and the SLMOI (performed by different actors and behaviors on the basis of attitudes.Using a face-to-face questionnaire interview, the study was conducted on a sample of 400 citizens of Serbia. There are three key conclusions. First, the SLMOI leads to the SLOI, and the SLOI further leads to sustainability. Second, the creation and maintenance of the SLOI is a long-term process. Third, a holistic approach is needed as well as the engagement of numerous actors in that process of creating and maintaining the SLOI.

  1. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  2. S-Ketamine Mediates Its Acute and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Activity through a 5-HT1B Receptor Dependent Mechanism in a Genetic Rat Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G. du Jardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: The mechanisms responsible for the unique antidepressant properties of ketamine have only been partly resolved. Recent preclinical reports implicate the neurotransmitter serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT] in the antidepressant-like response of ketamine, and modulation of 5-HT1B receptors has been hypothesized to attain an important role.Objectives: To evaluate the role of endogenous stimulation of 5-HT1B heteroreceptors in the antidepressant-like activity of S-ketamine.Method: Flinders sensitive line (FSL rats, a genetic model of depression, were depleted of endogenous 5-HT by 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl administration (pCPA; 86 mg/kg/day for 3 days. In pCPA-pretreated and control FSL rats, the acute and sustained effects of a single dose of S-ketamine (15 mg/kg and the selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP94253 (1–6 mg/kg alone and in combination with S-ketamine were studied in the forced swim test (FST, a commonly used assay that detects antidepressant activity.Results: pCPA pretreatment decreased cortical 5-HT levels to ∼6% but did not affect the baseline behavioral phenotype of FSL rats. S-ketamine demonstrated acute and sustained antidepressant-like activity, both of which were abolished by 5-HT depletion. Combining S-ketamine with a sub-effective dose of CP94253 (1 mg/kg rescued S-ketamine’s acute and sustained antidepressant-like effects, when CP94253 was administered 2 h prior to the FST. Co-administration of S-ketamine and CP94253 did not affect the plasma level of either compound, suggesting that the observed behavioral interaction could not be ascribed to a kinetic drug-drug interaction.Conclusion: 5-HT1B receptor activation during testing appears to be critical for S-ketamine’s antidepressant-like potentials in this model.

  3. [Polymorphism of eNOS and iNOS Genes and Chronic Heart Failure in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepliakov, A T; Shilov, S N; Berezikova, E N; Iakovleva, N F; Maianskaia, S D; Popova, A A; Luksha, E B; Voronina, E N; Torim, Iu Iu; Karpov, R S

    2010-01-01

    URGENCY: Despite substantial progress in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) prognosis in these conditions remains extremely serious. This warrants their timely prevention and early detection. Aim. To study influence of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) (CCTTT)n, Glu298Asp and diallel polymorphism in the fourth intron (4a/4b polymorphism) of endothelial NO synthase gene (eNOS gene) on the state of endothelial function and risk of development of CHF in patients with CHD. 165 patients with CHD were studied (121 male and 44 female, mean age 56.7 + or - 5.3 years). Vasomotor endothelial function was evaluated using ultrasound method in the reactive hyperemia and trinitroglycerol tests. Genotypes were identified using RFLP analysis of PCR products. Control group consisted of 114 persons (54 male and 60 female, mean age 53.2 + or - 4.9 years). It was determined that the number of repeats of polymorphic locus (CCTTT)n of the iNOS gene and Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene in the homozygous state were associated with the risk of development of CHD and class of severity of CHF clinical manifestation. In addition Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene in the homozygous state was associated with the severity and unfavorable development of CHF. The endothelial-dependent dysfunction was more severe in homozygotes of Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene than in carrier of allele 298Asp. Associations between polymorphic variant of VNTR intron 4 gene eNOS and CHF with the risk of development and endothelial dysfunction were not found. An association between polymorphism of iNOS gene (CCTTT)n, eNOS gene (Glu298Asp) with development of CHD and severity of CHF was shown. The polymorphism of eNOS gene (Glu298Asp) was associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  4. A New Agenda for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Nielsen, Kurt

    Two decades after the Brundtland Commission's Report "Our Common Future" adopted the concept of 'sustainable development', this book provides a renewal of the concept exploring the potential for new practices and fields for those involved in sustainability activity. The book addresses a number...... on sustainability. The material dealt with in the book offers a wide variety of perspectives on sustainability and reflects the importance of interdisciplinary and transdiciplinary work in the field. Suggesting targets for future analytical and political efforts in achieving global sustainability, this book offers...

  5. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  6. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  7. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  8. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  9. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  10. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  11. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  12. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  13. Sunscreen ingredients inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS): a possible biochemical explanation for the sunscreen melanoma controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Thomas M; Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Wilkin, Nathaniel K; Rosenberg, E William

    2005-02-01

    Sunscreen products are rated upon their ability to inhibit visible redness of the skin 24 h after measured doses of ultraviolet (UV) exposure (Sun Protection Factor, SPF). Although sunscreens prevent UV-induced redness, their ability to protect against melanoma or the development of moles is less clear. UV-induced redness occurs in part by the action of nitric oxide (NO), synthesized in the skin. NO is also an important immunoregulatory molecule in the induction of the cell-mediated tumour immune response. In this study, various sunscreen ingredients were tested for their ability to inhibit the production of NO. Four of the five sunscreens tested directly inhibited the conversion of arginine to citrulline by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in vitro. These findings suggest that sunscreens may prevent redness partly by UV absorption and partly by inhibition of the skin's inflammatory response. As such, sunscreens might promote instead of protect against melanoma.

  14. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  15. Pitiose cutânea em eqüinos: 14 casos Cutaneous pythiosis in horses: 14 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Simone Viegas Sallis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose cutânea é uma doença crônica que afeta preferencialmente eqüinos e, raramente, bovinos, caninos, felinos e seres humanos. É causada por Pythium insidiosum, um fungo aquático. São relatados quatorze casos de pitiose cutânea em eqüinos do município de Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul. As lesões se localizam, principalmente na região distal dos membros pélvicos e caracterizam-se macroscopicamente por granulomas subcutâneos, ulcerados com exsudação sero-sanguinolenta. Microscopicamente há áreas irregulares de necrose circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório constituído por eosinófilos, neutrófilos, macrófagos e abundante tecido fibrovascular. São descritos e discutidos os métodos de diagnóstico, sinais clínicos, achados de necropsia, histopatologia, diagnóstico diferencial e tratamentoCutaneous pythiosis is a chronic condition that may be fatal if early therapy is not implemented. It affects mainly horses and rarely cattle, dogs, cats and human beings. It is caused by Pythium insidiosum, which infects wounds on the skin of ventral abdomen, distal limbs and head of animals which pasture and drink water in swamped land. This report includes fourteen cases of pythiosis in horses from Uruguaiana, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods of diagnosis and treatment are described and discussed.

