Sample records for sustained burning plasmas

  1. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  2. Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats. (United States)

    Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas


    Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation.

  3. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  4. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury. (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet


    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  5. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion. (United States)

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J


    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  6. Advanced Tokamak Scenarios for the FIRE Burning Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Ignat; T.K. Mau


    The advanced tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning advanced tokamak plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible with the present progress on existing experimental tokamaks.

  7. Progress Report for Activities of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, James W


    This report describes the activities of the past year of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO), a national organization of scientists involved in researching the properties of magnetically confined burning fusion plasmas. Its main activities are the coordination, facilitation, and promotion of research activities in the U. S. fusion energy sciences program relevant to burning plasma science and, specifically, of preparations for U. S. participation in the international ITER experiment. Specifically, the USBPO mission is to advance the scientific understanding of burning plasmas and to ensure the greatest benefit from a burning plasma experiment by coordinating relevant U. S. fusion research with broad community participation.

  8. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  9. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Balet, B.; Jarvis, O.N.; Stubberfield, P.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking


    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The investigation of inertial fusion burning requirements of deuterium-helium3 in degenerate plasma (United States)

    Nazirzadeh, M.; Khanbabaei, B.; Ghasemizad, A.


    Conditions for self-sustained burning of deuterium-helium3 as an advanced fuel in a degenerate regime have been investigated by the four temperature theory. The four temperature theory can describe the radiation field more accurately than the three temperature model. According to the four temperature theory, the photon distribution undergoes a transition from an optically thick to optically thin regime at a certain cut-off energy. The main goal of this research is to determine the critical burn-up parameter for deuterium-helium3 fuel in the degenerate regime in which the ion-electron energy exchange and the bremsstrahlung loss are smaller than those of the classic plasma. To prevent high tritium breeding via deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium reactions, the utilization of equimolar deuterium-helium3 fuel is avoided.

  11. Stability and Control of Burning Tokamak Plasmas with Resistive Walls: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, George [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Brennan, Dylan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Cole, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Finn, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This project is focused on theoretical and computational development for quantitative prediction of the stability and control of the equilibrium state evolution in toroidal burning plasmas, including its interaction with the surrounding resistive wall. The stability of long pulse burning plasmas is highly sensitive to the physics of resonant layers in the plasma, sources of momentum and flow, kinetic effects of energetic particles, and boundary conditions at the wall, including feedback control and error fields. In ITER in particular, the low toroidal flow equilibrium state, sustained primarily by energetic alpha particles from fusion reactions, will require the consideration of all of these key elements to predict quantitatively the stability and evolution. The principal investigators on this project have performed theoretical and computational analyses, guided by analytic modeling, to address this physics in realistic configurations. The overall goal has been to understand the key physics mechanisms that describe stable toroidal burning plasmas under active feedback control. Several relevant achievements have occurred during this project, leading to publications and invited conference presentations. In theoretical efforts, with the physics of the resonant layers, resistive wall, and toroidal momentum transport included, this study has extended from cylindrical resistive plasma - resistive wall models with feedback control to toroidal geometry with strong shaping to study mode coupling effects on the stability. These results have given insight into combined tearing and resistive wall mode behavior in simulations and experiment, while enabling a rapid exploration of plasma parameter space, to identify possible domains of interest for large plasma codes to investigate in more detail. Resonant field amplification and quasilinear torques in the presence of error fields and velocity shear have also been investigated. Here it was found, surprisingly, that the Maxwell

  12. Edge Mechanisms for Power Excursion Control in Burning Plasmas (United States)

    Hill, M. D.; Stacey, W. M.


