WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained high vaccination

  1. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-09

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations.

  2. Sustaining Vaccine Confidence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Karin; Schmidt-Ott, Ruprecht; Glismann, Steffen; Adegbola, Richard A.; Meurice, François P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination provides many health and economic benefits to individuals and society, and public support for immunization programs is generally high. However, the benefits of vaccines are often not fully valued when public discussions on vaccine safety, quality or efficacy arise, and the spread of misinformation via the internet and other media has the potential to undermine immunization programs. Factors associated with improved public confidence in vaccines include evidence-based decision-making procedures and recommendations, controlled processes for licensing and monitoring vaccine safety and effectiveness and disease surveillance. Community engagement with appropriate communication approaches for each audience is a key factor in building trust in vaccines. Vaccine safety/quality issues should be handled rapidly and transparently by informing and involving those most affected and those concerned with public health in effective ways. Openness and transparency in the exchange of information between industry and other stakeholders is also important. To maximize the safety of vaccines, and thus sustain trust in vaccines, partnerships are needed between public health sector stakeholders. Vaccine confidence can be improved through collaborations that ensure high vaccine uptake rates and that inform the public and other stakeholders of the benefits of vaccines and how vaccine safety is constantly assessed, assured and communicated. PMID:26344109

  3. Sustainability of school-located influenza vaccination programs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuc H; Brew, Joe; Johnson, Nicholas; Ryan, Kathleen A; Martin, Brittany; Cornett, Catherine; Caron, Brad; Duncan, R Paul; Small, Parker A; Myers, Paul D; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-05-23

    School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs are a promising strategy for increasing vaccination coverage among schoolchildren. However, questions of economic sustainability have dampened enthusiasm for this approach in the United States. We evaluated SLIV sustainability of a health department led, county-wide SLIV program in Alachua County, Florida. Based on Alachua's outcome data, we modeled the sustainability of SLIV programs statewide using two different implementation costs and at different vaccination rates, reimbursement amount, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) coverage. Mass vaccination clinics were conducted at 69 Alachua County schools in 2013 using VFC (for Medicaid and uninsured children) and non-VFC vaccines. Claims were processed after each clinic and submitted to insurance providers for reimbursement ($5 Medicaid and $47.04 from private insurers). We collected programmatic expenditures and volunteer hours to calculate fixed and variable costs for two different implementation costs (with or without in-kind costs included). We project program sustainability for Florida using publicly available county-specific student populations and health insurance enrollment data. Approximately 42% (n=12,853) of pre-kindergarten - 12th grade students participated in the SLIV program in Alachua. Of the 13,815 doses provided, 58% (8042) were non-VFC vaccine. Total implementation cost was $14.95/dose or $7.93/dose if "in-kind" costs were not included. The program generated a net surplus of $24,221, despite losing $4.68 on every VFC dose provided to Medicaid and uninsured children. With volunteers, 99% of Florida counties would be sustainable at a 50% vaccination rate and average reimbursement amount of $3.25 VFC and $37 non-VFC. Without volunteers, 69% of counties would be sustainable at 50% vaccination rate if all VFC recipients were on Medicaid and its reimbursement increased from $5 to $10 (amount private practices receive). Key factors that contributed to the

  4. Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Bloom, David; Plotkin, Stanley; Picot, Valentina; Louis, Jacques; Watson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is a complex ecosystem with several components that interact with one another and with the environment. Today's vaccine ecosystem is defined by the pursuit of polio eradication, the drive to get as many of the new vaccines to as many people as possible and the research and development against immunologically challenging diseases. Despite these successes, vaccine ecosystem is facing keys issues with regard to supply/distribution and cost/profitability asymmetry that risk slowing its global growth. The conference "Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow" held in Annecy-France (January 19-21, 2015) took stock of the health of today's vaccination ecosystem and its ability to reliably and sustainably supply high-quality vaccines while investing in tomorrow's needed innovation. Small and decreasing numbers of suppliers/manufacturing facilities; paucity of research-driven companies; regulatory pressures; market uncertainties; political prioritization; anti-vaccine movements/complacency; and technological and programmatic issues were acknowledged as the major challenges that could weaken today's vaccination ecosystem. The expert panel discussed also drivers and barriers to a sustainable vaccination ecosystem; the metrics of a vaccination ecosystem; and what should be added, removed, increased, or reduced to maintain the health of the vaccination ecosystem.

  5. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine VC2 stimulates the proliferation of mucosal T cells and germinal center responses resulting in sustained production of highly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent A; Pahar, Bapi; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Veazey, Ronald; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-01-23

    We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain with mutations in glycoprotein K (gK) and the membrane protein UL20 is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. To better understand the immune response generated by vaccination with VC2, we tested its ability to elicit immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of disease and developed increasing HSV-1 and HSV-2 reactive IgG 1 after two booster vaccinations, while IgG subtypes IgG 2 and IgG 3 remained at low to undetectable levels. All vaccinated animals produced high levels of cross protective neutralizing antibodies. Flow cytometry analysis of cells isolated from draining lymph nodes showed that VC2 vaccination stimulated significant increases in plasmablast (CD27 high CD38 high ) and mature memory (CD21 - IgM - ) B cells. T cell analysis on cells isolated from draining lymph node biopsies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in proliferating (Ki67 + ) follicular T helper cells and regulatory CXCR5 + CD8 + cytotoxic T cells. Analysis of plasma isolated two weeks post vaccination showed significant increases in circulating CXCL13 indicating increased germinal center activity. Cells isolated from vaginal biopsy samples collected over the course of the study exhibited vaccination-dependent increases in proliferating (Ki67 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + T cell populations. These results suggest that intramuscular vaccination with the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain can stimulate robust IgG 1 antibody responses that persist for >250days post vaccination. In addition, vaccination lead to the maturation of B cells into plasmablast and mature memory B cells, the expansion of follicular T helper cells, and affects in the mucosal immune responses. These data suggest that the HSV VC2 vaccine induces potent immune responses that could help

  6. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  7. Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Variant Pandemic Other Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... flu season. What is Fluzone High-Dose influenza vaccine? Fluzone High-Dose is an influenza vaccine, manufactured ...

  8. Vaccine provision: Delivering sustained & widespread use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Scott; Garçon, Nathalie; Cunningham, Anthony L; Strugnell, Richard; Friedland, Leonard R

    2016-12-20

    The administration of a vaccine to a recipient is the final step in a development and production process that may have begun several decades earlier. Here we describe the scale and complexity of the processes that brings a candidate vaccine through clinical development to the recipient. These challenges include ensuring vaccine quality (between 100 and 500 different Quality Control tests are performed during production to continually assess safety, potency and purity); making decisions about optimal vaccine presentation (pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials) that affect capacity and supply; and the importance of maintaining the vaccine cold chain (most vaccines have stringent storage temperature requirements necessary to maintain activity and potency). The ultimate aim is to make sure that an immunogenic product matching the required specifications reaches the recipient. The process from concept to licensure takes 10-30years. Vaccine licensure is based on a file submitted to regulatory agencies which contains the comprehensive compilation of chemistry, manufacturing information, assay procedures, preclinical and clinical trial results, and proposals for post-licensure effectiveness and safety data collection. Expedited development and licensure pathways may be sought in emergency settings: e.g., the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak and meningococcal serogroup B meningitis outbreaks in the United States and New Zealand. Vaccines vary in the complexity of their manufacturing process. Influenza vaccines are particularly challenging to produce and delays in manufacturing may occur, leading to vaccine shortages during the influenza season. Shortages can be difficult to resolve due to long manufacturing lead times and stringent, but variable, local regulations. New technologies are driving the development of new vaccines with simplified manufacturing requirements and with quality specifications that can be confirmed with fewer

  9. A highly sustainable house

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Raúl; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2017-01-01

    A sustainable house is capable of generating and self-sustaining energy by itself to function autonomously, that is to say, without depending on external supply networks. That is possible by supplying the internal energy consumption through renewable energy. This work describes and analyzes the construction of a sustainable house in Paute, Ecuador. The goal of this house was to achieve selfsustainability in several aspects such as construction techniques, creative and functi...

  10. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    .... By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes...

  12. Promising practices for school-located vaccination clinics-- part II: clinic operations and program sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, John; Johnson, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    A school-located mass vaccination program can enable rapid vaccination of a large number of students while minimizing disruption of their school activities. During 3 consecutive influenza seasons beginning in 2005, the Knox County Health Department conducted school-located mass vaccination clinics using live attenuated influenza vaccine. Overall, the proportion of elementary schoolchildren vaccinated with live attenuated influenza vaccine exceeded 40% each year. We describe key lessons learned in clinic operations, including obtaining informed consent, defining the organizational structure and roles, preparing the school, staffing, training, supplies, vaccine management, team communication, and data management. We conclude by discussing program costs and sustainability.

  13. Implementing and Sustaining School-Located Influenza Vaccination Programs: Perspectives from Five Diverse School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulmini; Sanchez, Kathleen M.; Blackwell, Susan H.; Weinstein, Eva; El Amin, A. Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Local health departments have typically led school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs, assuming resource-intensive roles in design, coordination, and vaccination. This level of involvement is often not financially sustainable over time. Five diverse school districts in Los Angeles County designed, implemented, refined, and…

  14. Sustaining GAVI-supported vaccine introductions in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Patrick L F; El-Ziq, Ibrahim; Kaddar, Miloud; Ottosen, Ann E; Rosenbaum, Katinka; Shirey, Meredith; Kamara, Lidija; Duclos, Philippe

    2011-04-12

    Since 2000, GAVI provided essential support for an unprecedented increase in the use of hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) containing vaccines in resource poor countries. This increase was supported with significant funding from international donors, intended to be time-limited. To assess the sustainability of this important expansion of the global access to vaccines, we reviewed supply chains, financial resources for procurement and decision-making in countries that introduced hepatitis B or Hib vaccines with GAVI support. During the period studied, the types of vaccine products supplied fluctuated rapidly in relationship with the number of suppliers and availability of more combination products. The price of the cheaper vaccines decreased while that of pentavalent DTwP-HepB-Hib remained stable. In average, vaccine introduction was associated with an increase of national programs budget, with new vaccines representing more than half of that increase, while the part of GAVI contributions to the budget went from 25% to 46%. Less than 20% of the vaccine introductions were decided by a national advisory body. Strengthening supply chains, adjusting funding schemes and increasing national ownership will be key to the sustained use of hepatitis B and Hib vaccines and the eventual addition of other important vaccines where they are the most needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  16. Sustainable Development and High Seas Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Spijkers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the concept of sustainable development in the legal regime governing the exploitation of the natural resources of the oceans, particularly fisheries on the high seas. General documents on sustainable development and legal instruments on high seas fisheries are analyzed in order to see in which way they refer to each other and whether they provide a sufficiently comprehensive framework to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries in the high seas.

  17. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  18. Modelling the economic value of cross- and sustained-protection in vaccines against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, Nadia; Standaert, Baudouin

    2010-01-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are on the market. Based on expected differences in sustained- and cross-protection between the two vaccines, their long-term economic value is modelled and compared for France, Ireland and Italy. A Markov cohort model reproducing the natural history of HPV infections, screening and vaccination, is adapted to country-specific data. Two hypothetical HPV vaccines (VA and VB) are compared. At baseline VA provides lifetime protection against HPV-16 and 10-year protection against HPV-18 before waning. VB is the same as VA with a 10-year protection against HPV-6 and 11. Sustained- and cross-protection is varied over wide ranges in VA to define the levels that could make VA cost-effective or dominant compared with VB. Under baseline conditions VB dominates VA. VA becomes cost-effective when the difference in cross-protection alone reaches 13-15% (undiscounted), and 22-44% (discounted). A combination of sustained- and cross-protection is required for VA to dominate VB (discounted). The results are dependent upon country, the base-case value and the discount applied. Realistic additional sustained- and cross-protection in one HPV vaccine may confer benefits that offset the economic value of protection against low-risk HPV in the other. The results are country specific.

  19. Logistical and fiscal sustainability of a school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, John; Jue-Leong, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    To assess the fiscal and logistical viability of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. Econometric observational study. Nine schools in the Rincon Unified School District, Santa Rosa, CA. Safeway Pharmacies; Rincon Unified School District; California Department of Public Health, Immunization Branch; and University of California, San Diego. Assessment of direct workflow observations and administrative data. Unit costs, productivity, and effectiveness of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. The results showed a unit cost of $23.63 (compared with $25.60 for mass vaccination and $39.79 for walk-in shot-only vaccination clinics). The productivity index ($0.88) and efficiency index ($1.12) were better compared with data reported for comparable vaccination programs. School-based, pharmacist-administered vaccination programs are fiscally and logistically self-sustaining, viable alternatives to medical office-based or community-based mass vaccination clinics, and may offer a practical strategy for vaccinating children and adolescents.

  20. Novel Injectable Pentablock Copolymer Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Sustained Release Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbala, Sharan; Tamboli, Viral; McDowell, Arlene; Mitra, Ashim K; Hook, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need for multiple vaccinations to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines may be reduced by delivering the vaccine over an extended period of time. Here, we report two novel injectable pentablock copolymer based thermoresponsive hydrogels made of polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone-polylactide-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG) with varying ratios of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA), as single shot sustained release vaccines. Pentablock copolymer hydrogels were loaded with vaccine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) or with the soluble vaccine components. Incorporation of PLGA-NP into the thermoresponsive hydrogels increased the complex viscosity of the gels, lowered the gelation temperature, and minimized the burst release of antigen and adjuvants. The two pentablock hydrogels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The addition of PLGA-NP to the hydrogels sustained immune responses for up to 49 days. The polymer with a higher ratio of PCL to PLA formed a more rigid gel, induced stronger immune responses, and stimulated effective anti-tumor responses in a prophylactic melanoma tumor model.

  1. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated...... vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). Methods: The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months...... and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV...

  2. Introducing new vaccines in the poorest countries: what did we learn from the GAVI experience with financial sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, P; Levine, R; Makinen, M; Brenzel, L; Mitchell, V; Milstien, J B; Kamara, L; Landry, S

    2008-12-02

    This paper reviews the experience of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in introducing hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in the poorest countries, and explores how financing for immunization has changed since GAVI Fund resources were made available during its first wave of support between 2000 and 2006. The analysis of Financial Sustainability Plans in 50 countries allowed for some of the original funding assumptions of the GAVI approach to be tested against the realities in a wide set of countries, and to highlight implications for future immunization efforts. While the initial GAVI experience with financial sustainability has proved successful through the development of plans, and many countries have been able to both introduce new vaccines and mobilize additional financing for immunization, for future GAVI supported vaccine introduction, some country co-financing of these will be needed upfront for the approach to be more sustainable.

  3. Rapid and sustained CD4(+) T-cell-independent immunity from adenovirus-encoded vaccine antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Bartholdy, Christina; Buus, Anette Stryhn

    2007-01-01

    Many novel vaccine strategies rely on recombinant viral vectors for antigen delivery, and adenovirus vectors have emerged among the most potent of these. In this report, we have compared the immune response induced through priming with adenovirus vector-encoded full-length viral protein to that e......Many novel vaccine strategies rely on recombinant viral vectors for antigen delivery, and adenovirus vectors have emerged among the most potent of these. In this report, we have compared the immune response induced through priming with adenovirus vector-encoded full-length viral protein...... to that elicited with an adenovirus-encoded minimal epitope covalently linked to beta(2)-microglobulin. We demonstrate that the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked epitope induced an accelerated and augmented CD8(+) T-cell response. Furthermore, the immunity conferred by vaccination with beta(2)-microglobulin...... in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help were sustained in the long term and able to expand and control a secondary challenge with LCMV. Our results demonstrate that modifications to the antigen used in adenovirus vaccines may be used to improve the induced T-cell response. Such a strategy for CD4(+) T...

  4. High-throughput sequencing and vaccine design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luciani, F

    2016-01-01

    .... This has resulted in new approaches to vaccine research. On the one hand, the increase in genome complexity challenges our ability to study and understand pathogen biology and pathogen-host interactions...

  5. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine After Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine With Standard Titer Measles Vaccine After Inactivated Vaccine: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Samb, Badara; Ibrahim, Salah A; Libman, Michael D; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) and standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine), respectively. The original datasets were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified by trial. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.83) after an inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) compared with a standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine). Girls had a MRR of 1.89 (1.27-2.80), whereas there was no effect for boys, the sex-differential effect being significant (P = 0.02). Excluding measles cases did not alter these conclusions, the MRR after inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) being 1.40 (1.06-1.86) higher overall and 1.92 (1.29-2.86) for girls. Control for variations in national immunization schedules for other vaccines did not modify these results. After 9 months of age, all children had been immunized against measles, and mortality in girls was higher when they had received inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) rather than live standard titer MV (after an inactivated vaccine).

  6. Achieving high coverage in Rwanda's national human papillomavirus vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Wagner, Claire M; Gatera, Maurice; Karema, Corine; Nutt, Cameron T; Ngabo, Fidele

    2012-08-01

    Virtually all women who have cervical cancer are infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Of the 275,000 women who die from cervical cancer every year, 88% live in developing countries. Two vaccines against the HPV have been approved. However, vaccine implementation in low-income countries tends to lag behind implementation in high-income countries by 15 to 20 years. In 2011, Rwanda's Ministry of Health partnered with Merck to offer the Gardasil HPV vaccine to all girls of appropriate age. The Ministry formed a "public-private community partnership" to ensure effective and equitable delivery. Thanks to a strong national focus on health systems strengthening, more than 90% of all Rwandan infants aged 12-23 months receive all basic immunizations recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2011, Rwanda's HPV vaccination programme achieved 93.23% coverage after the first three-dose course of vaccination among girls in grade six. This was made possible through school-based vaccination and community involvement in identifying girls absent from or not enrolled in school. A nationwide sensitization campaign preceded delivery of the first dose. Through a series of innovative partnerships, Rwanda reduced the historical two-decade gap in vaccine introduction between high- and low-income countries to just five years. High coverage rates were achieved due to a delivery strategy that built on Rwanda's strong vaccination system and human resources framework. Following the GAVI Alliance's decision to begin financing HPV vaccination, Rwanda's example should motivate other countries to explore universal HPV vaccine coverage, although implementation must be tailored to the local context.

  7. HPV vaccine acceptability in high-risk Greek men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Lea; Tsikis, Savas; Bethimoutis, George; Nicolaidou, Electra; Paparizos, Vassilios; Antoniou, Christina; Kanelleas, Antonios; Chardalias, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Georgios-Emmanouil; Schneider, John; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2017-09-22

    HPV is associated with malignancy in men, yet there is a lack of data on HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptability, and factors affecting vaccine acceptability in Greek men. This study aims to identify determinants of knowledge and willingness to vaccinate against HPV among high-risk Greek men. Men (n = 298) between the ages of 18 and 55 were enrolled from the STI and HIV clinics at "Andreas Syggros" Hospital in Athens, Greece from July-October 2015. Participants completed a survey on demographics, economic factors, sexual history, HPV knowledge, and vaccine acceptability. The majority of participants were younger than 40 (76.6%) and unmarried (84.6%). Our sample was 31.2% MSM (men who have sex with men), and 20.1% were HIV-positive. Most participants (>90%) were aware that HPV is highly prevalent in both men and women; however, fewer identified that HPV causes cancers in both sexes (68%) and that vaccination protects men and women (67%). Amongst participants, 76.7% were willing to vaccinate themselves against HPV, 71.4% an adolescent son, and 69.3% an adolescent daughter. HIV-positive men were more likely to be willing to vaccinate themselves (OR 2.83, p = .015), a son (OR 3.3, p = .015) or a daughter (3.01, p = .020). Higher income levels were associated with increased willingness to vaccinate oneself (OR 1.32, p = .027), a son (1.33, p = .032) or daughter (1.34, p = .027). Although there is a HPV knowledge gap, HPV vaccine acceptability is high despite lack of vaccine promotion to Greek men. Future studies should include lower-risk men to adequately inform public health efforts.

  8. Imperfect Vaccination Can Enhance the Transmission of Highly Virulent Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Read

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.

  9. Post-GAVI sustainability of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine program: The potential role of economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuc; Nghiem, Van T; Swint, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe invasive diseases which are, however, preventable by vaccination. To increase access to Hib vaccine, GAVI - the Vaccine Alliance - has provided financial support for 73 lower income countries worldwide. At the same time, GAVI has been implementing its co-financing policy, requiring recipient countries to pay a portion of vaccine costs and to increase this amount over time. Starting in 2016, 5 countries will stop receiving GAVI funding and procure the vaccine themselves. Although the graduating countries have access to the UNICEF/GAVI tendered vaccine price for 5 more years, the uncertainty in market vaccine price may hamper the post-GAVI program sustainability. A possible increase in vaccine price would cause a significant burden on governmental budgets, discouraging countries to continue the program. As a special tool, economic evaluation (EE) can assist decision makers by identifying the maximum affordable vaccine price for countries to pay. Given that only 6 GAVI-eligible countries have such analyses published, more EEs are necessary to strengthen countries' commitment during this transition period. The information will also be useful for manufacturers to determine their pricing policy.

  10. Role of sustained antigen release from nanoparticle vaccines in shaping the T cell memory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demento, Stacey L; Cui, Weiguo; Criscione, Jason M; Stern, Eric; Tulipan, Jacob; Kaech, Susan M; Fahmy, Tarek M

    2012-06-01

    Particulate vaccines are emerging promising technologies for the creation of tunable prophylactics against a wide variety of conditions. Vesicular and solid biodegradable polymer platforms, exemplified by liposomes and polyesters, respectively, are two of the most ubiquitous platforms in vaccine delivery studies. Here we directly compared the efficacy of each in a long-term immunization study and in protection against a model bacterial antigen. Immunization with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles elicited prolonged antibody titers compared to liposomes and alum. The magnitude of the cellular immune response was also highest in mice vaccinated with PLGA, which also showed a higher frequency of effector-like memory T cell phenotype, leading to an effective clearance of intracellular bacteria. The difference in performance of these two common particulate platforms is shown not to be due to material differences but appears to be connected to the kinetics of antigen delivery. Thus, this study highlights the importance of sustained antigen release mediated by particulate platforms and its role in the long-term appearance of effector memory cellular response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multivalent HA DNA vaccination protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infection in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao

    Full Text Available Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses.The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 microg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device.DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

  12. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  13. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Nidom, Chairul A; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-02

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  14. Fully embeddable chitosan microneedles as a sustained release depot for intradermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chin; Huang, Shih-Fang; Lai, Kuan-Ying; Ling, Ming-Hung

    2013-04-01

    This study introduces a microneedle transdermal delivery system, composed of embeddable chitosan microneedles and a poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) supporting array, for complete and sustained delivery of encapsulated antigens to the skin. Chitosan microneedles were mounted to the top of a strong PLA supporting array, providing mechanical strength to fully insert the microneedles into the skin. When inserted into rat skin in vivo, chitosan microneedles successfully separated from the supporting array and were left within the skin for sustained drug delivery without requiring a transdermal patch. The microneedle penetration depth was approximately 600 μm (i.e. the total length of the microneedle), which is beneficial for targeted delivery of antigens to antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis and dermis. To evaluate the utility of chitosan microneedles for intradermal vaccination, ovalbumin (OVA; MW = 44.3 kDa) was used as a model antigen. When the OVA-loaded microneedles were embedded in rat skin in vivo, histological examination showed that the microneedles gradually degraded and prolonged OVA exposure at the insertion sites for up to 14 days. Compared to traditional intramuscular immunization, rats immunized by a single microneedle dose of OVA showed a significantly higher OVA-specific antibody response which lasted for at least 6 weeks. These results suggest that embeddable chitosan microneedles are a promising depot for extended delivery of encapsulated antigens to provide sustained immune stimulation and improve immunogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pertussis epidemic despite high levels of vaccination coverage with acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Arias-Varela, César; Recasens-Recasens, Assumpta; Simó-Sanahuja, Maria; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Pérez-Jové, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    We describe the pertussis epidemic, based only on confirmed whooping cough cases. We have analyzed data on the diagnosis, epidemiology and vaccine history in order to understand the factors that might explain the trends of the disease. A descriptive study of the confirmed pertussis cases reported during 2011 in the Vallès region (population 1,283,000). Laboratory criteria for confirmed pertussis cases include isolation of Bordetella pertussis from a clinical specimen or detection of B. pertussis by PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. A total of 421 pertussis confirmed cases were reported, which was the highest incidence reported in the last decade (33 cases/100,000 people/year in 2011). The highest incidence rate was among infants less than 1 year old (448/100,000), followed by children 5-9 years old (154/100,000). Pertussis cases aged 2 months-1 year were 90% vaccinated following the current DTaP schedule for their age group in Catalonia, and cases of 5-9 years were 87% fully vaccinated with 5 doses of DTaP vaccine. There were no deaths, although 8% of cases were hospitalized. Pertussis was more severe in infants, 30% required hospitalization despite having received the vaccine doses corresponding to their age. Children of 5-9 years were most often identified as primary cases in households or school clusters. Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, pertussis circulation cannot be controlled at all. The results question the efficacy of the present immunization programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies for transdermal sustained delivery of drug and vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong X

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Fei Wu,2,* Zaozhan Wu,2 Lizhu Chen,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation. Keywords: microneedle, dissolving, biodegradable, sustained release

  17. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil A and monophosphoryl lipid A), were free-flowing liquids at room temperature and formed stable gels at physiological temperatures. Rheological results showed that both systems meet the criteria of being thermoresponsive gels. The P407-25R4 sol-gels did not significantly sustain the release of antigen in vivo while the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate synchronous vaccine release and may in fact retard release, reducing efficacy in some cases. From these results, chitosan-MC sol-gels show potential as sustained release vaccine delivery systems, as compared to the P407-25R4 system that had a limited ability to sustain antigen release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. An adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine confers rapid and sustained protection against anthrax in a single-dose regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Jex, Edward; Feng, Tsungwei; Sivko, Gloria S; Baillie, Leslie W; Goldman, Stanley; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and its spores have been developed into lethal bioweapons. To mitigate an onslaught from airborne anthrax spores that are maliciously disseminated, it is of paramount importance to develop a rapid-response anthrax vaccine that can be mass administered by nonmedical personnel during a crisis. We report here that intranasal instillation of a nonreplicating adenovirus vector encoding B. anthracis protective antigen could confer rapid and sustained protection against inhalation anthrax in mice in a single-dose regimen in the presence of preexisting adenovirus immunity. The potency of the vaccine was greatly enhanced when codons of the antigen gene were optimized to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. In addition, an adenovirus vector encoding lethal factor can confer partial protection against inhalation anthrax and might be coadministered with a protective antigen-based vaccine.

  20. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  1. Correlates to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Status and Willingness to Vaccinate in Low-Income Philadelphia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…

  2. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  3. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  4. Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review...

  5. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Heydarchi

    Full Text Available An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both

  6. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. ...

  7. Vaccine specific immune response to an inactivated oral cholera vaccine and EPI vaccines in a high and low arsenic area in Bangladeshi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Mohiul I; Nazim, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Ahmed, Tanvir; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2013-01-11

    Immune responses to the inactivated oral whole cell cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit cholera vaccine, Dukoral(®), as well as three childhood vaccines in the national immunization system were compared in children living in high and low arsenic contaminated areas in Bangladesh. In addition, serum complement factors C3 and C4 levels were evaluated among children in the two areas. VACCINATIONS: Toddlers (2-5 years) were orally immunized with two doses of Dukoral 14 days apart. Study participants had also received diphtheria, tetanus and measles vaccines according to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. The mean level of arsenic in the urine specimens in the children of the high arsenic area (HAA, Shahrasti, Chandpur) was 291.8μg/L while the level was 6.60μg/L in the low arsenic area (LAA, Mirpur, Dhaka). Cholera specific vibriocidal antibody responses were significantly increased in the HAA (87%, Pchildren after vaccination with Dukoral, but no differences were found between the two groups. Levels of CTB specific IgA and IgG antibodies were comparable between the two groups, whereas LPS specific IgA and IgG were higher in the LAA group, although response rates were comparable. Diphtheria and tetanus vaccine specific IgG responses were significantly higher in the HAA compared to the LAA group (Pvaccine as well as the EPI vaccines studied are immunogenic in children in high and low arsenic areas in Bangladesh. The results are encouraging for the potential use of cholera vaccines as well as the EPI vaccines in arsenic endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory T cell proliferative responses and IFN-γ productivity sustain long-lasting efficacy of a Cap-based PCV2 vaccine upon PCV2 natural infection and associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Borghetti, Paolo; De Angelis, Elena; Martelli, Paolo

    2014-04-16

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination represents an important measure to cope with PCV2 infection; however, data regarding the modulation of the immune cell compartment are still limited, especially under field conditions. This study is aimed at investigating the features of the cellular immune response in conventional piglets induced by vaccination using a capsid (Cap) protein-based PCV2 vaccine compared to unvaccinated animals when exposed to PCV2 natural infection. Immune reactivity was evaluated by quantifying peripheral cell subsets involved in the anti-viral response and characterizing the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cell (SC) responsiveness both in vivo and upon in vitro whole PCV2 recall. The vaccination triggered an early and intense IFN-γ secreting cell response and induced the activation of peripheral lymphocytes. The early increase of IFN-γ SC frequencies resulted in a remarkable and transient tendency to increased IFN-γ productivity in vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated animals, soon before the onset of infection occurred 15-16 weeks post-vaccination, the recalled PCV2-specific immune response was characterized by moderate PCV2-specific IFN-γ secreting cell frequencies and augmented productivity together with reactive CD4+CD8+ memory T cells. Conversely, upon infection, unvaccinated animals showed very high frequencies of IFN-γ secreting cells and a tendency to lower productivity, which paralleled with effector CD4-CD8+ cytotoxic cell responsiveness. The study shows that PCV2 vaccination induces a long-lasting immunity sustained by memory T cells and IFN-γ secreting cells that potentially played a role in preventing the onset of infection; the extent and duration of this reactivity can be an important feature for evaluating the protective immunity induced by vaccination.

  9. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  10. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB, causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world’s population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI, and 5–10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660 TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  11. Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad; Ali Sadraie; Golrokh Sadraie

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, High-rise building is proposed as a dominant form in world’s Major cities which its rapid growth has caused social and cultural concerns of the residents of these buildings. Social capital is remembered as a basis for economic development of any society. Its importance can be seen in the economic development of developing countries. Social capital is the invisible wealth of a country that encompasses institutions, relationships and norms that shape social interactions. In this paper...

  12. The cost-effectiveness of using hepatitis A/B combined vaccine versus hepatitis B vaccine alone for high-risk heterosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Weinbaum, Cindy M

    2008-10-03

    Previous studies estimated that vaccinating high-risk heterosexuals (HRH) with combination hepatitis A/B vaccine was a cost-effective alternative to vaccinating HRH against hepatitis B alone. Since then, the incidence of hepatitis A has declined dramatically in the United States. We re-estimate the cost-effectiveness of this policy accounting for modern declines in incidence. According to our estimates, vaccinating with combination vaccine resulted in a cost of $120,000 per quality adjusted life year gained (2.79 times the 2005 United States Gross Domestic Product per capita), a ratio that is less favorable than those for most other vaccination strategies.

  13. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M.; Ruda, Vera M.; Foley, Maria H.; Hu, Joyce K.; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1–2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency. PMID:27702895

  14. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tam, Hok Hei; Melo, Mariane B.; Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M.; Ruda, Vera M.; Foley, Maria H.; Hu, Joyce K.; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose.

  15. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  16. A Novel Lactococcal Vaccine Expressing a Peptide from the M2 Antigen of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus Prolongs Survival of Vaccinated Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleb A. Reese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL. Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e. Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days. Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P<0.05 higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG.

  17. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-06

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among high-risk populations in Thailand, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Prapasiri, Prabda; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Leetongin, Grit; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Rattanayot, Jarowee; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2015-01-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. National records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. From 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; pvaccines increased. While coverage remained low for all target groups, coverage was highest among persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases. Annual coverage assessments are necessary to promote higher coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-02-15

    Despite evidence that vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza is effective in limiting community-level transmission, the United States has had a long-standing government strategy of recommending that vaccine be concentrated primarily in high-risk groups and distributed to those people who keep the health system and social infrastructure operating. Because of this year's influenza vaccine shortage, a plan was enacted to distribute the limited vaccine stock to these groups first. This vaccination strategy, based on direct protection of those most at risk, has not been very effective in reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. Although it is too late to make changes this year, the current influenza vaccine crisis affords the opportunity to examine an alternative for future years. The alternative plan, supported by mathematical models and influenza field studies, would be to concentrate vaccine in schoolchildren, the population group most responsible for transmission, while also covering the reachable high-risk groups, who would also receive considerable indirect protection. In conjunction with a plan to ensure an adequate vaccine supply, this alternative influenza vaccination strategy would help control interpandemic influenza and be instrumental in preparing for pandemic influenza. The effectiveness of the alternative plan could be assessed through nationwide community studies.

  20. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-12-01

    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sustained efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Paulo S; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; De Carvalho, Newton S; Teixeira, Julio C; de Borba, Paola C; Sanchez, Nervo; Zahaf, Toufik; Catteau, Gregory; Geeraerts, Brecht; Descamps, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    HPV-023 (NCT00518336; ClinicalTrial.gov) is a long-term follow-up of an initial double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study (HPV-001, NCT00689741) evaluating the efficacy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 infection and associated cyto-histopathological abnormalities, persistence of immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Among the women, aged 15–25 years, enrolled in HPV-001 and who participated in the follow-up study HPV-007 (NCT00120848), a subset of 437 women from five Brazilian centers participated in this 36-month long-term follow-up (HPV-023) for a total of 113 months (9.4 years). During HPV-023, anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured annually by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). Cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA every 6 months, and cyto-pathological examinations were performed annually. During HPV-023, no new HPV-16/18-associated infections and cyto-histopathological abnormalities occurred in the vaccine group. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 incident infection was 100% (95%CI: 66.1, 100). Over the 113 months (9.4 years), VE was 95.6% (86.2, 99.1; 3/50 cases in vaccine and placebo groups, respectively) against incident infection, 100% (84·1, 100; 0/21) against 6-month persistent infection (PI); 100% (61·4, 100; 0/10) against 12-month PI; 97·1% (82.5, 99.9; 1/30) against ≥ ASC-US; 95·0% (68.0, 99.9; 1/18) against ≥ LSIL; 100% (45.2, 100; 0/8) against CIN1+; and 100% (–128.1, 100; 0/3) against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18. All vaccinees remained seropositive to HPV-16/18, with antibody titers remaining several folds above natural infection levels, as measured by ELISA and PBNA. There were no safety concerns. To date, these data represent the longest follow-up reported for a licensed HPV vaccine. PMID:25424918

  2. Enhancement of antitumor vaccine in ablated hepatocellular carcinoma by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Deng, Jian; Feng, Jun; Wu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether tumor debris created by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) could trigger antitumor immunity in a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma model. METHODS: Twenty C57BL/6J mice bearing H22 hepatocellular carcinoma were used to generate antitumor vaccines. Ten mice underwent HIFU ablation, and the remaining 10 mice received a sham-HIFU procedure with no ultrasound irradiation. Sixty normal mice were randomly divided into HIFU vaccine, tumor vaccine and control groups. These mice were immunized with HIFU-generated vaccine, tumor-generated vaccine, and saline, respectively. In addition, 20 mice bearing H22 tumors were successfully treated with HIFU ablation. The protective immunity of the vaccinated mice was investigated before and after a subsequent H22 tumor challenge. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocytes co-cultured with H22 cells was determined in vitro before the tumor challenge, and tumor volume and survival were measured in vivo after the challenge in each group. The mechanism was also explored by loading the vaccines with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). RESULTS: Compared to the control, HIFU therapy, tumor-generated and HIFU-generated vaccines significantly increased cytolytic activity against H22 cells in the splenocytes of the vaccinated mice (P HIFU vaccine group than in the tumor vaccine group (P HIFU therapy group. Forty-eight-day survival rate was 100% in mice in the HIFU therapy group, 30% in both the HIFU vaccine and tumor vaccine groups, and 20% in the control group, indicating that the HIFU-treated mice displayed significantly longer survival than the vaccinated mice in the remaining three groups (P HIFU-generated and tumor-generated vaccines, the number of mature DCs expressing MHC-II+, CD80+ and CD86+ molecules was significantly increased, and interleukin-12 and interferon-γ levels were significantly higher in the supernatants when

  3. Influenza vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Stock, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Litaker, D.G.; Apfelbacher, C.J.

    BACKGROUND: National vaccination coverage rates for individuals at increased risk of influenza-related complications represent a useful public health indicator of preparedness. We compared European countries regarding (i) vaccination coverage among high-risk groups and (ii) the likelihood that

  4. Do recommended high-risk adults benefit from a first influenza vaccination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Buskens, E; Nichol, K L; Verheij, T J M

    2006-01-01

    It is unknown whether a first influenza vaccination protects high-risk adults from severe morbidity and mortality during influenza epidemics. As part of the PRISMA nested case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of first-time and repeat influenza vaccinations in adult persons

  5. Sustainable limitation of high-frequency oscillations of elevator cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaytukov, Batraz

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a problem of sustainable limitation of vertical high-frequency oscillations of elevator cabin in buildings with various number of storeys is considered. To solve this problem, dynamic model of the elevator movement was developed. In the course of analytical and experimental studies, the main cause for emergence of undesirable high-frequency oscillations of a cabin was defined. The amplification factor which is the function of λ and length of cable was determined. The λ parameter is variable, and length of the cable changes depending on length passed by the cabin and is an amplification factor argument. For sustainable limitation of oscillations, use of dynamic dumper of lever type is proposed. Adjustment of the dumper natural vibration frequency in such a way that it is equal to the excitation frequency allows limiting of oscillations of the cabin and the elevator machine to reasonable value irrespective to position of a moving cabin in the shaft. Using dependences and plots which were obtained in the course of scientific analysis and experimental studies, reasonability of dumper application for sustainable limitation of high-frequency influence of the elevator machine on the base and obtaining of solutions of inertial forces equilibration problem was proved.

  6. Dynamics of High-Risk Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus Types after Actual Vaccination Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Peralta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has been identified as the main etiological factor in the developing of cervical cancer (CC. This finding has propitiated the development of vaccines that help to prevent the HPVs 16 and 18 infection. Both genotypes are associated with 70% of CC worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to determine the emergence of high-risk nonvaccine HPV after actual vaccination scheme to estimate the impact of the current HPV vaccines. A SIR-type model was used to study the HPV dynamics after vaccination. According to the results, our model indicates that the application of the vaccine reduces infection by target or vaccine genotypes as expected. However, numerical simulations of the model suggest the presence of the phenomenon called vaccine—induced pathogen strain replacement. Here, we report the following replacement mechanism: if the effectiveness of cross-protective immunity is not larger than the effectiveness of the vaccine, then the high-risk nonvaccine genotypes emerge. In this scenario, further studies of infection dispersion by HPV are necessary to ascertain the real impact of the current vaccines, primarily because of the different high-risk HPV types that are found in CC.

  7. Towards a sustainable, quality and affordable Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for every child in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that can prevent meningitis and pneumonia caused by Hib disease. Hib vaccine is recommended for all children under 5 years. Despite the availability of safe and effective Hib vaccines since early 1987, Gambia was

  8. [Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccination in Children and Adolescents at High Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendais-Almeida, Marta; Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Alves, Inês; Tavares, Margarida; Azevedo, Inês

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, pneumococcal vaccination is free of charge and recommended by the Directorate-General of Health for the pediatric population at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. Our main aim was to describe the vaccination uptake in a pediatric population attending a hospital outpatient clinic. Cross-sectional observational survey of a pediatric population attending a referral hospital outpatient clinic, from July to December 2014. Data was collected from clinical records, Individual Health Bulletin or the registry from Plataforma de Dados da Saúde®. Of the 122 participants, 95.9% had, at least, one shot of pneumococcal vaccine, but only 64.8% of these completed the age recommended vaccination scheme. Uptake was higher in children 5 years old had a higher uptake of 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine than the 2 to 5-years old ones (74.5% vs 40.5%; p < 0.001). Most of our pediatric population at high risk of IPD was vaccinated; nevertheless, only two-thirds had completed the scheme for their age. The main failure was on the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine administration. Although these results are better than those reported in other European countries with similar recommendations, it is essential to explore the causes for the observed flaws in order to optimize vaccination rates.