  16. Prevalencia de consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol en derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-García Juana Inés de la Cruz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Medir la prevalencia de consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol en la población amparada por el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Material y métodos. En un estudio transversal se entrevistaron 45 117 derechohabientes del IMSS, en las 36 delegaciones del país. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado y autoaplicable a cada sujeto usando el instrumento de tamizaje AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, el cual consta de 10 preguntas. Las tres primeras se relacionan con la cantidad y frecuencia del consumo de alcohol, las tres siguientes evalúan la dependencia y las cuatro últimas se refieren a problemas causados por el alcohol. Cada pregunta consta de tres a cinco opciones, a las que se les asignan valores progresivos de cero a cuatro. Se estimó la prevalencia de consumo, con intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%. Resultados. La prevalencia de consumo problema de alcohol (riesgoso y dañino fue de 12.8% (IC 95% 12.5-13.2. El consumo fue mayor en hombres (22.2%; IC 95% 21.7-22.8 que en mujeres (3.4%; IC 95% 3.1-3.6. En los hombres se observó un efecto de edad, mientras que en las mujeres el consumo por edad fue más homogéneo. En ambos grupos el consumo fue más importante en la edad productiva. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de consumo de alcohol que constituye un problema para la salud, es elevada en la población derechohabiente del IMSS. Es necesario desarrollar políticas y programas de salud específicos, para disminuir este grave problema.

  17. Sustained posterior contralateral activity indicates re-entrant target processing in visual change detection: An EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchneider

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the neural mechanisms that contribute to the detection of visual feature changes between stimulus displays by means of event-related lateralizations of the electroencephalogram (EEG. Participants were instructed to respond to a luminance change in either of two lateralized stimuli that could randomly occur alone or together with an irrelevant orientation change of the same or contralateral stimulus. Task performance based on response times and accuracy was decreased compared to the remaining stimulus conditions when relevant and irrelevant feature changes were presented contralateral to each other (lateral distractor condition. The sensory response to the feature changes was reflected in a posterior contralateral positivity at around 100ms after change presentation and a posterior contralateral negativity in the N1 time window (N1pc. N2pc reflected a subsequent attentional bias in favor of the relevant luminance change. The continuation of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN following N2pc covaried with response times within feature change conditions and revealed a posterior topography comparable to the earlier components associated with sensory and attentional mechanisms. Therefore, this component might reflect the re-processing of information based on sustained short-term memory representations in the visual system until a stable target percept is created that can serve as the perceptual basis for response selection and the initiation of goal-directed behavior.

  18. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  19. Cox-2 Inhibition Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via Akt-Dependent Enhancement of iNOS Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the potential causal link between ischemia-driven cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and enhanced apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R by using H9C2 cardiomyocytes and primary rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R. The results showed that H/R resulted in higher COX-2 expression than that of controls, which was prevented by pretreatment with Helenalin (NFκB specific inhibitor. Furthermore, pretreatment with NS398 (COX-2 specific inhibitor significantly attenuated H/R-induced cell injury [lower lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage and enhanced cell viability] and apoptosis (higher Bcl2 expression and lower level of cleaved caspases-3 and TUNEL-positive cells in cardiomyocytes. The amelioration of posthypoxic apoptotic cell death was paralleled by significant attenuation of H/R-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin 6 (IL6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα] and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and by higher protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and enhanced nitric oxide production. Moreover, the application of LY294002 (Akt-specific inhibitor or 1400W (iNOS-selective inhibitor cancelled the cellular protective effects of NS398. Findings from the current study suggest that activation of NFκB during cardiomyocyte H/R induces the expression of COX-2 and that higher COX-2 expression during H/R exacerbates cardiomyocyte H/R injury via mechanisms that involve cross talks among inflammation, ROS, and Akt/iNOS/NO signaling.

  20. Upregulation of inducible NO synthase by exogenous adenosine in vascular smooth muscle cells activated by inflammatory stimuli in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Alberto; Malorgio, Francesca; Tedesco, Serena; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria

    2016-02-16

    Adenosine has been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although this is interpreted as a beneficial vasodilating pathway in vaso-occlusive disorders, iNOS is also involved in diabetic vascular dysfunction. Because the turnover of and the potential to modulate iNOS by adenosine in experimental diabetes have not been explored, we hypothesized that both the adenosine system and control of iNOS function are impaired in VSMCs from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin once to induce diabetes. Aortic VSMCs from diabetic and nondiabetic rats were isolated, cultured and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus a cytokine mix for 24 h in the presence or absence of (1) exogenous adenosine and related compounds, and/or (2) pharmacological agents affecting adenosine turnover. iNOS functional expression was determined by immunoblotting and NO metabolite assays. Concentrations of adenosine, related compounds and metabolites thereof were assayed by HPLC. Vasomotor responses to adenosine were determined in endothelium-deprived aortic rings. Treatment with adenosine-degrading enzymes or receptor antagonists increased iNOS formation in activated VSMCs from nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Following treatment with the adenosine transport inhibitor NBTI, iNOS levels increased in nondiabetic but decreased in diabetic VSMCs. The amount of secreted NO metabolites was uncoupled from iNOS levels in diabetic VSMCs. Addition of high concentrations of adenosine and its precursors or analogues enhanced iNOS formation solely in diabetic VSMCs. Exogenous adenosine and AMP were completely removed from the culture medium and converted into metabolites. A tendency towards elevated inosine generation was observed in diabetic VSMCs, which were also less sensitive to CD73 inhibition, but inosine supplementation did not affect iNOS levels. Pharmacological

  1. The β3 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist BRL37344 Exacerbates Atrial Structural Remodeling Through iNOS Uncoupling in Canine Models of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Ruifeng; Liu, Guangzhong; Dong, Jingmei; Zhao, Guanqi; Tian, Jingpu; Sun, Jiayu; Jia, Xiuyue; Wei, Lin; Wang, Yuping; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) agonist BRL37344 in atrial fibrillation (AF) structural remodeling and the underlying mechanisms as a therapeutic target were investigated. Four groups of dogs were evaluated: sham, pacing, β3-AR agonist BRL37344 (β3-AGO), and β3-AR antagonist L748337 (β3-ANT) groups. Dogs in the pacing, β3-AGO and β3-ANT groups were subjected to rapid atrial pacing for four weeks. Atrial structure and function, AF inducibility and duration, atrial myocyte apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis were assessed. Atrial superoxide anions were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and colorimetric assays. Cardiac nitrate+nitrite levels were used to assess nitric oxide (NO) production. Protein and mRNA expression of β3-AR, neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH-1) as well as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were measured. β3-AR was up-regulated in AF. Stimulation of β3-AR significantly increased atrial myocyte apoptosis, fibrosis and atrial dilatation, resulting in increased AF induction and prolonged duration. These effects were attenuated by β3-ANT. Moreover, β3-AGO reduced BH4 and NO production and increased superoxide production, which was inhibited by the specific iNOS inhibitor, 1400w β3-AGO also increased iNOS but decreased eNOS and had no effect on nNOS expression in AF. β3-AR stimulation resulted in atrial structural remodeling by increasing iNOS uncoupling and related oxidative stress. β3-AR up-regulation and iNOS uncoupling might be underlying AF therapeutic targets. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Membrane depolarization-induced RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activation and sustained contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Hayato; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Shoji, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K+-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431–40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K+-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K+-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 µM). Genistein (10 µM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca2+ transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 µM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 µM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K+ stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K+ stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K+ stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ∼55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K+. Ca2+ sensitization, myosin light chain phosphatase, RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase PMID:24133693

  3. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  4. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...