    ITER must have active and preferably also passive control mechanisms that will limit inadvertent plasma power excursions which could trigger runaway fusion heating. We are identifying and investigating the potential of ion-orbit loss, impurity seeding, and various divertor ``choking'' phenomena to control or limit sudden increases in plasma density or temperature by reducing energy confinement, increasing radiation loss, etc., with the idea that such mechanisms could be tested on DIII-D and other existing tokamaks. We are assembling an edge-divertor code (GTEDGE-2) with a neutral transport model and a burn dynamics code, for this purpose. One potential control mechanism is the enhanced ion orbit loss from the thermalized ion distribution that would result from heating of the thermalized plasma ion distribution. Another possibility is impurity seeding with ions whose emissivity would increase sharply if the edge temperature increased. Enhanced radiative losses should also reduce the thermal energy flux across the separatrix, perhaps dropping the plasma into the poorer L-mode confinement regime. We will present some initial calculations to quantify these ideas. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion and Function (United States)


    vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer on wound healing after burn injury , Crit. Care Med. 31 (2003) 1017–1025. D.M. Burmeister et al. BBA...G.L. Su, D.G. Remick, S.C. Wang, S. Arbabi, Attenuating burn wound inflammatory signaling reduces systemic inflammation and acute lung injury , J...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0041 TITLE: Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion

  14. Diagnostic Systems for the Compact Burning Plasma Experiment Ignitor (United States)

    Bombarda, F.; Ignitor Diagnostics Group


    For any of the proposed burning plasma experiments one challenge will be that of selecting and fielding diagnostics systems able to operate under reactor-relevant neutron fluxes, but at low fluence. The Ignitor approach to diagnostics has been that of preferring conventional and well proven techniques over innovative concept. A basic set needed for machine operation and experimental documentation has been assessed. Diagnostics considered essential to the mission of the experiment and not already available, such as neutron spectrometry, have been proposed, built and implemented on existing devices. The physics requirement and justifications for the basic set of diagnostics systems are presented, with their tentative lay-out on the machine. Radiological issues are identified and possible solutions are presented. The viability of promising new techniques is discussed. Work supported in part by ENEA of Italy and by the US DOE.

  15. The National Incidence and Resource Utilization of Burn Injuries Sustained While Smoking on Home Oxygen Therapy. (United States)

    Assimacopoulos, Evangelia M; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason P; Kluesner, Karen M; Wilson, Jeffrey; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A


    Considerable risk of burn injury exists for those patients on home oxygen therapy (HOT) who continue to smoke. In this study, the authors sought to establish the national incidence of burns incurred while smoking on HOT and to determine the resource utilization and sequelae of these injuries. A retrospective review of the American Burn Association's National Burn Repository was conducted to identify patients burned while on HOT during the years 2002 to 2011. Duplicate entries, as well as records of follow-up visits and readmissions, were removed. Univariate analysis was used to compare the differences between patients sustaining burn injuries related to HOT and patients with other mechanisms of injury. Multivariate analysis provided odds ratios for mortality controlling for all significant variables. The frequency of burns sustained on HOT significantly increased during the 10-year period reviewed and were associated with increased comorbidities and certain complications. Compared with non-HOT injuries, HOT injuries had higher incidence of inhalation injury and mortality. Inhalation injury was the strongest predictor of mortality in HOT burn injuries. The likelihood of poor prognosis was even more pronounced in patients who required intubation. Smoking was responsible for 83% of the HOT burn injuries described here. Therefore, smoking cessation counseling and treatment should be mandatory in all patients prescribed HOT.

  16. Burning of fuelwood in South Africa: when is it sustainable?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P


    Full Text Available a consideration of both consumption and production patterns. The burning of fuelwood is still the primary source of energy for most of sub-Sahara Africa (Anderson, 1986)--the majority of the rural population, even...

  17. Burns (United States)

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the skin ...

  18. The association between plasma gelsolin level and prognosis of burn patients. (United States)

    Xianhui, Li; Pinglian, Li; Xiaojuan, Wang; Wei, Chen; Yong, Yang; Feng, Ran; Peng, Sun; Gang, Xue