  9. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  10. Antibody persistence and immune memory 4 years post-vaccination with combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adults aged over 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlibek, Roman; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Van Damme, Pierre; Smetana, Jan; Tichy, Petr; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of immune response was assessed in adults aged >40 years (N = 596) following primary vaccination with combined hepatitis A/B vaccine or concomitant monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Anti-hepatitis A virus antibody responses persisted for at least 4 years regardless of the vaccine used, with anti-hepatitis B surface antibody responses higher and more sustained in subjects who received the combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Response rates to an additional dose of the same vaccine(s) used for priming were high. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  12. Application of reverse genetics for producing attenuated vaccine strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-08-01

    In this study, reverse genetics was applied to produce vaccine candidate strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N1 subtype. The H5 subtype vaccine strains were generated by a reverse genetics method in a biosafety level 2 facility. The strain contained the HA gene from the H5N1 subtype HPAIV attenuated by genetic modification at the cleavage site, the NA gene derived from the H5N1 subtype HPAI or the H5N3 subtype of avian influenza virus and internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Vaccination with an inactivated recombinant virus with oil-emulsion completely protected chickens from a homologous viral challenge with a 640 HAU or 3,200 HAU/vaccination dose. Vaccination with a higher dose of antigen, 3,200 HAU, was effective at increasing survival and efficiently reduced viral shedding even when challenged by a virus of a different HA clade. The feasibility of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was demonstrated against a challenge with H5N1 HPAIVs when the recombinant H5N3 subtype viruses were used as the antigens of the vaccine. Our study demonstrated that the use of reverse genetics would be an option to promptly produce an inactivated vaccine with better matching of antigenicity to a circulating strain.

  13. The novel oral typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in 2 vaccine presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Tenney, Katherine M; Larsson, Catherine J; O'Neill, J Patrick; Ventrone, Cassandra; Bentley, Matthew; Upton, Anthony; Hindle, Zoe; Fidler, Christine; Kutzko, Deborah; Holdridge, Regan; Lapointe, Casey; Hamlet, Sandra; Chatfield, Steven N

    2005-08-01

    M01ZH09 (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi [Ty2 aroC(-) ssaV(-)] ZH9) is a live oral-dose typhoid vaccine candidate. M01ZH09 was rationally modified with 2 independently attenuating mutations, including a novel mutation in Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2. We demonstrate that M01ZH09, in a single oral dose, is well tolerated and prompts broad immune responses, regardless of whether prevaccination with a bicarbonate buffer is given. Thirty-two healthy adult subjects were randomized and given 5x109 cfu of M01ZH09, with (presentation 1) or without (presentation 2) prevaccination with a bicarbonate buffer. Immunogenicity data included Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibody-secreting cells (enzyme-linked immunospot [ELISPOT] assay), IgG serologic responses to Salmonella Typhi LPS, lymphocyte proliferation, and interferon (IFN)- gamma production. The vaccine was well tolerated; adverse events after vaccination were mild. No fever or prolonged vaccine shedding occurred. Immunogenicity data demonstrated that 88% and 93% of subjects who received presentation 1 and presentation 2, respectively, had a positive response by ELISPOT assay; 81% of subjects in both groups underwent IgG seroconversion on day 14. Both groups had similar cellular immune responses to presentation 1 and presentation 2; lymphocyte proliferation to Salmonella Typhi flagellin occurred in 63% and 67% of subjects, respectively, and 69% and 73% of subjects, respectively, had an increase in IFN- gamma production. The oral typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in a single oral dose, with and without prevaccination with a bicarbonate buffer. Field studies to demonstrate protective efficacy are planned.

  14. Safety of Live Attenuated High-Titer Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kawano, Yutaka; Mori, Makiko; Arakawa, Yuki; Kato, Motohiro; Hanada, Ryoji

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients have a high risk of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Although VZV vaccination may be beneficial in preventing VZV infections, data on safety and efficacy of VZV vaccines in HSCT recipients, particularly of zoster vaccine, are limited. We report our experience with the use of a single dose of an Oka strain high-titer zoster-equivalent varicella vaccine in pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients. We administered the high-titer VZV vaccine to 31 pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients without vaccine-type VZV infections. One patient developed varicella due to wild-type VZV 13 days after vaccination. No zoster developed after vaccination during a median follow-up period of 4.8 years from vaccination. No other adverse effects were observed. Eighteen of the 31 patients (58.1%) were seropositive after vaccination. Seventeen patients were vaccinated within 24 months after HSCT; the seropositivity of these patients did not significantly differ from that of patients vaccinated > 24 months after HSCT. VZV vaccination may be a safe and beneficial approach in preventing VZV infections after HSCT. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Provider Knowledge of Trivalent Inactivated and High-Dose Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W.; Talbot, H. Keipp

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20 item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center.

  16. Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Janssen, Matty; Bystrom, Roberth

    2017-01-01

    The realization of process solutions for a sustainable bioeconomy depends on the efficient processing of biomass. High-gravity technology is one important alternative to realizing such solutions. The aims of this work were to expand the knowledge-base on lignocellulosic bioconversion processes...... at high solids content, to advance the current technologies for production of second-generation liquid biofuels, to evaluate the environmental impact of the proposed process by using life cycle assessment (LCA), and to develop and present a technically, economically, and environmentally sound process...... at high gravity, i.e., a process operating at the highest possible concentrations of raw material. The results and opinions presented here are the result of a Nordic collaborative study within the framework of the HG Biofuels project. Processes with bioethanol or biobutanol as target products were studied...

  17. Parents with high levels of communicative and critical health literacy are less likely to vaccinate their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Aharon, Anat; Nehama, Haim; Rishpon, Shmuel; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between parents' health literacy and decision-making regarding child vaccinations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 731 parents of children aged 3-4 years. Functional, communicative, and critical health literacy (HL), knowledge, beliefs, reliability of the vaccine's information resources, and vaccine's attitudes were measured. Attitudes included three types: pro-vaccine attitudes, anti-vaccine attitudes, and attitudes regarding mandatory vaccination. Path analysis was conducted to explore direct and indirect associations of compliance with childhood vaccinations and HL. Communicative HL has a significant negative direct association with compliance with vaccinations (ß=-0.06, pcritical HL have significant negative indirect associations with vaccinations through parents' attitudes regarding vaccines. Higher levels of perception of reliability of informal information resources are associated with non-compliance. The results indicate that parents with high functional, communicative, and critical HL are more at risk of not vaccinating their children. The results are contrary to expectations in which people with high HL adopt more positive health behaviors. Public health professionals may need more sophisticated communication methods to transfer messages regarding vaccines to parents in order to prevent decline in vaccine coverage rates, taking into account levels of trust and health literacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainability of National Immunization Programme (NIP) performance and financing following Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Mibulumukini, Benoît; Da Silva, Alfred; Colombini, Anaïs

    2013-04-08

    The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is a public-private global health partnership aiming to increase access to immunisation in poor countries. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the third largest recipient of GAVI funds in terms of cumulative disbursed support. We provided a comprehensive assessment of GAVI support and analysed trends in immunisation performance and financing in the DRC from 2002 to 2010. The scope of the analysis includes GAVI's total financial support and the value of vaccines and syringes purchased by GAVI for the DRC from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a review of published and grey literature and interviews with key stakeholders in the DRC. We assessed the allocation and use of GAVI funds for each of GAVI's support areas, as well as trends in immunisation performance and financing. DTP3 coverage increased from 2002 (38%) to 2007 (72%) but had decreased to a level below 70% in 2008 (68%) and 2010 (63%). The overall funding for vaccines increased from US$5.4 million in 2006 to US$30.5 million in 2010 (mostly from GAVI support for new vaccines). However, during the same period, the funding from national (government) and international (GAVI and other donors) sources for routine immunisation services (except vaccines) decreased from US$36.4 million to US$24.4 million. This drop in overall funding (33%) primarily affected surveillance, transport, and cold chain equipment. GAVI support to DRC has enhanced significant progress in routine immunisation performance and financing during 2002-2010. Although progress has been partly sustained, the initial observed increase in DTP3 coverage and available funding for routine immunisation halted towards the end of the analysis period, coinciding with tetravalent and pentavalent vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need for additional efforts to ensure the sustainability of routine immunization program performance and financing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  19. Assessment of vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei SUN,Jinhua LIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI has been implemented in China for a decade, however, the virus is still present in poultry. A series of recombinant vaccines, Re-1 to Re-7, have been developed and used, and Re-8 will also be used in clinical settings to prevent the prevailing flu strains. The question remains, when can China eradicate the disease? Here, we review the epidemiology of H5 HPAI along with the development, usage and problems of vaccines. Further suggestions for controlling the disease in China are provided.

  20. Development of sustainable ultra-high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisong; Zhao, Yinghua

    2017-04-01

    To design Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) in a sustainable way, this paper investigates the properties of UHPC containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF). The flexural strength, compressive strength, and microstructure of the UHPC are examined. Results indicate that it is possible to design UHPC with very low cement amount. On the basis of 30% FA replacement, the incorporation of 10% and 20% SF shows equivalent or higher mechanical properties compared to the reference samples. The microstructure and pore volume of developed UHPC indicated a high correlation with its compressive strength. Efficiency factor (k-value) is calculated as an indicator to predict the flexural and compressive strength of UHPC with SCMs in terms of their synergistic effects.

  1. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community survey was conducted in the Western Cape to assess measles vaccination coverage attained by routine and campaign services, in children ... were consecutively visited and requested to participate in the survey. Within each ... analysis, in order to provide a pre- and post-campaign profile. Children without an ...

  2. Generation of a Genetically Stable High-Fidelity Influenza Vaccine Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Tadasuke; Mori, Kotaro; Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Naoki; Nobusawa, Eri; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L; Nagata, Kyosuke; Saito, Mineki

    2017-03-15

    Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive means for influenza control. The development of a master virus with high growth and genetic stability, which may be used for the preparation of vaccine viruses by gene reassortment, is crucial for the enhancement of vaccine performance and efficiency of production. Here, we describe the generation of a high-fidelity and high-growth influenza vaccine master virus strain with a single V43I amino acid change in the PB1 polymerase of the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) master virus. The PB1-V43I mutation was introduced to increase replication fidelity in order to design an H1N1 vaccine strain with a low error rate. The PR8-PB1-V43I virus exhibited good replication compared with that of the parent PR8 virus. In order to compare the efficiency of egg adaptation and the occurrence of gene mutations leading to antigenic alterations, we constructed 6:2 genetic reassortant viruses between the A(H1N1)pdm09 and the PR8-PB1-V43I viruses; hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the other genes were from the PR8 virus. Mutations responsible for egg adaptation mutations occurred in the HA of the PB1-V43I reassortant virus during serial egg passages; however, in contrast, antigenic mutations were introduced into the HA gene of the 6:2 reassortant virus possessing the wild-type PB1. This study shows that the mutant PR8 virus possessing the PB1 polymerase with the V43I substitution may be utilized as a master virus for the generation of high-growth vaccine viruses with high polymerase fidelity, low error rates of gene replication, and reduced antigenic diversity during virus propagation in eggs for vaccine production. IMPORTANCE Vaccination represents the most effective prophylactic option against influenza. The threat of emergence of influenza pandemics necessitates the ability to generate vaccine viruses rapidly. However, as the influenza virus exhibits a high mutation rate

  3. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines. Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza in... mechanism. These veterinary influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine...

  4. Sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs by IL2 control autoimmunity without impairing immune responses to infection, vaccination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churlaud, Guillaume; Jimenez, Veronica; Ruberte, Jesus; Amadoudji Zin, Martin; Fourcade, Gwladys; Gottrand, Gaelle; Casana, Estefania; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Bellier, Bertrand; Piaggio, Eliane; Bosch, Fatima; Klatzmann, David

    2014-04-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL2) is the key cytokine supporting survival and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). We recently reported that low-dose IL2 safely expands/stimulates Tregs and improves autoimmune conditions in humans. Further development of IL2 in autoimmune diseases will require chronic IL2 administration, which could affect beneficial effector immune responses regulated by Tregs. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer to continuously release IL2 in mice and assessed its long-term effects on immune responses. A single rAAV-IL2 injection enabled sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs without inducing Teff activation and prevented diabetes in NOD mice. After several weeks of IL2 production, mice responded normally to a viral challenge and to vaccination, and had pregnancies with offspring that developed normally. They showed no change in the occurrence and growth of chemically-induced tumors. Altogether, chronic low-dose IL2 treatment does not affect beneficial effector immune responses at doses that prevent autoimmune diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Dos-Santos, Claudiney B; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed disease over

  6. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Antonio; dos-Santos, Claudiney B.; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Background Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein–saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. Methodology/Principal findings This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of

  7. Novel HIV IL-4R antagonist vaccine strategy can induce both high avidity CD8 T and B cell immunity with greater protective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ronald J; Worley, Matthew; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2014-09-29

    We have established that the efficacy of a heterologous poxvirus vectored HIV vaccine, fowlpox virus (FPV)-HIV gag/pol prime followed by attenuated vaccinia virus (VV)-HIV gag/pol booster immunisation, is strongly influenced by the cytokine milieu at the priming vaccination site, with endogenous IL-13 detrimental to the quality of the HIV specific CD8+ T cell response induced. We have now developed a novel HIV vaccine that co-expresses a C-terminal deletion mutant of the mouse IL-4, deleted for the essential tyrosine (Y119) required for signalling. In our vaccine system, the mutant IL-4C118 can bind to IL-4 type I and II receptors with high affinity, and transiently prevent the signalling of both IL-4 and IL-13 at the vaccination site. When this IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccine was used in an intranasal rFPV/intramuscular rVV prime-boost immunisation strategy, greatly enhanced mucosal/systemic HIV specific CD8+ T cells with higher functional avidity, expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and greater protective efficacy were detected. Surprisingly, the IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccines also induced robust long-lived HIV gag-specific serum antibody responses, specifically IgG1 and IgG2a. The p55-gag IgG2a responses induced were of a higher magnitude relative to the IL-13Rα2 adjuvant vaccine. More interestingly, our recently tested IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine which only inhibited IL-13 activity, even though induced excellent high avidity HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, had a detrimental impact on the induction of gag-specific IgG2a antibody immunity. Our observations suggest that (i) IL-4 cell-signalling in the absence of IL-13 retarded gag-specific antibody isotype class switching, or (ii) IL-13Rα2 signalling was involved in inducing good gag-specific B cell immunity. Thus, we believe our novel IL-4R antagonist adjuvant strategy offers great promise not only for HIV-1 vaccines, but also against a range of chronic infections where sustained high quality mucosal and systemic T and B

  8. Inadvertent intramuscular administration of high dose bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccine in a pre-term infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Banu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report examined the natural course of reaction after accidental intramuscular administration of high dose Bacille Calmette-Guιrin (BCG vaccine into the anterolateral aspect of thigh of a pre-term infant as a part of routine vaccination instead of intra-dermal injection into the arm. There is no consensus on the best management of this complication, although in this case healing was prolonged but was spontaneous without anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  9. Construction high-yield candidate influenza vaccine viruses in Vero cells by reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jinghui; Ma, Lei; Cun, Yina; Song, Shaohui; Liao, Guoyang

    2016-11-01

    Usage of influenza vaccine is the best choice measure for preventing and conclusion of influenza virus infection. Although it has been used of chicken embryo to produce influenza vaccine, following with WHO recommended vaccine strain, there were uncontrollable factors and its deficiencies, specially, during an influenza pandemic in the world. The Vero cells are used for vaccine production of a few strains including influenza virus, because of its homology with human, recommended by WHO. However, as known most of the influenza viruses strains could not culture by Vero cells. It was used two high-yield influenza viruses adapted in Vero cells as donor viruses, such as A/Yunnan/1/2005Va (H3N2) and B/Yunnan/2/2005Va (B), to construct high-yield wild influenza virus in Vero cells under antibody selection pressure. After reassortment and passages, it obtained the new Vaccine strains with A/Tianjin/15/2009Va (H1N1), A/Fujian/196/2009Va (H3N2) and B/Chongqing/1384/2010Va (B), which was not only completely keeping their original antigenic (HA and NA), but also grown well in Vero cells with high-yield. All results of gene analysis and HA, HI shown that this reassortment method could be used to find new direction to product the influenza vaccine. J. Med. Virol. 88:1914-1921, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Towards organizational development for sustainable high-quality medical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; de Caluwé, Léon I A; Stuyt, Paul M J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2013-02-01

    Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty development in organizational development, and to provide a useful example of organizational development with regards to medical teaching and faculty development. Constructing a framework for organizational development from the literature, based on expert brainstorming. This framework is applied to a case study. A framework for organizational development is described. Applied in a context of medical teaching, these organizational insights show the process (and progress) of embedding faculty development in organizational development. Organizational development is a necessary condition for assuring sustainable faculty development for high-quality medical teaching. Organizational policies can only work in an organization that is developing. Recommendations for further development and future research are discussed.

  11. Synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands as influenza virus vaccine adjuvants induce rapid, sustained, and broadly protective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter H; Hayashi, Tomoko; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Corr, Maripat; Crain, Brian; Yao, Shiyin; Cottam, Howard B; Chan, Michael; Ramos, Irene; Eggink, Dirk; Heshmati, Mitra; Krammer, Florian; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Palese, Peter; Carson, Dennis A

    2015-03-01

    Current vaccines against influenza virus infection rely on the induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting the globular head of the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Protection against seasonal antigenic drift or sporadic pandemic outbreaks requires further vaccine development to induce cross-protective humoral responses, potentially to the more conserved HA stalk region. Here, we present a novel viral vaccine adjuvant comprised of two synthetic ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7. 1Z105 is a substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indole specific for the TLR4-MD2 complex, and 1V270 is a phospholipid-conjugated TLR7 agonist. Separately, 1Z105 induces rapid Th2-associated IgG1 responses, and 1V270 potently generates Th1 cellular immunity. 1Z105 and 1V270 in combination with recombinant HA from the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 strain (rPR/8 HA) effectively induces rapid and sustained humoral immunity that is protective against lethal challenge with a homologous virus. More importantly, immunization with the combined adjuvant and rPR/8 HA, a commercially available split vaccine, or chimeric rHA antigens significantly improves protection against both heterologous and heterosubtypic challenge viruses. Heterosubtypic protection is associated with broadly reactive antibodies to HA stalk epitopes. Histological examination and cytokine profiling reveal that intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 1Z105 and 1V270 is less reactogenic than a squalene-based adjuvant, AddaVax. In summary, the combination of 1Z105 and 1V270 with a recombinant HA induces rapid, long-lasting, and balanced Th1- and Th2-type immunity; demonstrates efficacy in a variety of murine influenza virus vaccine models assaying homologous, heterologous, and heterosubtypic challenge viruses; and has an excellent safety profile. Novel adjuvants are needed to enhance immunogenicity and increase the protective breadth of influenza virus vaccines to reduce the seasonal disease burden and ensure pandemic preparedness. We show

  12. Differentiation of BHV-1 isolates from vaccine virus by high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag-Hill, Claire; Fang, Liang; Izume, Satoko; Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Jin, Ling

    2015-02-16

    An efficacious bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) vaccine has been used for many years. However, in the past few years, abortion and respiratory diseases have occurred after administration of the modified live vaccine. To investigate whether BHV-1 isolates from disease outbreaks are identical to those of the vaccines used, selected regions of the BHV-1 genome were investigated by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and PCR-DNA sequencing. When a target region within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene was examined by HRM analysis, 6 out of the 11 isolates from abortion cases and 22 out of the 25 isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases had different melting curves compared to the vaccine virus. Surprisingly, when a conserved region within the US6 gene that encodes glycoprotein D (gD) was examined by HRM analysis, 5 out of the 11 abortion isolates and 18 out of the 23 BRD isolates had different melting curves from the vaccine virus. To determine whether SNPs within the coding regions of glycoprotein E (gE) and TK genes can be used to differentiate the isolates from the vaccine virus, PCR-DNA sequencing was used to examine these SNPs in all the isolates. This revealed that only 1 out of 11 of the abortion isolates and 4 out of 24 of the BRD isolates are different in the target region of gE from the vaccine virus, while 5 out of 11 abortion isolates and 4 out of 22 BRD isolates are different in the target region of TK from the vaccine virus. No DNA sequence differences were observed in glycoprotein G (gG) region between disease and vaccine isolates. Our study demonstrated that many disease isolates had genetic differences from the vaccine virus in regions examined by HRM and PCR-DNA sequencing analysis. In addition, many isolates contained more than one type of mutation and were composed of mixed variants. Our study suggests that a mixture of variants were present in isolates collected post-vaccination. HRM is a rapid diagnostic method that can be used for

  13. HPV awareness and willingness to HPV vaccination among high-risk men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Ortiz, Ana P; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M

    2012-12-01

    An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18-26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV- men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants'reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination.

  14. In a randomized trial, the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine TV003 is well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in subjects with flavivirus exposure prior to vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Stephen S.; Durbin, Anna P.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Elwood, Dan; McElvany, Benjamin D.; Fraser, Ellen A.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Tibery, Cecilia M.; Hynes, Noreen A.; Jo, Matthew; Lovchik, Janece M.; Larsson, Catherine J.; Doty, Elena A.; Dickson, Dorothy M.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.

    2017-01-01

    Infection caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) is a leading cause of mosquito-borne disease. Clinically-severe dengue disease is more common when secondary dengue infection occurs following prior infection with a heterologous dengue serotype. Other flaviviruses such as yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus, can also elicit antibodies which are cross-reactive to DENV. As candidate dengue vaccines become available in endemic settings and for individuals who have received other flavivirus vaccines, it is important to examine vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these flavivirus-experienced populations. We performed a randomized, controlled trial of the National Institutes of Health live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TV003) in fifty-eight individuals with prior exposure to flavivirus infection or vaccine. As in prior studies of this vaccine in flavivirus-naive volunteers, flavivirus-experienced subjects received two doses of vaccine six months apart and were followed closely for clinical events, laboratory changes, viremia, and neutralizing antibody titers. TV003 was well tolerated with few adverse events other than rash, which was predominately mild. Following one dose, 87% of vaccinees had an antibody response to all four serotypes (tetravalent response), suggesting a robust immune response. In addition, 76% of vaccinees were viremic; mean peak titers ranged from 0.68–1.1 log10 PFU/mL and did not differ by serotype. The second dose of TV003 was not associated with viremia, rash, or a sustained boost in antibody titers indicating that a single dose of the vaccine is likely sufficient to prevent viral replication and thus protect against disease. In comparison to the viremia and neutralizing antibody response elicited by TV003 in flavivirus-naïve subjects from prior studies, we found that subjects who were flavivirus-exposed prior to vaccination exhibited slightly higher DENV-3 viremia, higher

  15. The Sustained Rotavirus Vaccination Impact on Nosocomial Infection, Duration of Hospital Stay, and Age: The RotaBIS Study (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Baudouin; Strens, Danielle; Li, Xiao; Schecroun, Nadia; Raes, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in developed countries have focused on reductions in mortality, hospitalization and medical visits, and herd protection. We investigated other aspects related to RV-induced nosocomial infection, duration of hospital stay, age shift, and sustained vaccine impact (VI) over time. RotaBIS (Rotavirus Belgian Impact Study; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146) annually collects retrospective data on hospitalization linked to RV testing in children up to 5 years old from 11 pediatric wards located all over Belgium. Data from 2005 to 2012 have been split in pre- (2005-2006) and post-vaccination (2007-2012) period. Information was collected on age, gender, RV test result, nosocomial infection caused by RV and duration of hospital stay. Over the 6-year period after the introduction of the RV vaccine, an 85% reduction in nosocomial infections was observed (221 in 2005 to 33 in 2012, p nosocomial infections. A pronounced age shift (+24%, p nosocomial infection to infants ≤2 months old was observed, increasing with length of post-vaccination period. VI was maintained over the follow-up (±79% VI per birth cohort). A decrease was seen depending on age, 85% (95% CI 76-91%) in the youngest to 63% (95% CI 22-92%) in the oldest age group. The higher reduction in nosocomial infection may affect the overall average duration of hospital stay for RV infection. No change in VI by birth cohort, but a reduction by age group was observed. These findings could be important for decision-makers considering the introduction of universal mass RV vaccination programs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA (Rixensart, Belgium).

  16. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  17. Poor serologic responses five to seven years after immunization with high and standard titer measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, H; Aaby, P; Samb, B; Cissé, B; Kanteh, F; Soumaré, M; Jensen, H; Bennett, J; Simondon, F

    1999-01-01

    Few data exist on the persistence of measles antibodies after vaccination of West African infants. Therefore we examined measles antibody titers 5 to 7 years after children in rural Senegal had received high titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ-HT), high titer Schwarz (SW-HT) or standard titer Schwarz (SW-STD) measles vaccines in infancy. Children had received either high titer vaccines at 5 months of age or standard titer at 10 months of age. Finger prick blood samples were tested for measles antibody 5 to 7 years later by the hemagglutinin inhibition test. Persistence of antibody after high titer vaccines was poor with the result that 39 and 50% of the EZ-HT and the SW-HT groups had low titers of hemagglutinin inhibition measles antibodies (125 mIU/ml) in West Africa. The role of subclinical boosting by exposure to natural measles and the possible role of malaria, which increases immunoglobulin turnover, in influencing long term antibody persistence after vaccination deserve further investigation.

  18. Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Schönbeck, Y; De Melker, H; Van Essen, G A; Sanders, E A M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies. AIM: To determine attitudes of parents towards possible future vaccinations for their children and the

  19. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  20. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such ...

  1. Provider knowledge of trivalent inactivated and high-dose influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W; Talbot, H Keipp

    2014-10-21

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20-item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center. Two hundred and eighty-one (24.5%) providers responded. The correct response rate was 63.2%. The highest performing subspecialties were infectious diseases (80.5%), endocrinology (69.2%), and pulmonary (68%). Those who received an influenza vaccine during the most recent season scored significantly higher than those who did not (63.6% vs. 43.6%, p=.001). Areas where respondents did poorly included questions pertaining to contraindications to immunizations (27.4%), common adverse events after immunization (29.2%), target antigen (73.5%), number of strains in the trivalent inactivated vaccine (62.9%), and time to immunity (61.4%). High dose vaccine knowledge was poor, with 37% of providers unaware of its existence. Significant gaps in provider knowledge exist regarding both trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in a high-income, predominant-use setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Margaret K; Buckeridge, David L; Morrison, Kathryn T; Gagneur, Arnaud; Tapiero, Bruce; Charest, Hugues; Quach, Caroline

    2015-12-16

    We assessed monovalent rotavirus (RV1) vaccine effectiveness (VE) in a high-income setting with RV1 predominant use, and examined the burden of pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis following the implementation of an RV1-only vaccination program. We conducted active rotavirus gastroenteritis surveillance among children 8 weeks to vaccination histories were collected via parent/guardian interview and medical records. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus; positive specimens were genotyped. The effect of increasing RV1 coverage on rotavirus prevalence was examined as a weekly time series via binomial regression with a log link function, using either categorical season or mean 2-dose rotavirus seasonal vaccine coverage as the exposure variable. As compared with RV1 vaccine formulation, rotavirus genotypes were classified as homotypic, partly-heterotypic, or heterotypic; prevalence of each was compared by season. A test-negative case-control design was used to examine RV1 VE against hospitalization or emergency visits. We enrolled 866 participants in active surveillance; of these, 384 (44.3%) were eligible for VE analyses. After adjustment for season, we detected a 70.1% (95% CI: 21.9%, 88.6%) relative decrease in rotavirus prevalence in the 2013-14 season compared with 2012-13 season. On average, a 1% increase in ≥2-dose rotavirus coverage among children 1 year of age was associated with a 3.8% (95% CI: 1.8%, 5.8%) relative decrease in rotavirus prevalence. Rotavirus homotypic strain prevalence decreased, with 77% (95% CI: 68%, 89%) versus 8% (95% CI: 0%, 36%) prevalence during the 2011-12 and 2013-14 seasons, respectively. Adjusted 2-dose RV1 VE was 91.2% (95% CI: 61.6%, 98.0%). RV1 vaccine was highly effective to prevent rotavirus hospitalizations and emergency visits among children vaccine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    This paper discusses Farmer Field School (FFS) and Junior Farmer Field and Life. School (JFFLS) as challenges ..... One important issue in FFS is that of sustainability without outside funding. It .... Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), China.

  4. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36-7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease.

  5. Efficacy and safety of high-dose influenza vaccine in elderly adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista; Wei, Yichun; Szwajcer, Andrea; Rabbani, Rasheda; Zarychanski, Ryan; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Mahmud, Salaheddin M

    2017-05-15

    Older adults are prioritized for influenza vaccination but also have lowered antibody responses to the vaccine. Higher-doses of influenza antigen may increase immune response and thus be more effective. Our objectives were to compare the efficacy and safety of the high-dose influenza vaccine to the standard-dose influenza vaccine in the elderly (age>65). Data sources: Randomized trials (RCTs) from Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library (Wiley), ClinicalTrials.gov, reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature. Two reviewers independently identified RCTs comparing high-dose influenza vaccine (60μg of hemagglutinin per strain) to standard-dose influenza vaccine (15μg of hemagglutinin per strain) in adults over the age of 65years. Two reviewers independently extracted trial-level data including population characteristics, interventions, outcomes, and funding sources. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included seven eligible trials; all were categorized as having a low (n=3) or unclear (n=4) risk of bias. Patients receiving the high-dose vaccine had significantly less risk of developing laboratory-confirmed influenza infections (Relative Risk 0.76, 95%CI 0.65 to 0.90; I 2 0%, 2 trials, 41,141 patients). Post-vaccination geometric mean titres and seroprotection rates were also higher in high-dose vaccine recipients. There were no protocol-defined serious adverse events in the included trials in either group. In elderly adults, the high-dose influenza vaccine was well-tolerated, more immunogenic, and more efficacious in preventing influenza infections than the standard-dose vaccine. Further pragmatic trials are needed to determine if the higher efficacy translates into higher vaccine effectiveness in adults over the age of 65. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustained Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Against Very Severe Rotavirus Disease Through the Second Year of Life, Bolivia 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kimberly D; Patzi, Maritza; Tate, Jacqueline E; Iniguez Rojas, Volga; Patel, Manish; Inchauste Jordan, Lucia; Montesano, Raul; Zarate, Adolfo; De Oliveira, Lucia; Parashar, Umesh

    2016-05-01

    In Bolivia, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2008 and a previous evaluation reported a vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 77% with 2 doses of vaccine in children aged 5 years after its introduction in Bolivia. Although VE appears to wane in children aged ≥1 year, it still provides significant protection, and does not wane against severe disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination.

  8. Single-dose Universal Hepatitis A Immunization in One-year-old Children in Argentina: High Prevalence of Protective Antibodies up to 9 Years After Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Analía; González, Jorge E; Rearte, Analía; Pérez Carrega, María E; Calli, Rogelio; Pagani, María F; Uboldi, Andrea; Vicentín, Rosalía; Caglio, Patricia; Cañero-Velasco, María C; Gentile, Angela; Ramonet, Margarita; Vizzotti, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Single-dose hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination was implemented in all Argentinean children 12 months of age in 2005. Previous studies demonstrated high prevalence of protective antibody response 4 years after single-dose vaccination. This study assessed long-term seroprotection against HAV after vaccination. Children who received 1 dose of HAV vaccine at 1 year of age at least 6 years before enrollment were included at 5 centers in Argentina between 2013 and 2014. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for anti-HAV antibodies. Antibody values ≥10 mIU/mL were considered seroprotective. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between demographic and socioeconomic variables and seroprotection. A total of 1088 children were included, with a median postvaccination interval of 7.7 years (range 6.3-9.2 years). Of these children, 97.4% (95% confidence interval: 96.3%-98.3%) had protective antibodies against HAV. No association between demographic or socioeconomic variables and seroprotection was found. Geometric mean concentration of antibody levels against HAV was 170.5 mUI/mL (95% confidence interval: 163.2-178.2 mUI/mL). Single-dose universal hepatitis A immunization in 1-year-old children resulted in sustained immunologic protection for up to 9 years in Argentina. These findings, along with the low current disease burden, confirm the success of the intervention.

  9. Overcoming the barriers to HPV vaccination in high-risk populations in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Levi S; Scarinci, Isabel; Einstein, Mark H; Collins, Yvonne; Flowers, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    To review populations of women in the United States at high risk for cervical cancer, assess known reasons for existing outcome disparities, and discuss potential strategies to reduce barriers to HPV vaccination and current strategies for cervical cancer prevention. An expert forum conducted September 12-13, 2008, by the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists including 56 experts in cervical cancer and titled "Future strategies of cervical cancer prevention: what do we need to do now to prepare?" Although epidemiological data is useful and necessary to identify populations at high risk for cervical cancer, an understanding of the knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention of racial/ethnic groups and sub-groups within racial/ethnic categories is critical for the implementation of effective targeted and effective educational efforts. Inequities in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment and HPV vaccination may arise from a number of barriers including access to healthcare, cultural beliefs, and limited awareness of options. Initiatives to promote uptake of prophylactic HPV vaccination that target high-risk women need to be implemented before existing disparities widen. Although acceptability of HPV vaccination is promising, uptake is still low among low-income populations and specific racial/ethnic minorities. To address limited vaccine uptake it may be beneficial to establish national/state guidelines as well as culturally relevant interventions at the individual and community levels. The successful implementation of multiple integrated initiatives on HPV awareness, knowledge, and vaccination will diminish existing disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid, high-yield production in plants of individualized idiotype vaccines for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendandi, M; Marillonnet, S; Kandzia, R; Thieme, F; Nickstadt, A; Herz, S; Fröde, R; Inogés, S; Lòpez-Dìaz de Cerio, A; Soria, E; Villanueva, H; Vancanneyt, G; McCormick, A; Tusé, D; Lenz, J; Butler-Ransohoff, J-E; Klimyuk, V; Gleba, Y

    2010-12-01

    Animal and clinical studies with plant-produced single-chain variable fragment lymphoma vaccines have demonstrated specific immunogenicity and safety. However, the expression levels of such fragments were highly variable and required complex engineering of the linkers. Moreover, the downstream processing could not be built around standard methods like protein A affinity capture. We report a novel vaccine manufacturing process, magnifection, devoid of the above-mentioned shortcomings and allowing consistent and efficient expression in plants of whole immunoglobulins (Igs). Full idiotype (Id)-containing IgG molecules of 20 lymphoma patients and 2 mouse lymphoma models were expressed at levels between 0.5 and 4.8 g/kg of leaf biomass. Protein A affinity capture purification yielded antigens of pharmaceutical purity. Several patient Igs produced in plants showed specific cross-reactivity with sera derived from the same patients immunized with hybridoma-produced Id vaccine. Mice vaccinated with plant- or hybridoma-produced Igs showed comparable protection levels in tumor challenge studies. This manufacturing process is reliable and robust, the manufacturing time from biopsy to vaccine is antibodies in plants, providing 50- to 1000-fold higher yields than alternative plant expression methods.

  11. [HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage in France: Results of a survey among high school and university students in Marseilles' area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiani, L; Bremond, A; Mortier, I; Lecuyer, M; Boubli, L; Carcopino, X

    2012-04-01

    To assess HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage among French high school and university students as well as their level of education about this vaccine. An anonymous survey was conducted among 2500 high school and university students from the area of Marseilles, France, from December 2009 to April 2010. A total of 2018 questionnaires were collected (80.7% participation rate). Mean age of participants was 20 years (range, 15-45 years). Only 671 (35.4%) participants reported having been vaccinated against HPV, of whom 510 (73.4%) had completed the three injections scheme. Practice of cytological cervical cancer screening was not significantly influenced by vaccination status. Thus, 578 (45.2%) participants who had not been vaccinated already had had a cervical cytology performed, versus 295 (43.3%) vaccinated ones (P=0.445). Among those not being vaccinated, 671 (49.8%) fulfilled criteria for a catch-up vaccination, of whom only 325 (48.4%) agreed for such a catch-up. Main reasons given for refusal for a catch-up vaccination were the lack of information about HPV vaccine and fear of side effects. In total, 1722 (90%) considered themselves as educated about the HPV vaccine. Source of education was attributed to doctors and media by 54.4% and 53.7% of participants, respectively. Educational role attributed to school and university was poor (3.4%). Despite apparent satisfactory level of education, HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage among high school and university students appears to be insufficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...... significantly (p vaccinated group, as well as the viral load for positive pools from 5.79 to 3.99 log(10) copies per ml serum. Despite this, feed conversion ratio for the two groups were not significantly...... different with an average of 2.75 and 2.76 feeding units/kg gain for vaccinated and control pigs, respectively (p = 0.598). The proportion of pigs treated by injection with an antimicrobial was lower in the vaccinated group (4.4%) compared to the non-vaccinated group (5.6%), but the difference...

  13. Safe, High-Performance, Sustainable Precast School Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsen, Peter I.

    2011-01-01

    School design utilizing integrated architectural and structural precast and prestressed concrete components has gained greater acceptance recently for numerous reasons, including increasingly sophisticated owners and improved learning environments based on material benefits such as: sustainability, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, storm…

  14. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    Abstract. The study assessed farmers' benefits derived from Olam organization's sustainable cocoa production extension activities in Ondo state. Structured and validated interview schedule was used to collect relevant information from thirty cocoa farmers, using multistage random sampling technique from cocoa producing ...

  15. Sustainability evaluation of high value-added products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the authors present a brief overview of the methods that are presently in use for evaluating sustainability. They discuss more deeply the pros and cons of the various methods, with a strong focus on the LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) method. Given is an overview of the available literature

  16. Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Le, Aurora B; Jelden, Katelyn C; Hewlett, Angela L; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.

  17. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  18. High definition viral vaccine strain identity and stability testing using full-genome population data--The next generation of vaccine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höper, Dirk; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Hanke, Dennis; von Messling, Veronika; Duchow, Karin; Beer, Martin; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2015-10-26

    Vaccines are the most effective prophylactic public health tools. With the help of vaccines, prevention of infectious disease spread and, in concert with other measures, even eradication has become possible. Until now, licensing and quality control require the determination of consensus genome sequences of replication competent infectious agents contained in vaccines. Recent improvements in sequencing technologies now enable the sequencing of complete genomes and the genetic analysis of populations with high reliability and resolution. The latter is particularly important for RNA viruses, which consist of fluctuating heterogeneous populations rather than genetically stable entities. This information now has to be integrated into the existing regulatory framework, challenging both licensing authorities and vaccine producers to develop new quality control criteria. Commercially available modified-live oral rabies vaccines and their precursor strains were deep-sequenced to assess strain identity and relations between strains based on population diversity. Strain relations were inferred based on the Manhattan distances calculated between the compositions of the viral populations of the strains. We provide a novel approach to assess viral strain relations with high resolution and reliability by deep sequencing with subsequent analysis of the overall genetic diversity within the viral populations. A comparison of our novel approach of inferring strain relations based on population data with consensus sequence analysis clearly shows that consensus sequence analysis of diverse viral populations can be misleading. Therefore, for quality control of viral vaccines deep sequencing analysis is to be preferred over consensus sequence analysis. The presented methodology allows for routine integration of deep sequencing data in vaccine quality control and licensing for highly reliable assessment of strain identity and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunologic evaluation of 10 different adjuvants for use in vaccines for chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a threat to poultry production worldwide. Vaccination is utilized as a component of control programs for both high pathogenicity (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV. Over 95% of all AIV vaccine used in poultry are inactivated, adjuvanted products. To identify the be...

  20. Influence of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy and susceptibility of commercial broilers against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in short-lived broilers. This study seeks to assess how maternal immunity can interfere with vaccine efficacy against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and how ...

  1. Adaptation of High-Growth Influenza H5N1 Vaccine Virus in Vero Cells: Implications for Pandemic Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Liang; Yeh, Wei-Zhou; Weng, Tsai-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Shuan; Chong, Pele; Lee, Min-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14), a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15) was generated and can grow over 108 TCID50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes. PMID:22022351

  2. Adaptation of high-growth influenza H5N1 vaccine virus in Vero cells: implications for pandemic preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Tseng

    Full Text Available Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14, a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15 was generated and can grow over 10(8 TCID(50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes.

  3. Vaccine protection of poultry against H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 2014-2015 outbreaks of H5N2 and H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S., studies were performed to identify vaccines with potential to be used as a control mechanism in the event of future outbreaks. We tested both inactivated and recombinant vaccine...

  4. Activity-based Sustainability Assessment of Highly Automated Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki; Alting, Leo

    . It uses a top-down decision-making process known from financial target setting for each cost center and the well-known life-cycle perspective according to ISO 14040 [2] in Sustainability Assessment. Thereby it is possible to allocate absolute environmental thresholds of functionalities (e.......g. “transportation”) down to smallest production units by using activity-based target setting in a consistent way to lowers risks in the planning phase of products and production....

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY TOURISTIC REGION OF ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the scale of tourism grows, the resource use threatens to become unsustainable. Withought environmental responsibility the levels of cheaper mass tourism will increase, forcing more “nature-based” tourism to move on to new destinations. This scenario is opposite to the “Croatian Tourism Development by 2010” strategy. With a favourable geographic position, almost at the heart of Europe, Istria has always represented a bridge connecting the Middle European continental area with the Mediterranean. This area is the most visited Croatian tourist region with 27% of all visitors and 35% of time spent in all of Croatia. The Croatian National Bank’s preliminary figures for 2007 show that international tourism generated 18.4% of Croatian GDP. For these reasons the Istrian tourism industry can not ignore environmental issues in its management and requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders (according to the Agenda 21 for tourism industry. Properly planned tourism development, combined with environmental protection, produces the concept of sustainable tourism. Environmentally sustainable form of tourism represents a step forward from "sea and sun" mass tourism developed at the coastal part of Istria. There are a myriad of definitions for Sustainable Tourism, including eco-tourism, green travel, environmentally and culturally responsible tourism, fair trade and ethical travel. Mentioned selective tourism forms are adopted as the concept of the present and future Istrian destination development.