  5. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... extent these expectations are being met through the comparative case study of two sustainability certifications in the biofuel industry – in the context of a wider set of experiences in the agro-food and forestry sectors. I show that ‘roundtabling’ entails an ever more complex web of governance systems...

  6. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitreva, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...

  7. Sustainable management of agriculture activity on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction trough a developed decision support system (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Fantinato, Luciano; Rasera, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    One of the main environmental effects of agriculture is the negative impacts on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction and undersurface water derived from inputs and treatment distributions. A solution may represented from the "Precision Farming". Precision Farming refers to a management concept focusing on (near-real time) observation, measurement and responses to inter- and intra-variability in crops, fields and animals. Potential benefits may include increasing crop yields and animal performance, cost and labour reduction and optimisation of process inputs, all of which would increase profitability. At the same time, Precision Farming should increase work safety and reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture and farming practices, thus contributing to the sustainability of agricultural production. The concept has been made possible by the rapid development of ICT-based sensor technologies and procedures along with dedicated software that, in the case of arable farming, provides the link between spatially-distributed variables and appropriate farming practices such as tillage, seeding, fertilisation, herbicide and pesticide application, and harvesting. Much progress has been made in terms of technical solutions, but major steps are still required for the introduction of this approach over the common agricultural practices. There are currently a large number of sensors capable of collecting data for various applications (e.g. Index of vegetation vigor, soil moisture, Digital Elevation Models, meteorology, etc.). The resulting large volumes of data need to be standardised, processed and integrated using metadata analysis of spatial information, to generate useful input for decision-support systems. In this context, a user-friendly IT applications has been developed, for organizing and processing large volumes of data from different types of remote sensing and meteorological sensors, and for integrating these data into user-friendly farm management support

  8. Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassens-Noor, Eva

    2012-01-01

    With the rise of Web 2.0, a multitude of new possibilities on how to use these online technologies for active learning has intrigued researchers. While most instructors have used Twitter for in-class discussions, this study explores the teaching practice of Twitter as an active, informal, outside-of-class learning tool. Through a comparative…

  9. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  10. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  11. Generous sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    I define "generous sustainability" as a combination of two conditions: neither instantaneous maximin utility nor attainable maximin utility should decrease over time. I provide a formal definition and study applications to a Climate Economy with bounded and with unbounded growth. Generosity is shown

  12. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  13. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  14. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  15. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  16. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  17. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  18. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  19. 2015 Sustainability Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Sustainability Review provides insights into activities undertaken to manage environmental, social, and economic impacts in the World Bank’s internal business operations. The content and data in this document relate to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), together the World Bank.

  20. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity and sustainable development report 2010 - a year with Andra. Management report and financial statements 2010 - Managing today to prepare for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2010

  1. Electrochemical incineration of high concentration azo dye wastewater on the in situ activated platinum electrode with sustained microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Junxia; Shi, Wei; Liu, Meichuan; Li, Dongming

    2009-09-01

    In this study, an in situ microwave activated platinum electrode was developed for the first time to completely incinerate the azo dye simulated wastewater containing methyl orange. The experiments were carried out in a circulating system under atmospheric pressure. Azo bond of methyl orange was partly broken on Pt, certain decoloration was reached, and the total organic carbon was not removed effectively without microwave activation. However, methyl orange was mineralized completely and efficiently on the in situ microwave activated Pt. 2,5-Dinitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, maleic and oxalic acids are the main intermediates during degradation of methyl orange. Aromatic products are the main substances leading to the poisoning of Pt and decrease of electrochemical oxidation efficiency, so methyl orange removal can not be carried out thoroughly. However, the intermediates were broke down quickly with in situ microwave activation promoting the mineralization of methyl orange on Pt.

  2. Influence of sustained submaximal clenching fatigue test on electromyographic activity and maximum voluntary bite forces in healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trajectories of sustainability reporting by MNCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing attention to sustainable business, reporting by Multinational Corporations (MNCs) about the social and environmental dimensions of their activities - alongside their economic impacts - has become rather common. While research has documented sustainability reporting and looked at

  4. Placentite fúngica em eqüino: relato de caso / Fungi placentitis in equines: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Augusto Peres

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Aspergillus fumigatus é saprófi ta e oportunista e é o de maior ocorrência em infecções fúngicas nos animais, com capacidade de produzir endotoxinas. Possui hifas septadas e pode ser encontrado no solo, na vegetação, nos alimentos e também em material fermentado de origem vegetal, como silagem, feno e adubo químico. A transmissão ocorre mais comumente pela inalação ou ingestão. Nos eqüinos, a infecção da bolsa gutural resulta numa síndrome clínica caracterizada por sangramento nasal recorrente, associada a alterações visuais e locomotoras, podendo disseminar-se da cavidade nasal e via nervos óticos para o quiasma ótico e o cérebro. Abortos micóticos são esporádicos em eqüinos, ocorrendo geralmente no terço fi nal da gestação, causando placentite necrótica e lesões dermatológicas no feto. O presente relato descreve a ocorrência de morte fetal e materna de uma égua da raça crioula com seis anos e oito meses de idade. O óbito aconteceu quarenta e oito horas após o desenvolvimento dos sinais clínicos de prostração, febre e insufi ciência cardio-respiratória, acompanhada de icterícia das mucosas aparentes. Durante o exame necroscópico, realizado no laboratório de Anatomia Patológica Veterinária da UNICENTRO, foram observadas alterações circulatórias viscerais generalizadas e dermatite difusa no feto. O exame do Imprint das lesões, em microscopia óptica, corado pelo método Panótico demonstrou a presença de hifas fúngicas septadas, caracterizando placentite fúngica por aspergilose.