    To observe the change in plasma gelsolin levels among burn patients, and explore its impact on patient prognosis. This prospective cohort study includes 98 burn patients with burns ≥30% TBSA, who were admitted to our institution between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients were grouped according to burn sizes, development and severity of sepsis, and survival from sepsis. The plasma gelsolin levels among different groups were compared by repeated measure ANOVA. The relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and the presence of sepsis and prognosis was examined by logistic regression. The plasma gelsolin levels decreased with increasing burn sizes and increasing sepsis severity, with the lowest gelsolin level observed at 7 days after the burn. The plasma gelsolin concentrations were significantly lower among patients with sepsis than those without (Pburn. The level is significantly lower among those with large burns and those with combined sepsis. Plasma gelsolin levels can be used to predict the prognosis of burn patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. A burning plasma program strategy to advance fusion energy. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Burning Plasma Strategy Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Fusion energy shows great promise to contribute to securing the energy future of humanity. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are strong reasons to pursue fusion energy now. The world effort to develop fusion energy is at the threshold of a new stage in its research: the investigation of burning plasmas. This investigation, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. The defining feature of a burning plasma is that it is self-heated: the 100 million degree temperature of the plasma is maintained mainly by the heat generated by the fusion reactions themselves, as occurs in burning stars. The fusion-generated alpha particles produce new physical phenomena that are strongly coupled together as a nonlinear complex system. Understanding all elements of this system poses a major challenge to fundamental plasma physics. The technology needed to produce and control a burning plasma presents challenges in engineering science similarly essential to the development of fusion energy.

  20. Review of Burning Plasma Physics. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Herb [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Betti, Riccardo [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Dahlburg, Jill [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Freidberg, Jeff [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hopper, Bick [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meade, Dale [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Navritil, Jerry [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Nevins, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ono, Masa [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Perkins, Rip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Prager, Stewart [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schoenburg, Kurt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Tony [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Uckan, Nermin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The next frontier in the quest for magnetic fusion energy is the development of a basic understanding of plasma behavior in the regime of strong self-heating, the so called “burning plasma” regime. The general consensus in the fusion community is that the exploration of this frontier requires a new, relatively large experimental facility - a burning plasma experiment. The motivation, justification, and steps required to build such a facility are the primary focus of our report. The specific goals of the report are as follows. First, the report describes the critical scientific and engineering phenomena that are expected to arise for the first time, or else in a strongly modified form, in a burning plasma. Second, the report shows that the capabilities of existing experiments are inadequate to investigate these phenomena, thereby providing a major justification for a new facility. Third, the report compares the features and predicted performance of the three major next generation burning plasma experiments under current consideration (ITER-FEAT, FIRE, and IGNITOR), which are aimed at addressing these problems. Deliberately, no selection of the best option is made or attempted since such a decision involves complex scientific and cost issues that are beyond the scope of the present panel report. Fourth, the report makes specific recommendations regarding a process to move the burning plasma program forward, including a procedure for choosing the best option and the future activities of the Next Step Option (NSO) program. Fifth, the report attempts to provide a proper perspective for the role of burning plasmas with respect to the overall U.S. fusion program. The introduction provides the basic background information required for understanding the context in which the U.S. fusion community thinks about burning plasma issues. It “sets the stage” for the remainder of the report.

  1. Plasma burn-through simulations using the DYON code and predictions for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, H. T.; Sips, A.C.C.; de Vries, P. C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,


    This paper will discuss simulations of the full ionization process (i.e. plasma burn-through), fundamental to creating high temperature plasma. By means of an applied electric field, the gas is partially ionized by the electron avalanche process. In order for the electron temperature to increase,

  2. Effect of topical silver sulfadiazine on plasma copper, zinc and silver concentrations in a burn rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, R.; Boosalis, M.; McClain, C.; Becker, W.; Watiwat, S. (Army Inst. of Surgery Research, Ft. Sam Houston, TX (United States))


    One percent silver sulfadiazine cream (AgSD) is routinely used as a topical agent to prevent wound infection in burned patients. This report describes the effect of such topical therapy on plasma copper, silver and zinc concentrations in burned rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats received full thickness burns of 30% of the total body surface and were maintained for seven days on Purina Rat Chow and deionized water ad libitum. Twelve sham burned animals were similarly maintained. The wounds in six burned and a similar area in six sham burned animals were treated daily with 3 gms of AgSD, beginning on the day of injury. Blood was drawn on the seventh postburn day and analyzed for plasma copper, silver and zinc, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Silver absorption was associated with decreased plasma copper concentration in both burned and sham burned animals. Zinc concentrations did not differ significantly.