  6. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  7. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  8. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in the context of high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võrno, Triin; Lutsar, Katrin; Uusküla, Anneli; Padrik, Lee; Raud, Terje; Reile, Rainer; Nahkur, Oliver; Kiivet, Raul-Allan

    2017-11-01

    Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme. The model followed the natural progression of HPV infection into subsequent genital warts (GW); premalignant lesions (CIN1-3); cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer. Vaccine coverage was assumed to be 70%. A time horizon of 88years (up to 100years of age) was used to capture all lifetime vaccination costs and benefits. Costs and utilities were discounted using an annual discount rate of 5%. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside screening compared to screening alone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €14,007 (bivalent), €14,067 (quadrivalent) and €11,633 (nonavalent) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in the base-case scenario and ranged between €5367-21,711, €5142-21,800 and €4563-18,142, respectively, in sensitivity analysis. The results were most sensitive to changes in discount rate, vaccination regimen, vaccine prices and cervical cancer screening coverage. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside current cervical cancer screening can be considered a cost-effective intervention in Estonia. Adding HPV vaccination to the national immunisation schedule is expected to prevent a considerable number of HPV infections, genital warts, premalignant lesions, HPV related cancers and deaths. Although in our model ICERs varied slightly depending on the vaccine used, they generally fell within the same range. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination was found to be most dependent on vaccine cost and duration of vaccine immunity, but not on the type of vaccine

  10. Silk materials--a road to sustainable high technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-06-05

    This review addresses the use of silk protein as a sustainable material in optics and photonics, electronics and optoelectronic applications. These options represent additional developments for this technology platform that compound the broad utility and impact of this material for medical needs that have been recently described in the literature. The favorable properties of the material certainly make a favorable case for the use of silk, yet serve as a broad inspiration to further develop biological foundries for both the synthesis and processing of Nature's materials for technological applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sustainability and Efficiency Improvements of Gas-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmier, A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers three fundamental aspects of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) performance, namely fuel testing under irradiation for maximized safety and sustainability, fuel architecture for improved economy and sustainability, and a novel Balance of Plant concept to enable

  12. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens; Sodemann, Morten; Aaby, Peter

    2011-05-09

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau. From May 2003 to May 2004, all consultations of children less than five years of age at the outpatient clinic of the paediatric ward at the national hospital in Bissau were registered. For each consultation, information was collected about the child's name, sex, age and socio-cultural conditions, as well as diagnosis and whether the child was hospitalised. Information about vaccinations was also registered from the child's vaccination card. We analysed the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in age intervals according to the pre-dominant vaccines. We particularly emphasised the comparison of those who had received the recommended vaccination for the age groups and those who were delayed and only had the previous vaccinations. We also examined those who had received the vaccines out of sequence. Information about vaccinations was available for 11,949 outpatient children of whom 2219 (19%) were hospitalised. Among children less than 3 months of age, unvaccinated children compared to BCG children had as expected a higher risk of hospitalisation; controlled for important determinants of hospitalisation, the hospitalisation risk ratio (HRR) was 1.99 (95% CI 1.37-2.89). In contrast, there was no difference in the HRR for children aged 1½-8 months who were delayed and had only received BCG compared to those who as recommended had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine after BCG (HRR=1.10 (0.77-1.59)). In the age interval 9-17 months of age, children who were delayed and had only received DTP had significantly higher risk of hospitalisation compared with children who as recommended had measles vaccine (MV) as the most recent vaccination (HRR

  13. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Mann

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with either placebo, antigen alone, CSN adjuvanted antigen, or TM-CSN adjuvanted antigen. Homologous and intra-subtypic antibody cross-reacting responses were assessed. Ferrets were inoculated intratracheally (all treatments or intranasally (CSN adjuvanted and placebo treatments only with clade 1 HPAI A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus 28 days after the second vaccination and subsequently monitored for morbidity and mortality outcomes. Clinical signs were assessed and nasal as well as throat swabs were taken daily for virology. Samples of lung tissue, nasal turbinates, brain, and olfactory bulb were analysed for the presence of virus and examined for histolopathological findings. In contrast to animals vaccinated with antigen alone, the CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccines induced high levels of antibodies, protected ferrets from death, reduced viral replication and abrogated disease after intratracheal challenge, and in the case of CSN after intranasal challenge. In particular, the TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccine was highly effective at eliciting protective immunity from intratracheal challenge; serologically, protective titres were demonstrable after one vaccination. The 2-dose schedule with TM-CSN vaccine also induced cross-reactive antibodies to clade 2.1 and 2.2 H5N1 viruses. Furthermore ferrets immunised with TM-CSN had no detectable virus in the respiratory tract or brain, whereas there were signs of virus in the throat and lungs, albeit at significantly reduced levels, in CSN vaccinated animals. This study demonstrated for the first time that CSN and in particular TM-CSN adjuvanted intranasal vaccines have the potential to protect against significant

  14. High Performance Education Fails in Sustainability? —A Reflection on Finnish Primary Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili-Ann Wolff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is internationally often emphasized as an essential aim of higher education, but more as a principle than on the practical level. This is also obvious in the academic education of primary teachers in Finland. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Finnish teachers to include sustainability in their teaching and everyday life in schools. The aim of this article is to critically analyze why the implementation of sustainability in teacher education is so intricate and to discuss possible solutions with Finland—a country highly valued for its education—as an example. The article reports outcomes from educational policy documents and research on educational, philosophical, scientific and social aspects of sustainability, including evaluation of how sustainability has been implemented in schools and at universities, especially among teacher educators. In addition, the article builds on analyses of comprehensive university strategies and primary school teacher education programs. We found these reasons for the ignoring of sustainability in the Finnish teacher education: sustainability is in conflict with overall trends in society and politics, teacher education takes place at universities and is based on separate academic disciplines. Sustainability is also intricate because it is strongly connected to ecological literacy and it is value dependent. Universities need to overcome these obstacles and become forerunners in the sustainability process.

  15. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingsheng; Chen, Xiaoming; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shukai; Zang, Fuyu; Xing, Jinchao; Zhang, Youyue; Liang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Guihong; Liao, Ming; Qi, Wenbao

    2017-01-01

    In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health. This JEV DNA-based replicon contains a large deletion in the structural genes (C-prM-E). A PRRSV GP5/M was inserted into the deletion position of JEV DNA-based replicons to develop a chimeric replicon vaccine candidate for PRRSV. The results showed that BALB/c mice models with the replicon vaccines pJEV-REP-G-2A-M-IRES and pJEV-REP-G-2A-M stimulated antibody responses and induced a cellular immune response. Analysis of ELSA data showed that vaccination with the replicon vaccine expressing GP5/M induced a better antibodies response than traditional DNA vaccines. Therefore, the results suggested that this ectopic expression system based on JEV DNA-based replicons may represent a useful molecular platform for various biological applications, and the JEV DNA-based replicons expressing GP5/M can be further developed into a novel, safe vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  16. Improved immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine in adult oncology patients younger than 65 years receiving chemotherapy: A pilot randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Saad; Walsh, Edward E; Dimitroff, Lynda J; Santelli, Jeanine Seguin; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-01-27

    Patients undergoing chemotherapy often fail to develop robust responses to influenza vaccination. Compared to standard-dose influenza vaccine (SD), high-dose influenza vaccine (HD) has shown improved immunogenicity and protection against influenza illness in adults 65 years and older. This study compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of HD to SD in adults younger than 65 years of age receiving chemotherapy. This double-blind study randomized patients receiving chemotherapy to vaccination with either SD or HD influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition assays (HAI) were performed prior to and 4 weeks after vaccination. HAI were summarized as geometric mean titers (GMT), seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates. A total of 105 subjects were enrolled in the trial (51 received SD and 54 received HD). Subjects were well matched for demographic and medical conditions. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no SAEs. Of the 100 subjects with evaluable data, seroconversion rates for all 3 influenza antigens & post-vaccination GMTs for H3N2 & B strains were significantly improved with HD compared to SD. Seroprotection was excellent and equivalent in both groups. Trivalent high-dose influenza vaccine can be safely administered to patients receiving chemotherapy with improved immunogenicity and seroconversion compared to standard-dose vaccine. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates were similar in both groups. A larger study is needed to show clinical benefits with HD in this population. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01666782. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of age on the effectiveness of PCV2 vaccination in piglets with high levels of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Michael; Palzer, Andreas; Rist, Beate; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Fachinger, Vicky; Eggen, Alex; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2014-01-31

    Two field studies were conducted to investigate the influence of age on the efficacy of vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD) in animals with high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 416 piglets (Study 1) and 600 piglets (Study 2) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two groups in each study received a single dose of a PCV2 subunit vaccine, one group at 1 week old and the other at 3 weeks of age. The third group was left untreated. Animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed a significantly higher average daily weight gain and significantly reduced viraemia following PCV2 infection than the respective control groups. This difference was not observed in pigs vaccinated at 1 week of age. Furthermore, only animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed an increased serological response and a higher frequency of IgM-positive animals compared with controls. The data indicated that PCV2 vaccination in the presence of high MDA levels is efficacious when used in 3-week old but not in 1-week old pigs. As the range of MDA titres of pigs vaccinated at both 1 and 3 weeks of age were comparable, the data suggest that PCV2 vaccine efficacy was independent of the level of MDA. It appears that other age-related factors affecting the active and passive transfer of immunity may perhaps have interfered with the efficacy of the vaccine in 1-week old piglets. These findings have implications for future PCV2 vaccine testing and administration strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  19. High performance sport and sustainability: a contradiction of terms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchtia, N.; Wals, A.E.J.; Tinning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Success in high performance sport has always been highly valued. Today, lucrative contracts, sponsorship deals and opportunities for celebrity status are balanced against substantial time spent training and high chances of failure. With pressure mounting on athletes to make the most of their

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose vaccine in children and young adults with cancer or HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Allison, Kim J; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2016-06-08

    Approaches to improve the immune response of immunocompromised patients to influenza vaccination are needed. Children and young adults (3-21 years) with cancer or HIV infection were randomized to receive 2 doses of high-dose (HD) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or of standard-dose (SD) TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers were measured against H1, H3, and B antigens after each dose and 9 months later. Seroconversion was defined as ≥4-fold rise in HAI titer comparing pre- and post-vaccine sera. Seroprotection was defined as a post-vaccine HAI titer ≥1:40. Reactogenicity events (RE) were solicited using a structured questionnaire 7 and 14 days after each dose of vaccine, and adverse events by medical record review for 21 days after each dose of vaccine. Eighty-five participants were enrolled in the study; 27 with leukemia, 17 with solid tumor (ST), and 41 with HIV. Recipients of HD TIV had significantly greater fold increase in HAI titers to B antigen in leukemia group and to H1 antigen in ST group compared to SD TIV recipients. This increase was not documented in HIV group. There were no differences in seroconversion or seroprotection between HD TIV and SD TIV in all groups. There was no difference in the percentage of solicited RE in recipients of HD TIV (54% after dose 1 and 38% after dose 2) compared to SD TIV (40% after dose 1 and 20% after dose 2, p=0.27 and 0.09 after dose 1 and 2, respectively). HD TIV was more immunogenic than SD TIV in children and young adults with leukemia or ST, but not with HIV. HD TIV was safe and well-tolerated in children and young adults with leukemia, ST, or HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of vaccination on 14 high-risk HPV type infections: a mathematical modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Tiihonen, Petri; Apter, Dan; Lehtinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer is a complicated process. We considered solely hrHPV infections, thus avoiding the confounding effects of disease progression, screening, and treatments. To analyse hrHPV epidemiology and to estimate the overall impact of vaccination against infections with hrHPVs, we developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model for single and multiple infections with 14 hrHPV types. The infection-related parameters were estimated using population-based sexual behaviour and hrHPV prevalence data from Finland. The analysis disclosed the important role of persistent infections in hrHPV epidemiology, provided further evidence for a significant natural immunity, and demonstrated the dependence of transmission probability estimates on the model structure. The model predicted that vaccinating girls at 80% coverage will result in a 55% reduction in the overall hrHPV prevalence and a higher 65% reduction in the prevalence of persistent hrHPV infections in females. In males, the reduction will be 42% in the hrHPV prevalence solely by the herd effect from the 80% coverage in girls. If such high coverage among girls is not reached, it is still possible to reduce the female hrHPV prevalence indirectly by the herd effect if also boys are included in the vaccination program. On the other hand, any herd effects in older unvaccinated cohorts were minor. Limiting the epidemiological model to infection yielded improved understanding of the hrHPV epidemiology and of mechanisms with which vaccination impacts on hrHPV infections.

  2. Impact of vaccination on 14 high-risk HPV type infections: a mathematical modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopekka Vänskä

    Full Text Available The development of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection to cervical cancer is a complicated process. We considered solely hrHPV infections, thus avoiding the confounding effects of disease progression, screening, and treatments. To analyse hrHPV epidemiology and to estimate the overall impact of vaccination against infections with hrHPVs, we developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model for single and multiple infections with 14 hrHPV types. The infection-related parameters were estimated using population-based sexual behaviour and hrHPV prevalence data from Finland. The analysis disclosed the important role of persistent infections in hrHPV epidemiology, provided further evidence for a significant natural immunity, and demonstrated the dependence of transmission probability estimates on the model structure. The model predicted that vaccinating girls at 80% coverage will result in a 55% reduction in the overall hrHPV prevalence and a higher 65% reduction in the prevalence of persistent hrHPV infections in females. In males, the reduction will be 42% in the hrHPV prevalence solely by the herd effect from the 80% coverage in girls. If such high coverage among girls is not reached, it is still possible to reduce the female hrHPV prevalence indirectly by the herd effect if also boys are included in the vaccination program. On the other hand, any herd effects in older unvaccinated cohorts were minor. Limiting the epidemiological model to infection yielded improved understanding of the hrHPV epidemiology and of mechanisms with which vaccination impacts on hrHPV infections.

  3. Impact of Vaccination on 14 High-Risk HPV Type Infections: A Mathematical Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Tiihonen, Petri; Apter, Dan; Lehtinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer is a complicated process. We considered solely hrHPV infections, thus avoiding the confounding effects of disease progression, screening, and treatments. To analyse hrHPV epidemiology and to estimate the overall impact of vaccination against infections with hrHPVs, we developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model for single and multiple infections with 14 hrHPV types. The infection-related parameters were estimated using population-based sexual behaviour and hrHPV prevalence data from Finland. The analysis disclosed the important role of persistent infections in hrHPV epidemiology, provided further evidence for a significant natural immunity, and demonstrated the dependence of transmission probability estimates on the model structure. The model predicted that vaccinating girls at 80% coverage will result in a 55% reduction in the overall hrHPV prevalence and a higher 65% reduction in the prevalence of persistent hrHPV infections in females. In males, the reduction will be 42% in the hrHPV prevalence solely by the herd effect from the 80% coverage in girls. If such high coverage among girls is not reached, it is still possible to reduce the female hrHPV prevalence indirectly by the herd effect if also boys are included in the vaccination program. On the other hand, any herd effects in older unvaccinated cohorts were minor. Limiting the epidemiological model to infection yielded improved understanding of the hrHPV epidemiology and of mechanisms with which vaccination impacts on hrHPV infections. PMID:24009669

  4. Sun protection to improve vaccine effectiveness in children in a high ambient ultraviolet radiation and rural environment: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a mainstay of preventive healthcare, reducing the incidence of serious childhood infections. Ecological studies have demonstrated an inverse association between markers of high ambient ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure (e.g., sunny season, low latitude of residence and reduction in the vaccination-associated immune response. Higher sun exposure on the day prior to and spanning the day of vaccination has been associated with a reduced antigen-specific immune response independent of skin pigmentation. The South African Department of Health’s Expanded Programme on Immunisation provides free vaccinations in government primary health care clinics. In some areas, these clinics may have only a small waiting room and patients wait outside in full sun conditions. In rural areas, patients may walk several kilometres to and from the clinic. We hypothesised that providing sun protection advice and equipment to mothers of children (from 18 months who were waiting to be vaccinated would result in a more robust immune response for those vaccinated. Methods We conducted an intervention study among 100 children receiving the booster measles vaccination. We randomised clinics to receive (or not sun protection advice and equipment. At each clinic we recorded basic demographic data on the child and mother/carer participants, their sun exposure patterns, and the acceptability and uptake of the provided sun protection. At 3–4 weeks post-vaccination, we measured measles IgG levels in all children. Discussion This is the first intervention study to assess the effect of sun protection measures on vaccine effectiveness in a rural, real-world setting. The novel design and rural setting of the study can contribute much needed evidence to better understand sun exposure and protection, as well as factors determining vaccine effectiveness in rural Africa, and inform the design of immunisation programmes. (TRN PACTCR201611001881114, 24

  5. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  6. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranckx Katleen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV or a highly virulent (HV M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT. The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. Results The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. Conclusions In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  7. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Katleen; Maes, Dominiek; Marchioro, Silvana B; Villarreal, Iris; Chiers, Koen; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-03-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV) or a highly virulent (HV) M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI) were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  8. Cost-effectiveness and public health impact of alternative influenza vaccination strategies in high-risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviotta, Jonathan M; Smith, Kenneth J; DePasse, Jay; Brown, Shawn T; Shim, Eunha; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Wateska, Angela; France, Glenson S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2017-10-09

    High-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) or recombinant trivalent influenza vaccine (RIV) may increase influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in adults with conditions that place them at high risk for influenza complications. This analysis models the public health impact and cost-effectiveness (CE) of these vaccines for 50-64year-olds. Markov model CE analysis compared 5 strategies in 50-64year-olds: no vaccination; only standard-dose IIV3 offered (SD-IIV3 only), only quadrivalent influenza vaccine offered (SD-IIV4 only); high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV3 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV3); and high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV4 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV4). In a secondary analysis, RIV replaced HD-IIV3. Parameters were obtained from U.S. databases, the medical literature and extrapolations from VE estimates. Effectiveness was measured as 3%/year discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) losses avoided. The least expensive strategy was SD-IIV3 only, with total costs of $99.84/person. The SD-IIV4 only strategy cost an additional $0.91/person, or $37,700/QALY gained. The HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV4 strategy cost $1.06 more than SD-IIV4 only, or $71,500/QALY gained. No vaccination and HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV3 strategies were dominated. Results were sensitive to influenza incidence, vaccine cost, standard-dose VE in the entire population and high-dose VE in high-risk patients. The CE of RIV for high-risk patients was dependent on as yet unknown parameter values. Based on available data, using high-dose influenza vaccine or RIV in middle-aged, high-risk patients may be an economically favorable vaccination strategy with public health benefits. Clinical trials of these vaccines in this population may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-specific effects of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in high income setting : Population based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; de Melker, Hester E.; Hahné, Susan J M; Boef, Anna G. C.; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Van Der Sande, Marianne A.B.; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has positive non-specific effects in a high income setting and to compare rates of hospital admissions for infections between children aged ≤2 years who received live MMR vaccine and those who received an inactivated vaccine

  10. Smoking and older age associated with mumps in an outbreak in a group of highly-vaccinated individuals attending a youth club party, the Netherlands, 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladbury, G.; Ostendorf, S.; Waegemaekers, T.; Binnendijk, R. van; Boot, H.; Hahne, S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a mumps outbreak in a highly-vaccinated population attending a party at a youth club. In a retrospective cohort study with 60 of approximately 100 participants responding, vaccination status was verified for 58/59 respondents, of whom 54 were vaccinated twice and four once. The attack

  11. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. Knowledge and factors associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance among students’ parents in two Parisian high-schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ecollan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    With a vaccination rate of only 18% among 15 year-old girls, HPV prophylactic coverage remains insufficient in France. We lack data on barriers to HPV vaccination among parents, especially outside a medical context. The goal of this work was to study parental knowledge and factors associated with HPV vaccine adhesion. We performed a cross-sectional study among the parents in two Parisian high-schools (Henri IV and Varèse). A self-report questionnaire was distributed to the parents at the pare...

  13. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    security and the general livelihood conditions of any population. Agriculture, being one of the most weather-dependent of all human activities is highly vulnerable to climate change. African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their dependence on rain fed agriculture, high levels of poverty, low.

  14. Rabies infection and specific effect of vaccination in mice selected for high and low immunobiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-da-Silva L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate and acquired resistance to rabies infection was investigated in mice genetically selected for high (H or low (L antibody responsiveness from selections I, III and IV and in mice selected for maximal (AIRmax or minimal (AIRmin acute inflammatory reaction. These mouse lines were infected intramuscularly with different virus dilutions and the LD50 was determined. The HIII and HIV mouse lines were more susceptible than the LIII and LIV lines and the HI line showed a discrete but higher resistance than the LI line. Analysis of the interline (H x L F1 hybrids from selections III and IV indicated different dominance effects on the "resistant" and" susceptible" phenotypes when the route of vaccination was changed. No differences were observed between the AIRmax and AIRmin mice, suggesting that inflammation plays a minor role in the resistance to rabies virus. The comparison of LD50 in mice vaccinated by distinct routes showed that the highest interline difference occurred after intramuscular vaccination (250-fold between H and L and 800-fold between F1 and L. These results indicate that different mechanisms may participate in acquired antirabies resistance

  15. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbise, Anne; Cerdà Marín, Alba; Ave, Patrick; Blisnick, Thierry; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2012-01-01

    Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells) and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells). A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50) of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain) and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50)). Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  16. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells. A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50. Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  17. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  18. Genetic analysis and characterization of wild poliovirus type 1 during sustained transmission in a population with >95% vaccine coverage, Israel 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Martin, Javier; Sofer, Danit; Burns, Cara C; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Gavrilin, Eugene; Wilton, Thomas; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Gamzo, Ronni; Mendelson, Ella; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-04-01

    Israel has >95% polio vaccine coverage with the last 9 birth cohorts immunized exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Using acute flaccid paralysis and routine, monthly countrywide environmental surveillance, no wild poliovirus circulation was detected between 1989 and February 2013, after which wild type 1 polioviruses South Asia genotype (WPV1-SOAS) have persistently circulated in southern Israel and intermittently in other areas without any paralytic cases as determined by intensified surveillance of environmental and human samples. We aimed to characterize antigenic and neurovirulence properties of WPV1-SOAS silently circulating in a highly vaccinated population. WPV1-SOAS capsid genes from environmental and stool surveillance isolates were sequenced, their neurovirulence was determined using transgenic mouse expressing the human poliovirus receptor (Tg21-PVR) mice, and their antigenicity was characterized by in vitro neutralization using human sera, epitope-specific monoclonal murine anti-oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) antibodies, and sera from IPV-immunized rats and mice. WPV1 amino acid sequences in neutralizing epitopes varied from Sabin 1 and Mahoney, with little variation among WPV1 isolates. Neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against 3 of 4 OPV epitopes was lost. Three-fold lower geometric mean titers (Z = -4.018; P SOAS isolates were neurovirulent (50% intramuscular paralytic dose in Tg21-PVR mice: log10(7.0)). IPV-immunized mice were protected against WPV1-induced paralysis. Phenotypic and antigenic profile changes of WPV1-SOAS may have contributed to the intense silent transmission, whereas the reduced neurovirulence may have contributed to the absence of paralytic cases in the background of high population immunity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shey Wiysonge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.

  20. Bacterial superglue generates a full-length circumsporozoite protein virus-like particle vaccine capable of inducing high and durable antibody responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janitzek, Christoph M; Matondo, Sungwa; Thrane, Susan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, continues to have a devastating impact on global health, emphasizing the great need for a malaria vaccine. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is an attractive target for a malaria vaccine, and forms a major component of RTS,S, the most...... clinically advanced malaria vaccine. The clinical efficacy of RTS,S has been moderate, yet has demonstrated the viability of a CSP-based malaria vaccine. In this study, a vaccine comprised of the full-length CSP antigen presented on a virus-like particle (VLP) is produced using a split-intein conjugation...... to a control vaccine consisting of soluble CSP plus AP205 VLPs. The SpyTag-VLP platform utilized in this study constitutes a versatile and rapid method to develop highly immunogenic vaccines. It might serve as a generic tool for the cost-effective development of effective VLP-vaccines, e.g., against malaria....

  1. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da

    2015-01-01

    A and monophosphoryl lipid A), were free-flowing liquids at room temperature and formed stable gels at physiological temperatures. Rheological results showed that both systems meet the criteria of being thermoresponsive gels. The P407-25R4 sol-gels did not significantly sustain the release of antigen in vivo while...... the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations...

  2. Vaccinating High-Risk Pediatric Patients and Their Families in the Hospital Setting: Give It a Shot!

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Rebecca; Gornick, Wendi; Tran, M Tuan; Huff, Beth; Singh, Jasjit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospitalization and hospital-based clinics confer an opportunity to target high-risk patients and their families who would benefit from vaccination. Methods CHOC Children’s Hospital is a tertiary-care hospital in Southern California with 11,995 admissions in 2016, including 1,580 hematology/oncology (HO) admissions. We examined the trend in influenza vaccine administration in hospitalized and HO patients over the last decade. We assessed the trend in Tdap and influenza vac...

  3. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    2010). The vulnerability of the developing countries like Nigeria is worsened by ... unpredictable yields, thereby making farmers more vulnerable, particularly in Africa ..... or build resilience .488 .400 .009 -.041 .212 -.296 .337. High cost of improved varieties .175 .124 .862 .082 .086 .053 -.045. Non-availability of farm labour.

  4. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  5. National Childhood Vaccine-Injury Compensation Act. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress on S.2117 to Amend the Public Health Service Act to Provide for the Compensation of Children and Others Who Have Sustained Vaccine-Related Injury, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Statements are presented which were made at this hearing to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for the compensation of children and others who have sustained vaccine-related injury. While the hearing focused on the costs and the regulatory burden that might be imposed by the legislation, the following areas were also addressed: (1) the…

  6. Beyond Magnet® Designation: Perspectives From Nurse Managers on Factors of Sustainability and High-Performance Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Margaret A; Wolf, Gail A; Zedreck-Gonzalez, Judith F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify patterns of high-performing behaviors and nurse manager perceptions of the factors of Magnet® sustainability at a multidesignated Magnet organization. The Magnet program recognizes exemplary professional nursing practice and is challenging to achieve and sustain. Only 10% (n = 42) of Magnet hospitals sustained designation for 12 years or longer. This study explored the perspectives of Magnet nurse managers regarding high-performing teams and the sustainability of Magnet designation. A qualitative study of nurse managers was conducted at 1 multidesignated Magnet organization (n = 13). Interview responses were analyzed using pattern recognition of Magnet model domains and characteristics of high-performing teams and then related to factors of Magnet sustainability. Transformational leadership is both an essential factor for sustainability and a potential barrier to sustainability of Magnet designation. Transformational nursing leaders lead high-performing teams and should be in place at all levels as an essential factor in sustaining Magnet redesignation.

  7. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  8. Production of a highly immunogenic subunit ISCOM vaccine against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Roensholt, L.; Jensen, M.Holm

    1999-01-01

    by Vaccination of the dam. We describe in this report the production and initial testing of an inactivated subunit vaccine against BVDV. The vaccine is based on production of antigen in primary bovine cell cultures, extraction of antigens from infected cells with detergent, chromatographic purification......, concentration, and insertion of antigens into immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs). Vaccines based on two different Danish strains of BVDV were injected into calves and the antisera produced were tested for neutralising activity against a panel of Danish BVDV strains. The two vaccines induced different...... neutralisation responses, which seem to partly complement each other. The implication of these observations for successful Vaccination against BVDV is discussed....

  9. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  10. Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Janssen, Matty; Bystrom, Roberth

    2017-01-01

    using wheat straw and spruce as interesting Nordic raw materials. During the project, the main scientific, economic, and technical challenges of such a process were identified. Integrated solutions to these challenges were proposed and tested experimentally, using wheat straw and spruce wood at a dry...... at high gravity, i.e., a process operating at the highest possible concentrations of raw material. The results and opinions presented here are the result of a Nordic collaborative study within the framework of the HG Biofuels project. Processes with bioethanol or biobutanol as target products were studied...

  11. Highly immunogenic prime–boost DNA vaccination protects chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stachyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry because of high mortality rate in infected flocks and trade restrictions. Protective antibodies, directed mainly against hemagglutinin (HA, are the primary means of protection against influenza outbreaks. A recombinant DNA vaccine based on the sequence of H5 HA from the H5N1/A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 strain of HPAIV was prepared. Sequence manipulation included deletion of the proteolytic cleavage site to improve protein stability, codon usage optimization to improve translation and stability of RNA in host cells, and cloning into a commercially available vector to enable expression in animal cells. Naked plasmid DNA was complexed with a liposomal carrier and the immunization followed the prime–boost strategy. The immunogenic potential of the DNA vaccine was first proved in broilers in near-to-field conditions resembling a commercial farm. Next, the protective activity of the vaccine was confirmed in SPF layer-type chickens. Experimental infections (challenge experiments indicated that 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against H5N1 of the same clade and that 70% of them were protected against H5N1 influenza virus of a different clade. Moreover, the DNA vaccine significantly limited (or even eliminated transmission of the virus to contact control chickens. Two intramuscular doses of DNA vaccine encoding H5 HA induced a strong protective response in immunized chicken. The effective protection lasted for a minimum 8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine and was not limited to the homologous H5N1 virus. In addition, the vaccine reduced shedding of the virus.

  12. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  13. DNA vaccination with T-cell epitopes encoded within Ab molecules induces high-avidity anti-tumor CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, Victoria A; Metheringham, Rachael L; Gunn, Barbara; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of high-avidity CTL responses is essential for effective anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccines. In this study we have demonstrated that a DNA vaccine incorporating CTL epitopes within an Ab molecule results in high-avidity T-cell responses to both foreign and self epitopes. The avidity and frequency was superior to peptide, peptide-pulsed DC vaccines or a DNA vaccine incorporating the epitope within the native Ag. The DNA Ab vaccine was superior to an identical protein vaccine that can only cross-present, indicating a role for direct presentation by the DNA vaccine. However, the avidity of CTL responses was significantly reduced in Fc receptor gamma knockout mice or if the Fc region was removed suggesting that cross presentation of Ag via Fc receptor was also important in the induction of high-avidity CTL. These results suggest that generation of high-avidity CTL responses by the DNA vaccine is related to its ability to both directly present and cross-present the epitope. High-avidity responses were capable of efficient anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates a vaccine strategy to generate high-avidity CTL responses that can be used in anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccine settings.

  14. Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Francois, Jeannot; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Paluku, Gilson; Yalcouye, Idrissa; Jackson, Ernsley; Wright, Tracie; Adrien, Paul; Katz, Mark A; Hyde, Terri B; Faye, Pape; Kimanuka, Francine; Dietz, Vance; Vertefeuille, John; Lowrance, David; Dahl, Benjamin; Patel, Roopal

    2017-10-01

    Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs. Furthermore, Haiti is on course to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, with 70% of communes achieving tetanus vaccine two-dose coverage > 80% among women of childbearing age. In addition, the vaccine cold chain storage capacity increased by 91% at the central level and 285% at the department level, enabling the introduction of three new vaccines (pentavalent, rotavirus, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines) that could prevent an estimated 5,227 deaths annually. Haiti moved from the fourth worst performing country in the Americas in 2012 to the sixth best performing country in 2015 for adequate investigation of suspected measles/rubella cases. Sentinel surveillance sites for rotavirus diarrhea and meningococcal meningitis were established to estimate baseline rates of those diseases prior to vaccine introduction and to evaluate the impact of vaccination in the future. In conclusion, Haiti significantly improved vaccination services and VPD surveillance. However, high dependence on external funding and competing vaccination program priorities are potential threats to sustaining the improvements achieved thus far. Political commitment and favorable economic and legal environments are needed to maintain these gains.

  15. High gene expression of inflammatory markers and IL-17A correlates with severity of injection site reactions of Atlantic salmon vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two decades after the introduction of oil-based vaccines in the control of bacterial and viral diseases in farmed salmonids, the mechanisms of induced side effects manifested as intra-abdominal granulomas remain unresolved. Side effects have been associated with generation of auto-antibodies and autoimmunity but the underlying profile of inflammatory and immune response has not been characterized. This study was undertaken with the aim to elucidate the inflammatory and immune mechanisms of granuloma formation at gene expression level associated with high and low side effect (granuloma indices. Groups of Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitoneally with oil-adjuvanted vaccines containing either high or low concentrations of Aeromonas salmonicida or Moritella viscosa antigens in order to induce polarized (severe and mild granulomatous reactions. The established granulomatous reactions were confirmed by gross and histological methods at 3 months post vaccination when responses were known to have matured. The corresponding gene expression patterns in the head kidneys were profiled using salmonid cDNA microarrays followed by validation by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. qPCR was also used to examine the expression of additional genes known to be important in the adaptive immune response. Results Granulomatous lesions were observed in all vaccinated fish. The presence of severe granulomas was associated with a profile of up-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as complement factors C1q and C6, mannose binding protein, lysozyme C, C-type lectin receptor, CD209, Cathepsin D, CD63, LECT-2, CC chemokine and metallothionein. In addition, TGF-β (p = 0.001, IL-17A (p = 0.007 and its receptor (IL-17AR (p = 0.009 representing TH17 were significantly up-regulated in the group with severe granulomas as were arginase and IgM. None of the genes directly reflective of TH1 T cell lineage (IFN-γ, CD4 or TH2 (GATA-3

  16. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  17. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...... vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...

  18. A chimeric Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein vaccine induces high titers of parasite growth inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaro, James R; Partridge, Andrea; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diouf, Ababacar; Lopez, Ana M; Angov, Evelina; Long, Carole A; Burns, James M

    2013-10-01

    The C-terminal 19-kDa domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is an established target of protective antibodies. However, clinical trials of PfMSP142, a leading blood-stage vaccine candidate which contains the protective epitopes of PfMSP119, revealed suboptimal immunogenicity and efficacy. Based on proof-of-concept studies in the Plasmodium yoelii murine model, we produced a chimeric vaccine antigen containing recombinant PfMSP119 (rPfMSP119) fused to the N terminus of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 8 that lacked its low-complexity Asn/Asp-rich domain, rPfMSP8 (ΔAsn/Asp). Immunization of mice with the chimeric rPfMSP1/8 vaccine elicited strong T cell responses to conserved epitopes associated with the rPfMSP8 (ΔAsn/Asp) fusion partner. While specific for PfMSP8, this T cell response was adequate to provide help for the production of high titers of antibodies to both PfMSP119 and rPfMSP8 (ΔAsn/Asp) components. This occurred with formulations adjuvanted with either Quil A or with Montanide ISA 720 plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and was observed in both inbred and outbred strains of mice. PfMSP1/8-induced antibodies were highly reactive with two major alleles of PfMSP119 (FVO and 3D7). Of particular interest, immunization with PfMSP1/8 elicited higher titers of PfMSP119-specific antibodies than a combined formulation of rPfMSP142 and rPfMSP8 (ΔAsn/Asp). As a measure of functionality, PfMSP1/8-specific rabbit IgG was shown to potently inhibit the in vitro growth of blood-stage parasites of the FVO and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum. These data support the further testing and evaluation of this chimeric PfMSP1/8 antigen as a component of a multivalent vaccine for P. falciparum malaria.

  19. Serum antibody responses of high-risk children and adults to vaccination with capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebink, G S; Le, C T; Cosio, F G; Spika, J S; Schiffman, G

    1981-01-01

    Pneumococcal antibody was measured in the sera of splenectomized children, children with neprotic syndrome, adult with chronic renal failure, adults maintained on hemodialysis, adult recipients of renal allografts, and normal children and adults before and after vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The medical conditions of these patients are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal disease. Nonimmunosuppressed splenectomized children, children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome, and adults maintained on hemodialysis had normal concentrations of antibody in serum and normal antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccine. Children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and adult recipients of renal allografts had low concentrations of antibody in serum before and after vaccination but showed an antibody increase after vaccination. During the first year after vaccination of the splenectomized patients, serum antibody concentrations declined linearly by 24%-32% from the peak antibody level. These results suggest that immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharides may reduce the indicence of pneumococcal disease in some high-risk patients but not in others.

  20. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA: Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Sanders

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the

  1. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kaval; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Smith, Kenneth; Huang, Min; Li, Lie; Pauli, Noel T; Henry Dunand, Carole J; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Morrissey, Michael; Wu, Yixuan; Joachims, Michelle L; Munroe, Melissa E; Lau, Denise; Qu, Xinyan; Krammer, Florian; Wrammert, Jens; Palese, Peter; Ahmed, Rafi; James, Judith A; Wilson, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC) reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus.

  2. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaval Kaur

    Full Text Available Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus.

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical lesions and vaccination challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mostly progressing from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chinese women. This is largely due to high prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) in the population. The prevalence of hr-HPV DNA in women and in cervical lesions women ranged from 9.9% to 17.% and from 50.5% to 70.9% in different regions of China, respectively. The most common genotypes somewhat differ between regions throughout the country and from those in many other countries. This may be a challenge to cervical cancer screening and prevention in China. Combined detection of particular HPV genotypes should be recommended in all geographical regions in China and greater attention must be paid to specific hr-HPV types during cervical cancer screening and follow-up of cervical lesions. Besides, vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer by particular HPV genotypes, has not been introduced to China so far. Updated knowledge on prevalent HPV genotypes should be provided to public health organizations to help with the development of more effective HPV vaccines, which can protect Chinese women against HPV types prevalent in local China and thus have a substantial impact on the cervical cancer burden.

  4. Molecular signature of high yield (growth influenza a virus reassortants prepared as candidate vaccine seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Ramanunninair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human influenza virus isolates generally grow poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. Hence, gene reassortment of influenza A wild type (wt viruses is performed with a highly egg adapted donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, to provide the high yield reassortant (HYR viral 'seeds' for vaccine production. HYR must contain the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of wt virus and one to six 'internal' genes from PR8. Most studies of influenza wt and HYRs have focused on the HA gene. The main objective of this study is the identification of the molecular signature in all eight gene segments of influenza A HYR candidate vaccine seeds associated with high growth in ovo. METHODOLOGY: The genomes of 14 wt parental viruses, 23 HYRs (5 H1N1; 2, 1976 H1N1-SOIV; 2, 2009 H1N1pdm; 2 H2N2 and 12 H3N2 and PR8 were sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing pipeline with big dye terminator chemistry. RESULTS: Silent and coding mutations were found in all internal genes derived from PR8 with the exception of the M gene. The M gene derived from PR8 was invariant in all 23 HYRs underlining the critical role of PR8 M in high yield phenotype. None of the wt virus derived internal genes had any silent change(s except the PB1 gene in X-157. The highest number of recurrent silent and coding mutations was found in NS. With respect to the surface antigens, the majority of HYRs had coding mutations in HA; only 2 HYRs had coding mutations in NA. SIGNIFICANCE: In the era of application of reverse genetics to alter influenza A virus genomes, the mutations identified in the HYR gene segments associated with high growth in ovo may be of great practical benefit to modify PR8 and/or wt virus gene sequences for improved growth of vaccine 'seed' viruses.

  5. Relative Sustainability of Natural Gas Assisted High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Production from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-11-01

    Biomass-derived hydrocarbon fuel technologies are being developed and pursued for better economy, environment, and society benefits underpinning the sustainability of transportation energy. Increasing availability and affordability of natural gas (NG) in the US can play an important role in assisting renewable fuel technology development, primarily in terms of economic feasibility. When a biorefinery is co-processing NG with biomass, the current low cost of NG coupled with the higher NG carbon conversion efficiency potentially allow for cost competitiveness of the fuel while achieving a minimum GHG emission reduction of 50 percent or higher compared to petroleum fuel. This study evaluates the relative sustainability of the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of biomass (and with NG co-feed) through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. The sustainability metrics considered in this study include minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), carbon conversion efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions, life cycle water consumption, fossil energy return on investment (EROI), GHG emission avoidance cost, and job creation. Co-processing NG can evidently improve the MFSP. Evaluation of the relative sustainability can shed light on the biomass-NG synergistic impacts and sustainability trade-offs associated with the IDL as high-octane gasoline blendstock production.