  5. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  6. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Pollution Control Meets Sustainability: Structure-Activity Studies on New Iron Oxide-Based CO Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Roland; Bauer, Matthias

    2016-08-09

    A new class of catalysts for the oxidation of CO based on iron oxide as a biocompatible, earth-abundant and non-toxic metal is presented. The catalytic activities achieved with these catalysts provide promising milestones towards the substitution of noble metals in CO oxidation catalysts. The catalysts can be obtained by using iron core-shell nanoparticle precursors. The metal used for the shell material determines whether the iron core is integrated in or isolated from the support. The active iron site is effectively integrated into the γ-Al2 O3 support if an aluminum shell is present in the core-shell precursor. When the metal used for the shell is different from the support, an isolated structure is formed. Using this directed synthesis approach, different iron oxide species can be obtained and their structural differences are linked to distinct catalytic activities, as demonstrated by combined in-depth analytical studies using XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), UV/Vis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The key species responsible for high catalytic activity is identified as isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(III) centers, whereas aggregation leads to a reduction in activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  9. Sustainability in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Jonathan

    2004-06-01

    Sustainable exploitation is widely advocated as a strategy for reconciling economic pressures upon natural habitats with nature conservation. Two recent papers examine different aspects of the sustainability of the nut harvest on wild populations of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in Amazonia. Peres et al. find that many populations of the Brazil nut tree lack juvenile trees and are not regenerating. In a socioeconomic study, Escobal and Aldana find that nut-gathering provides insufficient income on its own to support nut-gatherers and that their other income-raising activities damage the forest. The existence of a market for rainforest products is, therefore, not sufficient on its own to prevent habitat destruction or the overexploitation of the resource and a more sophisticated approach to sustainability is required. Development of a market in ethically traded Brazil nuts might be one solution.

  10. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    , and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark...

  11. Emergent pedagogy of sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    pedagogues at University College find the whole idea of presenting sustainability to toddlers disturbing as they stress inner relations between awareness of environmental crisis and anxiety. Both pedagogues and teachers reflections points out, that the development of pedagogics of emergent sustainability......). The study presents pedagogical perspectives and challenges that originates from pedagogues in day care centers and teachers at University College when participating in an action research project to explore, elaborate and develop new pedagogic actions and perspectives related to future relationships between...... of societal life. Most often, the experimental activities tends to favor learning about responsible behavior, but the intension was formation of critical curiosity. While the difficulties to find pedagogical forms to present sustainability frustrate the participating pedagogues, the teachers teaching student...

  12. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...

  13. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises...

  14. The induction of two biosynthetic enzymes helps Escherichia coli sustain heme synthesis and activate catalase during hydrogen peroxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Stefano; Imlay, James A

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide pervades many natural environments, including the phagosomes that mediate cell-based immunity. Transcriptomic analysis showed that during protracted low-grade H(2)O(2) stress, Escherichia coli responds by activating both the OxyR defensive regulon and the Fur iron-starvation response. OxyR induced synthesis of two members of the nine-step heme biosynthetic pathway: ferrochelatase (HemH) and an isozyme of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemF). Mutations that blocked either adaptation caused the accumulation of porphyrin intermediates, inadequate activation of heme enzymes, low catalase activity, defective clearance of H(2)O(2) and a failure to grow. Genetic analysis indicated that HemH induction is needed to compensate for iron sequestration by the mini-ferritin Dps. Dps activity protects DNA and proteins by limiting Fenton chemistry, but it interferes with the ability of HemH to acquire the iron that it needs to complete heme synthesis. HemF is a manganoprotein that displaces HemN, an iron-sulfur enzyme whose synthesis and/or stability is apparently problematic during H(2)O(2) stress. Thus, the primary responses to H(2)O(2), including the sequestration of iron, require compensatory adjustments in the mechanisms of iron-cofactor synthesis. The results support the growing evidence that oxidative stress is primarily an iron pathology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Secukinumab and Sustained Improvement in Signs and Symptoms of Patients With Active Ankylosing Spondylitis Through Two Years: Results From a Phase III Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J.; Kivitz, A.; Blanco, R.; Cohen, M.; Martin, R.; Readie, A.; Richards, H. B.; Porter, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Secukinumab improved the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) over 52 weeks in the phase III MEASURE 2 study. Here, we report longer‐term (104 weeks) efficacy and safety results. Methods Patients with active AS were randomized to subcutaneous secukinumab 150 mg, 75 mg, or placebo at baseline; weeks 1, 2, and 3; and every 4 weeks from week 4. The primary end point was the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for 20% improvement (ASAS20) response rate at week 16. Other end points included ASAS40, high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein, ASAS5/6, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Short Form 36 health survey physical component summary, ASAS partial remission, EuroQol 5‐domain measure, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy fatigue subscale. End points were assessed through week 104, with multiple imputation for binary variables and a mixed‐effects model repeated measures for continuous variables. Results Of 219 randomized patients, 60 of 72 (83.3%) and 57 of 73 (78.1%) patients completed 104 weeks of treatment with secukinumab 150 mg and 75 mg, respectively; ASAS20/ASAS40 response rates at week 104 were 71.5% and 47.5% with both secukinumab doses, respectively. Clinical improvements with secukinumab were sustained through week 104 across all secondary end points. Across the entire treatment period (mean secukinumab exposure 735.6 days), exposure‐adjusted incidence rates for serious infections and infestations, Crohn's disease, malignant or unspecified tumors, and major adverse cardiac events with secukinumab were 1.2, 0.7, 0.5, and 0.7 per 100 patient‐years, respectively. No cases of tuberculosis reactivation, opportunistic infections, or suicidal ideation were reported. Conclusion Secukinumab provided sustained improvement through 2 years in the signs and symptoms of AS, with a safety profile consistent with previous reports. PMID:28235249

  16. F ield ef Serra fficacy atia ent of ino tomop organic hila AB K c carrie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Along with larvaecidal activity, S. entomophila was also explored for its multidimensional properties. S. entomophila was found to have significant contribution for increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and maintenance of soil ecology in pastures (Villalobos et al., 1997). Pre- conditioned cultures of S. entomophila were ...

  17. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Duncan, Robin E.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Archer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14 C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14 C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of

  18. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E., E-mail: kathryn.hopperton@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Duncan, Robin E., E-mail: robin.duncan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Bazinet, Richard P., E-mail: richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Archer, Michael C., E-mail: m.archer@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  19. Ativação de plaquetas de eqüinos com laminite induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina

    OpenAIRE

    Paes Leme,F.O.; Wurzinger,L.J.; Vasconcelos,A.C.; Alves,G.E.S.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ativação de plaquetas em 20 eqüinos com laminite induzida, tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina. As alterações de plaquetas incluíram mudança de forma, alteração da relação entre os eixos maior e menor, aumento de perímetro, emissão de pseudópodes, aumento no número dealfa-grânulos e de grânulos de glicogênio e redução no número degama-grânulos. As plaquetas de eqüinos, quando ativadas, apresentaram perfil de organela diferente de plaquetas normais, e as d...