  3. Subconjunctival application of regenerative factor-rich plasma for the treatment of ocular alkali burns. (United States)

    Marquez De Aracena Del Cid, Rafael; Montero De Espinosa Escoriaza, Ignacio


    To study the efficiency of the subconjunctival application of autologous regenerative factor-rich plasma (RFRP) in patients with different degrees of ocular alkali burns. Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients with ocular alkali burns were analyzed. They were classified into moderate and relevance groups according to the severity of the burn. A control group was established for each with conventional topical medical treatment; subconjunctival regenerative factor rich plasma (RFRP) was applied to the other groups. A further group was added to the severe chemical burn group, which received autohemotherapy. The clinical evolution of the lesions and the period in which the pathology prevented the patient from working were studied; monitoring was carried out until the patient had healed. In the moderate chemical burns, there was a significant reduction in corneal and conjunctival epithelization times, sick leave duration, and healing time when the patients were treated with RFRP in comparison to the control group. With regard to the severe burns, significant reduction in time to corneal scarring in those treated with RFRP in comparison to traditional treatment was reported. RFRP showed, at least as effective and less side effects than the autohemotherapy. Subconjunctival infiltration with autologous RFRP can be considered an effective, straightforward, and economical form of treatment for burns of the ocular surface.

  4. Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin


    The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

  5. Fusion burning waves in proton-boron-11 plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J.M. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Eliezer, S. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Piera, M. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear; Velarde, G. [Universidad Poltecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear


    A method is proposed to exploit the aneutronic proton-{sup 11}B fusion reaction by means of igniting a heat detonation wave that expands across the fuel from a small heated region. The ignition process is triggered by a particle beam (or a couple of beams) impinging on an inertially compressed target. We determine conditions for ignition and burn propagation. Although the requirements on the igniting beam current are very high, the method is a clear hint how to produce the cleanest energy from nuclear reactions. (orig.).

  6. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro


    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Collision Models for Plasma Simulation of Thermonuclear Burn: Comparison of Models and Applications (United States)

    Winske, Dan; Albright, Brian; Bowers, Kevin; Lemons, Don


    There is renewed interest in examining plasma physics issues related to thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and fast ignition (FI): e.g., the rate of temperature equilibration of electrons and ions, the formation and/or depletion of high energy tails of ion velocity distributions of ions, the slowing of energetic ions in dense plasmas, etc. To address these types of questions, we have developed a new particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation capability, embodied in the code VPIC. To model TN-burn problems in dense plasmas, we have developed a new Coulomb collision model, based on the use of stochastic differential equations and well-known Spitzer rates to describe the collision process, which was presented at last year's meeting. Here we extend the model to included arbitrary weighting of individual simulation particles, rather than just separate weights for each plasma species, which is a feature intrinsic to VPIC. We compare test cases for plasma relaxation and slowing of fast beams using the new collision model with results obtained from an extension of standard particle-pairing collision models to weighted particles for parameter regimes of interest to ICF and FI.

  8. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)


    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  9. Optimization and Control of Burning Plasmas Through High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei


    This project has revived the FACETS code, that has been developed under SciDAC fund- ing in 2008-2012. The code has been dormant for a number of years after the SciDAC funding stopped. FACETS depends on external packages. The external packages and libraries such as PETSc, FFTW, HDF5 and NETCDF that are included in FACETS have evolved during these years. Some packages in FACETS are also parts of other codes such as PlasmaState, NUBEAM, GACODES, and UEDGE. These packages have been also evolved together with their host codes which include TRANSP, TGYRO and XPTOR. Finally, there is also a set of packages in FACETS that are being developed and maintained by Tech-X. These packages include BILDER, SciMake, and FcioWrappers. Many of these packages evolved significantly during the last several years and FACETS had to be updated to synchronize with the re- cent progress in the external packages. The PI has introduced new changes to the BILDER package to support the updated interfaces to the external modules. During the last year of the project, the FACETS version of the UEDGE code has been extracted from FACETS as a standalone package. The PI collaborates with the scientists from LLNL on the updated UEDGE model in FACETS. Drs. T. Rognlien, M. Umansky and A. Dimits from LLNL are contributing to this task.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Claude Wendell