  6. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus: reanalysis of West African studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara; Cisse, Badara; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne; Poulsen, Anja; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-06-28

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio. In three trials from West Africa, 2000 children were randomised to HTMV or control vaccine at 4-5 months of age; a second vaccination was given at age 9-10 months (standard measles vaccine). Children in high-titre groups were given IPV or DTP-IPV. Another 944 children received HTMV as routine vaccination in Senegal. When we compared high-titre and control groups, no difference in mortality between the first and the second vaccination was noted. After the second vaccination, the female-male mortality ratio was 1.84 (95% CI 1.19-2.84) in children in the high-titre groups who received DTP-IPV or IPV, and 0.59 (0.34-1.04) in controls who received standard measles vaccine (p=0.007). Children who received HTMV but no additional DTP-IPV or IPV had a female-male mortality ratio of 0.83 (0.41-1.67). This ratio was 2.22 (1.04-4.71) for children who received DTP-IPV after routine HTMV and 1.00 (0.68-1.47) for those who did not. When we combined the results from all trials, the female-male mortality ratio was 1.93 (1.33-2.81) for those who received DTP or IPV after HTMV, and 0.96 (0.69-1.34) for those who did not (p=0.006). A change in sequence of vaccinations, rather than HTMV itself, may have been the cause of increased female mortality in these trials.

  7. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.; Shi, F.H.; Shen, W.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Clarke, W.R.

    1984-09-01

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial in the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.

  8. Self-sustained high-temperature reactions : Initiation, propagation and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Pacheco, M.

    2007-01-01

    Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis is an exothermic and self-sustained reaction between the constituents, which has assumed significance for the production of ceramics and ceramic-metallic materials (cermets), because it is a very rapid processing

  9. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  10. Fraction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by a nonavalent HPV vaccine in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Iñarrea, A; Pérez-Tanoira, R; Gil, M; López-Díez, E; Valenzuela, O; Porto, M; Alberte-Lista, L; Peteiro-Cancelo, M A; Treinta, A; Carballo, R; Reboredo, M C; Alvarez-Argüelles, M E; Purriños, M J

    2017-11-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been widely implemented in worldwide organized immunization programs. A nonavalent HPV vaccine is now available in several countries. The objective was to describe the fraction of squamous non-invasive high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines and by nonavalent vaccine according to age and diagnosis in women living in the city of Vigo (Galicia, Spain). Cervical scrapings (2009-2014) of women with histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, n = 145) and grade 3-carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS, n = 244) were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Hierarchical estimation of the fraction attributable to HPV 16/18 or HPV 31/33/45/52/58 detected alone or in combination was calculated. Absolute additional fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine compared to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was calculated as the increment of attributable cases with respect to all studied cases. Age group 1, 2 and 3 included women 18 to 34, 35-44 and ≥45 years old, respectively. EPIDAT 3.1 was used. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was 59% CIN2 vs. 69% CIN3-CIS (p < 0.001). It was 63/51/50% of CIN2 and 78/66/45% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was 86% CIN2 and 86% CIN3-CIS. It was 87/91/75% of CIN2 and 90/86/76% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by these vaccines tended to decrease as age increased (p-trend <0.05). Globally, absolute additional attributable fraction was 16%, 26% and 29% in age group 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005). Absolute additional fraction of CIN2 and CIN3-CIS attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was observed in women

  11. Reassortment of high-yield influenza viruses in vero cells and safety assessment as candidate vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jinghui; Ma, Lei; Cun, Yina; Song, Shaohui; Liao, Guoyang

    2017-01-02

    Vaccination is the practiced and accessible measure for preventing influenza infection. Because chicken embryos used for vaccine production have various insufficiencies, more efficient methods are needed. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a safe substitute for influenza vaccine production for humans. However, the influenza virus usually had low-yield in Vero cells, which limits the usage of Vero cellular vaccines. This study used 2 high-yield influenza viruses in Vero cells: A/Yunnan/1/2005Va (H3N2) and B/Yunnan/2/2005Va (B) as donor viruses. It used 3 wild strain viruses to reassort new adaptation viruses, including: A/Tianjin/15/2009(H1N1), A/Fujian/196/2009(H3N2), and B/Chongqing/1384/2010(B). These three new viruses could maintain the characteristic of high-yield in Vero cells. Furthermore, they could keep the immunogenic characteristics of the original wild influenza viruses. Importantly, these viruses were shown as safe in chicken embryo and guinea pigs assessment systems. These results provide an alternative method to produce influenza vaccine based on Vero cells.

  12. Corporate Sustainability Strategies: A Case Study in Brazil Focused on High Consumers of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Casarejos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The decline of socio-ecological resilience has emerged as an unprecedented truth with high risks to local and global economies, thereby increasing the vulnerability of businesses and markets while potentially threatening the wellbeing of civil society as a whole. From a business perspective, corporate strategies towards sustainability are crucial to strengthen the social and economic foundations that foster sustainable development. In order to assist enterprises pursuing leading market positions, this work proposes a set of strategic actions towards sustainability and an evaluation scheme to assess the effectiveness of their implementation process. This proposed global strategy encompasses five key sustainability indices—commitment, investment, difficulty, proactivity and vulnerability—focusing the investigation on a sample of enterprises representing the highest consumers of electricity in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Addressing the energy consumption, this study also discusses the concerning level of GHG emissions that are associated with the generation of electricity. Although 85% of the enterprises participating in this survey recognized the relevance of the actions proposed, the current degree of proactivity and vulnerability associated with these enterprises indicate that very few of them have effectively implemented and invested in corporate sustainability programs, certainly a symptom of their institutional vulnerability.

  13. PER.C6(®) cells as a serum-free suspension cell platform for the production of high titer poliovirus: a potential low cost of goods option for world supply of inactivated poliovirus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Barbara P.; Edo-Matas, Diana; Custers, Jerome H. H. V.; Koldijk, Martin H.; Klaren, Vincent; Turk, Marije; Luitjens, Alfred; Bakker, Wilfried A. M.; Uytdehaag, Fons; Goudsmit, Jaap; Lewis, John A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    There are two highly efficacious poliovirus vaccines: Sabin's live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Salk's inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). OPV can be made at low costs per dose and is easily administrated. However, the major drawback is the frequent reversion of the OPV vaccine strains to

  14. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    was significantly higher (p = 0.002 amongst those who had a vaccination card (131/188, 69.7% than in those assessed by maternal history (79/151, 52.3%. Multiple logistic regression showed that mothers' knowledge of immunization (p = 0.006 and vaccination at a privately funded health facility (p Conclusion Eight years after initiation of this privately financed vaccination project (private-public partnership, vaccination coverage in this rural community is at a level that provides high protection (81% against DPT/OPV. Completeness of vaccination was significantly correlated with knowledge of mothers on immunization and adequate attention should be given to this if high coverage levels are to be sustained.

  15. Safety and High Level Efficacy of the Combination Malaria Vaccine Regimen of RTS,S/AS01B With Chimpanzee Adenovirus 63 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vectored Vaccines Expressing ME-TRAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, Tommy; Ewer, Katie J; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly M; Edwards, Nick J; Wright, Danny; Payne, Ruth O; Venkatraman, Navin; de Barra, Eoghan; Snudden, Claudia M; Poulton, Ian D; de Graaf, Hans; Sukhtankar, Priya; Roberts, Rachel; Ivinson, Karen; Weltzin, Rich; Rajkumar, Bebi-Yassin; Wille-Reece, Ulrike; Lee, Cynthia K; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Sinden, Robert E; Gerry, Stephen; Lawrie, Alison M; Vekemans, Johan; Morelle, Danielle; Lievens, Marc; Ballou, Ripley W; Cooke, Graham S; Faust, Saul N; Gilbert, Sarah; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-09-01

    The need for a highly efficacious vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains pressing. In this controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study, we assessed the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of a schedule combining 2 distinct vaccine types in a staggered immunization regimen: one inducing high-titer antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (RTS,S/AS01B) and the other inducing potent T-cell responses to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) by using a viral vector. Thirty-seven healthy malaria-naive adults were vaccinated with either a chimpanzee adenovirus 63 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored vaccine expressing a multiepitope string fused to TRAP and 3 doses of RTS,S/AS01B (group 1; n = 20) or 3 doses of RTS,S/AS01B alone (group 2; n = 17). CHMI was delivered by mosquito bites to 33 vaccinated subjects at week 12 after the first vaccination and to 6 unvaccinated controls. No suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions or severe adverse events related to vaccination were reported. Protective vaccine efficacy was observed in 14 of 17 subjects (82.4%) in group 1 and 12 of 16 subjects (75%) in group 2. All control subjects received a diagnosis of blood-stage malaria parasite infection. Both vaccination regimens were immunogenic. Fourteen protected subjects underwent repeat CHMI 6 months after initial CHMI; 7 of 8 (87.5%) in group 1 and 5 of 6 (83.3%) in group 2 remained protected. The high level of sterile efficacy observed in this trial is encouraging for further evaluation of combination approaches using these vaccine types. NCT01883609. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Successful Control of Winter Pyrexias Caused by Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 in Japanese Training Centers by Achieving High Vaccination Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Naomi; Ode, Hirotaka; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. To evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we investigated the number of horses with pyrexia due to EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) infection or both and examined the vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population and in the whole population before and after changes in the program. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) estimated numbers of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4 or both, among pyretic horses from 1999-2000 to 2008-2009 were 105 ± 47 at Ritto and 66 ± 44 at Miho. Although the estimated number of infected horses did not change greatly in the first period of the current program, it decreased from the second period, with means (±SD) of 21 ± 12 at Ritto and 14 ± 15 at Miho from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013. Vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population was 99.4% at Ritto and 99.8% at Miho in the first period, and similar values were maintained thereafter. Coverage in the whole population increased more gradually than that in the 3-year-old population. The results suggest that EHV-1 epizootics can be suppressed by maintaining high vaccination coverage, not only in the 3-year-old population but also in the whole population. PMID:24872513

  17. Potential impact of a nonavalent HPV vaccine on HPV related low-and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions: A referral hospital-based study in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Giuseppina; Giovannelli, Lucia; Matranga, Domenica; Bellavia, Carmelina; Guarneri, Maria Francesca; Fasciana, Teresa; Scaduto, Giovanna; Firenze, Alberto; Vassiliadis, Alessandra; Perino, Antonio

    2017-08-03

    While bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines have been used for about 10 years, a nonavalent vaccine against HPV types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 has been recently approved by FDA and EMA and is now commercially available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of the nonavalent vaccine on HPV infection and related low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL), compared to the impact of the quadrivalent vaccine, in a female population living in Sicily (Italy). Low estimates of HPV vaccine impact were calculated as prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 genotypes, alone or in association, but excluding presence of other HPV types; high estimates were calculated as prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 genotypes alone or in association, in the presence of other HPV types. The nonavalent HPV vaccine showed increased impact, compared to the quadrivalent vaccine. Estimates of potential impact varied from 30.9% (low estimate) to 53.3% (high estimate) for LSIL, and from 56.9% to 81,0% for HSIL. The proportion of additional cases potentially prevented by the nonavalent vaccine was 14.4%-23.8% for LSIL, and 19.0%-32.8% for HSIL. The benefit of the nonavalent vaccine compared to the quadrivalent vaccine was more than 80% for both low and high impact estimates for LSIL and more than 50% for both low and high impact estimates for HSIL. The present study confirms that the switch from a first generation HPV vaccines to a nonavalent vaccine would increase the prevention of cervical HSIL in up to 90% of cases.

  18. Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167720.html Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs Virus a common ... the sustained impact and effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine program," study author Dr. Eyal Leshem said in ...

  19. Understanding differences in enrollment outcomes among high-risk populations recruited to a phase IIb HIV vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Lu, Lu; Clifton, Sarah; Mulligan, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    The Step Study, a Phase IIb HIV vaccine proof of concept study, enrolled approximately 3000 persons in clade B regions. The Atlanta site sought to enroll a diverse population. This prospective cohort study examined key factors associated with participant enrollment. We obtained participant information (eg, sociodemographic, medical) and followed outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of the 810 potential "Step Study" participants, 340 cases were analyzed. The recruitment strategy generated strong interest among minorities with 37% eligible after prescreening, yet 25% of the minorities enrolled. However, the percentage of whites increased from 62% eligible (prescreened sample) to 75% enrolled. The regression model was significant with educational level being an enrollment predictor (P = 0.0023). Those with at least a bachelor's degree were more likely to enroll compared with those with a K-12 education or some college (odds ratio = 2.424, 95% confidence interval = 1.372 to 4.281, P < 0.01). White race was also a significant factor (odds ratio = 2.330; 95% confidence interval = 1.241 to 4.375, P < 0.01). No difference in enrollment was observed among recruitment approaches, Pearson chi (2) (n = 336) = 5.286, P = 0.07. The results from this study indicate that women, minorities, and those with lower educational attainment were less likely to enroll in an HIV vaccine efficacy study at our site. The findings highlight an important consideration on the role of health literacy to sustain participation of eligible minorities in HIV vaccine trials.

  20. Potency, efficacy, and antigenic mapping of H7 avian influenza virus vaccines against the 2012 H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Kapczynski, Darrell; Xu, Yifei; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David

    2014-09-01

    In the spring of 2012 an outbreak of H7N3 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in poultry in Mexico. Vaccination was implemented as a control measure, along with increased biosecurity and surveillance. At that time there was no commercially available H7 AIV vaccine in North America; therefore, a recent H7N3 wild bird isolate of low pathogenicity from Mexico (A/cinnamon teal/Mexico/2817/2006 H7N3) was selected and utilized as the vaccine seed strain. In these studies, the potency and efficacy of this vaccine strain was evaluated in chickens against challenge with the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 HPAIV. Although vaccine doses of 256 and 102 hemagglutinating units (HAU) per bird decreased morbidity and mortality significantly compared to sham vaccinates, a dose of 512 HAU per bird was required to prevent mortality and morbidity completely. Additionally, the efficacy of 11 other H7 AIV vaccines and an antigenic map of hemagglutination inhibition assay data with all the vaccines and challenge viruses were evaluated, both to identify other potential vaccine strains and to characterize the relationship between genetic and antigenic distance with protection against this HPAIV. Several other isolates provided adequate protection against the 2012 Jalisco H7N3 lineage, but antigenic and genetic differences were not clear indicators of protection because the immunogenicity of the vaccine seed strain was also a critical factor.

  1. Immunity to current H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses: From vaccines to adaptive immunity in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 2014-2015 outbreaks of H5N2 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S., studies were performed to assess the immunity required for protection against future outbreaks should they occur. We assessed the ability of vaccines to induce protection of chickens and turkeys...

  2. Schistosoma mansoni: the cutaneous response to cercarial challenge in naive guinea pigs and guinea pigs vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, E.J.; McLaren, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    Naive guinea pigs and guinea pigs vaccinated 4 weeks previously with highly irradiated cercariae were challenged percutaneously with normal cercariae. Skin samples from the challenge site were then harvested at varying times to provide histological, quantitative and ultrastructural data on the respective cellular responses to cercarial invasion.

  3. Interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates in children with high-risk conditions--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbogun, N W; Hawker, J I; Stewart, A

    2015-02-04

    Influenza is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly and those with certain chronic diseases. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for individuals in at-risk groups, but rates of vaccination are particularly low in children with high-risk conditions (HRCs). To conduct a systematic review of studies that have examined interventions aimed at improving influenza vaccination in children with HRCs. Two databases - PubMed and SCOPUS - were searched (with no time or language restrictions) using a combination of keywords - Influenza AND vaccination OR immunization OR children AND asthma OR malignancy OR high-risk AND reminder. Duplicates were removed, and abstracts of relevant articles were screened using specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles were selected, and five additional studies were identified following a review of the reference lists of the initial thirteen articles, bringing the total number to eighteen. Most studies were conducted in the United States. Among the 18 studies, there was one systematic review of a specific intervention in asthmatic children, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), six before-and-after studies, one non-randomized controlled trial, one retrospective cohort study, one quasi-experimental post-test study, and one letter to editors. Interventions reported include multi-component strategies, letter reminders, telephone recall, letters plus telephone calls, an asthma education tool and year-round scheduling for influenza vaccination, amongst others. There is good evidence that reminder letters will improve influenza vaccination uptake in children with HRCs, but the evidence that telephone recall or a combination of letter reminder and telephone recall will improve uptake is weak. It is not known if multiple reminder letters are more effective than single letters or if multi-component strategies are more effective than single or dual component strategies. There is a need for further

  4. Leishmania genome analysis and high-throughput immunological screening identifies tuzin as a novel vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Bhavana Sethu; Wang, Ruobing; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-06-24

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania species. It is a major health concern affecting 88 countries and threatening 350 million people globally. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis. The emerging cases of drug-resistance further aggravate the situation, demanding rapid drug and vaccine development. The genome sequence of Leishmania, provides access to novel genes that hold potential as chemotherapeutic targets or vaccine candidates. In this study, we selected 19 antigenic genes from about 8000 common Leishmania genes based on the Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum genome information available in the pathogen databases. Potential vaccine candidates thus identified were screened using an in vitro high throughput immunological platform developed in the laboratory. Four candidate genes coding for tuzin, flagellar glycoprotein-like protein (FGP), phospholipase A1-like protein (PLA1) and potassium voltage-gated channel protein (K VOLT) showed a predominant protective Th1 response over disease exacerbating Th2. We report the immunogenic properties and protective efficacy of one of the four antigens, tuzin, as a DNA vaccine against Leishmania donovani challenge. Our results show that administration of tuzin DNA protected BALB/c mice against L. donovani challenge and that protective immunity was associated with higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 production in comparison to IL-4 and IL-10. Our study presents a simple approach to rapidly identify potential vaccine candidates using the exhaustive information stored in the genome and an in vitro high-throughput immunological platform. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cervarix®: a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, with cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years of age with young families. Vaccination against HPV is a major advancement, as it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. The bivalent AS04-adjuvanted prophylactic HPV vaccine provides high efficacy against disease associated with HPV 16 and 18, as well as significant cross-protection against some HPV types not included in the vaccine. Protection against HPV 45 may be particularly important, as it is relatively more common in adenocarcinoma. The vaccine's antibody response profile suggests a long duration of immunity. Safety data have been reassuring, which is not unexpected, given that the vaccine is composed of virus-like particles, rather than being a live-virus vaccine.

  6. An outbreak of mumps with genetic strain variation in a highly vaccinated student population in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocks, L J; Guerendiain, D; Austin, H I; Morrison, K E; Cameron, R L; Templeton, K E; DE Lima, V R F; Ewing, R; Donovan, W; Pollock, K G J

    2017-11-01

    An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.

  7. High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....

  8. Vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic arenaviruses: the next steps toward clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olschläger

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most valuable weapons against infectious diseases and has led to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity. However, for most viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, no prophylactic vaccine is available. This is particularly problematic as these diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. Lassa fever is globally the most important of the fevers caused by arenaviruses, potentially affecting millions of people living in endemic areas, particularly in Nigeria. Annually, an estimated 300,000 humans are infected and several thousands succumb to the disease. The successful development of the vaccine "Candid#1" against Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, proved that an effective arenavirus vaccine can be developed. Although several promising studies toward the development of a Lassa fever vaccine have been published, no vaccine candidate has been tested in human volunteers or patients. This review summarizes the immunology and other aspects of existing experimental arenavirus vaccine studies, discusses the reasons for the lack of a vaccine, and proposes a plan for overcoming the final hurdles toward clinical trials.

  9. Potentiating effects of MPL on DSPC bearing cationic liposomes promote recombinant GP63 vaccine efficacy: high immunogenicity and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Maji, Mithun; Ali, Nahid

    2011-12-01

    Vaccines that activate strong specific Th1-predominant immune responses are critically needed for many intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania. The requirement for sustained and efficient vaccination against leishmaniasis is to formulate the best combination of immunopotentiating adjuvant with the stable antigen (Ag) delivery system. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunomodulator on liposomal Ag through subcutaneous (s.c.) route of immunization, and its usefulness during prime/boost against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in BALB/c mice. Towards this goal, we formulated recombinant GP63 (rGP63)-based vaccines either with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) or entrapped within cationic liposomes or both. Combinatorial administration of liposomes with MPL-TDM during prime confers activation of dendritic cells, and induces an early robust T cell response. To investigate whether the combined formulation is required for optimum immune response during boost as well, we chose to evaluate the vaccine efficacy in mice primed with combined adjuvant system followed by boosting with either rGP63 alone, in association with MPL-TDM, liposomes or both. We provide evidences that the presence of either liposomal rGP63 or combined formulations during boost is necessary for effective Th1 immune responses (IFN-γ, IL-12, NO) before challenge infection. However, boosting with MPL-TDM in conjugation with liposomal rGP63 resulted in a greater number of IFN-γ producing effector T cells, significantly higher levels of splenocyte proliferation, and Th1 responses compared to mice boosted with liposomal rGP63, after virulent Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) challenge. Moreover, combined formulations offered superior protection against intracellular amastigote replication in macrophages in vitro, and hepatic and splenic parasite load in vivo. Our results define the immunopotentiating effect of MPL-TDM on protein Ag encapsulated

  10. Continuous melt granulation to develop high drug loaded sustained release tablet of Metformin HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Vaingankar

    2017-01-01

    The developed matrix tablet (75% drug loading resulted in 670 mg of weight for 500 mg dose strength and showed sustained drug release over 10 h. When compared, with conventional granulation techniques, it was observed that, under identical compression force, the tablet prepared by MG exhibited superior compactibility along with tablet hardness and optimal drug release profile. FTIR suggested nonexistence of chemical interaction between the drug and the other excipients while XRD and DSC analysis revealed the crystalline state of the drug. Furthermore, the results obtained from Raman spectroscopy proved the uniform distribution of the Metformin HCl and polymer in the final dosage form. This technology leads to the manufacture of sustained release matrix formulation with reduced tablet size of a high dose, highly water soluble drug otherwise difficult to process using standard batch-granulation.

  11. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbherr, Stefan J; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  12. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  13. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  14. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Faunt, Claudia C; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C; Alley, William M; McGuire, Virginia L; McMahon, Peter B

    2012-06-12

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km(3) of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km(3), occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km(3) shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  15. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  16. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  17. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults 18–49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; Byrd, Kathy K.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2018-01-01

    Background Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries. In 2009, travel outside the United States and Canada was the most common exposure nationally reported for persons with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Objective To assess HepA vaccination coverage among adults 18–49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity in the United States. Methods We analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine self-reported HepA vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥2 dose) among persons 18–49 years who traveled, since 1995, to a country of high or intermediate HAV endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HepA vaccine receipt. Results In 2010, approximately 36.6% of adults 18–49 years reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries; among this group unadjusted HepA vaccination coverage was 26.6% compared to 12.7% among non-travelers (P-values hepatitis A endemicity was associated with higher likelihood of HepA vaccination in 2010 among adults 18–49 years, self-reported HepA vaccination coverage was low among adult travelers to these areas. Healthcare providers should ask their patients’ upcoming travel plans and recommend and offer travel related vaccinations to their patients. PMID:23523408

  18. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  19. A highly conserved epitope-vaccine candidate against varicella-zoster virus induces neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Liu, Jian; Chen, Chunye; Ye, Xiangzhong; Xu, Longfa; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-03-18

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly infectious agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Vaccination is by far the most effective way to prevent these diseases. More safe, stable and efficient vaccines, such as epitope-based vaccines, now have been increasingly investigated by many researchers. However, only a few VZV neutralizing epitopes have been identified to date. We have previously identified a linear epitope between amino acid residues 121 and 135 of gE. In this study, we validated that this epitope is highly conserved amongst different VZV strains that covered five existing phylogenetic clades with an identity of 100%. We evaluated the immunogenicity of the recombinant hepatitis B virus core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) which included amino acids (121-135). VZV-gE-specific antibodies were detected in immunized mouse serum using ELISA. The anti-peptide antiserum positively detected VZV via Western blot and immunofluorescent staining assays. More importantly, these peptides could neutralize VZV, indicating that these peptides represented neutralizing epitopes. These findings have important implications for the development of epitope-based protective VZV vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunogenicity, boostability, and sustainability of the immune response after vaccination against Influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009 in a healthy population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Elisabeth; Rossen, John; Mulder, Paul; van Beek, Ruud; van Vugt, Hennie; Verbakel, Johannes; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Koopmans, Marion; Peeters, Marcel

    The emergence of a new influenza A virus (H1N1) variant in 2009 led to a worldwide vaccination program, which was prepared in a relatively short period of time. This study investigated the humoral immunity against this virus before and after vaccination with a 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1)

  1. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Otfried; Crowe, Brian A; Wodal, Walter; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sabarth, Nicolas; Falkner, Falko G; Mayerhofer, Ines; Mundt, Wolfgang; Reiter, Manfred; Grillberger, Leopold; Tauer, Christa; Graninger, Michael; Sachslehner, Alois; Schwendinger, Michael; Brühl, Peter; Kreil, Thomas R; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Barrett, P Noel

    2010-02-23

    The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  3. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otfried Kistner

    Full Text Available The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  4. Preparation in high-shear mixer of sustained-release pellets by melt pelletisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinovich, D; Moneghini, M; Perissutti, B; Filipovic-Grcic, J; Grabnar, I

    2000-08-10

    The preparation of sustained-release pellets by melt pelletisation was investigated in a 10-l high shear mixer and ternary mixtures containing stearic acid as a melting binder, anhydrous lactose as a filler and theophylline as a model drug. A translated Doehlert matrix was applied for the optimisation of process variables and quality control of pellets characteristics. After determination of size distribution, the pellets were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and porosimetric analysis. Finally, the in vitro release from every single size fraction was evaluated and the release mechanism was analysed. Since the drug release rate decreased when enhancing the pellet size fraction, the 2000-microm fraction, exhibiting a substantially zero-order release, was selected for further in vivo biovailability studies. These data demonstrated that pellets based on the combination of stearic acid and lactose can be used to formulate sustained release pellets for theophylline.

  5. Stunting correlates with high salivary and serum antibody levels after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of Venezuelan Amerindian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hermsen, M.; Rivera-Olivero, I.; Sisco, M.C.; Pinelli, E.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Berbers, G.A.; Waard, J.H. de; Jonge, M.I. de

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of pre-vaccination nutritional status on vaccine responses in Venezuelan Warao Amerindian children vaccinated with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and to investigate whether saliva can be used as read-out for these vaccine responses. METHODS: A

  6. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation

  7. Vaccine adjuvants: Why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dennis

    2016-10-02

    Novel vaccine strategies include the so-called subunit vaccines, which encompass only the part of the pathogen to which immune recognition results in protection. The high purity of these vaccines make adverse events less likely, but it also makes the vaccines less immunogenic and therefore potentially less effective. Vaccine adjuvants that increase and modulate the immunogenicity of the vaccine are therefore added to solve this problem. Besides aluminum salts, which have been used in vaccines for 90 years, a number of novel vaccine adjuvants have been included in licensed vaccines over the last 30 years. Increasing insight into immunological mechanisms and how to manipulate them has replaced empirical with rational design of adjuvants, leading to vaccine adjuvants with increased and customized immunogenicity profiles without compromising vaccine safety.

  8. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of PfCSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei-ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  9. Rotavirus infections and vaccines: burden of illness and potential impact of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, Keith; Lambert, Stephen B; Milne, Richard J

    2010-08-01

    Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. By 5 years of age virtually every child worldwide will have experienced at least one rotavirus infection. This leads to an enormous disease burden, where every minute a child dies because of rotavirus infection and another four are hospitalized, at an annual societal cost in 2007 of $US2 billion. Most of the annual 527 000 deaths are in malnourished infants living in rural regions of low and middle income countries. In contrast, most measurable costs arise from medical expenses and lost parental wages in high income countries. Vaccines are the only public health prevention strategy likely to control rotavirus disease. They were developed to mimic the immunity following natural rotavirus infection that confers protection against severe gastroenteritis and consequently reduces the risk of primary healthcare utilization, hospitalization and death. The two currently licensed vaccines--one a single human strain rotavirus vaccine, the other a multiple strain human-bovine pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine--are administered to infants in a two- or three-dose course, respectively, with the first dose given at 6-14 weeks of age. In various settings they are safe, immunogenic and efficacious against many different rotavirus genotypes. In high and middle income countries, rotavirus vaccines confer 85-100% protection against severe disease, while in low income regions of Africa and Asia, protection is less, at 46-77%. Despite this reduced efficacy in low income countries, the high burden of diarrheal disease in these regions means that proportionately more severe cases are prevented by vaccination than elsewhere. Post-licensure effectiveness studies show that rotavirus vaccines not only reduce rotavirus activity in infancy but they also decrease rates of rotavirus diarrhea in older and unimmunized children. A successful rotavirus vaccination program will rely upon sustained vaccine efficacy

  10. Comparison of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccines—Nonadjuvanted Vaccine or Vaccine Adjuvanted with Alum—Given Concomitantly with Influenza Vaccine to High-Risk Elderly Individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann R. Falsey; Edward E. Walsh; Jose Capellan; Stefan Gravenstein; Maria Zambon; Eddy Yau; Geoffrey J. Gorse; Robert Edelman; Frederick G. Hayden; Janet E. McElhaney; Kathleen M. Neuzil; Kristen L. Nichol; Eric A. F. Simões; Peter F. Wright; Valérie M.-P. Sales

    2008-01-01

    .... This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to compare humoral responses to licensed trivalent influenza vaccine given concomitantly with 1 of 2 RSV vaccine formulations in persons...

  11. High human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence in South African adolescents and young women encourages expanded HPV vaccination campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizipho Z A Mbulawa

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to investigate prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes to inform HPV vaccination strategy in South Africa and to study factors associated with HPV prevalence. Sexually active, HIV-negative women, aged 16-22 years recruited from Soweto (n = 143 and Cape Town (n = 148 were tested for cervical HPV and other genital infections. Overall HPV prevalence was 66.7% (194/291 in young women. Cape Town women were more likely to have multiple HPV infections than the Soweto women (48.0%, 71/148 versus 35.0%, 50/143 respectively, p = 0.033 and probable HR-HPV types (34.5%, 51/148 versus 21.7%, 31/143 respectively, p = 0.022. The most frequently detected HPV types were HPV-16 (11.7%, HPV-58 (10.3%, HPV-51 (8.9%, HPV-66 (8.6%, HPV-18 and HPV-81 (7.6% each. HPV types targeted by the bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-16/18 were detected in 18.6% (54/291 of women, while those in the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18 were detected in 24.7% (72/291 of women; and those in the nonavalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were detected in 38.5% (112/291 of women. In a multivariable analysis, bacterial vaginosis remained significantly associated with HPV infection (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6. Women were more likely to be HPV positive if they had received treatment for STI during the past 6-months (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-12.4 or if they had ever been pregnant (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.5. Compared to women who reported only one sexual partner, those with increased number of lifetime sex partners were more likely to have HPV (4-10 partners: OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-8.0. The high prevalence of HPV types targeted by the nonavalent HPV vaccine encourages the introduction of this vaccine and catch-up HPV vaccination campaigns in South Africa. The high burden of BV and concurrent STIs also highlights the need to improve the prevention and appropriate management of sexually-acquired and other genital tract infections in South African

  12. A polyvalent vaccine for high-risk prostate patients: "are more antigens better?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slovin, Susan F; Ragupathi, Govind; Fernandez, Celina

    2007-01-01

    We have shown the immunogenicity and safety of synthetic carbohydrate vaccines when conjugated to the carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and given with the adjuvant, QS-21, in patients with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. To determine whether immune response could be further enhanced...... and mixed with QS-21. Eight vaccinations were administered over 13 months. All 30 patients had significant elevations in antibody titers to at least two of the six antigens; 22 patients had increased reactivity with FACS. These serologic responses were lower than that seen previously in patients treated...... vaccine of synthetic "self" antigens broke immunologic tolerance against two or more antigens in all 30 vaccinated patients, was safe, but antibody titers against several of the antigens were lower than those seen in individual monovalent trials. No impact on PSA slope was detected. We address...

  13. Improving HPV Vaccination Through a Diverse Multi-state Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Fowler, Brynn; Martel, Laura; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-04-09

    Rural and highly religious Intermountain West states demonstrate low levels of HPV vaccination uptake. The Intermountain West HPV Vaccination Coalition (IWHVC) was formed to improve HPV vaccination by enhancing collaborations between cancer centers, health departments, health clinics, religious groups, and community organizations. Coalition members' perceptions and experiences are described within. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to the IWHVC. N = 86 responded to the online survey. Six subsequent focus groups were conducted (N = 36). Participant demographics, barriers, and facilitators of HPV vaccination were summarized. The first three focus groups were coded in an iterative manner based on a coding scheme. The final three focus groups were selectively coded for content related to five themes: barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination, how the coalition has been useful, future directions of the coalition, and how to engage religious communities. Participants suggested that HPV vaccination should occur in a doctor's office (70.9%), public health clinic (64.0%), or at a community health fair (58.1%). Perceived barriers included a lack of education/low knowledge about the HPV vaccine (55.8%), concerns about sexuality/promiscuity (44.2%), and not knowing the vaccine is recommended for boys (38.4%). Participants stressed the importance of gaining buy-in from religious leaders, and felt the coalition helped them advocate for HPV vaccination through networking, idea and information sharing, and voicing their community's needs. Future goals emphasized targeted outreach, sustainable funding, expanded environmental scans, gaining religious support, and policy reforms. Targeted coalition work builds community capacity and coordinates HPV vaccination efforts. A community driven coalition approach could help improve HPV vaccination in other rural and highly religious regions.

  14. Achieving high uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in Cameroon: lessons learned in overcoming challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Manga, Simon; Nulah, Kathleen; Foglabenchi, Lily H; Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Tih, Pius

    2014-07-31

    Cameroon has the highest age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer (30/100,000 women) in Central Africa. In 2010-2011, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) received donated human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil, from Merck & Co. Inc. through Axios Healthcare Development to immunize 6400 girls aged 9-13 years. The aim was to inform the Cameroon Ministry of Health (MOH) of the acceptability, feasibility, and optimal delivery strategies for HPV vaccine. Following approval by the MOH, CBCHS nurses educated girls, parents, and communities about HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine through multimedia coverage, brochures, posters, and presentations. Because educators were initially reluctant to allow immunization in schools, due to fear of adverse events, the nurses performed 40.7% of vaccinations in the clinics, 34.5% in community venues, and only 24.7% in schools. When no adverse events were reported, more schools and communities permitted HPV vaccine immunization on their premises. To recover administrative costs, CBCHS charged a fee of US$8 per 3-dose series only to those who were able to pay. Despite the fee, 84.6% of the 6,851 girls who received the first dose received all three doses. With adequate education of all stakeholders, HPV vaccination is acceptable and feasible in Cameroon. Following this demonstration project, in 2014 the Global Access to Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) Alliance awarded the Cameroon MOH HPV vaccine at a price of US$4.50 per dose to immunize sixth grade girls and girls aged 10 years who are not in school in two districts of Cameroon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A single-dose cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding tetanus toxin fragment C induces sustained levels of protective tetanus toxin antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Rob; Nakai, Toru; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Fairweather, Neil F; Sesardic, Dorothea; Jarvis, Michael A

    2012-04-26

    The current commercially available vaccine used to prevent tetanus disease following infection with the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani is safe and effective. However, tetanus remains a major source of mortality in developing countries. In 2008, neonatal tetanus was estimated to have caused >59,000 deaths, accounting for 1% of worldwide infant mortality, primarily in poorer nations. The cost of multiple vaccine doses administered by injection necessary to achieve protective levels of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies is the primary reason for low vaccine coverage. Herein, we show that a novel vaccine strategy using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine platform induces protective levels of anti-tetanus antibodies that are durable (lasting >13 months) in mice following only a single dose. This study demonstrates the ability of a 'single-dose' CMV-based vaccine strategy to induce durable protection, and supports the potential for a tetanus vaccine based on CMV to impact the incidence of tetanus in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental challenge of chicken vaccinated with commercially available H5 vaccines reveals loss of protection to some highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 strains circulating in Hong Kong/China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connie Leung, Y H; Luk, Geraldine; Sia, Sin-Fun; Wu, Yu-On; Ho, Chuk-Kwan; Chow, Kai-Chi; Tang, Shing-Chun; Guan, Yi; Malik Peiris, J S

    2013-08-02

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to circulate in poultry in Asia and Africa posing a threat to both public and animal health. Vaccination, used as an adjunct to improved bio-security and stamping-out policies, contributed to protecting poultry in Hong Kong from HPAI H5N1 infection in 2004-2008 although the virus was repeatedly detected in dead wild birds. The detection of clade 2.3.4 H5N1 viruses in poultry markets and a farm in Hong Kong in 2008 raised the question whether this virus has changed to evade protection from the H5 vaccines in use. We tested the efficacy of three commercial vaccines (Nobilis, Poulvac and Harbin Re-5 vaccine) in specific pathogen free white leghorn chickens against a challenge with A/chicken/Hong Kong/8825-2/2008 (clade 2.3.4) isolated from vaccinated poultry in Hong Kong and A/chicken/Hong Kong/782/2009 (clade 2.3.2). Harbin Re5 vaccine provided the best, albeit not complete protection against challenge with the clade 2.3.4 virus. All three vaccines provided good protection from death and significantly reduced virus shedding following challenge with the clade 2.3.2 virus. Only Harbin Re-5 was able to completely protect chickens from virus shedding as well as mortality. Sera from vaccinated chickens had lower geometric hemagglutination inhibition titers against A/chicken/Hong Kong/8825-2/08, as compared to two other clade 2.3.4 and one clade 0 virus. Alignment of amino-acid sequences of the haemagglutinin of A/chicken/Hong Kong/8825-2/08 and the other H5 viruses revealed several mutations in positions including 69, 71, 83, 95, 133,140, 162, 183, 189, 194 and 270 (H5 numbering) which may correlate with loss of vaccine protection. Our results indicated that the tested HPAI H5N1 (2.3.4) virus has undergone antigenic changes that allow it to evade immunity from poultry vaccines. This highlights the need for continued surveillance and monitoring of vaccine induced immunity, with experimental vaccine challenge

  17. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steglich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5 in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8. This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+. However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection against Newcastle disease (ND. Here, we report on protection of MDA+ chickens against HPAI H5N1 and ND, by vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 either on day 1 or day seven after hatch, and subsequent immunization with live attenuated NDV seven days later. Vaccination was well tolerated and three weeks after immunization, challenge infections with highly pathogenic NDV as well as HPAIV H5N1 were carried out. All animals remained healthy without exhibiting any clinical signs, whereas non-vaccinated animals showed morbidity and mortality. Therefore, vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 can be followed by NDV vaccination to protect chickens from HPAIV as well as NDV, indicating that the antibody response against chNDVFHNPMV8H5 does not interfere with live ND vaccination.

  18. Variations in influenza vaccination coverage among the high-risk population in Sweden in 2003/4 and 2004/5: a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Essen Gerrit A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, the vaccination campaign is the individual responsibility of the counties, which results in different arrangements. The aim of this study was to find out whether influenza vaccination coverage rates (VCRs had increased between 2003/4 and 2004/5 among population at high risk and to find out the influence of personal preferences, demographic characteristics and health care system characteristics on VCRs. Methods An average sample of 2500 persons was interviewed each season (2003/4 and 2004/5. The respondents were asked whether they had had an influenza vaccination, whether they suffered from chronic conditions and the reasons of non-vaccination. For every county the relevant health care system characteristics were collected via a questionnaire sent to the medical officers of communicable diseases. Results No difference in VCR was found between the two seasons. Personal invitations strongly increased the chance of having had a vaccination. For the elderly, the number of different health care professionals in a region involved in administering vaccines decreased this chance. Conclusion Sweden remained below the WHO-recommendations for population at high risk due to disease. To meet the 2010 WHO-recommendation further action may be necessary to increase vaccine uptake. Increasing the number of personal invitations and restricting the number of different administrators responsible for vaccination may be effective in increasing VCRs among the elderly.