  20. Solução concentrada de albumina eqüina na fluidoterapia em eqüinos com desidratação leve a moderada

    OpenAIRE

    Belli,C.B.; Michima,L.E.S.; Latorre,S.M.; Fernandes,W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da solução concentrada de albumina eqüina diluída a 5% em solução fisiológica (SF) durante fluidoterapia em eqüinos, após indução de desidratação leve a moderada, utilizando-se cinco eqüinos adultos, sem alterações clínicas. Cada animal passou por dois protocolos de fluidoterapia: apenas com SF (metade sob pressão e metade em fluxo contínuo - grupo-controle); com solução de albumina eqüina e SF (apenas em fluxo contínuo - grupo experimental). Avaliaram-se peso, exame físic...

  1. Distinguishing anomaly mediation from gauge mediation with a W-ino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    A striking consequence of supersymmetry breaking communicated purely via the superconformal anomaly is that the gaugino masses are proportional to the gauge β functions. This result, however, is not unique to anomaly mediation. We present examples of ''generalized'' gauge-mediated models with messengers in standard model representations that give nearly identical predictions for the gaugino masses, but positive (mass) 2 for all sleptons. There are remarkable similarities between an anomaly-mediated model with a small additional universal mass added to all scalars and the gauge-mediated models with a long-lived W-ino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, leading to only a small set of observables that provide robust distinguishing criteria. These include ratios of the heaviest to lightest selectrons, smuons, and top squarks. The sign of the gluino soft mass is an unambiguous distinction, but requires measuring a difficult class of one-loop radiative corrections to sparticle interactions. A high precision measurement of the Higgs-boson-b-b(bar sign) coupling is probably the most promising interaction from which this sign might be extracted. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Minimal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity required to sustain survival and prevent hepatocellular adenoma formation in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Goo-Young; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Mansfield, Brian C.; Chou, Janice Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) activity. In a previous 70–90 week-study, we showed that a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer that restores more than 3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity in G6pc−/− mice corrects hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency with no evidence of HCA. We now examine the minimal hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to confer therapeutic efficacy. We show that rAAV-treated G6pc−/− mice expressing 0.2% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity suffered from frequent hypoglycemic seizures at age 63–65 weeks but mice expressing 0.5–1.3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV-LL mice) sustain 4–6 h of fast and grow normally to age 75–90 weeks. Despite marked increases in hepatic glycogen accumulation, the AAV-LL mice display no evidence of hepatic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis, or HCA. Interprandial glucose homeostasis is maintained by the G6Pase-α/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) complex, and G6PT-mediated microsomal G6P uptake is the rate-limiting step in endogenous glucose production. We show that hepatic G6PT activity is increased in AAV-LL mice. These findings are encouraging for clinical studies of G6Pase-α gene-based therapy for GSD-Ia. PMID:26937391

  3. Minimal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity required to sustain survival and prevent hepatocellular adenoma formation in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mok Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia, characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA, is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC activity. In a previous 70–90 week-study, we showed that a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector-mediated gene transfer that restores more than 3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity in G6pc−/− mice corrects hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency with no evidence of HCA. We now examine the minimal hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to confer therapeutic efficacy. We show that rAAV-treated G6pc−/− mice expressing 0.2% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity suffered from frequent hypoglycemic seizures at age 63–65 weeks but mice expressing 0.5–1.3% of wild-type hepatic G6Pase-α activity (AAV-LL mice sustain 4–6 h of fast and grow normally to age 75–90 weeks. Despite marked increases in hepatic glycogen accumulation, the AAV-LL mice display no evidence of hepatic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis, or HCA. Interprandial glucose homeostasis is maintained by the G6Pase-α/glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT complex, and G6PT-mediated microsomal G6P uptake is the rate-limiting step in endogenous glucose production. We show that hepatic G6PT activity is increased in AAV-LL mice. These findings are encouraging for clinical studies of G6Pase-α gene-based therapy for GSD-Ia.

  4. Increased iNOS gene expression in the granulosa layer of F1 follicle of over-fed and under-fed broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sheikh Ahmadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of high (20 and 40% more than normal and low (20% less than normal daily feed allowance on egg and body parameters, ovarian morphology and plasma glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, leptin-like hormone, nitrite/nitrate and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the granulosa layer of F1 follicle, broiler breeder hens (30-week-old were fed for 30 days. Egg and body parameters significantly changed between treatments (p<0.05. Effect of different level of feed intake on ovarian morphology parameters was significant (p<0.05, except for white follicles. After 30 days of experiment, plasma nitrite/nitrate (as a index of plasma nitric oxide and leptin-like hormone increased in FI+20% and FI+40% groups as compared to controls (p<0.05. Plasma level of leptin-like hormone also significantly (p<0.05 increased in FI+40% group. The relative amount of iNOS mRNA expression in the granulosa layer of F1 follicles was significantly higher in FI-20% and FI+40% groups than in control group only after 4 weeks of experiment. The amount of these elevations in the FI-20% and FI+40% groups were 32.4% and 60.9% respectively. It was concluded that iNOS gene is normally expressed in follicular granulosa cells of F1 follicle of broiler breeder hens 2-4 hours before ovulation. However, over- and underfeeding of hens increased iNOS expression in F1 follicle, which may be one of the atresia-inducing factors in hierarchical follicles as shown by the significant (p<0.05 increase of shrunken follicles in the ovary of over- and under-fed broiler breeder hens after 30 days of feeding.

  5. Later phase cardioprotection of ischemic post-conditioning against ischemia/reperfusion injury depends on iNOS and PI3K-Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongming; Li, Xin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ligong; Zhang, Le; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The cardioprotection of ischemic post-conditioning (IPO) has been well demonstrated after a short period of reperfusion. However, little is known about the long-term effects of IPO. This study aimed to investigate the long term cardioprotection of IPO in a rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model and to explore the potential mechanism. Rats were either sham-operated (Sham group) or underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia followed by immediate reperfusion (I/R group) or post-conditioning with 5 cycles of 10-s ischemia and 10-s reperfusion (IPO group). At 24 h after reperfusion, infarct size reduced from 34.7±1.1% in I/R group to 24.9±1.3% in IPO group (PIPO group was 4.7-fold higher than in I/R group. iNOS inhibitor 1400 W (1 mg/kg, 5 min before postconditioning or reperfusion) prevented the increase in iNOS expression and abolished IPO-induced protection (34.4±1.0%, P>0.05 vs. I/R group). When rats were treated with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 5 min before reperfusion (0.3 mg/kg), p-Akt expression at R 3 h and iNOS expression at R 24 h were significantly inhibited. Moreover, the delayed infarct-sparing effect of IPO was absent in the presence of LY294002. IPO has prolonged cardioprotective effects and iNOS as an important downstream effector of PI3K-Akt pathway contributes to the delayed phase cardioprotection of IPO.