    The SciDAC project at the IFS advanced the state of high performance computing for turbulent structures and turbulent transport. The team project with Prof Zhihong Lin [PI] at Univ California Irvine produced new understanding of the turbulent electron transport. The simulations were performed at the Texas Advanced Computer Center TACC and the NERSC facility by Wendell Horton, Lee Leonard and the IFS Graduate Students working in that group. The research included a Validation of the electron turbulent transport code using the data from a steady state university experiment at the University of Columbia in which detailed probe measurements of the turbulence in steady state were used for wide range of temperature gradients to compare with the simulation data. These results were published in a joint paper with Texas graduate student Dr. Xiangrong Fu using the work in his PhD dissertation. X.R. Fu, W. Horton, Y. Xiao, Z. Lin, A.K. Sen and V. Sokolov, “Validation of electron Temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine, Phys. Plasmas 19, 032303 (2012).

  11. Influence of impurity seeding on plasma burning scenarios for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova-Stanik, I., E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Zagórski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Voitsekhovitch, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung—Plasmaphysik, Jülich 52425 (Germany)


    Highlights: • The self-consistent (core-edge) COREDIV code has been used to analyze ITER standard inductive scenarios with neon and argon seeding. • In order to achieve wide operational window with the power crossing separatrix above the H-L threshold and simultaneously with tolerable heat load to target plates (<40 MW) relatively strong impurity transport in the core and SOL regions is necessary. • For argon seeding, the operational window is much smaller than for neon case due to enhanced core radiation (in comparison to Ne). - Abstract: ITER expects to produce fusion power of about 0.5GW when operating with tungsten (W) divertor and beryllium (Be) wall. The influx of W from divertor can have significant influence on the discharge performance. This work describes predictive integrated numerical modeling of ITER discharges using the COREDIV code, which self-consistently solves the 1D radial energy and particle transport in the core region and 2D multi-fluid transport in the SOL. Calculations are performed for inductive ITER scenarios with intrinsic (W, Be and He) impurities and with seeded impurities (Ne and Ar) for different particle and heat transport in the core and different radial transport in the SOL. Simulations show, that only for sufficiently high radial diffusion (both in the core and in the SOL regions), it is possible to achieve H-mode mode plasma operation (power to SOL > L-H threshold power) with acceptable low level of power reaching the divertor plates. For argon seeding, the operational window is much smaller than for neon case due to enhanced core radiation (in comparison to Ne). Particle transport in the core characterized by the ratio of particle diffusion to thermal conductivity) has strong influence on the predicted ITER performance.

  12. Simulations of the operational control of a cryogenic plant for a superconducting burning-plasma tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N


    In recent proposals for next generation superconducting tokamaks, such as the ITER project, the nuclear burning plasma is confined by magnetic fields generated from a large set (up to 100 GJ stored energy) of superconducting magnets. These magnets suffer heat loads in operation from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as eddy currents and AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and resistive heat generated at the current lead transitions to room temperature. The initial cryoplant for such a tokamak is expected to have a steady state capacity of up to about 85 kW at 4.5 K, comparable to the system installed for LHC at CERN. Experimental tokamaks are expected to operate at least initially in a pulsed mode with 20-30 short plasma pulses and plasma burn periods each day. A conventional cryoplant, consisting of a cold box and a set of primary heat exchangers, is ill-suited to such a mode of operation as the instantaneou...