  19. Tuberculin reactivity in a population of schoolchildren with high BCG vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierrenbach Ana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to

  20. Vaccinations in early life are not associated with development of islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes high-risk children: Results from prospective cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Strobl, Andreas N; Winkler, Christiane; Carpus, Michaela; Knopff, Annette; Donnachie, Ewan; Ankerst, Donna P; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2017-03-27

    Vaccinations in early childhood potentially stimulate the immune system and may thus be relevant for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We determined the association of vaccination burden with T1D-associated islet autoimmunity in children with high familial risk followed prospectively from birth. A total of 20,570 certified vaccination records from 1918 children were correlated with time to onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity using Cox regression, considering multiple time periods up until age two years and vaccination types, and adjusting for HLA genotype, sex, delivery mode, season of birth, preterm delivery and maternal T1D status. Additionally, prospective claims data of 295,420 subjects were used to validate associations for the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination. Most vaccinations were not associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for islet autoimmunity (e.g. HR [95% confidence interval]: 1.08 [0.96-1.21] per additional vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at age 0-24months). TBE vaccinations within the first two years of life were nominally associated with a significantly increased autoimmunity risk (HR: 1.44 [1.06-1.96] per additional vaccination at age 0-24months), but this could not be confirmed with respect to outcome T1D in the validation cohort (HR: 1.02 [0.90-1.16]). We found no evidence that early vaccinations increase the risk of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity development. The potential association with early TBE vaccinations could not be confirmed in an independent cohort and appears to be a false positive finding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of a subunit vaccine candidate against porcine post-weaning diarrhea in high-biomass transplastomic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kolotilin

    Full Text Available Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD in piglets is a major problem in piggeries worldwide and results in severe economic losses. Infection with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is the key culprit for the PWD disease. F4 fimbriae of ETEC are highly stable proteinaceous polymers, mainly composed of the major structural subunit FaeG, with a capacity to evoke mucosal immune responses, thus demonstrating a potential to act as an oral vaccine against ETEC-induced porcine PWD. In this study we used a transplastomic approach in tobacco to produce a recombinant variant of the FaeG protein, rFaeG(ntd/dsc, engineered for expression as a stable monomer by N-terminal deletion and donor strand-complementation (ntd/dsc. The generated transplastomic tobacco plants accumulated up to 2.0 g rFaeG(ntd/dsc per 1 kg fresh leaf tissue (more than 1% of dry leaf tissue and showed normal phenotype indistinguishable from wild type untransformed plants. We determined that chloroplast-produced rFaeG(ntd/dsc protein retained the key properties of an oral vaccine, i.e. binding to porcine intestinal F4 receptors (F4R, and inhibition of the F4-possessing (F4+ ETEC attachment to F4R. Additionally, the plant biomass matrix was shown to delay degradation of the chloroplast-produced rFaeG(ntd/dsc in gastrointestinal conditions, demonstrating a potential to function as a shelter-vehicle for vaccine delivery. These results suggest that transplastomic plants expressing the rFaeG(ntd/dsc protein could be used for production and, possibly, delivery of an oral vaccine against porcine F4+ ETEC infections. Our findings therefore present a feasible approach for developing an oral vaccination strategy against porcine PWD.

  2. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: II. Evaluation of scale-up heuristics with prokaryotically expressed polysaccharide vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Berrill, Alex; Merchant, Nick; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    Multivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are typically comprised of several different polysaccharides produced with distinct and complex production processes. Particle conditioning steps, such as precipitation and flocculation, may be used to aid the recovery and purification of such microbial vaccine products. An ultra scale-down approach to purify vaccine polysaccharides at the micro-scale would greatly enhance productivity, robustness, and speed the development of novel conjugate vaccines. In part one of this series, we described a modular and high throughput approach to develop particle conditioning processes (HTPC) for biologicals that combines flocculation, solids removal, and streamlined analytics. In this second part of the series, we applied HTPC to industrially relevant feedstreams comprised of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from several bacterial species. The scalability of HTPC was evaluated between 0.8 mL and 13 L scales, with several different scaling methodologies examined. Clarification, polysaccharide yield, impurity clearance, and product quality achieved with HTPC were reproducible and comparable with larger scales. Particle sizing was the response with greatest sensitivity to differences in processing scale and enabled the identification of useful scaling rules. Scaling with constant impeller tip speed or power per volume in the impeller swept zone offered the most accurate scale up, with evidence that time integration of these values provided the optimal basis for scaling. The capability to develop a process at the micro-scale combined with evidence-based scaling metrics provide a significant advance for purification process development of vaccine processes. The USD system offers similar opportunities for HTPC of proteins and other complex biological molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  4. Detection and Tracking of NY-ESO-1-Specific CD8+ T Cells by High-Throughput T Cell Receptor β (TCRB Gene Rearrangements Sequencing in a Peptide-Vaccinated Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Miyai

    Full Text Available Comprehensive immunological evaluation is crucial for monitoring patients undergoing antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. The identification and quantification of T cell responses is most important for the further development of such therapies. Using well-characterized clinical samples from a high responder patient (TK-f01 in an NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine study, we performed high-throughput T cell receptor β-chain (TCRB gene next generation sequencing (NGS to monitor the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells. We compared these results with those of conventional immunological assays, such as IFN-γ capture, tetramer binding and limiting dilution clonality assays. We sequenced human TCRB complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 rearrangements of two NY-ESO-1f-specific CD8+ T cell clones, 6-8L and 2F6, as well as PBMCs over the course of peptide vaccination. Clone 6-8L possessed the TCRB CDR3 gene TCRBV11-03*01 and BJ02-01*01 with amino acid sequence CASSLRGNEQFF, whereas 2F6 possessed TCRBV05-08*01 and BJ02-04*01 (CASSLVGTNIQYF. Using these two sequences as models, we evaluated the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMCs ex vivo. The 6-8L CDR3 sequence was the second most frequent in PBMC and was present at high frequency (0.7133% even prior to vaccination, and sustained over the course of vaccination. Despite a marked expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells detected from the first through 6th vaccination by tetramer staining and IFN-γ capture assays, as evaluated by CDR3 sequencing the frequency did not increase with increasing rounds of peptide vaccination. By clonal analysis using 12 day in vitro stimulation, the frequency of B*52:01-restricted NY-ESO-1f peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMCs was estimated as only 0.0023%, far below the 0.7133% by NGS sequencing. Thus, assays requiring in vitro stimulation might be underestimating the frequency of clones with lower proliferation potential. High-throughput TCRB

  5. Detection and Tracking of NY-ESO-1-Specific CD8+ T Cells by High-Throughput T Cell Receptor β (TCRB) Gene Rearrangements Sequencing in a Peptide-Vaccinated Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyai, Manami; Eikawa, Shingo; Hosoi, Akihiro; Iino, Tamaki; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Isobe, Midori; Uenaka, Akiko; Udono, Heiichiro; Nakajima, Jun; Nakayama, Eiichi; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive immunological evaluation is crucial for monitoring patients undergoing antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. The identification and quantification of T cell responses is most important for the further development of such therapies. Using well-characterized clinical samples from a high responder patient (TK-f01) in an NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine study, we performed high-throughput T cell receptor β-chain (TCRB) gene next generation sequencing (NGS) to monitor the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells. We compared these results with those of conventional immunological assays, such as IFN-γ capture, tetramer binding and limiting dilution clonality assays. We sequenced human TCRB complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) rearrangements of two NY-ESO-1f-specific CD8+ T cell clones, 6-8L and 2F6, as well as PBMCs over the course of peptide vaccination. Clone 6-8L possessed the TCRB CDR3 gene TCRBV11-03*01 and BJ02-01*01 with amino acid sequence CASSLRGNEQFF, whereas 2F6 possessed TCRBV05-08*01 and BJ02-04*01 (CASSLVGTNIQYF). Using these two sequences as models, we evaluated the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMCs ex vivo. The 6-8L CDR3 sequence was the second most frequent in PBMC and was present at high frequency (0.7133%) even prior to vaccination, and sustained over the course of vaccination. Despite a marked expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells detected from the first through 6th vaccination by tetramer staining and IFN-γ capture assays, as evaluated by CDR3 sequencing the frequency did not increase with increasing rounds of peptide vaccination. By clonal analysis using 12 day in vitro stimulation, the frequency of B*52:01-restricted NY-ESO-1f peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMCs was estimated as only 0.0023%, far below the 0.7133% by NGS sequencing. Thus, assays requiring in vitro stimulation might be underestimating the frequency of clones with lower proliferation potential. High-throughput TCRB sequencing using NGS

  6. Vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  7. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.

  8. Implementation of a hepatitis A/B vaccination program using an accelerated schedule among high-risk inmates, Los Angeles County Jail, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumbrado, John; Stirland, Ali; Cox, Garrett; El-Amin, Alvin Nelson; Miranda, Armidia; Carter, Ann; Malek, Mark

    2012-11-06

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users against hepatitis A and B. This study is the first report of a hepatitis vaccination program in a United States jail with a combined vaccine using an accelerated schedule. Los Angeles County has the largest jail system in the nation and Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is the largest facility within that system. MCJ includes a unit for self-identified MSM, where approximately 2700 inmates are housed per year. Starting in August 2007, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was offered to all inmates housed in this special unit. Using an accelerated schedule (0-, 7-, 21-30 days, 12-month booster), a total of 3931 doses were administered to 1633 inmates as of June 2010. Of those, 77% received 2 doses, 58% received 3 doses, and 11% received the booster dose. Inmates who screened positive for a sexually transmitted infection in this unit were 1.3 times more likely to be vaccinated (95% CI 1.2-1.4) compared to others in the same housing unit who screened negative. Hepatitis vaccination initiatives can be successfully implemented in an urban jail among an extremely high-risk population using the accelerated, combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Ours may be a useful model for other programs to vaccinate incarcerated populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A two-dose heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen eliciting sustained immune responses to Ebola Zaire could support a preventive strategy for future outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukarev, Georgi; Callendret, Benoit; Luhn, Kerstin; Douoguih, Macaya

    2017-02-01

    The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination program for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity. Heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens deliver the same or similar antigens through different vaccine types, the first to prime and the second to boost the immune system. Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo is an investigational Ebola Zaire vaccine regimen that uses this heterologous prime-boost approach. Preliminary Phase 1 data suggest that Ad26.ZEBOV/MVA-BN-Filo confers durable immunity for at least 240 d and is well-tolerated with a good safety profile. This regimen may therefore be suitable for prophylactic use in a regional or targeted population vaccination strategy, and could potentially aid prevention and control of future Ebola outbreaks.

  10. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the ...

  11. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance...

  12. System factors to explain 2009 pandemic H1N1 state vaccination rates for children and high-risk adults in US emergency response to pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Payan, Carlo; Swann, Julie; Wortley, Pascale M

    2014-01-03

    During the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, children and high-risk adults had priority for vaccination. Vaccine in short supply was allocated to states pro-rata by population, but vaccination rates as of January 2010 varied among states from 21.3% to 84.7% for children and 10.4% to 47.2% for high-risk adults. States had different campaign processes and decisions. To determine program and system factors associated with higher state pandemic vaccination coverage for children and high-risk adults during an emergency response with short supply of vaccine. Regression analysis of factors predicting state-specific H1N1 vaccination coverage in children and high-risk adults, including state campaign information, demographics, preventive or health-seeking behavior, preparedness funding, providers, state characteristics, and surveillance data. Our modeling explained variation in state-specific vaccination coverage with an adjusted R-squared of 0.82 for children and 0.78 for high-risk adults. We found that coverage of children was positively associated with programs focusing on school clinics and with a larger proportion of doses administered in public sites; negatively with the proportion of children in the population, and the proportion not visiting a doctor because of cost. The coverage for high-risk adults was positively associated with shipments of vaccine to "general access" locations, including pharmacy and retail, with the percentage of women with a Pap smear within the past 3 years and with past seasonal influenza vaccination. It was negatively associated with the expansion of vaccination to the general public by December 4, 2009. For children and high-risk adults, coverage was positively associated with the maximum number of ship-to-sites and negatively associated with the proportion of medically underserved population. Findings suggest that distribution and system decisions such as vaccination venues and providers targeted can positively impact vaccination rates for

  13. Sustaining high-energy orbits of bi-stable energy harvesters by attractor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Janav P.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have the potential to efficiently convert energy over a wide frequency range; however, difficulties in attaining and sustaining high-energy oscillations restrict their applicability in practical scenarios. In this letter, we propose an actuation methodology to switch the state of bi-stable harvesters from the low-energy intra-well configuration to the coexisting high-energy inter-well configuration by controlled phase shift perturbations. The strategy is designed to introduce a change in the system state without creating distinct metastable attractors by exploiting the basins of attraction of the coexisting stable attractors. Experimental results indicate that the proposed switching strategy yields a significant improvement in energy transduction capabilities, is highly economical, enabling the rapid recovery of energy spent in the disturbance, and can be practically implemented with widely used low-strain piezoelectric transducers.

  14. A replication-deficient rabies virus vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein is highly attenuated for neurovirulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaneri, Amy B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States); Wirblich, Christoph [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Cann, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick MD, 21702 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick MD, 21702 (United States); Schnell, Matthias J., E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jefferson Vaccine Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E., E-mail: jblaney@niaid.nih.gov [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    We are developing inactivated and live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein for use in humans and endangered wildlife, respectively. Here, we further characterize the pathogenesis of the live-attenuated RABV/EBOV vaccine candidates in mice in an effort to define their growth properties and potential for safety. RABV vaccines expressing GP (RV-GP) or a replication-deficient derivative with a deletion of the RABV G gene (RV{Delta}G-GP) are both avirulent after intracerebral inoculation of adult mice. Furthermore, RV{Delta}G-GP is completely avirulent upon intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice unlike parental RABV vaccine or RV-GP. Analysis of RV{Delta}G-GP in the brain by quantitative PCR, determination of virus titer, and immunohistochemistry indicated greatly restricted virus replication. In summary, our findings indicate that RV-GP retains the attenuation phenotype of the live-attenuated RABV vaccine, and RV{Delta}G-GP would appear to be an even safer alternative for use in wildlife or consideration for human use.

  15. One-prime multi-boost strategy immunization with recombinant DNA, adenovirus, and MVA vector vaccines expressing HPV16 L1 induces potent, sustained, and specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Li; Wang, He-Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Yi; Luo, Jing; Xiao, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhou, Yu-Bai; Zeng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with various human diseases, including cancer, and developing vaccines is a cost-efficient strategy to prevent HPV-related disease. The major capsid protein L1, which an increasing number of studies have confirmed is typically expressed early in infection, is a promising antigen for such a vaccine, although the E6 and E7 proteins have been characterized more extensively. Thus, the L1 gene from HPV16 was inserted into a recombinant vector, AdHu5, and MVA viral vectors, and administered by prime-boost immunization. Virus-like particles were used as control antigens. Our results indicate that prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines induced robust and sustained cellular and humoral response specific to HPV16 L1. In particular, sera obtained from mice immunized with DNA + DNA + Ad + MVA had excellent antitumor activity in vivo. However, the data also confirm that virus-like particles can only elicit low levels cellular immunity and not be long-lasting, and are therefore unsuitable for treatment of existing HPV infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  17. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults 18-49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Byrd, Kathy K; Murphy, Trudy V

    2013-05-01

    Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries. In 2009, travel outside the United States and Canada was the most common exposure nationally reported for persons with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. To assess HepA vaccination coverage among adults 18-49 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine self-reported HepA vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥2 dose) among persons 18-49 years who traveled, since 1995, to a country of high or intermediate HAV endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HepA vaccine receipt. In 2010, approximately 36.6% of adults 18-49 years reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis A endemic countries; among this group unadjusted HepA vaccination coverage was 26.6% compared to 12.7% among non-travelers (P-valuestravel status was an independent predictor of HepA coverage and series completion (both P-valuestravelers, HepA coverage and series completion (≥2 doses) were higher for travelers 18-25 years (prevalence ratios 2.3, 2.8, respectively, P-valuestravelers 26-39 years (prevalence ratios 1.5, 1.5, respectively, P-valuetravelers 40-49 years. Other characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepA receipt among travelers included Asian race/ethnicity, male sex, never having been married, having a high school or higher education, living in the western United States, having greater number of physician contacts or receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. HepB vaccination was excluded from the model because of the significant correlation between receipt of HepA vaccination and HepB vaccination could distort the model

  18. Factors related to non-compliance to HPV vaccination in Roraima-Brazil: a region with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cibelle Carneiro; Jesus, Dkaion Vilela; Moraes, Hendel Santana; Buttenbender, Ingrid Ferreira; Martins, Isabella Seixas; Souto, Mayara Gabrielle; Gonçalves Filho, Paulo Henrique Brasil Hass; Costa, Randielly Mendonça; Silva, Sarah de Oliveira; Ferreira, Thais Suelen Israel; Coutinho, Valéria Vieira da Silva; Minotto, Helvia Rochelle Tavora; Fonseca, Allex Jardim

    2016-08-22

    To evaluate the HPV vaccination coverage in Boa Vista, Roraima (Brazil) and to identify personal and socioeconomic factors related to non-compliance to HPV vaccination. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing a self-administered questionnaire to the parents or guardians of pre-adolescent girls. The questionnaire addressed compliance to, knowledge about and perception of HPV and the HPV vaccine. Between July and November 2015, 13 private and public schools were visited based on a random cluster sampling method. A total of 1337 questionnaires were distributed to all female students in the target age group, and 797 were completed and returned (the participation rate was 59.6 %). The vaccination coverage rate was 82.7 % and was higher among public school students than among private school students (84.1 % vs 56.3 %; p = 0.003). Most parents (60 %) incorrectly answered more than half of the questions related to HPV knowledge, and limited knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine correlated with lower compliance to vaccination (adjusted OR = 1.42; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 2.76). In the perception analysis, the belief that the HPV vaccine is important for the daughter was an important protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.62; 95 % CI: 0.23 to 0.93), and concern about adverse effects of the HPV vaccine was a risk factor for non-compliance (adjusted OR = 1.66; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 2.71). Family income, religion and education level of the parents or guardians did not correlate with compliance to vaccination. HPV vaccination coverage was high in Boa Vista, Brazil, but knowledge about the vaccine was deficient. This deficiency was associated with a distorted perception and was negatively associated with compliance to vaccination. Actions aimed at informing the public about the HPV vaccine, including its risks and benefits, are needed to attain higher vaccination coverage in Brazil.

  19. Pilot Scale Production of Highly Efficacious and Stable Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. Principal Finding In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7–10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30–43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37°C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4°C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and

  20. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration, a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice

  1. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perman, Sarah; Turner, Simon; Ramsay, Angus I G; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-03-14

    Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1) focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2) considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3) were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4) had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state) or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and students, including methods for obtaining consent

  2. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Perman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. Methods We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1 focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2 considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3 were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4 had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. Results We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and

  3. Identification of Influenza A/PR/8/34 Donor Viruses Imparting High Hemagglutinin Yields to Candidate Vaccine Viruses in Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Johnson

    Full Text Available One of the important lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic is that a high yield influenza vaccine virus is essential for efficient and timely production of pandemic vaccines in eggs. The current seasonal and pre-pandemic vaccine viruses are generated either by classical reassortment or reverse genetics. Both approaches utilize a high growth virus, generally A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, as the donor of all or most of the internal genes, and the wild type virus recommended for inclusion in the vaccine to contribute the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes encoding the surface glycoproteins. As a result of extensive adaptation through sequential egg passaging, PR8 viruses with different gene sequences and high growth properties have been selected at different laboratories in past decades. The effect of these related but distinct internal PR8 genes on the growth of vaccine viruses in eggs has not been examined previously. Here, we use reverse genetics to analyze systematically the growth and HA antigen yield of reassortant viruses with 3 different PR8 backbones. A panel of 9 different HA/NA gene pairs in combination with each of the 3 different lineages of PR8 internal genes (27 reassortant viruses was generated to evaluate their performance. Virus and HA yield assays showed that the PR8 internal genes influence HA yields in most subtypes. Although no single PR8 internal gene set outperformed the others in all candidate vaccine viruses, a combination of specific PR8 backbone with individual HA/NA pairs demonstrated improved HA yield and consequently the speed of vaccine production. These findings may be important both for production of seasonal vaccines and for a rapid global vaccine response during a pandemic.

  4. Identification of Influenza A/PR/8/34 Donor Viruses Imparting High Hemagglutinin Yields to Candidate Vaccine Viruses in Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam; Chen, Li-Mei; Winne, Emily; Santana, Wanda; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Mateu-Petit, Guaniri; Ridenour, Callie; Hossain, M Jaber; Villanueva, Julie; Zaki, Sherif R; Williams, Tracie L; Cox, Nancy J; Barr, John R; Donis, Ruben O

    2015-01-01

    One of the important lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic is that a high yield influenza vaccine virus is essential for efficient and timely production of pandemic vaccines in eggs. The current seasonal and pre-pandemic vaccine viruses are generated either by classical reassortment or reverse genetics. Both approaches utilize a high growth virus, generally A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8), as the donor of all or most of the internal genes, and the wild type virus recommended for inclusion in the vaccine to contribute the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes encoding the surface glycoproteins. As a result of extensive adaptation through sequential egg passaging, PR8 viruses with different gene sequences and high growth properties have been selected at different laboratories in past decades. The effect of these related but distinct internal PR8 genes on the growth of vaccine viruses in eggs has not been examined previously. Here, we use reverse genetics to analyze systematically the growth and HA antigen yield of reassortant viruses with 3 different PR8 backbones. A panel of 9 different HA/NA gene pairs in combination with each of the 3 different lineages of PR8 internal genes (27 reassortant viruses) was generated to evaluate their performance. Virus and HA yield assays showed that the PR8 internal genes influence HA yields in most subtypes. Although no single PR8 internal gene set outperformed the others in all candidate vaccine viruses, a combination of specific PR8 backbone with individual HA/NA pairs demonstrated improved HA yield and consequently the speed of vaccine production. These findings may be important both for production of seasonal vaccines and for a rapid global vaccine response during a pandemic.

  5. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Swayne (David); D.L. Suarez (David L.); E. Spackman (Erica); S. Jadhao (Samadhan); G. Dauphin (Gwenaelle); M. Kim-Torchetti (Mia); J. McGrane (James); J. Weaver (John); P. Daniels (Peter); F. Wong (Frank); P. Selleck (Paul); A. Wiyono (Agus); R. Indriani (Risa); Y. Yupiana (Yuni); E.S. Siregar (Elly Sawitri); T.Y. Prajitno (Teguh); D.J. Smith (Derek James); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractVaccines are used in integrated control strategies to protect poultry against H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003, and vaccination was initiated in 2004, but reports of vaccine failures began to emerge in mid-2005. This study

  6. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  7. Sustainable Schools Program and Practice: Partnership Building with the Tempe Union High School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Auriane; Denker, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Arizona State University's (ASU) Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS) was awarded a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 grant in 2009 entitled "Sustainability Science for Sustainable Schools." The general focus of the grant is on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in K-12 schools. The…

  8. Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated student population, The Netherlands, 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockhoff, Heinrich J.; Mollema, Liesbeth; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Postema, Cees A.; van Binnendijk, Robert S.; Kohl, Robert H. G.; de Melker, Hester E.; Hahné, Susan J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2004 a mumps outbreak occurred at an international hotel school in The Netherlands. We investigated this outbreak to identify risk factors for mumps. There were 105 mumps cases (overall mumps attack rate (AR) 12% (95% CI: 10-15%)). The AR for Dutch vaccinated and unvaccinated

  9. Flagellin-PAc fusion protein is a high-efficacy anti-caries mucosal vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Shi, W; Yang, J Y; Zhou, D H; Chen, Y Q; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; He, B X; Zhong, M H; Li, Y M; Cao, Y; Xiao, Y; Li, W; Yu, J; Li, Y H; Fan, M W; Yan, H M

    2012-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that an anti-caries DNA vaccine intranasally administered with recombinant flagellin protein as a mucosal adjuvant enhanced salivary IgA response and conferred better protection against caries. However, the relatively weak immunogenicity of DNA vaccines and the necessity for a large quantity of antigens remain significant challenges. Here, we fused the flagellin derived from E. coli (KF) and target antigen PAc containing the A-P fragment of PAc from S. mutans (rPAc) to produce a single recombinant protein (KF-rPAc). The abilities of KF-rPAc to induce rPAc-specific mucosal and systemic responses and protective efficiency against caries following intranasal immunization were compared with those of rPAc alone or a mixture of rPAc and KF (KF + rPAc) in rats. Results showed that KF-rPAc promoted significantly higher rPAc-specific antibodies in serum as well as in saliva than did an equivalent dose of rPAc alone or a mixture of KF + rPAc. Intranasal immunization of 8.5 µg KF-rPAc could achieve 64.2% reduction of dental caries in rats. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that flagellin and PAc fusion strategy is promising for anti-caries vaccine development, and KF-rPAc could be used as an anti-caries mucosal vaccine.

  10. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall mortal...

  11. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV using the Zika virus (ZIKV Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly. The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F. The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination.

  12. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujiao; Shan, Chao; Zou, Jing; Muruato, Antonio E; Bruno, Diniz Nunes; de Almeida Medeiros Daniele, Barbosa; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Rossi, Shannan L; Weaver, Scott C; Xie, Xuping; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-03-01

    A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV) using the Zika virus (ZIKV) Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E) was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production) for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly). The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F). The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Morin Stain Detects Aluminum-Containing Macrophages in Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Vaccination Granuloma With High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkheidze, Rati; Burns, Dennis K; White, Charles L; Castro, Diana; Fuller, Julie; Cai, Chunyu

    2017-04-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that percolate through the peri- and endomysium without eliciting substantial myofiber damage. The definitive diagnosis of MMF requires demonstration of aluminum within these macrophages. We evaluated the Morin stain, a simple, 2-step histochemical stain for aluminum, as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for MMF. Among 2270 muscle biopsies processed at UTSW between 2010 and 2015, a total of 12 MMF cases and 1 subcutaneous vaccination granuloma case were identified (11 pediatric, 2 adults). With the Morin stain, all 13 cases showed strong granular reactivity within the cytoplasm of macrophages but not in myofibers or connective tissue. Three cases of inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages (IMAM), 8 cases of granulomatous inflammation and 23 other deltoid muscle biopsies used as controls were all negative. Morin stain could be used in both formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and cryostat sections. Thus, Morin stain detects aluminum with high sensitivity and specificity in human muscle and soft tissue and may improve the diagnostic yield of MMF and vaccination granuloma. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  14. Vaccine composition formulated with a novel TLR7-dependent adjuvant induces high and broad protection against Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Fabio; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Mishra, Ravi P. N.; Fiaschi, Luigi; Cartocci, Elena; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Ruggiero, Paolo; Nosari, Sarah; De Falco, Maria Grazia; Lofano, Giuseppe; Marchi, Sara; Galletti, Bruno; Mariotti, Paolo; Bacconi, Marta; Torre, Antonina; Maccari, Silvia; Scarselli, Maria; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Inoshima, Naoko; Savino, Silvana; Mori, Elena; Rossi-Paccani, Silvia; Baudner, Barbara; Pallaoro, Michele; Swennen, Erwin; Petracca, Roberto; Brettoni, Cecilia; Liberatori, Sabrina; Norais, Nathalie; Monaci, Elisabetta; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Schneewind, Olaf; O’Hagan, Derek T.; Valiante, Nicholas M.; Bensi, Giuliano; Bertholet, Sylvie; De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both active and passive immunization strategies against Staphylococcus aureus have thus far failed to show efficacy in humans. With the attempt to develop an effective S. aureus vaccine, we selected five conserved antigens known to have different roles in S. aureus pathogenesis. They include the secreted factors α-hemolysin (Hla), ess extracellular A (EsxA), and ess extracellular B (EsxB) and the two surface proteins ferric hydroxamate uptake D2 and conserved staphylococcal antigen 1A. The combined vaccine antigens formulated with aluminum hydroxide induced antibodies with opsonophagocytic and functional activities and provided consistent protection in four mouse models when challenged with a panel of epidemiologically relevant S. aureus strains. The importance of antibodies in protection was demonstrated by passive transfer experiments. Furthermore, when formulated with a toll-like receptor 7-dependent (TLR7) agonist recently designed and developed in our laboratories (SMIP.7–10) adsorbed to alum, the five antigens provided close to 100% protection against four different staphylococcal strains. The new formulation induced not only high antibody titers but also a Th1 skewed immune response as judged by antibody isotype and cytokine profiles. In addition, low frequencies of IL-17–secreting T cells were also observed. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the rational selection of mixtures of conserved antigens combined with Th1/Th17 adjuvants can lead to promising vaccine formulations against S. aureus. PMID:25775551

  15. Potential impact of nonavalent HPV vaccine in the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pista, Angela; de Oliveira, Carlos Freire; Lopes, Carlos; Cunha, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the potential impact of the nonavalent HPV vaccine for high-grade cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Portugal. The present secondary analysis used data collected in the CLEOPATRE II study on the prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among female patients aged 20-88 years. The prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 and ICC was examined. Data were included from 582 patients. There were 177, 341, and 64 patients with CIN2, CIN3, and ICC, respectively, and 169 (95.5%), 339 (99.4%), and 62 (96.9) of them had HPV infections. Of patients with HPV infections, HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 infections were identified in 150 (88.8%), 329 (97.1%), and 60 (96.8%) patients with CIN2, CIN3, and ICC, respectively. HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 were identified in 540 (94.7%) of the patients with HPV infections. The addition of the five HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent HPV vaccine (HPV 31/33/45/52/58) could result in the new HPV vaccine preventing 94.7% of CIN2/3 and ICC occurrences. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Generation of dendritic cell-based vaccine using high hydrostatic pressure for non-small cell lung cancer immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hradilova

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP induces immunogenic death of tumor cells which confer protective anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Moreover, DC pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells induced therapeutic effect in mouse cancer model. In this study, we tested the immunogenicity, stability and T cell stimulatory activity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine generated in GMP compliant serum free medium using HHP 250 MPa. DC pulsed with HHP-killed lung cancer cells and poly(I:C enhanced DC maturation, chemotactic migration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after 24h. Moreover, DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine showed functional plasticity after transfer into serum-containing media and stimulation with LPS or CD40L after additional 24h. LPS and CD40L stimulation further differentially enhanced the expression of costimulatory molecules and production of IL-12p70. DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine decreased the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and stimulated IFN-γ-producing tumor antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Tumor antigen specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in NSCLC patient's against a selected tumor antigens expressed by lung cancer cell lines used for the vaccine generation. We also showed for the first time that protein antigen from HHP-killed lung cancer cells is processed and presented by DC to CD8+ T cells. Our results represent important preclinical data for ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa in combination with chemotherapy and immune enhancers.

  17. Evaluation of medicine retail outlets for sale of typhoid fever vaccine among adults in two urban and rural settings in western Kenya: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Julius; Odhiambo, Gladys; Meng'anyi, Lucy W; Musuva, Rosemary M; Mule, Joseph M; Alaly, Zakayo S; Odiere, Maurice R; Mwinzi, Pauline N; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2016-09-29

    Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine. Purchasers were surveyed to reveal market demographic characteristics, reasons for vaccine purchase, and sources of information about the program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions defined acceptability, demand, and additional suggestions for improving this mechanism of selling and distributing vaccines. There was a higher than expected demand for the vaccine that resulted in stock-outs. Previous instance of typhoid, desire to prevent disease, affordable price and convenience were cited by most participants as main reasons for purchase of vaccine at the local outlet. The most common source of information on the vaccine sale was word-of-mouth and referral from friends. Longer vaccine sale duration, adequate stocking of vaccines and extended hours of administration in the evening to allow working individuals to buy vaccines were cited by participants as ways for improved participation in the future. This study demonstrated a high demand for vaccines at community medicine outlets. Important insights on how to improve and sustain such a program included extension of distribution time, education of outlet keepers, and minimizing vaccine stockouts. With improved social marketing, infrastructure mapping, education and pricing schemes, medicine outlets could become a sustainable avenue for selling adult vaccines in emerging markets for both routine and pandemic vaccines.

  18. An epidemiologic comparison of high school sports injuries sustained in practice and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Julie A; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2008-01-01

    More than 7 million US high school students play sports. To compare practice and competition injury rates and patterns in 5 boys' sports (football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball) and 4 girls' sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball) during the 2005-2006 school year. Prospective injury surveillance study. Injury data were collected from 100 nationally representative United States high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). Athletes from participating high schools injured while participating in a school-sanctioned practice or competition in one of the above sports. Practice and competition injury rates, body site, diagnosis, and severity. High school athletes participating in these 9 sports at participating schools sustained 4350 injuries during the 2005-2006 school year, which corresponds to an estimated 1 442 533 injuries nationally. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was higher in competition (4.63) than in practice (1.69) (rate ratio [RR] = 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.58, 2.90). Of all sports, football had the highest competition (12.09) and practice (2.54) injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures. Compared with injuries sustained during practice, higher proportions of competition injuries were head/face/neck injuries (proportion ratio [PR] = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.94), particularly in boys' soccer (PR = 7.74, 95% CI = 2.53, 23.65) and girls' basketball (PR = 6.03, 95% CI = 2.39, 15.22). Competition injuries were more likely to be concussions (PR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.56, 2.62), especially in boys' soccer (PR = 6.94, 95% CI = 2.01, 23.95) and girls' basketball (PR = 5.83, 95% CI = 2.06, 16.49). Higher proportions of competition injuries caused the athlete to miss more than 3 weeks of play (PR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.52), particularly in baseball (PR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.48, 8.11) and volleyball (PR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.01, 8.24). Rates and patterns of high school sport injuries differed between

  19. Rabies control in rural Africa: Evaluating strategies for effective domestic dog vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaare, M.; Lembo, T.; Hampson, K.; Ernest, E.; Estes, A.; Mentzel, C.; Cleaveland, S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective vaccination campaigns need to reach a sufficient percentage of the population to eliminate disease and prevent future outbreaks, which for rabies is predicted to be 70%, at a cost that is economically and logistically sustainable. Domestic dog rabies has been increasing across most of sub-Saharan Africa indicating that dog vaccination programmes to date have been inadequate. We compare the effectiveness of a variety of dog vaccination strategies in terms of their cost and coverage in different community settings in rural Tanzania. Central-point (CP) vaccination was extremely effective in agro-pastoralist communities achieving a high coverage (>80%) at a low cost (vaccination was costly (>US$5/dog) and inadequate (vaccination or trained community-based animal health workers were most effective with coverage exceeding 70%, although costs were still high (>US$6 and >US$4/dog, respectively). No single vaccination strategy is likely to be effective in all populations and therefore alternative approaches must be deployed under different settings. CP vaccination is cost-effective and efficient for the majority of dog populations in rural Tanzania and potentially elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas a combination strategy is necessary in remote pastoralist communities. These results suggest that rabies control is logistically feasible across most of the developing world and that the annual costs of effective vaccination campaigns in Tanzania are likely to be affordable. PMID:18848595

  20. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  1. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    OpenAIRE

    Steglich, C.; Grund, C.; A. Röder; Zhao, N.; Mettenleiter, T C; Römer-Oberdörfer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5) in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8). This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+). However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection...

  2. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  3. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of thorium fuel in a Pebble-Bed Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (PB-FHR is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative Flibe (2LiF-BeF2 salt Temperature Reactivity Coefficient (TRC. Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tristructural-isotropic (TRISO coated particle system for increasing fuel loading and decreasing excessive moderation. To analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared two refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern and two kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite. This method found that the feasible region of breeding and negative Flibe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% fuel loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, Flibe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong 9Be(n,2n reaction and low neutron absorption of 6Li (even at 1000 ppm in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows good safety margin. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the decades irradiation time of the pebble fuel.

  4. Demographic and High-Risk Behaviors associated with HPV and HPV Vaccine Awareness among Persons Aged 15-74 Years in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Díaz, Carola T; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Colón, Hector M; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness in Puerto Rico (PR) are limited and are of interest given low HPV vaccine uptake in this population. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine factors associated to HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among persons aged 15-74 years living in Puerto Rico. We analysed data from a sub-sample of 1,476 men and women who participated in a 2008 population-based island-wide household survey and who completed an HPV module. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with HPV and HPV vaccine awareness. Overall, 37.2% of participants had heard about HPV and 33.4% had heard of the vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression showed that women were more likely to have heard of HPV (OR adjusted: 4.54; 95% CI=3.45, 5.98) or of the HPV vaccine (OR adjusted: 6.15; 95% CI=4.50, 8.40) as compared to men. HPV awareness was also lower among older adults, persons with lower income and with lower educational attainment, those without children and smokers (p < 0.05). In 2008, two years after the introduction of the first HPV vaccine in PR and the US, public awareness about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was lower in Hispanics in PR as compared to other populations. Identified high-risk populations should be targeted in preventive care strategies. Future efforts should increase HPV knowledge and vaccine use in this population in order to maximize the impact of vaccination programs.

  5. Phase 1 evaluation of 3 highly immunogenic prime-boost regimens, including a 12-month reboosting vaccination, for malaria vaccination in Gambian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Vasee S; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Keating, Sheila; Pinder, Margaret; Webster, Daniel; Skinner, Michael A; Gilbert, Sarah C; Walraven, Gijs; Hill, Adrian V S

    2004-06-15

    Successful vaccination against intracellular pathogens, including liver-stage Plasmodium falciparum, will require induction of strong antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses. The multiple epitope (ME)-thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) construct includes CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell epitopes from pre-erythrocytic P. falciparum antigens fused in-frame to the entire pre-erythrocytic antigen TRAP. Three carriers for this construct--plasmid DNA and 2 recombinant nonreplicating poxviruses (modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA] and fowlpox strain 9 [FP9])--were administered at 3-week intervals in a heterologous prime-boost combination to 29 Gambian men aged 18-45 years. Doses of DNA ME-TRAP, MVA ME-TRAP, and FP9 ME-TRAP were 2 mg and 1.5x10(8) and 1x10(8) plaque-forming units, respectively. DNA ME-TRAP was injected intramuscularly; MVA ME-TRAP and FP9 ME-TRAP were injected intradermally. There were no clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities and no severe or serious adverse events related to vaccination. DNA/MVA and FP9/MVA regimens were the most potent inducers of circulating effector T cells seen to date in sub-Saharan Africa. Twelve months after the final vaccination, a single booster vaccination expanded the effector T cell pool to a similar or higher magnitude than that after the primary vaccinations. These results highlight optimized combination regimens with general relevance to the development of vaccines targeting intracellular pathogens.

  6. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  8. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  9. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  10. Further progress on defining highly conserved immunogenic epitopes for a global HIV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Levitz, Lauren; Ardito, Matthew T

    2012-01-01

    of global HIV evolution. Twenty-seven HLA-A3 epitopes were chosen from an analysis performed in 2003 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and additional sequences were selected in 2009 based on an expanded set of 43,822 sequences. These epitopes were tested in vitro for HLA binding and for immunogenicity with PBMCs......Two major obstacles confronting HIV vaccine design have been the extensive viral diversity of HIV-1 globally and viral evolution driven by escape from CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune pressure. Regions of the viral genome that are not able to escape immune response...... and that are conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV and would be excellent candidates for vaccine development. In this study, T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools, combining HLA-A3 binding predictions with relative sequence conservation in the context...

  11. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Implementing rotavirus vaccination in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosham, Mathuram; Nelson, E Anthony S; Bresee, Joseph S

    2007-11-01

    At the 2006 meeting of the Asian Pacific Pediatric Association (APPA), the Asia Pacific regional rotavirus community and international experts strongly recommended that rotavirus vaccines be used in National Immunization Programmes (NIP) in countries in Asia. Two rotavirus vaccine candidates are currently licensed and have been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated and highly efficacious. Several additional vaccines are in the late stages of development. The conference participants agreed that decisions on the introduction of rotavirus vaccines may require additional disease burden data in some countries and that economic evaluations will help policymakers reach decisions on nationwide rotavirus vaccine implementation. Other potential issues that arise with vaccine implementation, for example, the concomitant use of rotavirus vaccines with other vaccines, were also discussed. Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from rotavirus disease and impact children's health in Asia.