  6. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades org

  7. Dynamics of renewable energy consumption and economic activities across the agriculture, industry, and service sectors: evidence in the perspective of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Apergis, Nicholas; Ummalla, Mallesh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on the agriculture, industry, services, and overall economic activities (GDP) across a panel of G20 nations. The study makes use of annual data from 1980 to 2012 on 17 countries of the G20. To achieve the study objectives, we apply several robust panel econometric models which account for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity in the analysis. The empirical findings confirm the significant long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The long-run elasticities indicate that both renewable and non-renewable energy consumptions have significant positive effect on the economic activities across the sectors and also on the overall economic output. These results also imply that the impact is more from renewable energy on economic activities than that of non-renewable energy. Given that, our results offer significant policy implications. We suggest that the policy makers should aim to initiate effective policies to turn domestic and foreign investments into renewable energy projects. This eventually ensures low carbon emissions and sustainable economic development across the G20 nations.

  8. Protection by taurine against INOS-dependent DNA damage in heavily exercised skeletal muscle by inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hiromichi; Okita, Shinya; Kato, Toshihiro; Naka, Toru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Ohnishi, Shiho; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Ma, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Taurine protects against tissue damage in a variety of models involving inflammation, especially the muscle. We set up a heavy exercise bout protocol for rats consisting of climbing ran on a treadmill to examine the effect of an intraabdominal dose of taurine (300 mg/kg/day) administered 1 h before heavy exercise for ten consecutive days. Each group ran on the treadmill at 20 m/min, 25% grade, for 20 min or until exhaustion within 20 min once each 10 days. Exhaustion was the point when an animal was unable to right itself when placed on its side. The muscle damage was associated with an increased accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG in the nuclei of skeletal muscle cells. The immunoreactivities for NF-κB and iNOS were also increased in the exercise group. Taurine ameliorated heavy exercise-induced muscle DNA damage to a significant extent since it reduced the accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG, possibly by down-regulating the expression of iNOS through a modulatory action on NF-κB signaling pathway. This study demonstrates for the first time that taurine can protect against intense exercise-induced nitrosative inflammation and ensuing DNA damage in the skeletal muscle of rats by preventing iNOS expression and the nitrosative stress generated by heavy exercise.

  9. [Curcumin improves learning and memory function through decreasing hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Yue, Shuangzhu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on learning and memory function of rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the possible mechanism. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham group, SAH group and curcumin (Cur) therapy group. Experimental SAH rat models were established by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Neurological deficits of rats were examined at different time points. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze test. The hippocampal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by ELISA. RESULTS Experimental SAH rat models were established successfully. Neurological scores of the SAH rats were significantly lower than those of the sham group. Curcumin therapy obviously improved the neurological deficits of rats compared with the SAH rats. Morris water maze test showed that SAH caused significant cognitive impairment with longer escape latency compared with the sham group. After treatment with curcumin for 4 weeks, the escape latency decreased significantly. The levels of TNF-α and iNOS in the curcumin-treated group were significantly lower than those of the SAH group. SAH can cause learning and memory impairment in rats. Curcumin can recover learning and memory function through down-regulating hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels.

  10. Harpejamento em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul Stringhalt in horses from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados a epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e aspectos macro e microscópicos de casos de harpejamento ocorridos de 2000 a 2005 em eqüinos de oito propriedades rurais de seis municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. Pelo menos 10 eqüinos foram afetados, com idades variando entre 1 e 13 anos (média de 6,2 anos e 1-2 eqüinos foram afetados por propriedade. Dentre os fatores que podem ter influenciado o aparecimento da doença está incluída a escassez de forragem devido à seca. A presença da planta Hypochaeris radicata, freqüentemente implicada como causa de harpejamento em eqüinos, foi observada na pastagem de três entre cinco propriedades onde a ocorrência dessa planta foi investigada; em seis dessas propriedades a forragem era pouca devido à falta de chuva. A morbidade foi estimada em 17,3% e a letalidade foi perto de zero, embora dois eqüinos tenham sido submetidos à eutanásia para serem necropsiados. Os sinais clínicos característicos incluiam hiperflexão dos membros pélvicos, dificuldade de caminhar e andar com saltos tipo pulos de coelho. Foi feita uma graduação da intensidade dos sinais clínicos em um escore de números de 1 a 5, os números mais altos indicando um grau de intensidade maior. Três eqüinos foram graduados como 1, um eqüino como 2, três eqüinos como 3, um eqüino como 4 e dois eqüinos como 5. O tratamento com fenitoína em dois eqüinos e com fenitoína associada a tenectomia em um outro não resultou em melhora do quadro clínico. Quatro dos 10 cavalos com harpejamento examinados clinicamente se recuperaram sem tratamento após uma doença clínica com evolução de 2-4 meses e quatro cavalos não se recuperaram mesmo após 9-17 meses de doença clínica, quando foram examinados pela última vez. Os achados de necropsia incluíam atrofia dos músculos esqueléticos das grandes massas musculares, confirmada histologicamente. A avaliação histológica dos nervos periféricos de um eqüino afetado

  11. SUSTAINABLE INSURANCE AS A KEY FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Volokhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the insurance sector in the sustainability development support was determined and the possible measures of economic and social loss reduction, based on risk management, risk transfer, and sustainable investment, were proposed. A crucial necessity of the community resilience improvement and cooperation with other stakeholders was indicated. Sustainable insurance sector plays a determinant role in the process of sustainable development as it possess vital leverages to enable and facilitate community resilience, and, therefore, to reduce the possible loss from Economic, Social and Governance issues (ESG issues. First of all, this could be achieved by the means of proper risk management, namely risk assessment and risk reduction. Second, risk transfer will help communities to cope with actual damage made and cover the loss. Finally, sustainable investment activity may be used to make sure that business sector respects the key principles of sustainable development in its day-to-day activity. Cooperation with all the stakeholders of sustainable development, especially governments and communities, will help to develop a better expertize of risk management and create more effective tools for risk reduction. Implementing principles of sustainable investment into the core of their business values, insurance companies are likely to enjoy the improvement of their image and status, higher quality of their investment portfolio, and smaller refund sums payed on claims.