  13. [Subconjunctival application of plasma platelet concentrate in the treatment of ocular burns. Preliminary results]. (United States)

    Márquez-de-Aracena, R; Montero-de-Espinosa, I; Muñoz, M; Pereira, G


    The efficiency of the subconjunctival application of autologous platelet concentrate in patients with ocular burns was assessed. This was carried out by analysing the effect of treatment in the eyes of 10 patients suffering from ocular burns as a result of work-related accidents. Two types of treatment were evaluated: the first group only received conventional topical medical treatment; and the second group, in addition, had subconjunctival injection of plasma platelet concentrate. The clinical condition of the patient and the period in which the disease prevented the patient from working were studied; monitoring was carried out until the burns had fully healed. Statistically significant differences were found between the group treated with subconjunctival autologous platelet concentrate and the group treated with conventional topical medications, with a shorter period of time in corneal and conjunctival healing, time on sick leave and time needed for full healing. Subconjunctival infiltration of autologous platelet concentrate should be considered as a straightforward, economical and possibly effective form of treatment for traumatic accidents (burns) of the ocular surface.

  14. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned (United States)


    Signals from fat after injury: Plasma adipokines and ghrelin concentrations in the severely burnedq Charles E. Wade a,⇑, Alejandra G. Mora b, Beth A...samples were collected for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin , insulin, and cortisol by ELISA. For comparison, samples from 15 healthy...vs. 17 ± 10.2 ng/ml), and ghrelin (0.37 ± 0.14 ng/ml vs.0.56 ± 0.26 ng/ml). Conclusion: Patients with burns, who are characteristically hypermetabolic

  15. Characterization of scintillators for lost alpha diagnostics on burning plasma experiments


    M., "Nishiura; N., Kubo; T., Hirouchi; T., Ido; T., Nagasaka; T.", Mutoh; S., Matsuyama; M., Isobe; A., Okamoto; K., Shinto; S., Kitajima; M., Sasao; M., Nakatsuka; K.", Fujioka


    The characteristics of light output by ion beam irradiations under high ion fluxes have been measured for three kinds of scintillators: ZnS:Ag deposited on the glass plate, Y_3Al_5O_12:Ce powder stiffened with a binder, and Y_3Al_5O_12:Ce ceramics sintered at high temperature. The ion beam flux in the range from 10^12 to 10^13 ions/(cm^2 s) is irradiated to simulate the burning plasma experiments. The decrease of light output has been observed by long time ion irradiation. The deteriorati...

  16. Suppression of scar formation in a murine burn wound model by the application of non-thermal plasma (United States)

    Hoon Lee, Dae; Lee, Jae-Ok; Jeon, Wonju; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kim, Jun-Sub; Hoon Jeong, Je; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Hoon Seo, Cheong


    Suppression of hypertrophic scar generation in an animal model by treatment with plasma is reported. Contact burn following mechanical stretching was used to induce scar formation in mice. Exposure to the plasma tended to reduce the scar area more rapidly without affecting vitality. The treatment resulted in decreased vascularization in the scar tissue. Plasma-treated scars showed mild decrease in the thickness of hypertrophic tissues as shown by histological assessment. Finally, we showed that plasma treatment induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in hypertrophic scar fibroblast. All of the results support that plasma treatment can control scar generation.

  17. [The application of ultrasonography to estimate blood vessel injury of upper limbs sustaining electric burns]. (United States)

    Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Li-gen; Chen, Yue-xiu; Hu, Xiao-juan; Yang, Yong-ming


    To explore a new method in estimating extent and degree of arterial injury in upper limbs sustaining high tension electric burns. Eighteen patients (twenty-four upper limbs) with high tension electricity injury were admitted from December 1998 to September 2002, The damaged limbs consisted of four parts: wrist wound part, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm parts around wrist wound, where the radial and ulnar arteries were detected using B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination. The changes of endangium, vessel diameter, thickness of the vessel wall and volume of blood flow were recorded respectively. The parameters of normal radial and ulnar arteries were also determined as normal control. B ultrasound and color WP Doppler examination showed that the endangium in radial and ulnar arteries become coarse, edema or exfoliation. The vessel wall was thicker than that of the normal control and the thickness was heterogeneity. The vessel wall could be necrosis in severe patient and the vessel cavity was stricture or beaded. Thrombosis or occlusion could occur at the site of severe injury area in vessel. The decrease in volume of blood flow was observed. The condition of the radial and ulnar arteries become well apart from 10 - 15 cm of wrist wound. The ultrasonography can be used to detect the changes in endangium, diameter, thickness of the vessel wall, blood flow volume in injury blood vessel caused by electric burn injury. It is helpful in judging the degree and extent of injury vessel and could be a safe, non-invasive diagnostic method and is worth popularizing.