  13. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  14. Impact of high coverage of monovalent human rotavirus vaccine on Emergency Department presentations for rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather M; Muscatello, David J; Wood, James G; Snelling, Thomas L; Ferson, Mark J; Macartney, Kristine K

    2015-03-30

    Australia was one of the first countries to introduce nationally funded rotavirus vaccination. The program has had a substantial impact on both rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalisations and rotavirus laboratory tests. Evidence for an impact on Emergency Department (ED) presentations is limited. This study assessed changes in ED presentations for rotavirus in children aged rotavirus vaccine (RV1, Rotarix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Australia Pty Ltd., Victoria, Australia). A time series analysis to examine trends in total non-admitted ED presentations for all-cause AGE and in the rotavirus-attributable fraction using data on rotavirus positive laboratory tests. A decline in the rate of non-admitted ED presentations for all-cause AGE was observed for all ages, being most notable in 1 year old children. Compared with the pre-vaccination period, we estimated the average weekly rate was lower across the first 4.5 years of the program for both all-cause AGE (18.3%; 70.5 versus 57.5 per 100,000 population) and rotavirus attributable (55.4%; 17.3 versus 7.7 per 100,000 population) presentations. In the fourth year of the program, estimated annual rotavirus attributable presentations were 77% lower than the pre-vaccination annual mean (996 versus 4300 per year). The program was associated with a substantial decline in rotavirus attributable non-admitted AGE presentations to ED among children aged <5 years. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible paths towards sustainable tourism development in a high-mountain resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Arcuset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in 2004 within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering (today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the 2000s kept pace with a vast real estate program. The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed, seems for the moment rather to aim - as in many other high mountain ski resorts - towards a more environmental management of the basic urban functions than a real questioning of a tourist model based upon the triptych development of the ski slopes, securizing of the snow resource and touristic real estate programs.Ce texte part des enseignements issus d’une évaluation des pratiques touristiques à l’aune des principes du tourisme durable, réalisée en 2004 dans le cadre d’un réseau national piloté par l’Agence Française d’Ingénierie Touristique (aujourd’hui ODIT France, pour la station de Valloire, station de première génération de Maurienne dont le développement et la modernisation dans les années 2000 sont allés de pair avec un vaste programme immobilier. L’article explore les enjeux et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre du développement durable à Valloire, pose la question de la « révolution culturelle » que les acteurs devraient accomplir pour changer de modèle de développement économique, et suggère quelques pistes pour y parvenir. L’approche locale du « tourisme durable », en effet, semble pour l’heure plutôt tendre – comme dans bien

  16. pVAXhsp65 Vaccination Primes for High IL-10 Production and Decreases Experimental Encephalomyelitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with 4 pVAXhsp65 doses and 14 days later were submitted to EAE induction by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35–55 emulsified in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. Vaccinated mice presented significant lower clinical scores and lost less body weight. MOG35–55 immunization also determined less inflammation in lumbar spinal cord but did not change CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells frequency in spleen and CNS. Infiltrating cells from the CNS stimulated with rhsp65 produced significantly higher levels of IL-10. These results suggest that the ability of pVAXhsp65 vaccination to control EAE development is associated with IL-10 induction.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccination on numbers of US nursing home residents admitted to hospital: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenstein, Stefan; Davidson, H Edward; Taljaard, Monica; Ogarek, Jessica; Gozalo, Pedro; Han, Lisa; Mor, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    Immune responses to influenza vaccines decline with age, reducing clinical effectiveness. We compared the effect of the more immunogenic high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine with a standard-dose vaccine to identify the effect on reducing hospital admissions of nursing home residents in the USA. We did a single-blind, pragmatic, comparative effectiveness, cluster-randomised trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Medicare-certified nursing homes in the USA located within 50 miles of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza reporting city were recruited, so long as the facilities were not located in a hospital, had more than 50 long-stay residents, had less than 20% of the population aged under 65 years, and were not already planning to administer the high-dose influenza vaccine to residents. Enrolled nursing homes were randomised to a facility-wide standard of care for the residents of either high dose or standard dose as the vaccine for the 2013-14 influenza season and half of each group were randomly allocated to free vaccines for staff. Individual residents were included in the analysis group if they were aged 65 years or older and were long-stay residents (ie, had been in the facility 90 days or more before commencing the influenza vaccination programme). The analysts and investigators with access to the raw data were masked to study group by coding the groups until after the analyses were complete. The primary outcome was hospital admissions related to pulmonary and influenza-like illness between Nov 1, 2013, and May 31, 2014, identified from Medicare hospital claims available for residents who were without private health insurance (ie, those who were considered Medicare fee-for-service). We obtained data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and enrolled facilities. The analyses used marginal Poisson and Cox proportional hazards regression, accounting for clustering of residents within homes, on an intention-to-treat basis

  18. Pertactin deficient Bordetella pertussis present a better fitness in mice immunized with an acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Dore, G; Guiso, N

    2014-11-20

    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough and has been the target of vaccination for over fifty years. The latest strategies include the use of acellular pertussis vaccines that induce specific immunity against few virulence factors amongst which pertactin is included in three and five component acellular pertussis vaccines. Recently, it has been reported that B. pertussis clinical isolates loose the production of this adhesin in regions reaching high vaccine coverage with vaccines targeting this virulence factor. We here demonstrate that isolates not producing pertactin are capable of sustaining longer infection as compared to pertactin producing isolates in an in vivo model of acellular pertussis immunization. Loosing pertactin production might thus provide a selective advantage to these isolates in this background, which could account for the upraise in prevalence of these pertactin deficient isolates in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Mercury in vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  20. Factors affecting high school teacher adoption, sustainability, and fidelity to the "Youth@Work: Talking Safety" curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Casteel, Carri; Bush, Diane; Myers, Douglas J

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to identify individual- and organizational-level factors that affect high school teacher adoption, sustainability, and fidelity to the occupational safety and health curriculum, "Youth@Work: Talking Safety." We analyzed survey data collected from 104 high school teachers across the US who were trained in the curriculum since 2004. Linear and Cox regression were used to examine bivariate associations between individual and organizational-level factors and the outcomes of interest. Except for perceived complexity, all individual-level factors (acceptance, enthusiasm, teaching methods fit, and self-efficacy) were associated with one or more outcomes of interest (P-values ranged from sustainability and number of lessons delivered, respectively. Consistent with the literature, individual-level factors influenced teacher adoption and, to a lesser extent, sustainability, and fidelity to the Youth@Work: Talking Safety curriculum and should be considered in attempts to promote the curriculum's use in high schools. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in adults 50-64 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiazGranados, Carlos A; Saway, William; Gouaux, James; Baron, Mira; Baker, Jeffrey; Denis, Martine; Jordanov, Emilia; Landolfi, Victoria; Yau, Eddy

    2015-12-16

    Individuals 50-64 years of age have reduced immune responses to influenza vaccines. The current study examined whether a high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) might improve immune responses over a standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-SD) in this age group. This was a multicenter, observer-blinded, randomized, active-controlled phase II trial. Adults 50-64 years of age were randomized 1:1 to receive IIV3-HD or IIV3-SD. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured before and 28 days after vaccination. Reactogenicity was recorded for 7 days after vaccination and adverse events for 28 days. 148 participants received IIV3-HD and 152 received IIV3-SD. For all vaccine strains, day 28 geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers were significantly higher in the IIV3-HD group than in the IIV3-SD group (geometric mean titer ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]=1.43 [1.04-1.97] for A/H1N1, 1.65 [1.21-2.25] for A/H3N2, and 1.60 [1.23-2.08] for B). Seroconversion rates were significantly higher in the IIV3-HD group than in the IIV3-SD group for strains A/H3N2 and B but not A/H1N1 (difference [95% CI]=13.5% [4.76-22.0] for A/H3N2, 23.1% [11.7-33.6] for B, and -0.2% [-9.66 to 9.18] for A/H1N1). The post-vaccination seroprotection rate was significantly higher in the IIV3-HD group than in the IIV3-SD group for strain B but not for strains A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 (difference=9.1% [2.95-15.7] for B, 2.0% [-0.907 to 5.68] for A/H1N1, and 0.6% [-3.14 to 4.43] for A/H3N2). Reactogenicity was higher in the IIV3-HD group than in the IIV3-SD group, but reactions were mostly of low intensity, transient, and self-limited. Rates of unsolicited adverse events were similar between groups. No serious AEs, AEs leading to early withdrawal, or deaths were reported. The study suggests that in adults 50-64 years of age, IIV3-HD may improve immunogenicity compared to IIV3-SD while maintaining an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published

  2. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. PMID:26874437

  3. Baseline mutational patterns and sustained MRD negativity in patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailankody, Sham; Kazandjian, Dickran; Korde, Neha; Roschewski, Mark; Manasanch, Elisabet; Bhutani, Manisha; Tageja, Nishant; Kwok, Mary; Zhang, Yong; Zingone, Adriana; Lamy, Laurence; Costello, Rene; Morrison, Candis; Hultcrantz, Malin; Christofferson, Austin; Washington, Megan; Boateng, Martin; Steinberg, Seth M; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Figg, William D; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Wilson, Wyndham H; Keats, Jonathan J; Landgren, Ola

    2017-10-10

    Early results of a prospective phase 2 clinical trial of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide maintenance in high-risk smoldering myeloma showed promising results that were previously published. Here, we provide novel insights into the genetic landscape of high-risk smoldering myeloma and information on sustained minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity with an expanded cohort of patients. Eighteen patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma were enrolled between 29 May 2012, and 14 January 2014. We included patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in a parallel trial who received the same therapy (reference group). The overall response rate was 100%. With median potential follow-up of 43.3 months, 10 (63%) remain in MRD negativity, and the estimated 4-year progression-free and overall survival rates are 71% and 100%, respectively. Importantly, we report differences in mutational patterns in patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, reflected in a lower frequency of mutations in significant myeloma genes (6.6% vs 45%) and NFKB pathway genes (6.6% vs 25%). Treatment with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide maintenance was associated with a 100% response rate and 63% MRD negativity with a safety profile consistent with previous reports for this regimen. This study had a small numbers of participants, but there seemed to be important differences in the genetic landscape of patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma and those with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, suggestive of a more treatment-responsive biology in early disease.

  4. Sustained Antibody Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in Adolescent Fijian Girls, and Subsequent Responses to a Single Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Russell, Fiona M; Reyburn, Rita; Fong, James; Tuivaga, Evelyn; Ratu, Tupou; Nguyen, Cattram D; Devi, Rachel; Kama, Mike; Matanitobua, Silivia; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Sinha, Rohit; Frazer, Ian; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Kado, Joseph; Rafai, Eric; Mulholland, Edward K; Licciardi, Paul V

    2017-04-01

    The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.

  5. A comparison of language use in pro- and anti-vaccination comments in response to a high profile Facebook post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Chatman, Casey J; Martin, Leslie R

    2016-11-11

    Vaccinations are important for controlling the spread of disease, yet an increasing number of people are distrustful of vaccines, and choose not to (fully) vaccinate themselves and their children. One proposed contributor to this distrust is anti-vaccination misinformation available on the internet, where people search for and discuss health information. The language people use in these discussions can provide insights into views about vaccination. Following a prominent Facebook post about childhood vaccination, language used by participants in a comment thread was analysed using LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count). Percentage of words used across a number of categories was compared between pro-vaccination, anti-vaccination, and unrelated (control) comments. Both pro- and anti-vaccination comments used more risk-related and causation words, as well as fewer positive emotion words compared to control comments. Anti-vaccine comments were typified by greater analytical thinking, lower authenticity, more body and health references, and a higher percentage of work-related word use in comparison to pro-vaccine comments, plus more money references than control comments. In contrast, pro-vaccination comments were more authentic, somewhat more tentative, and evidenced higher anxiety words, as well as more references to family and social processes when compared to anti-vaccination comments. Although the anti-vaccination stance is not scientifically-based, comments showed evidence of greater analytical thinking, and more references to health and the body. In contrast, pro-vaccination comments demonstrated greater comparative anxiety, with a particular focus on family and social processes. These results may be indicative of the relative salience of these issues and emotions in differing understandings of the benefits and risks of vaccination. Text-based analysis is a potentially useful and ecologically valid tool for assessing perceptions of health issues, and may provide

  6. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP......) vaccinations had modified the effect of VAS at birth. VAS was associated with a weak tendency for decreased mortality as long as BCG was the most recent vaccination, the mortality rate ratio being 0.86 (0.48-1.54); 0.82 (0.32-2.08) in girls and 0.89 (0.43-1.88) in boys. However, after DTP vaccination VAS...... at birth was associated with increased mortality in girls (2.19 (1.09-4.38)), whereas no difference was seen for boys (0.90 (0.44-1.82)) (p=0.08 for equal effect of VAS in the two sexes if DTP is the last vaccine). The explanation for the lack of beneficial effect in our setting may have been that VAS...

  7. High Performance Sustainable School Design: Roy Lee Walker Elementary, McKinney, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHW Group, Inc., Dallas, TX.

    This document describes the sustainable features of the Roy Lee Walker Elementary School (Texas), a prototype "Eco Education" school that blends the physical environment with the student learning process while protecting the site. The document also presents the process of integrating sustainability criteria in all phases of the school's…

  8. High Performance Education Fails in Sustainability?--A Reflection on Finnish Primary Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Lili-Ann; Sjöblom, Pia; Hofman-Bergholm, Maria; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability is internationally often emphasized as an essential aim of higher education, but more as a principle than on the practical level. This is also obvious in the academic education of primary teachers in Finland. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Finnish teachers to include sustainability in their teaching and everyday life in…

  9. Sustained High Basal Motion of the Greenland Ice Sheet Revealed by Borehole Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luthi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Hoffman, Matthew, J.; Catania, Ginny A.; Hawley, Robert L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Kristensen, Steen S.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high amount of basal motion contribution to surface velocity of 44-73 percent in winter, and up to 90 percent in summer. Measured ice deformation rates show an unexpected variation with depth that can be explained with the help of an ice-flow model as a consequence of stress transfer from slippery to sticky areas. This effect necessitates the use of high-order ice-flow models, not only in regions of fast-flowing ice streams but in all temperate-based areas of the GrIS. The agreement between modeled and measured deformation rates confirms that the recommended values of the temperature-dependent flow rate factor A are a good choice for ice-sheet models.

  10. Investigation of sustainable high-β scenarios in the JT-60SA C-wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, M.; Aresta-Belo, P.; Corrigan, G.; Garzotti, L.; Harting, D.; Koechl, F.; Saarelma, S.; Wiesen, S.; Wischmeier, M.; Zagórski, R.; Bolzonella, T.; Pigatto, L.; Garcia, J.; Maget, P.; de la Luna, E.; Hayashi, N.; Nakano, T.; Ide, S.; Yoshida, M.; Urano, H.

    2017-11-01

    One of the main goals of the JT-60SA C-wall is the study of steady-state plasma scenarios characterised by high fractions of bootstrap current, low flux consumption and sustainable divertor heat-loads (advanced scenarios). The feasibility of the above scenarios will depend on the demonstration of simultaneous control of core/SOL/divertor conditions to achieve large core pressure/pressure gradients, and preventing impurity accumulation while ensuring an acceptable power load on the divertor targets. In this paper two scenarios at 2.3 MA, 1.7 T with 30 MW and 17 MW of NBI heating, respectively, and 7 MW of ECRH power were simulated with the integrated suite of core/SOL/divertor codes JINTRAC. Various fuelling rates/locations were investigated and it was found that high values of beta, and acceptable levels of power load on the divertor outer-target, can be achieved without impurity seeding for separatrix densities above 2  ×  1019 m-3 and in conditions of partial divertor detachment. The 0D plasma parameters of the above reduced-power advanced scenario are discussed along with comparison against the reference values of the highest beta scenario in the JT-60SA research plan.

  11. Suppression of high-energy electrons generated in both disrupting and sustained MST tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Munaretto, S.; Cornille, B. S.; McCollam, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Goetz, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy electrons appearing during MST tokamak plasma disruptions are rapidly lost from the plasma due apparently to internal MHD activity. Work has just recently begun on generating and diagnosing disruptions in MST tokamak plasmas. Initial measurements show the characteristic drop in central temperature and density preceding a quench of the plasma current. This corresponds to a burst of dominantly n=1 MHD activity, which is accompanied by a short-lived burst of high-energy electrons. The short-lived nature of these electrons is suspected to be due to stochastic transport associated with the increased MHD. Earlier work shows that runaway electrons generated in low density, sustained plasmas are suppressed by a sufficiently large m=3 RMP in plasmas with q(a) MST's thick conducting shell. With an m=3 RMP, the degree of runaway suppression increases with RMP amplitude, while an m=1 RMP has little effect on the runaways. Nonlinear MHD modeling with NIMROD of these MST plasmas indicates increased stochasticity with an m=3 RMP, while no such increase in stochasticity is observed with an m=1 RMP. Work supported by US DOE.

  12. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    different with an average of 2.75 and 2.76 feeding units/kg gain for vaccinated and control pigs, respectively (p = 0.598). The proportion of pigs treated by injection with an antimicrobial was lower in the vaccinated group (4.4%) compared to the non-vaccinated group (5.6%), but the difference...

  13. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctorMost kids have no problems with the polio vaccine. However, call your doctor if your child has any reaction after getting the vaccine. Call ... Tell the doctor when (day and time) your child received the vaccine. You also should file a Vaccine Adverse Event ...

  14. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m-2. Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m-2, respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m-2). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  15. Evaluating interest in an influenza A(H5N1) vaccine among laboratory workers who work with highly-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kate E; Bresee, J S; Katz, J M; Olsen, S J

    2018-01-04

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses found in poultry and wild birds occasionally infect humans and can cause serious disease. In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed data from one licensed ASO3-adjuvanted influenza A(H5N1) vaccine for consideration of use during inter-pandemic periods among persons with occupational exposure. To guide vaccine policy decisions, we conducted a survey of laboratory workers to assess demand for HPAI vaccination. We designed an anonymous web survey (EpiInfo 7.0) to collect information on demographics, type of work and time spent with HPAI viruses, and interest in HPAI vaccination. Eligible participants were identified from 42 entities registered with United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Select Agent program in 2016 and emailed electronic surveys. Personnel with Biosafety Level 3 enhanced (BSL-3E) laboratory access were surveyed. Descriptive analysis was performed. Overall, 131 responses were received from 33 principal investigators, 26 research scientists, 24 technicians, 15 postdoctoral fellows, 6 students, and 27 others. The estimated response rate was 15% among the laboratory personnel of responding principal investigators. One hundred respondents reported working in a BSL-3E area where HPAI experiments occurred with a mean time of 5.1-11.7 h per week. Overall, 49% were interested in receiving an A(H5N1) vaccine. By role, interest was highest among students (80%) and among those who spent >50% of their time in a BSL-3E area (64%). Most (61%) of those who said they might be or were not interested in vaccine believed it would not provide additional protection to current safety practices. Half of responding laboratory workers was interested in receiving an influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. HPAI vaccination of laboratory workers at risk of occupational exposure could be used along with existing safety practices to protect this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Genetic material should be routinely collected in clinical vaccine trials--high consent rates can be achieved across all age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trück, Johannes; O'Connor, Daniel; Darton, Tom C; John, Tessa M; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-06-07

    Genomic and transcriptomic studies underpin much investigation in biology and should be included routinely in clinical trials such as vaccine studies to provide new insight into the development of immunity and the genetic basis for adverse reactions. Interest in collecting and storing genetic material for subsequent high-throughput meta-analyses has increased substantially in recent years. Participants in clinical trials represent an important and invaluable source of clinical material and data. Here, the experience of a single center in obtaining informed consent for the collection and long-term storage of genetic material from children, adolescents and adults, involved in clinical vaccine trials is presented and discussed. In 11 completed vaccine studies involving almost 3000 individuals, high rates of consent (in excess of 96%) for biobanking and future genetic testing were obtained. Rates were high for participants from all age groups; however, there was a significant increase toward greater uptake by older study participants. These high acceptance rates demonstrate that participants (and parents of young children) in vaccine studies are willing to consent and engage in genetic research, which provides support for routinely collecting genetic material in research involving healthy participants such as clinical vaccine trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral DNA vaccines based on CS-TPP nanoparticles and alginate microparticles confer high protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection in trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Sohrab; Soltani, Mehdi; Behdani, Mahdi; Evensen, Øystein; Alirahimi, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Ellahe

    2017-09-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a contagious viral disease causing remarkable mortalities in different fish species. Despite the availability of commercial vaccines against IPN, the disease still constitutes one of the main threats to the aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene of IPNV and evaluated its ability to induce protective immunity in rainbow trout fry (3 g) at doses of 10 and 25 μg/fish and boosting with the same doses two weeks later through the oral route using chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles and alginate microparticles incorporated into fish feed. The distribution of the administered vaccines in different organs and transcription of VP2 gene were confirmed by RT-PCR assay at day 30 post boost-vaccination. Transcript levels of IFN-1, Mx-1, IgM, IgT and CD4 genes was dependent on vaccine dose and was significantly up-regulated in head kidney of all orally vaccinated fish groups compared to controls (pcDNA3.1). Cumulative mortalities post-challenge with virulent isolate of the virus were lower in the vaccinated fish and a relative percentage survival (RPS) of 59% and 82% were obtained for the 10 and 25 μg/fish pcDNA3.1-VP2 groups, respectively. Vaccination with the same amount of pcDNA3.1-VP2 encapsulated with CS-TPP nanoparticles resulted in RPS of 47 %and 70%, respectively. Detectable anti-IPNV antibodies were shown until 90 days postvaccination. The orally administrated vaccines significantly decreased VP4 transcripts thus contributing to reducing viral load in surviving fish on day 45 post-challenge. In conclusion, these results show good to high protection post-vaccination alongside with significant up-regulation of key immune genes and detectable levels of circulating antibodies after oral administration of the DNA vaccine formulated in CS-TPP nanoparticles and alginate microparticles in fish feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. ADULT PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccine description. A highly purified vaccine containing 2~. Ilg of each of 23 capsular polysaccharides representing;;, 85% of the serotypes causing pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in the community. Polysaccharide a.rltigens induce type-specific antibodies that enhance opsonisation, phagocytosis and ...

  19. Acceptance of vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

    2016-01-01

    Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a

  20. The fusion of humanistic management and organizational learning vreate sustainable and high quality organizations une

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Largacha Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Looking for the best results that support company sustainability, diverse methodologies focusing on productivity and efficiency have been developed. Under this perspective, the trends of Human Talent Management look for high productive workers and to have low rates of personnel rotation (Bruce, 2006; Wu y Lee, 2001; Fisher, 2000; Lyons, 2006. However, most of these trends do not surpass the reductionist version of the market which only consider a company as a producer of goods or services (Schumacher, 1975, or the managerial paradigms that create structures opposing human resource management (Maslow, 1968; Berger y Luckmann, 1967; Senge et.al., 1994. The Humanistic Management is an exception as it offers another managerial option based on the existing people in the company, not seen as resources but what they really are: human beings. Its principles focus on alteration, non- ideologies and organizational social obligations (Largacha-Martínez, 2010b. In this paper, the outcomes of a qualitative study in seven companies coordinated by the Humanistic Management Network are presented (Von Kimakowitz, et. al, 2011, analyzing them from the perspective of excellence and organizational learning

  1. Sustainable concrete with high volume GGBFS to build Masdar City in the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elchalakani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Masdar City (MC is leading the Middle East in the development of energy and resource efficient low-carbon construction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. One of its major goals is to develop and specify materials and processes that will help reducing its environmental footprint through resource and energy conservation, as well as renewable energy generation. In 2010 MC announced on its website a prized-competition for the best proposal of “Sustainable Concrete” and “Lowest Carbon Footprint” to build MC with a total of two million cubic meter of concrete on 4 years period. This paper presents the experimental test results of 13 types of concrete mixes made with high volume of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS cement with 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC to reduce the carbon emissions. A fly ash-blended mix made with 30% fly ash was also tested. The paper provides more information on the mix design parameter, full justification of CO2 footprint, and cost reduction for each concrete type. The hardened and plastic properties and durability test parameters for each mix are presented. The results show that the slag concrete mixes significantly reduce the carbon footprint and meet the requirements of MC. An economical mix with 80% GGBFS and 20% OPC was nominated for use in the future construction of MC with 154 kg/m3 carbon foot print.

  2. The need for sustained and integrated high-resolution mapping of dynamic coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Lillycrop, Jeff W.; Howd, Peter A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the United States' coastal zone response to both human activities and natural processes is dynamic. Coastal resource and population protection requires understanding, in detail, the processes needed for change as well as the physical setting. Sustained coastal area mapping allows change to be documented and baseline conditions to be established, as well as future behavior to be predicted in conjunction with physical process models. Hyperspectral imagers and airborne lidars, as well as other recent mapping technology advances, allow rapid national scale land use information and high-resolution elevation data collection. Coastal hazard risk evaluation has critical dependence on these rich data sets. A fundamental storm surge model parameter in predicting flooding location, for example, is coastal elevation data, and a foundation in identifying the most vulnerable populations and resources is land use maps. A wealth of information for physical change process study, coastal resource and community management and protection, and coastal area hazard vulnerability determination, is available in a comprehensive national coastal mapping plan designed to take advantage of recent mapping technology progress and data distribution, management, and collection.

  3. Stepwise intervention including 1-on-1 counseling is highly effective in increasing influenza vaccination among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghee; Kwon, Mihye; Song, Jeongmi

    2017-06-01

    The influenza vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. We attempted to increase vaccine uptake in HCWs by nonmandatory measures, including 1-on-1 counseling. In 2015 we used a stepwise approach including (1) text messaging on the last day of the vaccination period, (2) extending the vaccination period by 3 days, (3) education for the low uptake group, and (4) 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs after the 3 interventions. There were 1,433 HCWs included. By the end of the initial 3 days, the uptake rate was 80.0% (1,146/1,433). During an extension for a further 3 days, 33 additional HCWs received the vaccine. One month after starting the vaccination, 90.1% (1,291/1,433) of the HCWs were vaccinated, but this included only 76.1% (210/276) of the doctors (lowest among HCWs). After 3 educational presentations targeted at the unvaccinated doctors, no additional individuals were vaccinated in the following 2 weeks. After 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs, the overall vaccination rate increased to 94.7% (1,357/1,433) in 2015, higher than in the previous year (82.5%, P vaccinated, therefore achieving 92.4% (255/276) compliance, higher than the 56.5% in the previous year (152/269, P vaccination rates among HCWs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-07-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These studies led to the concept that a multivalent vaccine that represented each of the four epidemiologically important VP7 serotypes might be necessary to induce protection in young infants, the target population for vaccination. Human-animal rotavirus reassortants whose gene encoding VP7 was derived from their human rotavirus parent but whose remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent were developed as vaccine candidates. The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotype 1, 2, and 4 specificity. Preliminary efficacy trial results in the United States have been promising, whereas a study in Peru has shown only limited protection. Human-bovine reassortant vaccines, including a candidate that contains the VP4 gene of a human rotavirus (VP4 serotype 1A), are also being studied.

  5. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  7. Smallpox vaccines: New formulations and revised strategies for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Nir; Sutter, Gerd

    2009-12-01

    Smallpox has been eradicated but stockpiles of the causative infectious agent, variola virus, have been maintained over decades. Today, the threat of accidental or intentional poxvirus release is accompanied by the fact that the existing licensed smallpox vaccines cause rare but severe adverse reactions yet are the only products with approved efficacy against smallpox. New safer vaccines and new strategies of immunization are to be developed to fit to a scenario of emergency smallpox vaccination. However, we still lack knowledge about the pathogen and the mechanisms involved in acquiring protective immunity. Here, we review the history of smallpox vaccines and recent achievements in the development of highly efficacious and safer vaccines and vaccine applications. These include i) assessment of adequate animal models to study pathogenesis and protective immunity, ii) characterization of the immunity elicited by next generation vaccines, and (iii) the investigation of the requirements for rapidly protective vaccination.

  8. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  9. Acute norovirus gastroenteritis in children in a highly rotavirus-vaccinated population in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor S; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cavalcante, Sandra M M; Kirby, Andrew; Café, Lilian P; Souto, Maria J; Dolabella, Silvio S; de Assis, Matheus R; Fumian, Tulio M; Miagostovich, Marize P; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Cuevas, Luis E

    2017-03-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and an important etiological agent is norovirus. We describe the occurrence and characteristics of norovirus diarrhoea in children from Sergipe, Northeast-Brazil, over two consecutive periods of three years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. A cross sectional hospital-based survey conducted from October-2006 to September-2009 and from July-2011 to January-2013. Acute diarrhoea cases had a stool sample collected and tested for norovirus by RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. In total 280 (19.6%) of 1432 samples were norovirus positive, including 204 (18.3%) of 1113 samples collected during the first period and 76 (23.9%) of 318 collected during the second period. The proportion of children with norovirus infection increased significantly through the second study period (χ 2 for trend=6.7; p=0.009), was more frequent in rotavirus vaccinated and in younger children (pnorovirus-positive specimens, 188 (67.1%) were sequenced. Of these, 12 were genogroup I and 176 genogroup II. The main genotype was GII.4 (149/188, 79.3%), followed by GII.2 (6, 3.2%) and GII.6 (5, 2.6%). Norovirus annual detection rates increased over the study period. The detection of norovirus was higher among young children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. How influenza vaccination policy may affect vaccine logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-06-22

    When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of access to immunization information on vaccine acceptance in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Lori K; Maroudi, Stefania; Powell, Maura; Nfila, Bakanuki; Moser, Charlotte; Japa, Ingrid; Monyatsi, Ndibo; Tzortzi, Elena; Kouzeli, Ismini; Luberti, Anthony; Theodoridou, Maria; Offit, Paul; Steenhoff, Andrew; Shea, Judy A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine acceptance is a critical component of sustainable immunization programs, yet rates of vaccine hesitancy are rising. Increased access to misinformation through media and anti-vaccine advocacy is an important contributor to hesitancy in the United States and other high-income nations with robust immunization programs. Little is known about the content and effect of information sources on attitudes toward vaccination in settings with rapidly changing or unstable immunization programs. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases among caregivers and immunization providers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece and examine how access to information impacts reported vaccine acceptance. We conducted 37 focus groups and 14 semi-structured interviews with 96 providers and 153 caregivers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece. Focus groups were conducted in Setswana, English, Spanish, or Greek; digitally recorded; and transcribed. Transcripts were translated into English, coded in qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 10, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia), and analyzed for common themes. Dominant themes in all three countries included identification of health care providers or medical literature as the primary source of vaccine information, yet participants reported insufficient communication about vaccines was available. Comments about level of trust in the health care system and government contrasted between sites, with the highest level of trust reported in Botswana but lower levels of trust in Greece. In Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece, participants expressed reliance on health care providers for information and demonstrated a need for more communication about vaccines. Trust in the government and health care system influenced vaccine acceptance differently in each country, demonstrating the need for country-specific data that focus on vaccine

  12. The impact of access to immunization information on vaccine acceptance in three countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Handy

    Full Text Available Vaccine acceptance is a critical component of sustainable immunization programs, yet rates of vaccine hesitancy are rising. Increased access to misinformation through media and anti-vaccine advocacy is an important contributor to hesitancy in the United States and other high-income nations with robust immunization programs. Little is known about the content and effect of information sources on attitudes toward vaccination in settings with rapidly changing or unstable immunization programs.The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases among caregivers and immunization providers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece and examine how access to information impacts reported vaccine acceptance.We conducted 37 focus groups and 14 semi-structured interviews with 96 providers and 153 caregivers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece. Focus groups were conducted in Setswana, English, Spanish, or Greek; digitally recorded; and transcribed. Transcripts were translated into English, coded in qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 10, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia, and analyzed for common themes.Dominant themes in all three countries included identification of health care providers or medical literature as the primary source of vaccine information, yet participants reported insufficient communication about vaccines was available. Comments about level of trust in the health care system and government contrasted between sites, with the highest level of trust reported in Botswana but lower levels of trust in Greece.In Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece, participants expressed reliance on health care providers for information and demonstrated a need for more communication about vaccines. Trust in the government and health care system influenced vaccine acceptance differently in each country, demonstrating the need for country-specific data that focus

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of a high-dose hepatitis B vaccine among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment: A randomized, double-blinded, parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Feng, Yongliang; Gao, Linying; Feng, Dan; Yao, Tian; Shi, Shan; Zhang, Yawei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Suping

    2017-04-25

    To explore whether the immunization with high-dose (60μg) hepatitis B vaccines in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could yield a superior protection against hepatitis B infection than did the standard dose (20μg). We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-controlled trial in MMT patients. Patients with serologically negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to receive three intramuscular injections of 20μg or 60μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. Serum HBsAg and anti-HBs were measured at months 7 and 12 post-vaccination to assess the immunogenicity. A total of 196 MMT patients were randomized and 195 received at least one injection (98 and 97 in 20 and 60μg vaccine groups, respectively). The 60μg vaccine group showed a seroconversion of anti-HBs of 87.3%, high-level response rate of 56.3%, and GMC of 742.9mIU/mL at month 7. While these results were numerically higher than the 20μg group, a statistical difference was not found. HIV infection and concomitant drug abuse were negatively associated with the robust immune responses. 7.7% of MMT patients receiving at least one dose of vaccine reported solicited adverse reactions within 7days after vaccination, 2.6% reported unsolicited adverse reactions within 28days after vaccination. None of the MMT patients reported serious adverse events or became HBsAg positive during the follow-up. The three-dose regimen of 60μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6 can yield a similar immunogenicity among MMT patients as compared to the 20μg vaccine. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02991599. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13?26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta; group, VALHIDATE study

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of va...

  15. Leadership for Sustaining Pedagogical Innovations in ICT Implementation: A Case Study of a Taiwanese Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Chen, Yu-Horng; Wu, Shun-Jyh; Tang, Fang-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a case study of a vocational high school in Taiwan. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the key determinants of a school's success in initiating and sustaining pedagogical innovations in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementation, with a specific focus on the effect of leadership approaches in…

  16. Sustaining Turnaround at the School and District Levels: The High Reliability Schools Project at Sandfields Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Eugene; Reynolds, David; Stringfield, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Beginning from 1 high-poverty, historically low-achieving secondary school's successful turnaround work, this article provides data relative to a successful school turnaround, the importance of external and system-level supports, and the importance of building for sustainable institutionalization of improvements. The evidence suggests the…

  17. Sustaining School Improvement in a High-Need School: Longitudinal Analysis of Robbins Elementary School (USA) from 1993 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okilwa, Nathern; Barnett, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Robbins ES has sustained high academic performance over almost 20 years despite several changes in principals. Design/methodology/approach: The paper analyzed longitudinal data based on: state-level academic and demographic data; two earlier studies of the school; and recent interviews with…

  18. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains.

  19. Sustainable High-Potential Career Development: A Resource-Based View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Paul

    1997-01-01

    In the current economic climate, fast-track career models pose problems for individuals and organizations. An alternative model uses a resource-based view of the company and principles of sustainable development borrowed from environmentalism. (SK)

  20. Rationale for Research on Including Sustainable Agriculture in the High School Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Dollisso, Awoke D.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach to food and fiber problems. Its inclusion in the secondary curriculum would enrich and align it with social concerns. Research is needed in the scholarship functions of discovery, integrative approaches, and teaching. (SK)

  1. Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated university-affiliated setting before and after a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination campaign-Iowa, July 2015-May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh; Quinlisk, Patricia; Weigel, Andrew; Riley, Jacob; James, Lisa; Patterson, James; Hickman, Carole; Rota, Paul A; Schicker, Rebekah; Clemmons, Nakia; Kalas, Nicholas; Cardemil, Cristina

    2017-08-16

    In response to a mumps outbreak at the University of Iowa and surrounding community, university, state, and local health officials implemented a vaccination campaign targeting students campaign doses were administered; 97% were documented third doses. We describe the epidemiology of the outbreak before and after the campaign, focusing on cases in university students. Mumps cases were identified from reportable disease databases and university health system records. Detailed information on student cases was obtained from interviews, medical chart abstractions, university and state vaccination records, and state public health laboratory results. Pre- and post-campaign incidence among students, university faculty/staff, and community members campaign (75; 25%) than before (226; 75%). Cases in the target group (students campaign (p = 0.01). A positive mumps PCR test was associated with the presence of parotitis and early sample collection, and inversely associated with recent receipt of MMR vaccine. Following a large additional dose MMR vaccination campaign, fewer mumps cases occurred overall and in the target population.

  2. High prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18 in cervical cancers of Curaçao: implications for choice of prophylactic HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Desiree J; Lissenberg-Witte, Birgit I; de Koning, Maurits N C; Pinedo, Herbert M; Kenter, Gemma G; Meijer, Chris J L M; Quint, Wim G

    2017-10-11

    Curaçao is a Dutch-Caribbean Island located in a high-risk area for cervical cancer.Prior to introduction of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, knowledge of the prevalence of high-risk HPV vaccine genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) in cervical (pre)cancer is required. To investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, 2 and 3 in Curaçao. Paraffin-embedded blocks of 104 cervical cancers (89 squamous, 15 adenocarcinoma), 41 CIN3, 39 CIN2 and 40 CIN1 lesions were analysed for the presence of HPV. Sections were stained by H&E for histopathological evaluation, and DNA was extracted using proteinase K. HPV genotypes were detected using Short PCR Fragment (SPF10) PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay and a Line Probe Assay (LiPA25) . HPV was found in 92 (88.5%) ICC; 87 (94.6%) had a single HPV infection and 86 (93.5%) were high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-type positive.The three most common HPV types in ICC were 16 (38.5%), 18 (13.5%) and 45 (6.7%), covering 58.7%.HrHPV vaccine genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 45, 52 and 58 were responsible for 73.1% of ICC. For precancerous lesions, the HPV attribution was 85.4% for CIN3, 66.7% for CIN2% and 42.5% for CIN1. Our study, the largest in the Caribbean region in (pre)cancer, shows that the prevalence of HPV-type 16 and 18 in cervical cancer is lower compared with the world population but no differences in prevalence of these two HPV types are seen in precancerous lesions.When considering HPV vaccination in Curaçao, the relatively high contribution of non-HPV 16/18 genotypes in ICC should be taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Daniel C. Cismaru

    2015-01-01

    Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both tra...

  4. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of disability separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, George C; Hanley, M G; Pavey, G J; Rue, J-Ph

    2017-06-01

    Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon midfoot injuries disproportionately affecting young, active males. Previous studies in civilian populations have reported relatively good results with operative treatment. However, treatment results have not been specifically examined in military personnel, who may have higher physical demands than the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of return to military duty following surgical treatment of isolated Lisfranc injuries. Surgical records and radiographic images from all active duty US military personnel treated for an isolated Lisfranc injury between January 2005 and July 2014 were examined. Demographic information, injury data, surgical details and subsequent return to duty information were recorded. The primary outcome was ability to return to unrestricted military duty following treatment. The secondary outcome was secondary conversion to a midfoot arthrodesis following initial open reduction internal fixation. Twenty-one patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Median patient age was 23 years, and mean follow-up was 43 months. Within this cohort, 14 patients were able to return to military service, while seven required a disability separation from the armed forces. Of the 18 patients who underwent initial fixation, eight were subsequently revised to midfoot arthrodesis for persistent pain. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of persistent pain and disability, even after optimal initial surgical treatment. Military surgeons should counsel patients on the career-threatening nature of this condition and high rates of secondary procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Highly Stable, Functional Hairy Nanoparticles and Biopolymers from Wood Fibers: Towards Sustainable Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Yang, Han; Alam, Md Nur; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2016-07-20

    Nanoparticles, as one of the key materials in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, have gained significant importance during the past decade. While metal-based nanoparticles are associated with synthetic and environmental hassles, cellulose introduces a green, sustainable alternative for nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we present the chemical synthesis and separation procedures to produce new classes of hairy nanoparticles (bearing both amorphous and crystalline regions) and biopolymers based on wood fibers. Through periodate oxidation of soft wood pulp, the glucose ring of cellulose is opened at the C2-C3 bond to form 2,3-dialdehyde groups. Further heating of the partially oxidized fibers (e.g., T = 80 °C) results in three products, namely fibrous oxidized cellulose, sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (SNCC), and dissolved dialdehyde modified cellulose (DAMC), which are well separated by intermittent centrifugation and co-solvent addition. The partially oxidized fibers (without heating) were used as a highly reactive intermediate to react with chlorite for converting almost all aldehyde to carboxyl groups. Co-solvent precipitation and centrifugation resulted in electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) and dicarboxylated cellulose (DCC). The aldehyde content of SNCC and consequently surface charge of ENCC (carboxyl content) were precisely controlled by controlling the periodate oxidation reaction time, resulting in highly stable nanoparticles bearing more than 7 mmol functional groups per gram of nanoparticles (e.g., as compared to conventional NCC bearing < 1 mmol functional group/g). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attested to the rod-like morphology. Conductometric titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrokinetic-sonic-amplitude (ESA) and acoustic attenuation

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Rabies Vaccine Is Safe, Highly Immunogenic, and Provides Long-Lasting Protection in Dogs and Cats ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tao, Lihong; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Yang, Chinglai; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

    2011-01-01

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 109.8 50% egg infective doses (EID50)/ml of allantoic fluid. RVG expression enabled rL-RVG to spread from cell to cell in a rabies virus-like manner, and RVG was incorporated on the surface of the rL-RVG viral particle. RVG incorporation did not alter the trypsin-dependent infectivity of the NDV vector in mammalian cells. rL-RVG and La Sota NDV showed similar levels of sensitivity to a neutralization antibody against NDV and similar levels of resistance to a neutralization antibody against rabies virus. Animal studies demonstrated that rL-RVG is safe in several species, including cats and dogs, when administered as multiple high doses of recombinant vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination with rL-RVG induced a substantial rabies virus neutralization antibody response and provided complete protection from challenge with circulating rabies virus strains. Most importantly, rL-RVG induced strong and long-lasting protective neutralization antibody responses to rabies virus in dogs and cats. A low vaccine dose of 108.3 EID50 completely protected dogs from challenge with a circulating strain of rabies virus for more than a year. This is the first study to demonstrate that immunization with an NDV-vectored vaccine can induce long-lasting, systemic protective immunity against rabies. PMID:21632762

  8. Low prevalence of rotavirus and high prevalence of norovirus in hospital and community wastewater after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemón Bucardo

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV and norovirus (NoV are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05, and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July-September, and the majority of all RV detected (6/9 belonged to subgroup (SG I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%. Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21 were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction.