  12. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleaume-Butaux, Aurélie; Nicot, Simon; Pietri, Mathéa; Baudry, Anne; Dakowski, Caroline; Tixador, Philippe; Ardila-Osorio, Hector; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Launay, Jean-Marie; Kellermann, Odile; Schneider, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    In prion diseases, synapse dysfunction, axon retraction and loss of neuronal polarity precede neuronal death. The mechanisms driving such polarization defects, however, remain unclear. Here, we examined the contribution of RhoA-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), key players in neuritogenesis, to prion diseases. We found that overactivation of ROCK signaling occurred in neuronal stem cells infected by pathogenic prions (PrPSc) and impaired the sprouting of neurites. In reconstructed networks of mature neurons, PrPSc-induced ROCK overactivation provoked synapse disconnection and dendrite/axon degeneration. This overactivation of ROCK also disturbed overall neurotransmitter-associated functions. Importantly, we demonstrated that beyond its impact on neuronal polarity ROCK overactivity favored the production of PrPSc through a ROCK-dependent control of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) activity. In non-infectious conditions, ROCK and PDK1 associated within a complex and ROCK phosphorylated PDK1, conferring basal activity to PDK1. In prion-infected neurons, exacerbated ROCK activity increased the pool of PDK1 molecules physically interacting with and phosphorylated by ROCK. ROCK-induced PDK1 overstimulation then canceled the neuroprotective α-cleavage of normal cellular prion protein PrPC by TACE α-secretase, which physiologically precludes PrPSc production. In prion-infected cells, inhibition of ROCK rescued neurite sprouting, preserved neuronal architecture, restored neuronal functions and reduced the amount of PrPSc. In mice challenged with prions, inhibition of ROCK also lowered brain PrPSc accumulation, reduced motor impairment and extended survival. We conclude that ROCK overactivation exerts a double detrimental effect in prion diseases by altering neuronal polarity and triggering PrPSc accumulation. Eventually ROCK emerges as therapeutic target to combat prion diseases. PMID:26241960

  13. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2018-02-01

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Thássio R. R.; de Jesus, Itamar C. G.; dos Santos, Jucilene F.; de Almeida, Grace K. M.; de Vasconcelos, Carla M. L.; Guatimosim, Silvia; Macedo, Fabrício N.; dos Santos, Robervan V.; de Menezes-Filho, José E. R.; Miguel-dos-Santos, Rodrigo; Matos, Paulo T. D.; Scalzo, Sérgio; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L. C.; Pereira-Filho, Rose N.; Lauton-Santos, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o.) reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.). Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2) and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba. PMID:28553225

  15. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Alleaume-Butaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In prion diseases, synapse dysfunction, axon retraction and loss of neuronal polarity precede neuronal death. The mechanisms driving such polarization defects, however, remain unclear. Here, we examined the contribution of RhoA-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK, key players in neuritogenesis, to prion diseases. We found that overactivation of ROCK signaling occurred in neuronal stem cells infected by pathogenic prions (PrPSc and impaired the sprouting of neurites. In reconstructed networks of mature neurons, PrPSc-induced ROCK overactivation provoked synapse disconnection and dendrite/axon degeneration. This overactivation of ROCK also disturbed overall neurotransmitter-associated functions. Importantly, we demonstrated that beyond its impact on neuronal polarity ROCK overactivity favored the production of PrPSc through a ROCK-dependent control of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1 activity. In non-infectious conditions, ROCK and PDK1 associated within a complex and ROCK phosphorylated PDK1, conferring basal activity to PDK1. In prion-infected neurons, exacerbated ROCK activity increased the pool of PDK1 molecules physically interacting with and phosphorylated by ROCK. ROCK-induced PDK1 overstimulation then canceled the neuroprotective α-cleavage of normal cellular prion protein PrPC by TACE α-secretase, which physiologically precludes PrPSc production. In prion-infected cells, inhibition of ROCK rescued neurite sprouting, preserved neuronal architecture, restored neuronal functions and reduced the amount of PrPSc. In mice challenged with prions, inhibition of ROCK also lowered brain PrPSc accumulation, reduced motor impairment and extended survival. We conclude that ROCK overactivation exerts a double detrimental effect in prion diseases by altering neuronal polarity and triggering PrPSc accumulation. Eventually ROCK emerges as therapeutic target to combat prion diseases.

  16. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thássio R. R. Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o. reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.. Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2 and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba.

  17. Sustained, neuron-specific IKK/NF-κB activation generates a selective neuroinflammatory response promoting local neurodegeneration with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Ayesha; Lattke, Michael; Wirth, Thomas; Baumann, Bernd

    2013-10-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation is a critical factor contributing to the progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. The IKK/NF-κB signalling system is a central regulator of inflammation, but it also affects neuronal survival and differentiation. A complex interplay between different CNS resident cells and infiltrating immune cells, which produce and respond to various inflammatory mediators, determines whether neuroinflammation is beneficial or detrimental. The IKK/NF-κB system is involved in both production of and responses to these mediators, although the precise contribution depends on the cell type as well as the cellular context, and is only partially understood. Here we investigated the specific contribution of neuronal IKK/NF-κB signalling on the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes and its consequences. To address this issue, we established and analysed a conditional gain-of-function mouse model that expresses a constitutively active allele of IKK2 in principal forebrain neurons (IKK2nCA). Proinflammatory gene and growth factor expression, histopathology, microgliosis, astrogliosis, immune cell infiltration and spatial learning were assessed at different timepoints after persistent canonical IKK2/NF-κB activation. In contrast to other cell types and organ systems, chronic IKK2/NF-κB signalling in forebrain neurons of adult IKK2nCA animals did not cause a full-blown inflammatory response including infiltration of immune cells. Instead, we found a selective inflammatory response in the dentate gyrus characterized by astrogliosis, microgliosis and Tnf-α upregulation. Furthermore, downregulation of the neurotrophic factor Bdnf correlated with a selective and progressive atrophy of the dentate gyrus and a decline in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Neuronal degeneration was associated with increased Fluoro-jade staining, but lacked activation of apoptosis. Remarkably, neuronal loss could be partially reversed when

  18. Long-term outcome of patients with active ankylosing spondylitis with etanercept-sustained efficacy and safety after seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Data from clinical studies on the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are scarce. This is the first report on continuous treatment with the TNFα fusion protein etanercept over seven years (y). Methods Overall, 26 patients with active AS were initially treated with etanercept 2 × 25 mg s.c./week with no concomitant disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or steroids. The clinical response was assessed by standardized parameters. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) partial remission at seven years. AS disease activity scores (ASDAS) for status and improvement were compared to conventional outcome measures. Results Overall, 21/26 patients (81%) completed two years of treatment and 16/26 patients (62%) completed seven years. In the completer analysis, 31% patients were in ASAS partial remission at seven years, while 44% patients showed an ASDAS inactive disease status. Mean Bath AS activity index (BASDAI) scores, which were elevated at baseline (6.3 ± 0.9), showed constant improvement and remained low: 3.1 ± 2.5 at two years and 2.5 ± 2.2 at seven years, while ASDAS also improved (3.9 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.8 ± 0.9 at two years, 1.6 ± 0.8 at seven years), all P treatment due to adverse events. Patients who completed the study had lower baseline Bath AS function index (BASFI) scores vs. patients who discontinued. No other clinical parameter at baseline could predict any long-term outcome. Conclusions This study confirms the clinical efficacy and safety of etanercept in patients with active AS over seven years of continuous treatment. After seven years, more than half of the initially treated patients remained on anti-TNF therapy, and one-third were in partial remission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01289743 PMID:23786760