  18. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, A. Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)


    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  19. Analysis of Secondary Chemistry and Treatment of Burn Wounds with Nonthermal Plasma Induced Effluent (United States)

    Golkowski, Mark; Plimpton, S. Reed; Golkowski, Czeslaw


    Exploitation of non-thermal plasmas in the biomedical setting is a rapidly growing field with a large number of diverse technologies under investigation. Potential applications of such devices range from instrument sterilization to clinical therapy. One of the key hurdles to the implementation of non-thermal plasma technologies in the relatively poor understanding of the chemical processes taking place. Our group has recently completed precise analysis of chemical species created by our indirect exposure non-thermal plasma device with hydrogen peroxide additives. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are observed using optical absorption spectroscopy. We report the unique detection of short lived hydroxyl radicals at a significant distance from the discharge using electron paramagnetic spin resonance trapping. The hydroxyl radicals are shown to be generated in secondary ozonide based chemical processes away from the discharge. The plasma device is applied to a porcine model of infected full thickness burn wounds. The bacteria load reduction after treatment with our device is shown to be 10-100 fold improvement over Silvadene which is the main treatment currently used in the clinic. Partially funded by NIH SBIR R43 AI096594.

  20. A Phased Development of Breed-and-Burn Reactors for Enhanced Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Greenspan


    Full Text Available Several options for designing fast reactors to operate in the Breed-and-Burn (B&B mode are compared and a strategy is outlined for early introduction of B&B reactors followed by a gradual increase in the fuel utilization of such reactors. In the first phase the fast reactor core will consist of a subcritical B&B blanket driven by a relatively small critical seed. As the required discharge burnup/radiation-damage to both driver and blanket fuel had already been proven, and as the depleted uranium fueled B&B blanket could generate close to 2/3 of the core power and will have very low fuel cycle cost, the deployment of such fast reactors could start in the near future. The second phase consists of deploying self-sustaining stationary wave B&B reactors. It will require development of fuel technology that could withstand peak burnups of ~30% and peak radiation damage to the cladding of ~550 dpa. The third phase requires development of a fuel reconditioning technology that will enable using the fuel up to an average burnup of ~50%—the upper bound permitted by neutron balance considerations when most of the fission products are not separated from the fuel. The increase in the uranium ore utilization relative to that provided by contemporary power reactors is estimated to be 20, 40 and 100 folds for, respectively, phase 1, 2 and 3. The energy value of the depleted uranium stockpiles (“waste” accumulated in the US is equivalent to, when used in the B&B reactors, up to 20 centuries of the total 2010 USA supply of electricity. Therefore, a successful development of B&B reactors could provide a great measure of energy sustainability and cost stability.

  1. Predicted Effects of Prescribed Burning and Timber Management on Forest Recovery and Sustainability at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.,JR.


    The objective of this work was to use a simple compartment model of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict forest recovery on degraded soils and forest sustainability, following recovery, under different regimes of prescribed fire and timber management. This report describes the model and a model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clearcutting on stand recovery and sustainability at Fort Benning, GA. I developed the model using Stella{reg_sign} Research Software (High Performance Systems, Inc., Hanover, NH) and parameterized the model using data from field studies at Fort Benning, literature sources, and parameter fitting. The model included (1) a tree biomass submodel that predicted aboveground and belowground tree biomass, (2) a litter production submodel that predicted the dynamics of herbaceous aboveground and belowground biomass, (3) a soil C and N submodel that predicted soil C and N stocks (to a 30 cm soil depth) and net soil N mineralization, and (4) an excess N submodel that calculated the difference between predicted plant N demands and soil N supplies. There was a modeled feedback from potential excess N (PEN) to tree growth such that forest growth was limited under conditions of N deficiency. Two experiments were performed for the model-based analysis. In the first experiment, forest recovery from barren soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning and with or without timber management by thinning or clearcutting. In the second experiment, simulations began with 100 years of predicted forest growth in the absence of fire or harvesting, and sustainability was predicted for a further 100 years either with or without prescribed burning and with or without forest management. Four performance variables (aboveground tree biomass, soil C stocks, soil N stocks, and PEN) were used to evaluate the predicted effects of timber harvesting and prescribed burning on forest recovery and