  9. High pneumonia lifetime-ever incidence in Beijing children compared with locations in other countries, and implications for national PCV and Hib vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fang; Weschler, Louise B; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    To compare the proportion of Beijing children who have ever had pneumonia (%Pneumonia) to those in other locations, and to estimate by how much national vaccine coverage with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) could reduce Beijing %Pneumonia. %Pneumonia was obtained for each age group from 1 to 8 years inclusive from 5,876 responses to a cross-sectional questionnaire. Literature searches were conducted for world-wide reports of %Pneumonia. Previous vaccine trials conducted worldwide were used to estimate the pneumococcal (S. pneumoniae) and Hib (H. influenzae) burdens and %Pneumonia as well as the potential for PCV and Hib vaccines to reduce Beijing children's %Pneumonia. The majority of pneumonia cases occurred by the age of three. The cumulative %Pneumonia for 3-8 year-old Beijing children, 26.9%, was only slightly higher than the 25.4% for the discrete 3 year-old age group, similar to trends for Tianjin (China) and Texas (USA). Beijing's %Pneumonia is disproportionally high relative to its Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, and markedly higher than %Pneumonia in the US and other high GNI per capita countries. Chinese diagnostic guidelines recommend chest X-ray confirmation while most other countries discourage it in favor of clinical diagnosis. Literature review shows that chest X-ray confirmation returns far fewer pneumonia diagnoses than clinical diagnosis. Accordingly, Beijing's %Pneumonia is likely higher than indicated by raw numbers. Vaccine trials suggest that national PCV and Hib vaccination could reduce Beijing's %Pneumonia from 26.9% to 19.7% and 24.9% respectively. National PCV and Hib vaccination programs would substantially reduce Beijing children's pneumonia incidence.

  10. Control of Bovine Brucellosis from Persistently Infected Holdings Using RB51 Vaccination with Test-and-Slaughter: A Comparative Case Report from a High Incidence Area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, M C; Afonso, F; Ribeiro, R; Fonseca, A P; Abernethy, D A; Boinas, F

    2016-02-01

    Bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus infection causes significant reproductive and production losses in cattle and is a major zoonosis. Eradication of this disease has proved difficult to achieve in Portugal where it still occurs in some regions despite an ongoing national eradication programme. In 2004, the Alentejo region, a major cattle producing area, reported one of the highest levels of bovine brucellosis in the country, especially in one divisional area. In that area, bovine brucellosis was particularly problematic in a holding of ten herds, the largest extensive cattle unit in the country, which remained infected despite an extensive test-and-slaughter programme and depopulation of five herds. A 5-year programme of RB51 vaccination with biannual test-and-slaughter was thus implemented in 2004. The apparent animal seroprevalence decreased from 19% (646/3,400) to 3% (88/2930) on the third herd-level test and remained below 0.8% (27/3324) after the fourth test. After the tenth test, the holding had a prevalence of 0.1% (2/2332) and only one herd remained positive with a within-herd prevalence of 1.1% (2/177). The results were compared to all other herds (n = 10) in the divisional area that were also persistently infected but were subject only to test-and-slaughter before being depopulated. In these herds, the strategy of test-and-slaughter did not reduce the prevalence, which remained significantly higher than the vaccinated group (median = 0.48% and 8.5% in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated herds; Wilcoxon rank sum test; P RB51 vaccination with parallel testing and improved biosecurity as a comprehensive and sustainable strategy for bovine brucellosis control in persistently infected herds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  12. Global perspectives on vaccine financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Stephen; Giffin, Robert B

    2004-10-01

    Despite the great promise of immunization and recent progress in immunizing children throughout the developing world, a global crisis in vaccine R&D, supply and delivery is faced. This article reviews how the global US6 billion dollars vaccine market is structured and its attractiveness to vaccine suppliers, the international two-tiered pricing system in which high-income countries generate about 82% of vaccine revenues but represent only 12% of the doses, the impact of schedule divergence as high-income and developing countries introduce different vaccines, the role of the US government, and possible approaches to ameliorate the crisis.

  13. Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability of high-speed railway (HSR construction projects in a comprehensive manner. To this end, the author established an index system, involving 4 primary indices, 9 secondary indices, and 32 tertiary indices. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the unascertained measure were introduced to calculate the weights of these indices. Then, the index system was applied to evaluate the sustainability of the China’s Harbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line (PDL. The results show that the Harbin-Dalian PDL project achieved good results in terms of process, economic benefit, impact, and sustainability, and will bring long-term benefits in the fields of tourism, economy, and transport capacity, as well as many other fields. In spite of its good overall sustainability, the project needs to further increase its economic benefits and reduce its negative environmental impact. For this purpose, it is necessary to adopt the management mode of “separation between network and transportation” and apply noise prevention measures like noise barriers, tunnels, and overhead viaducts. This research lays a solid basis for the sustainability evaluation of HSR construction projects, and simplifies the modelling process for designers of HSR.

  14. Effects and Sustainability of a 13-Day High-Intensity Shock Microcycle in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The preseason in soccer is a short period of 6-8 weeks where conditional abilities, technical and tactical elements need to be trained. Therefore, time is lacking to perform long term preparation periods for different abilities, especially endurance training. There is evidence that the implementation of high-intensity shock microcycles in preseason training could be one way to improve physical performance in a short period of time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects and the sustainability of a high-intensity shock microcycle on soccer specific performance. Over 2 weeks, 12 male soccer players (26.1 ± 4.5 years performed 12 high-intensity training (HIT sessions in addition to their usual training. Before (pre, 6 days (6d and 25 days (25d after training, subjects performed Counter Movement Jump (CMJ, Repeated-Sprint Ability (RSA test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIR2. Mean sprint time (RSAMean (cohen’s d = -1.15, percentage decrement score (RSAIndex (cohen’s d = -1.99 and YYIR2 (cohen’s d = +1.92 improved significantly from pre to 6d. 25d after, values showed a significant reduction for YYIR2 (cohen’s d = -0.81 and small to moderate but not significant increase for RSAMean (cohen’s d = +0.37 and RSAIndex (cohen’s d = +0.7 compared to 6d values. Small but no significant increases were found for CMJ (cohen’s d = +0.33 and no significant and substantial changes were found for RSABest (cohen’s d = -0.07 from pre to 6d. For competitive soccer players, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to largely improve RSA and YYIR2 in a short period of time. Despite moderate to large decreases in RSAIndex and YYIR2 performance in the 19 day period without HIT, values still remained significantly higher 25d after the last HIT session compared to pre-values. However, it might be necessary to include isolated high-intensity sessions after a HIT training block in order to maintain the

  15. Clinical Trial Results of the HER-2/neu (E75) Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Clifton, Guy T.; Holmes, Jarrod P.; Clive, Kevin S.; Patil, Ritesh; Benavides, Linda C.; Gates, Jeremy D.; Sears, Alan K.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Ponniah, Sathibalan; Peoples, George E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The authors conducted exploratory phase 1–2 clinical trials vaccinating breast cancer patients with E75, a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2/A3–restricted HER-2/neu (HER2) peptide, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The vaccine is given as adjuvant therapy to prevent disease recurrence. They previously reported that the vaccine is safe and effective in stimulating expansion of E75-specific cytotoxic T cells. Here, they report 24-month landmark analyses of disease-free survival (DFS). METHODS These dose escalation/schedule optimization trials enrolled lymph node-positive and high-risk lymph node-negative patients with HER2 (immunohistochemistry [IHC] 1-3+) expressing tumors. HLA-A2/A3+ patients were vaccinated; others were followed prospectively as controls for recurrence. DFS was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves; groups were compared using log-rank tests. RESULTS Of 195 enrolled patients, 182 were evaluable: 106 (58.2%) in the vaccinated group and 76 (41.8%) in the control group. The 24-month landmark analysis DFS was 94.3% in the vaccinated group and 86.8% in the control group (P = .08). Importantly, because of trial design, 65% of patients received a lower than optimal vaccine dose. In subset analyses, patients who benefited most from vaccination (vaccinated group vs control group) had lymph node-positive (DFS, 90.2% vs 79.1%; P = .13), HER2 IHC 1+-2+ (DFS, 94.0% vs 79.4%; P = .04), or grade 1 or 2 (DFS, 98.4% vs 86.0%; P = .01) tumors and were optimally dosed (DFS, 97.3% vs 86.8%; P = .08). A booster program has been initiated; no patients receiving booster inoculations have recurred. CONCLUSIONS The E75 vaccine has clinical efficacy that is more prominent in certain patients. A phase 3 trial enrolling lymph node-positive patients with HER2 low-expressing tumors is warranted. PMID:21989902

  16. HIV-1 diversity, drug-resistant mutations, and viral evolution among high-risk individuals in phase II HIV vaccine trial sites in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Qi

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevalence in Guangxi, China, has been growing since 1996, when the first case was reported. Over half of HIV-1 positive patients in Guangxi Province were injecting drug users (IDUs, possibly because of the province's location near drug-trafficking routes. Since a phase II HIV vaccine trial is ongoing there, a current characterization of the subtypes of HIV-1 among IDUs in Guangxi would provide critical information for future HIV vaccine trials, as well as further control and prevention of HIV-1 transmission. Thus, we conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation of HIV-1 samples from 2008-2010 among IDUs in multiple cities in Guangxi Province. Our results, based on the gag/pol fragment, indicated a very high proportion (78.47% of HIV-1 CRF08_BC recombinants, some CRF01_AE (15.38% recombinants, and a low proportion of CRF07_BC (6.15% recombinants among the IDUs. The high proportion of CRF08 HIV-1 strains among recent IDUs matches the vaccine candidate constructs. However, future vaccine development should also incorporate CRF01-targeted vaccine candidates. Distinct Env sequence evolution patterns were observed for CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE, indicating that different local selection pressures have been exerted on these two HIV-1 subtypes. Unique drug-resistant mutations were also detected, and our data indicate that HIV treatment programs should consider pre-existing drug-resistant mutations.

  17. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636

  18. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. © 2016 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Therapeutic DNA vaccine induces broad T cell responses in the gut and sustained protection from viral rebound and AIDS in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Heydenburg Fuller

    Full Text Available Immunotherapies that induce durable immune control of chronic HIV infection may eliminate the need for life-long dependence on drugs. We investigated a DNA vaccine formulated with a novel genetic adjuvant that stimulates immune responses in the blood and gut for the ability to improve therapy in rhesus macaques chronically infected with SIV. Using the SIV-macaque model for AIDS, we show that epidermal co-delivery of plasmids expressing SIV Gag, RT, Nef and Env, and the mucosal adjuvant, heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin (LT, during antiretroviral therapy (ART induced a substantial 2-4-log fold reduction in mean virus burden in both the gut and blood when compared to unvaccinated controls and provided durable protection from viral rebound and disease progression after the drug was discontinued. This effect was associated with significant increases in IFN-γ T cell responses in both the blood and gut and SIV-specific CD8+ T cells with dual TNF-α and cytolytic effector functions in the blood. Importantly, a broader specificity in the T cell response seen in the gut, but not the blood, significantly correlated with a reduction in virus production in mucosal tissues and a lower virus burden in plasma. We conclude that immunizing with vaccines that induce immune responses in mucosal gut tissue could reduce residual viral reservoirs during drug therapy and improve long-term treatment of HIV infection in humans.

  20. The human CD8+ T cell responses induced by a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine are directed against highly conserved epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Angelo, Michael A; Bangs, Derek J; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D; Lindow, Janet C; Diehl, Sean A; Whitehead, Stephen; Durbin, Anna; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of infection with any of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to -4) has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and the lack of a treatment or vaccine has contributed to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A recent comprehensive analysis of the human T cell response against wild-type DENV suggested an human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-linked protective role for CD8(+) T cells. We have collected one-unit blood donations from study participants receiving the monovalent or tetravalent live attenuated DENV vaccine (DLAV), developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these donors were screened in gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays with pools of predicted, HLA-matched, class I binding peptides covering the entire DENV proteome. Here, we characterize for the first time CD8(+) T cell responses after live attenuated dengue vaccination and show that CD8(+) T cell responses in vaccinees were readily detectable and comparable to natural dengue infection. Interestingly, whereas broad responses to structural and nonstructural (NS) proteins were observed after monovalent vaccination, T cell responses following tetravalent vaccination were, dramatically, focused toward the highly conserved NS proteins. Epitopes were highly conserved in a vast variety of field isolates and able to elicit multifunctional T cell responses. Detailed knowledge of the T cell response will contribute to the identification of robust correlates of protection in natural immunity and following vaccination against DENV. The development of effective vaccination strategies against dengue virus (DENV) infection and clinically significant disease is a task of high global public health value and significance, while also being a challenge of significant complexity. A recent efficacy trial of the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate, demonstrated only partial protection against all four DENV serotypes, despite

  1. The Human CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Are Directed against Highly Conserved Epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Michael A.; Bangs, Derek J.; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D.; Lindow, Janet C.; Diehl, Sean A.; Whitehead, Stephen; Durbin, Anna; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The incidence of infection with any of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to -4) has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and the lack of a treatment or vaccine has contributed to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A recent comprehensive analysis of the human T cell response against wild-type DENV suggested an human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-linked protective role for CD8+ T cells. We have collected one-unit blood donations from study participants receiving the monovalent or tetravalent live attenuated DENV vaccine (DLAV), developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these donors were screened in gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays with pools of predicted, HLA-matched, class I binding peptides covering the entire DENV proteome. Here, we characterize for the first time CD8+ T cell responses after live attenuated dengue vaccination and show that CD8+ T cell responses in vaccinees were readily detectable and comparable to natural dengue infection. Interestingly, whereas broad responses to structural and nonstructural (NS) proteins were observed after monovalent vaccination, T cell responses following tetravalent vaccination were, dramatically, focused toward the highly conserved NS proteins. Epitopes were highly conserved in a vast variety of field isolates and able to elicit multifunctional T cell responses. Detailed knowledge of the T cell response will contribute to the identification of robust correlates of protection in natural immunity and following vaccination against DENV. IMPORTANCE The development of effective vaccination strategies against dengue virus (DENV) infection and clinically significant disease is a task of high global public health value and significance, while also being a challenge of significant complexity. A recent efficacy trial of the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate, demonstrated only partial protection against all four DENV

  2. Vaccine vial monitor availability and use in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Pär; Gessner, Bradford D; Jaillard, Philippe; Morgan, Christopher; Le Gargasson, Jean Bernard

    2017-04-19

    The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will assume full responsibility for vaccine financing and procurement. It is unclear to what extent countries transitioning out of Gavi support will continue to include VVMs on their vaccines. This paper aims to systematically review evidence on VVM availability and use in low- and middle-income countries to document factors behind global access to and country demand for VVMs. Such results could help identify actions needed to ensure continued use of VVMs in countries that transition out of Gavi support. We performed a systematic review of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature in English and French languages with publication dates from 2005 onwards. The studies included were analyzed for the following outcomes: (1) availability and deployment of VVM-labeled vaccines; (2) VVM practices and perceptions in the immunization system; (3) vaccine introduction and decision-making processes; (4) Gavi graduation and vaccine program sustainability. The study found that VVM availability and use was affected by multiple sourcing of vaccines and the extent to which VVM was included in the vaccine specification in the tendering documents when procuring vaccines. Knowledge about VVM and its impact on the EPI program was found to be high among health workers as well as decision-makers. However, the study also found that weak capacity in key national institutions such as NRA and NPA might impact on demand for VVM. As countries take decisions regarding the adoption of new vaccines, factors such as disease burden and vaccine price may assume greater importance than vaccine characteristics and presentation. Finally, the study found that countries rely largely on the advice and recommendations from technical partners such as WHO and PAHO. The

  3. Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Under Conditions of Routine Use in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Ngabo, Fidele; Donnen, Philippe; Gatera, Maurice; Uwimana, Jeannine; Rugambwa, Celse; Mwenda, Jason M; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Rwanda was one of the first low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. We sought to evaluate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this setting. VE was assessed using a case-control design. Cases and test-negative controls were children who presented with a diarrheal illness to 1 of 8 sentinel district hospitals and 10 associated health centers and had a stool specimen that tested positive (cases) or negative (controls) for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay. Due to high vaccine coverage almost immediately after vaccine introduction, the analysis was restricted to children 7-18 weeks of age at time of rotavirus vaccine introduction. VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100, where the odds ratio was the adjusted odds ratio for the rotavirus vaccination rate among case-patients compared with controls. Forty-eight rotavirus-positive and 152 rotavirus-negative children were enrolled. Rotavirus-positive children were significantly less likely to have received rotavirus vaccine (33/44 [73%] unvaccinated) compared with rotavirus-negative children (81/136 [59%] unvaccinated) (P= .002). A full 3-dose series was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-91%) effective against rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization or a health center visit and was 65% (95% CI, -80% to 93%) in children 6-11 months of age and 81% (95% CI, 25%-95%) in children ≥12 months of age. Rotavirus vaccine is effective in preventing rotavirus disease in Rwandan children who began their rotavirus vaccine series from 7 to 18 weeks of age. Protection from vaccination was sustained after the first year of life. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. OLGA. Flexible tar removal for high efficient production of clean heat and power as well as sustainable fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The content of the paper lists the following subjects: The tar problem; The OLGA technology; The development with Step 1: Demonstration of high-efficient production of clean heat and power, Step 2: Developing high-efficient production of sustainable fuels and chemicals, and Step 3: Demonstrating the flexibility of the OLGA tar removal technology. Further, attention is paid to Commercial gasification projects, and finally Conclusions are formulated and an Outlook is given.

  5. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  6. High-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay for analysis of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies against human papillomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sehr

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, automated, purely add-on, high-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (HT-PBNA with excellent repeatability and run-to-run reproducibility was developed for human papillomavirus types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 45, 52, 58 and bovine papillomavirus type 1. Preparation of 384 well assay plates with serially diluted sera and the actual cell-based assay are separated in time, therefore batches of up to one hundred assay plates can be processed sequentially. A mean coefficient of variation (CV of 13% was obtained for anti-HPV 16 and HPV 18 titers for a standard serum tested in a total of 58 repeats on individual plates in seven independent runs. Natural antibody response was analyzed in 35 sera from patients with HPV 16 DNA positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ lesions. The new HT-PBNA is based on Gaussia luciferase with increased sensitivity compared to the previously described manual PBNA (manPBNA based on secreted alkaline phosphatase as reporter. Titers obtained with HT-PBNA were generally higher than titers obtained with the manPBNA. A good linear correlation (R(2 = 0.7 was found between HT-PBNA titers and anti-HPV 16 L1 antibody-levels determined by a Luminex bead-based GST-capture assay for these 35 sera and a Kappa-value of 0.72, with only 3 discordant sera in the low titer range. In addition to natural low titer antibody responses the high sensitivity of the HT-PBNA also allows detection of cross-neutralizing antibodies induced by commercial HPV L1-vaccines and experimental L2-vaccines. When analyzing the WHO international standards for HPV 16 and 18 we determined an analytical sensitivity of 0.864 and 1.105 mIU, respectively.

  7. Progress in prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2016: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maver, Polona J; Poljak, Mario

    2017-08-08

    vaccination in various settings and geographic locations. The main challenges remain implementing HPV vaccination in national vaccination programs, especially in low-and middle-income countries with the highest burden of cervical cancer, and achieving and sustaining high vaccine coverage rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The global distribution and diversity of protein vaccine candidate antigens in the highly virulent Streptococcus pnuemoniae serotype 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cornick, Jennifer E.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem; Yalcin, Feyruz; Kiran, Anmol M.; Kumwenda, Benjamin; Chaguza, Chrispin; Govindpershad, Shanil; Ousmane, Sani; Senghore, Madikay; du Plessis, Mignon; Pluschke, Gerd; Ebruke, Chinelo; McGee, Lesley; Sigaùque, Beutel; Collard, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Serotype 1 is one of the most common causes of pneumococcal disease worldwide. Pneumococcal protein vaccines are currently being developed as an alternate intervention strategy to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pre-requisites for an efficacious pneumococcal protein vaccine are universal presence and minimal variation of the target antigen in the pneumococcal population, and the capability to induce a robust human immune response. We used in silico analysis to assess the prevalence of seven ...

  9. Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banura Cecily

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50–60% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (≥70% coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention.

  10. A DNA vaccine delivered by dermal electroporation fully protects cynomolgus macaques against Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A; Wilkinson, Eric R; Shaia, Carl I; Facemire, Paul R; Bell, Todd M; Bearss, Jeremy J; Shamblin, Joshua D; Wollen, Suzanne E; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2017-12-02

    Lassa virus (LASV) is an ambisense RNA virus in the Arenaviridae family and is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic disease endemic to West and Central Africa. 1,2 There are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines available to prevent Lassa fever. 1,2 in our previous studies, we developed a gene-optimized DNA vaccine that encodes the glycoprotein precursor gene of LASV (Josiah strain) and demonstrated that 3 vaccinations accompanied by dermal electroporation protected guinea pigs from LASV-associated illness and death. Here, we describe an initial efficacy experiment in cynomolgus macaque nonhuman primates (NHPs) in which we followed an identical 3-dose vaccine schedule that was successful in guinea pigs, and a follow-on experiment in which we used an accelerated vaccination strategy consisting of 2 administrations, spaced 4 weeks apart. In both studies, all of the LASV DNA-vaccinated NHPs survived challenge and none of them had measureable, sustained viremia or displayed weight loss or other disease signs post-exposure. Three of 10 mock-vaccinates survived exposure to LASV, but all of them became acutely ill post-exposure and remained chronically ill to the study end point (45 d post-exposure). Two of the 3 survivors experienced sensorineural hearing loss (described elsewhere). These results clearly demonstrate that the LASV DNA vaccine combined with dermal electroporation is a highly effective candidate for eventual use in humans.

  11. Studies on Lyophilization of Sabin Vaccine. 2. Investigation on Long Time Incubation at High and Low Temperatures of Lyophilized Sabin Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    塩見, 洋; 浦沢, 价子; 浦沢, 正三

    1998-01-01

    Lyophilization of vaccine is one of the possible options for the development of a heat-stable poliovaccine. In our previous study in which conditions affecting the lyophilization of Sabin poliovaccine were investigated, it was found that infectivity titration of lyophilized viruses was under at least three kind of variabilities i. e., i) the variability among different lyophilization experi-ments, ii) the variability within the same lyophilization experiment and iii) the variability inherent ...

  12. Effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte R; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth has been associated with decreased mortality in Asia. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given at birth in tuberculosis-endemic countries. Previous studies suggest that VAS may influence the immune response to vaccines. OBJECTIVE: Our...... objective was to examine whether VAS influences the immune response to simultaneously administered BCG vaccine. DESIGN: Within a randomized trial of 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo given with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau, 2710 infants were examined for BCG scar formation and delayed...

  13. Characteristics of memory B cells elicited by a highly efficacious HPV vaccine in subjects with no pre-existing immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Scherer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18 when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM, utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses.

  14. Economic impact of thermostable vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Wedlock, Patrick T; Haidari, Leila A; Elder, Kate; Potet, Julien; Manring, Rachel; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie L; Bonner, Kimberly; Rangarajan, Arjun; Hunyh, Delphine; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-05-25

    While our previous work has shown that replacing existing vaccines with thermostable vaccines can relieve bottlenecks in vaccine supply chains and thus increase vaccine availability, the question remains whether this benefit would outweigh the additional cost of thermostable formulations. Using HERMES simulation models of the vaccine supply chains for the Republic of Benin, the state of Bihar (India), and Niger, we simulated replacing different existing vaccines with thermostable formulations and determined the resulting clinical and economic impact. Costs measured included the costs of vaccines, logistics, and disease outcomes averted. Replacing a particular vaccine with a thermostable version yielded cost savings in many cases even when charging a price premium (two or three times the current vaccine price). For example, replacing the current pentavalent vaccine with a thermostable version without increasing the vaccine price saved from $366 to $10,945 per 100 members of the vaccine's target population. Doubling the vaccine price still resulted in cost savings that ranged from $300 to $10,706, and tripling the vaccine price resulted in cost savings from $234 to $10,468. As another example, a thermostable rotavirus vaccine (RV) at its current (year) price saved between $131 and $1065. Doubling and tripling the thermostable rotavirus price resulted in cost savings ranging from $102 to $936 and $73 to $808, respectively. Switching to thermostable formulations was highly cost-effective or cost-effective in most scenarios explored. Medical cost and productivity savings could outweigh even significant price premiums charged for thermostable formulations of vaccines, providing support for their use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Further progress on defining highly conserved immunogenic epitopes for a global HIV vaccine: HLA-A3-restricted GAIA vaccine epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Levitz, Lauren; Ardito, Matthew T; Skowron, Gail; Mayer, Kenneth H; Buus, Soren; Boyle, Christine M; Martin, William D

    2012-07-01

    Two major obstacles confronting HIV vaccine design have been the extensive viral diversity of HIV-1 globally and viral evolution driven by escape from CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune pressure. Regions of the viral genome that are not able to escape immune response and that are conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV and would be excellent candidates for vaccine development. In this study, T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools, combining HLA-A3 binding predictions with relative sequence conservation in the context of global HIV evolution. Twenty-seven HLA-A3 epitopes were chosen from an analysis performed in 2003 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and additional sequences were selected in 2009 based on an expanded set of 43,822 sequences. These epitopes were tested in vitro for HLA binding and for immunogenicity with PBMCs of HIV-infected donors from Providence, Rhode Island. Validation of these HLA-A3 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that epitopes such as these would be candidates for inclusion in our globally relevant GAIA HIV vaccine constructs.

  16. Changes in Property Rights and Management of High-Elevation Rangelands in Bhutan: Implications for Sustainable Development of Herder Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Tenzing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Property rights and management regimes for high-elevation rangelands in Bhutan have evolved over centuries in response to environmental, cultural, and political imperatives. The 2007 Land Act of Bhutan aims to redress historical inequities in property rights by redistributing grazing leases to local livestock owners in a process known as rangeland nationalization. This study explored 3 related issues: property rights and management regimes in 3 distinct high-elevation rangeland systems, herders' and government officials' perceptions of the proposed rangeland nationalization process, and the implications of rangeland nationalization for herder livelihoods and sustainable development. Qualitative research methods were adopted to capture the lived experiences of 151 livestock farmers, seminomadic herders, and government officials, including 40 individual interviews and 9 focus group discussions. The research revealed that herding in these high-elevation rangelands is governed by a complex combination of private, communal, and mixed property use rights regimes. Management regimes varied according to traditional rules, but development was limited because of lack of management rights. The rangeland nationalization process is expected to promote sustainable management of high-elevation rangelands by incentivizing provisioning and maintenance activities. However, the lack of clear implementation guidelines and a coherent replacement for traditional practices have created confusion and anxiety in herder communities. Providing tenure security and management rights in an equitable manner will be vital for fostering sustainable development for herder communities living in the high-elevation rangelands of Bhutan.

  17. Vaccine Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... list . Showing availability for 25,354 locations. Influenza Vaccine Recommended for everyone greater than or equal to ... which one may be right for you! Flu Vaccines Protects again influenza, commonly called flu, a respiratory ...

  18. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) New website and ...

  19. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to 60 died. Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, hospitalizations and emergency visits for rotavirus have dropped ...

  20. Design of a highly effective therapeutic HPV16 E6/E7-specific DNA vaccine: optimization by different ways of sequence rearrangements (shuffling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N Almajhdi

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with the high-risk Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16 is the causative event for the development of cervical cancer and other malignant tumors of the anogenital tract and of the head and neck. Despite many attempts to develop therapeutic vaccines no candidate has entered late clinical trials. An interesting approach is a DNA based vaccine encompassing the nucleotide sequence of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. Because both proteins are consistently expressed in HPV infected cells they represent excellent targets for immune therapy. Here we report the development of 8 DNA vaccine candidates consisting of differently rearranged HPV-16 E6 and E7 sequences within one molecule providing all naturally occurring epitopes but supposedly lacking transforming activity. The HPV sequences were fused to the J-domain and the SV40 enhancer in order to increase immune responses. We demonstrate that one out of the 8 vaccine candidates induces very strong cellular E6- and E7- specific cellular immune responses in mice and, as shown in regression experiments, efficiently controls growth of HPV 16 positive syngeneic tumors. This data demonstrates the potential of this vaccine candidate to control persistent HPV 16 infection that may lead to malignant disease. It also suggests that different sequence rearrangements influence the immunogenecity by an as yet unknown mechanism.

  1. Passive transfer of resistance and the site of immune-dependent elimination of the challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Andrews, B.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1984-12-01

    The immune-dependent elimination of a challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni was analysed by passive transfer of serum, recovery of the challenge from the lungs and livers and by transferring lung-stage schistosomula. Recipients of serum from rats immunized with either unirradiated, 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae, were equally resistant if the serum was injected on the day of infection or 5-7 days after infection. Vaccinated rat serum transferred to mice and vaccinated rabbit serum transferred to rats conferred comparable protection when injected on day 0 or 5 days after infection of the recipients. This apparent susceptibility of the lung schistosomula to immune attack was confirmed by challenging 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae vaccinated rats with lung-stage schistosomula derived from mice or rats. All the detectable attrition of a cercarial challenge in vaccinated rats occurred between 7 and 10 days post-challenge, before the parasites reached the liver. Since there was no evidence of damage or attrition in the skin or lungs before day 7 it was concluded that immune-dependent elimination occurred rapidly following a 'window of sensitivity' coinciding with the migration of the parasites from the lungs to the liver.

  2. High Vaccination Coverage among Children during Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 as a Potential Factor of Herd Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Matsuoka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010 on influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892. Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.13–2.23 and the VE was 43.9% (CI: 42.8–44.9. The expansion of infection, indicating the power of transmission from infected person to susceptible person, was high in the 7–15 years age groups in each area. In conclusion, results from this survey suggested that schoolchildren-based vaccination rate participates in determining the level of herd immunity to influenza and children might be the drivers of influenza transmission. For future pandemic preparedness, vaccination of schoolchildren may help to prevent disease transmission during influenza outbreak.

  3. Vaccination with Streptococcus pyogenes nuclease A stimulates a high antibody response but no protective immunity in a mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Fiona J; Fraser, John D; Proft, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen which causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to rheumatic fever, necrotising fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Development of a vaccine for S. pyogenes has been confounded both by the diversity of the disease-causing serotypes and the spectre of inadvertently stimulating autoimmunity. The S. pyogenes nuclease A (SpnA) is a recently characterised virulence factor that is highly conserved across strains and expressed during human disease. Deletion of spnA from S. pyogenes results in reduced survival of bacteria in whole human blood and attenuated virulence in a mouse model of infection. Collectively these features suggest that SpnA has potential as a vaccine candidate for S. pyogenes. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously with single or multiple doses of recombinant SpnA emulsified in Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant developed a robust and durable IgG response, including neutralising activity, to this protein. However, vaccination with rSpnA conferred no advantage in terms of lesion development, disease symptoms or colonisation levels after a sub-lethal subcutaneous challenge with S. pyogenes. Anti-SpnA serum IgG responses and neutralising activity were increased in response to challenge, indicating that SpnA is expressed in vivo. SpnA is unlikely to be a suitable antigen for a vaccine against S. pyogenes.

  4. Resiquimod as an Immunologic Adjuvant for NY-ESO-1 Protein Vaccination in Patients with High Risk Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjatic, Sacha; Cruz, Crystal M.; Vengco, Isabelita; Hasan, Farah; Spadaccia, Meredith; Darvishian, Farbod; Chiriboga, Luis; Holman, Rose Marie; Escalon, Juliet; Muren, Caroline; Escano, Crystal; Yepes, Ethel; Sharpe, Dunbar; Vasilakos, John P.; Rolnitzsky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith; Mandeli, John; Adams, Sylvia; Jungbluth, Achim; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The TLR7/8 agonist, Resiquimod has been used as an immune adjuvant in cancer vaccines. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 given in combination with Montanide with or without Resiquimod in high-risk melanoma patients. In Part I of the study, patients received 100ug full length NY-ESO-1 protein emulsified in 1.25mL Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of 1000mg of 0.2% Resiquimod gel on days 1 and 3 (Cohort 1) versus days 1, 3, and 5 (Cohort 2) of a 21 day cycle. In Part II, patients were randomized to receive 100ug NY-ESO-1 protein plus Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of placebo gel (Arm-A; N=8) or 1000mg of 0.2% Resiquimod gel (Arm-B; N=12) using the dosing regimen established in Part I. The vaccine regimens were generally well-tolerated. NY-ESO-1-specific humoral responses were induced or boosted in all patients, many of whom had high titer antibodies. In Part II, 16 of 20 patients in both arms had NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. CD8+ T-cell responses were only seen in 3 of 12 patients in Arm B. Patients with TLR7 SNP rs179008 had a greater likelihood of developing NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ responses. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 protein in combination with Montanide with or without topical Resiquimod is safe and induces both antibody and CD4+ T-cell responses in the majority of patients; the small proportion of CD8+ T-cell responses suggests that the addition of topical Resiquimod to Montanide is not sufficient to induce consistent NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. PMID:25633712

  5. Formulation, high throughput in vitro screening and in vivo functional characterization of nanoemulsion-based intranasal vaccine adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela T Wong

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants have been reported to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity when applied to mucosal surfaces and this dual response appears important for protection against certain pathogens. Despite the potential advantages, however, no mucosal adjuvants are currently approved for human use. Evaluating compounds as mucosal adjuvants is a slow and costly process due to the need for lengthy animal immunogenicity studies. We have constructed a library of 112 intranasal adjuvant candidate formulations consisting of oil-in-water nanoemulsions that contain various cationic and nonionic surfactants. To facilitate adjuvant development we first evaluated this library in a series of high-throughput, in vitro assays for activities associated with innate and adaptive immune activation in vivo. These in vitro assays screened for the ability of the adjuvant to bind to mucin, induce cytotoxicity, facilitate antigen uptake in epithelial and dendritic cells, and activate cellular pathways. We then sought to determine how these parameters related to adjuvant activity in vivo. While the in vitro assays alone were not enough to predict the in vivo adjuvant activity completely, several interesting relationships were found with immune responses in mice. Furthermore, by varying the physicochemical properties of the surfactant components (charge, surfactant polar head size and hydrophobicity and the surfactant blend ratio of the formulations, the strength and type of the immune response generated (TH1, TH2, TH17 could be modulated. These findings suggest the possibility of using high-throughput screens to aid in the design of custom adjuvants with unique immunological profiles to match specific mucosal vaccine applications.

  6. Vaccines against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B

    2015-03-15

    Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Maraj, Bharat; Tran, Nam Phuong; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Alvarez, Ronald D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor of cervical, anogenital, and a subset of head and neck cancers has stimulated the development of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines to control HPV-associated malignancies. Excitement has been generated by the commercialization of two preventive L1-based vaccines, which use HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) to generate capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, factors such as high cost and requirement for cold chain have prevented widespread implementation where they are needed most. Areas covered Next generation preventive HPV vaccine candidates have focused on cost-effective stable alternatives and generating broader protection via targeting multivalent L1 VLPs, L2 capsid protein, and chimeric L1/L2 VLPs. Therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates have focused on enhancing T cell-mediated killing of HPV-transformed tumor cells, which constitutively express HPV-encoded proteins, E6 and E7. Several therapeutic HPV vaccines are in clinical trials. Expert opinion Although progress is being made, cost remains an issue inhibiting the use of preventive HPV vaccines in countries that carry the majority of the cervical cancer burden. In addition, progression of therapeutic HPV vaccines through clinical trials may require combination strategies employing different therapeutic modalities. As research in the development of HPV vaccines continues, we may generate effective strategies to control HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:23163511

  8. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  10. Sex-differential effects on mortality of BCG and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines in a rural area with high vaccination coverage: observational study from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine S; Trape, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine. BCG and DTP-IPV1 simultaneously reduced mortality from 60/1000 person-years in unvaccinated girls to 35/1000 person-years, but mortality increased with subsequent doses of DTP-IPV to 45/1000 person-years. Among boys, BCG and DTP-IPV1 simultaneously reduced mortality from 72/1000 person-years to 60/1000 person-years and mortality decreased further with subsequent doses of DTP-IPV to 34/1000 person-years. In age-adjusted analyses, female-male mortality rate ratios were 0.83(95% CI 0.50-1.40) among unvaccinated children and 0.58 (95% CI 0.35-0.96) among children vaccinated simultaneously with BCG and DTP-IPV1, but increased to 1.17 (95% CI 0.67-2.03) after DTP-IPV2, and 1.63 (95% CI 0.86-3.10) after DTP-IPV3. Difference in vaccination coverage could not explain these sex-differential patterns; girls had significantly better weight-for-age than boys so nutritional status did not explain the increase in female mortality after DTP-IPV3. Whereas BCG co-administered with DTP-IPV was associated with lower female than male mortality, subsequent DTP-IPV vaccinations were associated with an increase in female mortality relative to male mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N; Tate, J E; Parashar, U D

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reflexive project management in high-ambition projects : Exploring the competencies for managing innovative sustainable designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeber, A.; Vermeulen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Aristotelian notion of phronèsis inspired innovative work in the realm of project management as well as in literature on sustainability and societal transformations. We argue that both literatures may benefit from a dialogue between the two, especially in view of outlining project

  13. Immune response in cattle vaccinated against rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alexandre Nunes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best type of rabies vaccine to use as a booster, 78 serological samples from singly vaccinated cattle were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique. The animals were divided into several groups, received the first vaccine dose with modified live virus vaccine (ERA strain and were revaccinated with inactivated virus or modified live virus vaccines. Boosters were given at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks following first vaccination. Results showed high titres in the cases of booster with inactivated vaccine. In all cases, however, detectable antibody titres declined quickly.

  14. High-affinity human leucocyte antigen class I binding variola-derived peptides induce CD4(+) T cell responses more than 30 years post-vaccinia virus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-gamma secreting T lymphocytes against pox virus-derived synthetic 9-mer peptides were tested by enzyme-linked immunospot in peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated with vaccinia virus more than 30 years ago. The peptides were characterized biochemically as high-affinity human...

  15. Measles prevention in adolescents: lessons learnt from implementing a high school catch-up vaccination programme in New South Wales, Australia, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Sonya; Seale, Holly; Sheppeard, Vicky; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In response to a significant increase of measles cases and a high percentage of unvaccinated adolescents in New South Wales, Australia, a measles high school catch-up vaccination programme was implemented between August and December 2014. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting school-based supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and to inform future SIA and routine school-based vaccination programme implementation and service provision. Focus group analysis was conducted among public health unit (PHU) staff responsible for implementing the SIA catch-up programme. Key areas discussed were pre-programme planning, implementation, resources, consent materials, media activity and future directions for school vaccination programme delivery. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and reviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the major themes. Two independent focus groups with 32 participants were conducted in January 2015. Barriers to the SIA implementation included lead time, consent processes, interagency collaboration, access to the targeted cohort and the impact of introducing a SIA to an already demanding curriculum and school programme immunization schedule. A positive PHU school coordinator rapport and experience of PHU staff facilitated the implementation. Consideration of different approaches for pre-clinic vaccination status checks, student involvement in the vaccination decision, online consent, workforce sharing between health districts and effective programme planning time were identified for improving future SIA implementation. Although many barriers to school programme implementation have been identified in this study, with adequate resourcing and lead time, SIAs implemented via a routine school vaccination programme are an appropriate model to target adolescents.

  16. Measles prevention in adolescents: lessons learnt from implementing a high school catch-up vaccination programme in New South Wales, Australia, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Nicholl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In response to a significant increase of measles cases and a high percentage of unvaccinated adolescents in New South Wales, Australia, a measles high school catch-up vaccination programme was implemented between August and December 2014. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting school-based supplementary immunization activities (SIAs and to inform future SIA and routine school-based vaccination programme implementation and service provision. Methods: Focus group analysis was conducted among public health unit (PHU staff responsible for implementing the SIA catch-up programme. Key areas discussed were pre-programme planning, implementation, resources, consent materials, media activity and future directions for school vaccination programme delivery. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and reviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the major themes. Results: Two independent focus groups with 32 participants were conducted in January 2015. Barriers to the SIA implementation included lead time, consent processes, interagency collaboration, access to the targeted cohort and the impact of introducing a SIA to an already demanding curriculum and school programme immunization schedule. A positive PHU school coordinator rapport and experience of PHU staff facilitated the implementation. Consideration of different approaches for pre-clinic vaccination status checks, student involvement in the vaccination decision, online consent, workforce sharing between health districts and effective programme planning time were identified for improving future SIA implementation. Conclusion: Although many barriers to school programme implementation have been identified in this study, with adequate resourcing and lead time, SIAs implemented via a routine school vaccination programme are an appropriate model to target adolescents.