  19. A novel pathway for inducible nitric-oxide synthase activation through inflammasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Carina L; Campopiano, Julia C; Massis, Liliana M; Lage, Silvia L; Cassado, Alexandra A; Leme-Souza, Rafael; Cunha, Larissa D; Russo, Momtchilo; Zamboni, Dario S; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Bortoluci, Karina R

    2010-10-15

    Innate immune recognition of flagellin is shared by transmembrane TLR5 and cytosolic Nlrc4 (NOD-like receptor family CARD (caspase activation recruitment domain) domain containing 4)/Naip5 (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5). TLR5 activates inflammatory genes through MYD88 pathway, whereas Nlrc4 and Naip5 assemble multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes, culminating in caspase-1 activation, IL-1β/IL-18 secretion, and pyroptosis. Although both TLR5 and Naip5/Nlrc4 pathways cooperate to clear infections, little is known about the relative anti-pathogen effector mechanisms operating through each of them. Here we show that the cytosolic flagellin (FLA-BSDot) was able to activate iNOS, an enzyme previously associated with TLR5 pathway. Using Nlrc4- or Naip5-deficient macrophages, we found that both receptors are involved in iNOS activation by FLA-BSDot. Moreover, distinct from extracellular flagellin (FLA-BS), iNOS activation by intracellular flagellin is completely abrogated in the absence of caspase-1. Interestingly, IL-1β and IL-18 do not seem to be important for FLA-BSDot-mediated iNOS production. Together, our data defined an additional anti-pathogen effector mechanism operated through Naip5 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes and illustrated a novel signaling transduction pathway that activates iNOS.

  20. A Novel Pathway for Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase Activation through Inflammasomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Carina L.; Campopiano, Julia C.; Massis, Liliana M.; Lage, Silvia L.; Cassado, Alexandra A.; Leme-Souza, Rafael; Cunha, Larissa D.; Russo, Momtchilo; Zamboni, Dario S.; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Bortoluci, Karina R.

    2010-01-01

    Innate immune recognition of flagellin is shared by transmembrane TLR5 and cytosolic Nlrc4 (NOD-like receptor family CARD (caspase activation recruitment domain) domain containing 4)/Naip5 (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5). TLR5 activates inflammatory genes through MYD88 pathway, whereas Nlrc4 and Naip5 assemble multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes, culminating in caspase-1 activation, IL-1β/IL-18 secretion, and pyroptosis. Although both TLR5 and Naip5/Nlrc4 pathways cooperate to clear infections, little is known about the relative anti-pathogen effector mechanisms operating through each of them. Here we show that the cytosolic flagellin (FLA-BSDot) was able to activate iNOS, an enzyme previously associated with TLR5 pathway. Using Nlrc4- or Naip5-deficient macrophages, we found that both receptors are involved in iNOS activation by FLA-BSDot. Moreover, distinct from extracellular flagellin (FLA-BS), iNOS activation by intracellular flagellin is completely abrogated in the absence of caspase-1. Interestingly, IL-1β and IL-18 do not seem to be important for FLA-BSDot-mediated iNOS production. Together, our data defined an additional anti-pathogen effector mechanism operated through Naip5 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes and illustrated a novel signaling transduction pathway that activates iNOS. PMID:20702413

  1. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available , sustainable design is not compulsory at university so we still have a long way to go”. Van Wyk is certainly knowledge- able on this subject. He graduated as an architect in 1980 and practised in the field for many years. He also served as a member... at universities, it will take several years before the first students graduate and even longer before they become experienced. This vacuum can only be overcome when government takes the lead.” Nevertheless Van Wyk realises this is too much to expect from...

  2. University involvement in sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    and on the university's activities as an organisation, i.e. its own operation and its accounting for this. Sustainability is defined as a continuous process requiring balance between (the emergence of) problems and our ability and capability to solve them. Some core questions that this paper seeks to answer are: "How...... is Sustainable Development understood at executive level at the university? How (if at all) is sustainable development integrated in the core activities of the university? How is the university attached to ‘real life outside the ivory tower', e.g. through the establishing of Public-Private-Academic Partnerships...

  3. Islands of sustainability: a bottom-up approach towards sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    H P Wallner; M Narodoslawsky; F Moser

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of 'islands of sustainability'. The basic assumption is that the development towards sustainability can be introduced starting from sustainable 'islands'. An island is an area where sustainability is reached at a local or regional level. Exchange activities within the regional network and with the environment are key points in creating an island of sustainability. One of the main theses is that the concept of sustainabiity addresses not only the interact...

  4. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  5. Report on childhood obesity in China (8): effects and sustainability of physical activity intervention on body composition of Chinese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Qi; Schouten, Evert G; Liu, Ai-Ling; Du, Song-Ming; Li, Lin-Zhong; Cui, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Dong; Kok, Frans J; Hu, Frank B; Ma, Guan-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether a large-scale physical activity intervention could affect body composition in primary school students in Beijing, China. The study design was one-year cluster randomized controlled trial of physical activity intervention (20 min of daily exercise in the classroom) with an additional year of follow-up among 4 700 students aged 8-11 years at baseline. After the one-year intervention, BMI increased by 0.56 kg/m(2) (SD 1.15) in the intervention group and by 0.72 kg/m(2) (SD 1.20) in the control group, with a mean difference of -0.15 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.28 to -0.02). BMI z score decreased by -0.05 (SD 0.44) in the intervention group, but increased by 0.01 (SD 0.46) in the control group, with a mean difference of -0.07 (-0.13 to -0.01). After another year of follow up, compared to the control group, children in the intervention group had significantly lower BMI (-0.13, -0.25 to -0.01), BMI z score (-0.05, -0.10 to -0.01), fat mass (-0.27 kg, -0.53 to -0.02) and percent body fat (-0.53, -1.00 to -0.05). The intervention had a more pronounced effect on weight, height, BMI, BMI z score, and body composition among obese children than among normal weight or overweight children. Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a significantly higher percentage of children who maintained or reduced their BMI z score at year 1 (P=0.008) and year 2 (P=0.04). These findings suggest that 20 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity during the school year is a feasible and effective way to prevent excessive gain of body w