  17. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  18. Contraceptive Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnitsky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches to develop vaccines with contraceptive effect are being carried out since the 1920s. Since 1972, the contraceptive vaccines are one of the priority programs of the World Health Organization (WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Rockefeller Foundation participates in implementing the program. Openly declared objective of creating such vaccines — the regulation of the population in the Third World countries. There are currently three main directions of contraceptive vaccine design: 1 vaccines targeted at blocking the production of gametes; 2 impairing their function; 3 violating the fertilization process. Contraceptive vaccines for more than 10 years are widely used to reduce fertility and castration of wild and domestic animals. In the commercial realization there are veterinary vaccines Equity®, Improvac®, GonaCon®, Repro-BLOC (based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone; SpayVac™ and IVT-PZP® (based on zona pellucida antigens. Clinical studies have shown effective contraceptive action (in women of vaccines, in which human chorionic gonadotropin is used as an antigen. At the same time, there are found the side effects of such vaccines: for vaccines containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone as antigenic components — castration, impotence; for vaccines containing follicle stimulating hormone — oligospermia; zona pellucida antigens — irreversible oophoritis. This paper discusses approaches to detection of sterilizing components in vaccines intended for mass prevention of infectious diseases, not reported by manufacturers, and the consequences of their use. Hidden use of contraceptive vaccines, which already took place, can be detected: 1 by the presence of antibodies to their antigenic components (in unvaccinated by contraceptive vaccines people such antibodies do not exist, except infertility cases; 2 by change in the hormonal levels of the

  19. Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic

  20. Genetic characterisation of Malawian pneumococci prior to the roll-out of the PCV13 vaccine using a high-throughput whole genome sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean B Everett

    Full Text Available Malawi commenced the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 into the routine infant immunisation schedule in November 2011. Here we have tested the utility of high throughput whole genome sequencing to provide a high-resolution view of pre-vaccine pneumococcal epidemiology and population evolutionary trends to predict potential future change in population structure post introduction.One hundred and twenty seven (127 archived pneumococcal isolates from randomly selected adults and children presenting to the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi underwent whole genome sequencing.The pneumococcal population was dominated by serotype 1 (20.5% of invasive isolates prior to vaccine introduction. PCV13 is likely to protect against 62.9% of all circulating invasive pneumococci (78.3% in under-5-year-olds. Several Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN clones are now in circulation in Malawi which were previously undetected but the pandemic multidrug resistant PMEN1 lineage was not identified. Genome analysis identified a number of novel sequence types and serotype switching.High throughput genome sequencing is now feasible and has the capacity to simultaneously elucidate serotype, sequence type and as well as detailed genetic information. It enables population level characterization, providing a detailed picture of population structure and genome evolution relevant to disease control. Post-vaccine introduction surveillance supported by genome sequencing is essential to providing a comprehensive picture of the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal population structure and informing future public health interventions.

  1. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions based...... trials (protocols 007, 013, and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at baseline, month 2, and month 6. Pap testing was conducted at regular intervals. Cervical and anogenital swabs were collected for HPV DNA testing. Examination for the presence of vulvar and vaginal lesions was also done. Endpoints...... included high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal lesions (CIN 2/3, VIN 2/3, or VaIN 2/3). Mean follow-up time was 42 months post dose 1. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 98.2% [95% confidence interval (95...

  2. Effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte R; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth has been associated with decreased mortality in Asia. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given at birth in tuberculosis-endemic countries. Previous studies suggest that VAS may influence the immune response to vaccines. OBJECTIVE: Our...... objective was to examine whether VAS influences the immune response to simultaneously administered BCG vaccine. DESIGN: Within a randomized trial of 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo given with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau, 2710 infants were examined for BCG scar formation and delayed...... scar was not affected by VAS. The ex vivo interferon-gamma response to PPD was increased by VAS (means ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.91). CONCLUSIONS: VAS with BCG vaccination does not appear to interfere with the long-term immune response to BCG. However, VAS temporarily altered the DTH reaction to PPD...

  3. Understanding vaccine hesitancy in polio eradication in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian; Khan, Mahmud; Muhammad, Ado; Akpala, Okey; van Strien, Marit; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Ogden, Ellyn

    2017-11-07

    Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally. This study is based on a purposive sampling survey of 1653 households in high- and low-performing rural, semiurban and urban areas of three high-risk states of northern Nigeria in 2013-14 (Sokoto, Kano and Bauchi). The survey sought to understand factors at household and community level associated with propensity to refuse polio vaccine. Wealth, female education and knowledge of vaccines were associated with lower propensity to refuse oral polio vaccine (OPV) among rural households. But higher risk of refusal among wealthier, more literate urban household rendered these findings ambiguous. Ethnic and religious identity did not appear to be associated with risk of OPV refusal. Risk of vaccine refusal was highly clustered among households within a small sub-group of sampled settlements. Contrary to expectations, households in these settlements reported higher levels of expectation of government as service provider, but at the same time lesser confidence in the efficacy of their relations with government. Results suggest that strategies to address the micro-political dimension of vaccination - expanding community-level engagement, strengthening the role of local government in public health, and enhancing public participation of women - should be effective in reducing non-compliance, asan important set of strategies complementary to conventional didactic/educational approaches and working through

  4. New approaches in oral rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Zenas; Lee, Byong

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea worldwide, and affects primarily developing nations, in large part because of the inaccessibility of vaccines and high rates of mortality present therein. At present, there exist two oral rotaviral vaccines, Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™. These vaccines are generally effective in their actions: however, associated costs often stymie their effectiveness, and they continue to be associated with a slight risk of intussusception. While different programs are being implemented worldwide to enhance vaccine distribution and monitor vaccine administration for possible intussusception in light of recent WHO recommendation, another major problem persists: that of the reduced efficacy of the existing rotaviral vaccines in developing countries over time. The development of new oral rotavirus vaccine classes - live-attenuated vaccines, virus-like particles, lactic acid bacteria-containing vaccines, combination therapy with immunoglobulins, and biodegradable polymer-encapsulated vaccines - could potentially circumvent these problems.

  5. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines

  6. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  7. The State of Norovirus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbink, Kari; Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses represent the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide; however, currently no licensed vaccine exists. Widespread vaccination that minimizes overall norovirus disease burden would benefit the entire population, but targeted vaccination of specific populations such as healthcare workers may further mitigate the risk of severe disease and death in vulnerable populations. While a few obstacles hinder the rapid development of efficacious vaccines, human trials for virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines show promise in both immune response and protection studies, with availability of vaccines being targeted over the next 5–10 years. Ongoing work including identification of important norovirus capsid antigenic sites, development of improved model systems, and continued studies in humans will allow improvement of future vaccines. In the meantime, a better understanding of norovirus disease course and transmission patterns can aid healthcare workers as they take steps to protect high-risk populations such as the elderly and immunocompromised individuals from chronic and severe disease. PMID:24585561

  8. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  9. Rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Maureen; Bresee, Joseph S.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Glass, Roger I.

    2000-10-01

    The past few years have seen important developments in understanding the epidemiological and virological characteristics of rotaviruses, and rapid progress has been made in rotavirus vaccine development, but further challenges remain before a vaccine is introduced into widespread use. The licensure of the first rotavirus vaccine, a tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine, in the United States in 1998, marked a significant advance in preventing the morbidity associated with rotavirus diarrhea. The association between the tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine and intussusception has created significant hurdles as well as new opportunities to study the pathogenesis of rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine infection. Several other rotavirus vaccine candidates are in late stages of development, and results from trials have been encouraging.

  10. The crisis in vaccine supply: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, A; Evans, P; Milstien, J B

    1994-08-01

    Immunization programmes, having made significant progress in protecting over 80% of the world's children against six vaccine-preventable diseases, are now facing a crisis in funding for their vaccine supply. Contributing to this situation are changing donor priorities, rising prices, increased needs for vaccines. The Task Force on Situation Analysis for Vaccine Supply (TFSA) of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) has developed a framework which provides a logical division of countries into groups that might share similar vaccine supply systems. This framework provides a basis on which to analyse the needs and potential solutions for vaccine supply in countries based on their populations, national wealth, and current ability to produce vaccine. This framework has facilitated the development of strategies to strengthen national vaccine supply systems. It has also provided guidance for governments, donors and development agencies on the most appropriate actions for assuring the objective of sustainable vaccine supply.

  11. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in Northern Brazil after introduction of a rotavirus vaccine: high prevalence of G3P[6] genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Soares, Luana; de Fátima Dos Santos Guerra, Sylvia; do Socorro Lima de Oliveira, Alessilva; da Silva Dos Santos, Fabiola; de Fátima Costa de Menezes, Euzeni Maria; Mascarenhas, Joana d'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2014-06-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, causing 453,000 deaths annually. In Brazil, the most frequent genotype identified was G1 during almost three decades in the pre-vaccination period; however, after anti-rotavirus vaccine introduction, there was a predominance of G2 genotype. The aim of this study was to determine the G and P genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in the Northern region of Brazil, and discuss the emergence of G3P[6] genotype. A total of 783 stool specimens were obtained between January 2011 and March 2012. RVA antigen was detected in 33% (272/783) of samples using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and type-specificity was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most common binary combination was G2P[4], representing 41% of cases, followed by G3P[6] (15%), G1P[8] (8%), G3P[8] (4%), G9P[8] (3%), and G12P[6] (2%). G3P[6] strains were analyzed further and phylogenetic analysis of VP7 gene showed that G3 strains clustered into lineage I and showed a high degree of amino acid identity with vaccine strain RV3 (95.1-95.6%). For VP4 sequences, G3P[6] clustered into lineage Ia. It was demonstrated by the first time the emergence of unusual genotype G3P[6] in the Amazon region of Brazil. This genotype shares neither VP7 nor VP4 specificity with the used vaccine and may represent a challenge to vaccination strategies. A continuous monitoring of circulating strains is therefore needed during the post-vaccine era in Brazil. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M; Galindo, F A; Murgueitio, E

    2013-11-22

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed.

  13. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  14. Lessons From the Polio Endgame: Overcoming the Failure to Vaccinate and the Role of Subpopulations in Maintaining Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2017-07-01

    Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria (Borno) represent public health emergencies that require aggressive response. We demonstrate the importance of undervaccinated subpopulations, using an existing dynamic poliovirus transmission and oral poliovirus vaccine evolution model. We review the lessons learned during the polio endgame about the role of subpopulations in sustaining transmission, and we explore the implications of subpopulations for other vaccine-preventable disease eradication efforts. Relatively isolated subpopulations benefit little from high surrounding population immunity to transmission and will sustain transmission as long as they do not attain high vaccination coverage. Failing to reach such subpopulations with high coverage represents the root cause of polio eradication delays. Achieving and maintaining eradication requires addressing the weakest links, which includes immunizing populations in insecure areas and/or with disrupted or poor-performing health systems and managing the risks of individuals with primary immunodeficiencies who can excrete vaccine-derived poliovirus long-term. Eradication efforts for vaccine-preventable diseases need to create performance expectations for countries to immunize all people living within their borders and maintain high coverage with appropriate interventions.Keywords. Polio; eradication; transmission; heterogeneity.

  15. What cervical screening is appropriate for women who have been vaccinated against high risk HPV? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Windridge, Peter; Gillman, Matthew S; Sasieni, Peter D

    2018-02-15

    Women vaccinated against HPV16/18 are approaching the age for cervical screening; however, an updated screening algorithm has not been agreed. We use a microsimulation model calibrated to real published data to determine the appropriate screening intensity for vaccinated women. Natural histories in the absence of vaccination were simulated for 300,000 women using 10,000 sets of transition probabilities. Vaccination with (i) 100% efficacy against HPV16/18, (ii) 15% cross-protection, (iii) 22% cross-protection, (iv) waning vaccine efficacy and (v) 100% efficacy against HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 was added, as were a range of screening scenarios appropriate to the UK. To benchmark cost-benefits of screening for vaccinated women, we evaluated the proportion of cancers prevented per additional screen (incremental benefit) of current cytology and likely HPV screening scenarios in unvaccinated women. Slightly more cancers are prevented through vaccination with no screening (70.3%, 95% CR: 65.1-75.5) than realistic compliance to the current UK screening programme in the absence of vaccination (64.3%, 95% CR: 61.3-66.8). In unvaccinated women, when switching to HPV primary testing, there is no loss in effectiveness when doubling the screening interval. Benchmarking supports screening scenarios with incremental benefits of ≥2.0%, and rejects scenarios with incremental benefits ≤0.9%. In HPV16/18-vaccinated women, the incremental benefit of offering a third lifetime screen was at most 3.3% (95% CR: 2.2-4.5), with an incremental benefit of 1.3% (-0.3-2.8) for a fourth screen. For HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58-vaccinated women, two lifetime screens are supported. It is important to know women's vaccination status; in these simulations, HPV16/18-vaccinated women require three lifetime screens, HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58-vaccinated women require two lifetime screens, yet unvaccinated women require seven lifetime screens. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by

  16. Are vaccine strain, type or administration protocol risk factors for canine parvovirus vaccine failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, K D; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2017-10-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and worldwide cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs, despite the widespread availability of vaccines. Which vaccine-related factors are associated with vaccination failure is largely unknown, and there are no reports from Australia. In this study - the first national population-level CPV study of its kind ever conducted - we analysed data on 594 cases of apparent CPV vaccination failure reported from an Australian national surveillance system to determine whether vaccine strain, type or administration protocol are risk factors for vaccination failures. The strain of CPV used in vaccine manufacture was not significantly associated with vaccination failure in clinical practice. The vaccine type (killed versus attenuated vaccine) for puppies diagnosed with CPV was associated with a lower mean age at time of vaccination (P=0.0495). The age at administration of the last CPV vaccination a puppy received prior to presenting with disease was a significant (P=0.0334) risk factor for vaccination failure, irrespective of whether the vaccine was marketed for a 10-week or 12-week or greater vaccination finish protocol. There was also a strong negative correlation between age at last vaccination prior to disease and vaccination failure (Pfailure. This supports the hypothesis that the use of final vaccination in puppies at less than 16 weeks of age predisposes to vaccination failure and warrants a final age for vaccination recommendation to be at least 16 weeks for all canine parvovirus vaccines, especially in outbreak situations. The large number of cases identified in this study confirms that CPV vaccination failure is occurring in Australia. Veterinarians should consider CPV as a differential diagnosis in cases with appropriate clinical presentation, regardless of the reported vaccination status of the dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered.

  18. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  19. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  1. Immobilization antigen vaccine adjuvanted by parasitic heat shock protein 70C confers high protection in fish against cryptocaryonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josepriya, T A; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Song, Yen-Ling

    2015-08-01

    The immobilization antigen (iAg) has been demonstrated as a protective immunogen against Cryptocaryon irritans infection. In this study, C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70 cloned from C. irritans (Hsp70C) was tested for its immuno-stimulatory effects. The iAg and Hsp70C cDNAs were constructed independently in secretory forms and were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In the first immunization trial, grouper fingerlings orally intubated with iAg and iAg:Hsp70C presented 96% and 100% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively, after a lethal challenge. In the second trial, both iAg and iAg:Hsp70C groups showed 100% RPS and the skin trophont burden was significantly lowered. The iAg:Hsp70C still provides a significantly high protection of 51% RPS at 49 days post immunization, when an even more serious lethal infection occurs. RT-qPCR results showed that Hsp70C could up-regulate the expression of i) T cell markers: Cluster of Differentiation 8 alpha (CD8α) and CD4, ii) cytokine genes: Interferon gamma (IFNγ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin 12 p40 (IL-12/P40), iii) antibody genes: Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgMH) and IgTH, and iv) major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I & MHC-II), in the spleen of iAg:Hsp70C group. Furthermore, significantly high levels of iAg-specific IgM was detected in skin mucus which efficiently immobilized live theronts in iAg- and iAg:Hsp70C-immunized fish at 5 weeks post immunization. Hsp70C significantly increased the number of nonspecific CD8(+) skin leucocytes which exerted cytotoxicity against theronts, although cytotoxic activity showed no difference among the various groups. Because of this complementary cooperation of cellular and humoral immune responses, Hsp70C enhances the efficacy of iAg vaccine and constrains C. irritans infection. In view of the severe loss caused by cryptocaryonosis, application of this parasitic vaccine in farmed and ornamental fish, is worthy to be considered. Copyright

  2. Resiquimod as an immunologic adjuvant for NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination in patients with high-risk melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Rachel Lubong; Pavlick, Anna; Gnjatic, Sacha; Cruz, Crystal M; Vengco, Isabelita; Hasan, Farah; Spadaccia, Meredith; Darvishian, Farbod; Chiriboga, Luis; Holman, Rose Marie; Escalon, Juliet; Muren, Caroline; Escano, Crystal; Yepes, Ethel; Sharpe, Dunbar; Vasilakos, John P; Rolnitzsky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith; Mandeli, John; Adams, Sylvia; Jungbluth, Achim; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Ott, Patrick A; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist resiquimod has been used as an immune adjuvant in cancer vaccines. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 given in combination with Montanide (Seppic) with or without resiquimod in patients with high-risk melanoma. In part I of the study, patients received 100 μg of full-length NY-ESO-1 protein emulsified in 1.25 mL of Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel on days 1 and 3 (cohort 1) versus days 1, 3, and 5 (cohort 2) of a 21-day cycle. In part II, patients were randomized to receive 100-μg NY-ESO-1 protein plus Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of placebo gel [(arm A; n = 8) or 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel (arm B; n = 12)] using the dosing regimen established in part I. The vaccine regimens were generally well tolerated. NY-ESO-1-specific humoral responses were induced or boosted in all patients, many of whom had high titer antibodies. In part II, 16 of 20 patients in both arms had NY-ESO-1-specific CD4⁺ T-cell responses. CD8⁺ T-cell responses were only seen in 3 of 12 patients in arm B. Patients with TLR7 SNP rs179008 had a greater likelihood of developing NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ responses. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 protein in combination with Montanide with or without topical resiquimod is safe and induces both antibody and CD4⁺ T-cell responses in the majority of patients; the small proportion of CD8⁺ T-cell responses suggests that the addition of topical resiquimod to Montanide is not sufficient to induce consistent NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ T-cell responses. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. HPV vaccination: the promise & problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2009-09-01

    Four-fifths of the cervical cancer burden in the world is experienced in developing countries. HPV genotypes 16 and 18 account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers and currently available vaccines targeting these two types confer a high degree of protection against HPV 16/18 infection and related cervical precancerous lesions. However, widespread implementation of HPV vaccination programs are challenged by the unaffordable high costs of the vaccines and the lack of effective vaccine delivery platforms for sexually naïve girls. Other unresolved issues include long-term protection, cross-protection against HPV types not included in the vaccine and whether booster doses will be needed. Sensitivities associated with a vaccine preventing a sexually transmitted infection in girls, lack of awareness, public demand and political will, lack of coordination between cancer control, sexual and reproductive health and vaccine delivery services are additional challenges. Reduced costs, simple vaccine regimes and strengthening vaccine delivery platforms for adolescents should eventually facilitate HPV vaccine introduction in developing countries.

  4. Low occurrence of HBsAg but high frequency of transient occult HBV infection in vaccinated and HBIG-administered infants born to HBsAg positive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Li, Tingting; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yuming; Zhong, Mei; Fu, Yongshui; Li, Chengyao

    2017-12-01

    The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3-36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3.9% (3/77) were HBsAg+, and 36.4% (28/77) were HBV DNA+/HBsAg- (OBIs) by a single PCR, respectively. Thirteen of 28 HBV DNA+/HBsAg- samples were conformed by two PCRs or S sequence, which accounted for 16.9% (13/77) of children. Three HBsAg+ and six OBIs were genotyped in consistent with their mother's HBV strains. Of 77 babies' blood samples, anti-HBs reactivity varied slightly according to age groups, while passively transmitted anti-HBc reactivity declined from 100% high reactivity at age 3-5 months to mostly negative at age ≥12 months. Babies with apparent OBI had higher levels of anti-HBc and lower levels of anti-HBs than those without OBI but all eight OBI babies with second follow-up samples became HBV DNA negative beyond 1 year of age. The vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers presented the low rate of HBsAg occurrence as vaccination failure and high frequency of viral persistence in the form of transient OBIs since no evidence of active HBV infection occurred beyond 1 year of age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Girlando, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Trevisan, Morena; Burroni, Elena; Grasso, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) specific genotypes differs by age and areas. Knowledge of these differences will help predicting how prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening program could best be integrated. To investigate variations in the HPV distribution between areas and ages in Italy and the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence. 37,367 women aged 25-60 years who attended cervical screening in eight different areas in Northern and Central Italy were tested for HPV infection with the high-risk hybrid capture (hr-HC2) assay. hr-HC2 positive samples were genotyped by an intensive integrated strategy. hr-HPV types were detected in 79.1% of HC2 positive women. HPV16 was the most frequent type, followed by HPV31, HPV18 and HPV56. A statistically significant variability in HPV type distribution between centres (overall χ84df(2)=195.86pHPV type distribution was observed in the age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-60 years. Considering cross-protection, overall 57.6% (95%CI 56.0-59.3) of all infections by hr-HPV types was preventable by vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and 49% (95%CI 46.9-51.1) with the quadrivalent vaccine. The variability between centres was statistically significant with both bivalent (χ7df(2)=43.8, pvaccine (χ7df(2)=32.9, pHPV genotype distribution according to centres but not to age. Results suggest that the higher proportion of HPV16/18 related high grade CIN in younger women could be the result of faster progression and not of earlier infection by these types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-02-03

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14-31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr-1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  7. A multi-peptide, dual-adjuvant telomerase vaccine (GX301) is highly immunogenic in patients with prostate and renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Daniela; Traverso, Paolo; Parodi, Alessia; Tomasello, Laura; Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Battaglia, Florinda; Ferrera, Francesca; Sciallero, Stefania; Murdaca, Giuseppe; Setti, Maurizio; Sobrero, Alberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Cittadini, Giuseppe; Puppo, Francesco; Criscuolo, Domenico; Carmignani, Giorgio; Indiveri, Francesco; Filaci, Gilberto

    2013-06-01

    Anti-tumor vaccination is a new frontier in cancer treatment applicable to immunogenic neoplasms such as prostate and renal cancers. GX301 is a vaccine constituted by four telomerase peptides and two adjuvants, Montanide ISA-51 and Imiquimod. The aim of this study was to analyze safety and tolerability of GX301 in an open-label, phase I/II trial. Immunological and clinical responses were also evaluated as secondary endpoints. GX301 was administered by intradermally injecting 500 μg of each peptide (dissolved in Montanide ISA-51) in the skin of the abdomen. Imiquimod was applied as a cream at the injection sites. The protocol included 8 administrations at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 35, 63. Eligible patients were affected with stage IV prostate or renal cancer resistant to conventional treatments. Patients were clinically and immunologically monitored up to 6 months from the first immunization. No grade 3-4 adverse events were observed. Evidence of vaccine-specific immunological responses was detected in 100 % of patients. Disease stabilization occurred in 4 patients. Prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival were observed in patients showing a full pattern of vaccine-specific immunological responses. GX301 demonstrated to be safe and highly immunogenic. Further studies are needed to determine its clinical efficacy.

  8. High prevalence of G12P[8] rotavirus strains in Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazon, in the post-rotavirus vaccine introduction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mayara A O; Pinheiro, Helder H C; Silva, Rita S U; Linhares, Alexandre C; Silva, Luciana D; Gabbay, Yvone B; Silva, Mônica C M; Loureiro, Edvaldo C B; Soares, Luana S; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc P

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to provide a molecular characterization of circulating rotavirus (RVA) strains in Rio Branco, Acre, in the post-rotavirus vaccination period, particularly with regard to the emerging, increasingly prevalent G12P[8] genotype. A total of 488 fecal specimens from diarrheic and non-diarrheic children were obtained between January and December 2012. RVA detection was initially performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, followed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. RVA was detected in 18.3% (44/241) of the children with acute diarrhea and in 1.2% (3/247) of the non-diarrheic children (P fever (83.3%, 10/12) and vomiting (66.7%, 8/12). Most of the cases occurred in August (58.3%, 7/12), 75% (9/12) of which having received the full vaccination scheme with Rotarix™. For the first time G12 was reported at relative high prevalence in Brazil. Our findings warrant further monitoring studies on the molecular characterization of circulating RVA strains after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Brazil and elsewhere, since the occurrence of either unusual our emerging genotypes may pose a challenge to vaccination strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  10. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  11. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  12. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  13. Universal influenza vaccines: Shifting to better vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Donnelly, John J

    2016-06-03

    Influenza virus causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections and is the most likely, among known pathogens, to cause a large epidemic in humans. Influenza virus mutates rapidly, enabling it to evade natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Furthermore, influenza viruses can cross from animals to humans, generating novel, potentially pandemic strains. Currently available influenza vaccines induce a strain specific response and may be ineffective against new influenza viruses. The difficulty in predicting circulating strains has frequently resulted in mismatch between the annual vaccine and circulating viruses. Low-resource countries remain mostly unprotected against seasonal influenza and are particularly vulnerable to future pandemics, in part, because investments in vaccine manufacturing and stockpiling are concentrated in high-resource countries. Antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin stalk have been isolated from humans and shown to confer protection in animal models, suggesting that broadly protective immunity may be possible. Several innovative influenza vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical or early clinical development. New technologies include adjuvants, synthetic peptides, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vectors, messenger RNA, viral vectors, and attenuated or inactivated influenza viruses. Other approaches target the conserved exposed epitope of the surface exposed membrane matrix protein M2e. Well-conserved influenza proteins, such as nucleoprotein and matrix protein, are mainly targeted for developing strong cross-protective T cell responses. With multiple vaccine candidates moving along the testing and development pipeline, the field is steadily moving toward a product that is more potent, durable, and broadly protective than previously licensed vaccines. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Bivalent Vaccine Effectiveness Against Type-Specific HPV Positivity: Evidence for Cross-Protection Against Oncogenic Types Among Dutch STI Clinic Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; King, Audrey J; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2018-01-04

    Observational postmarketing studies are important to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). We estimated VE from the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV positivity of vaccine and nonvaccine types in a high-risk population. We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional survey in Dutch sexually transmitted infection clinics. Vaginal swabs were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay (SPF10-LiPA25) able to detect the 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59. We compared hrHPV positivity between self-reported vaccinated (≥1 dose) and unvaccinated women, and estimated VE by a logistic mixed model. We included 1087 women of which 53% were hrHPV positive and 60% reported to be vaccinated. The adjusted pooled VE against HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (81.7%-94.4%). Moreover, we calculated significant VE against nonvaccine types HPV-45 (91%), HPV-35 (57%), HPV-31 (50%), and HPV-52 (37%). Among women who were offered vaccination 5/6 years ago, we estimated similar VE against HPV-16/18 (92%) and all hrHPV types (35%) compared to women who were offered vaccination vaccine against HPV-16/18 and cross-protection against HPV-45/35/31/52. Protection against HPV-16/18 was sustained up to 6 years postvaccination.

  15. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT be ... What is live, attenuated influenza vaccine-LAIV (nasal spray)?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children younger ...

  16. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  17. Sustainability Analysis of Existing Agriculture on High Risk Erosion Area (Case Studies in Lembang, West Bandung District and in Dongko, Trenggalek District)

    OpenAIRE

    WIDIRIANI, RACHMI; SABIHAM, SUPIANDI; SUTJAHJO, S. HADI; Las, Irsal

    2009-01-01

    There are three main constraints for the upland agriculture development, namely (1) steep slopes that limit the suitable farm land, (2) soil erosion rate tends to be higher than the rate of soil losses and (3) high average annual rainfall. This research focused on sustainability analysis at high risk erosion area in Lembang sub district and Dongko sub district. The aim of this research was to analyze index and sustainability status of the border area, existing farming on high risk erosion. Mu...

  18. Making a Math Teaching Aids of Junior High School Based on Scientific Approach Through an Integrated and Sustainable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri

    2017-04-01

    Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.

  19. One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adriana S; Guris, Dalya; Zimmerman, Laura; Gladden, Linda; Moore, Tamara; Haselow, Dirk T; Loparev, Vladimir N; Schmid, D Scott; Jumaan, Aisha O; Snow, Sandra L

    2006-06-01

    The implementation of a routine childhood varicella vaccination program in the United States in 1995 has resulted in a dramatic decline in varicella morbidity and mortality. Although disease incidence has decreased, outbreaks of varicella continue to be reported, increasingly in highly vaccinated populations. In 2000, a varicella vaccination requirement was introduced for kindergarten entry in Arkansas. In October 2003, large numbers of varicella cases were reported in a school with high vaccination coverage. We investigated this outbreak to examine transmission patterns of varicella in this highly vaccinated population, to estimate the effectiveness of 1 dose of varicella vaccine, to identify risk factors for vaccine failure, and to implement outbreak control measures. A retrospective cohort study involving students attending an elementary school was conducted. A questionnaire was distributed to parents of all of the students in the school to collect varicella disease and vaccination history; parents of varicella case patients were interviewed by telephone. A case of varicella was defined as an acute, generalized, maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student or staff member in the school from September 1 to November 20, 2003. Varicella among vaccinated persons was defined as varicella-like rash that developed >42 days after vaccination. In vaccinated persons, the rash may be atypical, maculopapular with few or no vesicles. Cases were laboratory confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, and genotyping was performed to identify the strain associated with the outbreak. Of the 545 students who attended the school, 88% returned the questionnaire. Overall varicella vaccination coverage was 96%. Forty-nine varicella cases were identified; 43 were vaccinated. Three of 6 specimens tested were positive by polymerase chain reaction. The median age at vaccination of vaccinated students in the school was 18 months, and the median time since vaccination

  20. A cross-sectional vaccination coverage study in preschool children attending nurseries-kindergartens: Implications on economic crisis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulou, Theano; Menegas, Damianos; Katsioulis, Antonis; Theodoridou, Maria; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-01-02

    Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population's vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs. This study assessed full and timely vaccination coverage of preschool children aged 2-3 y attending nurseries-kindergartens (N-K) nationwide at the socioeconomic crisis onset. Geographically stratified cluster sampling was implemented considering prefectures as strata and N-K as clusters. The N-K were selected by simple random sampling from the sampling frame while their number was proportional to the stratum size. In total, 185 N-K (response rate 93.9%) and 2539 children (response rate 81.5%) participated. Coverage with traditional vaccines for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio and measles-mumps-rubella was very high (>95%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae type b and varicella vaccines. Despite very high final coverage, delayed vaccination was observed for hepatitis B (48.3% completed by 12 months). Significant delay was observed for the booster dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines (MCC). Of the total population studied, 82.3% received 3 PCV doses by 12 months, while 62.3% received the fourth dose by 24 months and 76.2% by 30 months. However, 89.6% received at least one MCC dose over 12 months. Timely vaccinated for hepatitis A with 2 doses by 24 months were 6.1%. Coverage was significantly low for Rotavirus (vaccination coverage is maintained for most vaccines at the beginning of the crisis in Greece. Coverage and timeliness show an increasing trend compared to previous studies. Sustained efforts are needed to support the preventive medicine system as socioeconomic instability continues.

  1. [Prevalence of non-vaccinable high risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer Program in Cantabria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Zulueta, María; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Amparán Ruiz, Marina; Azofra Olave, Asunción; Martín Seco, Yolanda; Ojugas Zabala, Sonia; Otero García, Aurora; Royano Rasines, Carmen; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Torres Manrique, Blanca; Santibáñez Margüello, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of infection with non-vaccinable high risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Cross-sectional study. Seven randomly selected health centres in Cantabria (Northern Spain). All women with an evaluable vaginal smear (n=3,359) between 2010 and 2011. The variables collected were cytological diagnosis, PCR results, and family planning method. The vaginal smear results were classified with the Bethesda system. The classification by Muñoz et al. was used for typing as oncogenic risk HPV. Proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with corresponding confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI). The prevalence of HPV infection was 2.71% (95% CI: 2.15 to 3.27). The prevalence of high oncogenic risk HPV genotypes was 2.26%; (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.78). The most frequent genotype was 16 (28.89%). More than half of the women were positive for one of the non-vaccinable high risk genotypes: 51 (18.89%) and 58 (13.33%) and 68 (12.22%) or 31 (11.11%). At least two non-vaccinable high-risk genotypes co-existed in 23.33% of women. Younger women (≤30 years) had twice the risk of any HPV infection: OR 2.01 (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.96); and were twice as likely to use condoms compared to hormonal contraceptives, OR 2.09 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.67). According to the high percentage of non-vaccinable high oncogenic risk HPV types, there should be a re-think of the prevention strategy in the population, who may have a false sense of protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya; Brokstad, Karl A.; Cox, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection. PMID:26343192

  3. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  4. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TheraCys® BCG ... TICE® BCG ... WHY is this medicine prescribed?BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis (TB). The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB. ...

  5. Development of a dose assay for a Clostridium difficile vaccine using a tandem ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Ha, Sha; Rustandi, Richard R

    2017-05-19

    Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive intestine bacterium that causes a severe diarrhea and could eventually be lethal. The main virulence factor is related to the release of two major exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Recent C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) outbreaks have been caused by hypervirulent strains which secrete an additional binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb). Vaccination against these toxins is considered the best way to combat the CDAD. Recently, a novel tetravalent C. difficile vaccine candidate containing all four toxins produced from a baculovirus expression system has been developed. A dose assay to release this tetravalent C. difficile vaccine was developed using tandem ion-exchange HPLC chromatography. A sequential weak cation exchange (carboxyl group) and weak anion exchange (tertiary amine group) columns were employed. The four C. difficile vaccine antigen pIs range from 4.4 to 8.6. The final optimized separation employs salt gradient elution at two different pHs. The standard analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy, precision and repeatability were evaluated for this method and it was deemed acceptable as a quantitative assay for vaccine release. Furthermore, the developed method was utilized for monitoring the stability of the tetravalent C. difficile vaccine in final container. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-sustainable, high-power-density bio-solar cells for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Choi, Seokheun

    2017-11-07

    A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip system that generates its own power is essential for stand-alone, independent, self-sustainable point-of-care diagnostic devices to work in limited-resource and remote regions. Miniaturized biological solar cells (or micro-BSCs) can be the most suitable power source for those lab-on-a-chip applications because the technique resembles the earth's natural ecosystem - living organisms work in conjunction with non-living components of their environment to create a self-assembling and self-maintaining system. Micro-BSCs can continuously generate electricity from microbial photosynthetic and respiratory activities over day-night cycles, offering a clean and renewable power source with self-sustaining potential. However, the promise of this technology has not been translated into practical applications because of its relatively low power (∼nW cm -2 ) and current short lifetimes (∼a couple of hours). In this work, we enabled high-performance, self-sustaining, long-life micro-BSCs by using fundamental breakthroughs of device architectures and electrode materials. A 3-D biocompatible, conductive, and porous anode demonstrated great microbial biofilm formation and a high rate of bacterial extracellular electron transfer, which led to greater power generation. Furthermore, our micro-BSCs promoted gas exchange to the bacteria through a gas-permeable PDMS membrane in a well-controlled, tightly enclosed micro-chamber, substantially enhancing sustainability. Through photosynthetic reactions of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 without additional organic fuel, the 90 μL single-chambered bio-solar cell generated a maximum power density of 43.8 μW cm -2 and sustained consistent power production of ∼18.6 μW cm -2 during the day and ∼11.4 μW cm -2 at night for 20 days, which is the highest and longest reported success of any existing micro-scale bio-solar cells.

  7. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  8. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  9. Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Sanz-Martin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in p......H with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up......-regulate pH. Field observations at photoperiods of 15 and 24 hours in Greenland com- bined with experimental manipulations of photoperiod show that photoperiods longer than 21 hours, characteristic of Arctic summers, are conducive to sustained up-regulation of pH by kelp photosynthesis. We report a gradual...

  10. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  11. Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Sanz-Martin, Marina; Hendriks, Iris E; Thyrring, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in pH with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up-regulate pH. Field observations at photoperiods of 15 and 24 hours in Greenland combined with experimental manipulations of photoperiod show that photoperiods longer than 21 hours, characteristic of Arctic summers, are conducive to sustained up-regulation of pH by kelp photosynthesis. We report a gradual increase in pH of 0.15 units and a parallel decline in pCO2 of 100 parts per million over a 10-day period in an Arctic kelp forest over midsummer, with ample scope for continued pH increase during the months of continuous daylight. Experimental increase in CO2 concentration further stimulated the capacity of macrophytes to deplete CO2 and increase pH. We conclude that long photoperiods in Arctic summers support sustained up-regulation of pH in kelp forests, with potential benefits for calcifiers, and propose that this mechanism may increase with the projected expansion of Arctic vegetation in response to warming and loss of sea ice.

  12. High-throughput NIR-chemometric methods for chemical and pharmaceutical characterization of sustained release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfire, Alina; Filip, Cristina; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-05-10

    The aim of this study was the development and validation of methods based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometry, useful for characterization of sustained release (SR) tablets with indapamide, in terms of tablet composition (API and two excipients), in vitro drug release mechanism (k and n Peppas) and crushing strength. A calibration set consisting of 25 different tablets formulations containing API, HPMC and lactose at five different content levels in the range 100±20% relative to a targeted tablet composition, were manufactured by direct compression in order to develop the methods for prediction of tablet composition, and in vitro drug release mechanism. On the other hand, a 15 batches calibration set prepared at five different compression forces was used for development of methods for prediction of crushing strength. Moreover, independent batches were manufactured for validation of all methods Intact tablets were analyzed by transmission mode with NIRS, the spectra were pre-processed, and partial least square (PLS) regression was used to build prediction models. Cross-validation was carried out in order to select the optimal number of PLS factors for all models, and the best model was chosen based on their RMSECV and bias. All developed methods were validated in terms of trueness, precision and accuracy. Based on the validation results, the methods proposed in this work can successfully be applied for routine determination of indapamide, HPMC and lactose content of sustained release tablets, as well as for prediction of their in vitro drug release mechanism (k and n Peppas) and crushing strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tuberculosis contact investigation with a new, specific blood test in a low-incidence population containing a high proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meywald-Walter K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCG-vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Methods We compared the TST with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON®-TB-Gold In Tube; QFT-G during ongoing investigations among close contacts of sputum smear positive source cases in Hamburg, Germany. Results During a 6-month period, 309 contacts (mean age 28.5 ± 10.5 years from a total of 15 source cases underwent both TST and QFT-G testing. Of those, 157 (50.8% had received BCG vaccination and 84 (27.2% had migrated to Germany from a total of 25 different high prevalence countries (i.e. >20 cases/100,000. For the TST, the positive response rate was 44.3% (137/309, whilst only 31 (10% showed a positive QFT-G result. The overall agreement between the TST and the QFT-G was low (κ = 0.2, with 95% CI 0.14.-0.23, and positive TST reactions were closely associated with prior BCG vaccination (OR 24.7; 95% CI 11.7–52.5. In contrast, there was good agreement between TST and QFT-G in non-vaccinated persons (κ = 0.58, with 95% CI 0.4–0.68, increasing to 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.81, if a 10-mm cut off for the TST was used instead of the standard 5 mm recommended in Germany. Conclusion The QFT-G assay was unaffected by BCG vaccination status, unlike the TST. In close contacts who were BCG-vaccinated, the QFT-G assay appeared to be a more specific indicator of latent tuberculosis infection than the TST, and similarly sensitive in unvaccinated contacts. In BCG-vaccinated close contacts, measurement of IFN-gamma responses of lymphocytes stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigen should be recommended as a basis for the decision on whether to perform subsequent chest X-ray examinations or to start treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

  14. Vaccinations-Between free will and coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał K; Zagaja, Anna

    2016-08-02

    Dynamically changing social situation associated with migrations, increasing freedom rights, popularity of anti-vaccine movements and the resulting from that decrease in herd immunity, forces the medical society and the governments of various countries to reflect on the attitude toward vaccinations. Issues of freedoms and self-determination frequently do not accept any medical coercion in case of prophylactic vaccinations, however, recent waves of epidemics revealed that there is a necessity for undertaking strict legal actions to encourage vaccinations. After analyzing various legal approaches toward vaccinations we believe that personal coercion in case of vaccination refusal has too far reaching sanctions and propose the possibility of balancing the right to autonomy and the medical coercion. We postulate that vaccination refusal should be equivalent with covering frequently high medical costs in case of infection, The threat of financing medical treatment should influence the decision making process of those opposing vaccinations simultaneously respecting their rights not too get vaccinated.

  15. Dendritic cell vaccines based on immunogenic cell death elicit danger signals and T cell-driven rejection of high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Vandenberk, Lien; Koks, Carolien; Verschuere, Tina; Boon, Louis; Van Gool, Stefaan W; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-03-02

    The promise of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has been established by two decades of translational research. Of the four malignancies most targeted with clinical DC immunotherapy, high-grade glioma (HGG) has shown the highest susceptibility. HGG-induced immunosuppression is a roadblock to immunotherapy, but may be overcome by the application of T helper 1 (T(H)1) immunity-biased, next-generation, DC immunotherapy. To this end, we combined DC immunotherapy with immunogenic cell death (ICD; a modality shown to induce T(H)1 immunity) induced by hypericin-based photodynamic therapy. In an orthotopic HGG mouse model involving prophylactic/curative setups, both biologically and clinically relevant versions of ICD-based DC vaccines provided strong anti-HGG survival benefit. We found that the ability of DC vaccines to elicit HGG rejection was significantly blunted if cancer cell-associated reactive oxygen species and emanating danger signals were blocked either singly or concomitantly, showing hierarchical effect on immunogenicity, or if DCs, DC-associated MyD88 signal, or the adaptive immune system (especially CD8(+) T cells) were depleted. In a curative setting, ICD-based DC vaccines synergized with standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide) to increase survival of HGG-bearing mice by ~300%, resulting in ~50% long-term survivors. Additionally, DC