  2. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  3. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL


    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  4. Characterization of laser-sustained plasma behavior during 10 kW laser thruster tests (United States)

    Black, J.; Krier, H.; Zerkle, D.; Glumb, R. J.


    This paper describes some of the important properties and characteristics of laser-sustained plasmas that were generated as part of the experimental tests of a 10 kW laser-powered rocket engine. The high-temperature laser-sustained plasmas were used to heat flows of argon and hydrogen propellants, which were then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to generate thrust. This paper describes some of the detailed plasma analysis that went into the design of the laser thruster, and then summarizes the key performance data acquired during the thruster tests, particularly that data that gives insight into the characteristics of the plasmas. Key findings include demonstrations of specific impulse values of up to 350 seconds at efficiencies near 40 percent using hydrogen plasmas, and the discovery of a low-velocity stability limit for laser-sustained plasmas that has important implications for the design of future laser propulsion systems.

  5. [Cooperation, Job Satisfaction and Burn Out - Sustainability in Outpatient Mental Health Care among Medical Specialists in Germany]. (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram


    Objective Cooperation, job satisfaction, and burn out risk are indicators of sustainability in mental health services. Thus they were assessed among registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany. Method A postal survey consisting of three questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was carried out among all registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany (n = 4,430). Results 14.1 % (n = 626) of the specialists responded to the survey. Quality and quantity of cooperation regarding mental health care services were rated diverse, job satisfaction was assessed medium to high, and burnout risk was low to medium. Higher job satisfaction correlated with good quality of cooperation, fewer years of practice, fewer patients' chronically ill, more patients who as well seek psychotherapy, and less time spent on cooperation. Low burn out risk correlated with good quality of cooperation, higher age, single practice setting and a higher amount of patients who as well seek psychotherapy. Conclusion Quality and quantity of cooperation in outpatient mental health care - especially regarding community mental health care institutions - should be fostered. Aspects to be considered to reinforce job satisfaction and minimize burn out risk are age, years of practice, quality and quantity of cooperation, practice setting, and the mixture of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye (United States)

    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Dohlman, Claes H.; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.


    Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). Methods The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. Results After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. Conclusions This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation. PMID:28114570

  7. Calculational Method for Neutron Heatingin Dense Plasma Systems, (II) Application to Burning D-T Pellets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAKAO, Yasuyuki; HONDA, Takuro; FUJITA, Masaki; NAKASHIMA, Hideki; ODA, Akinori; KUDO, Kazuhiko; OHTA, Masao


    ...). After incorporating these equations into the one-dimensional hydrodynamics code MEDUSA, burn simulations are made for isobaric D-T pellets models compressed to 1, 000 times the liquid density...

  8. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group


    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m‑3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ∼3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  9. Control of Plasma-Stored Energy for Burn Control using DIII-D In-Vessel Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R. J. [PPPL; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics; Grierson, B. A. [PPPL; Hyatt, A. W. [General Atomics; Koleman, E. [PPPL; Logan, N. C. [PPPL; Nazikian, R. [PPPL; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics; Wolf, S. [MIT


    A new approach has been experimentally demonstrated to control the stored energy by applying a non-axisymmetric magnetic field using the DIII-D in-vessel coils to modify the energy confinement time. In future burning plasma experiments as well as magnetic fusion energy power plants, various concepts have been proposed to control the fusion power. The fusion power in a power plant operating at high gain can be related to the plasma-stored energy and hence, is a strong function of the energy confinement time. Thus, an actuator, that modifies the confinement time, can be used to adjust the fusion power. In relatively low collisionality DIII-D discharges, the application of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields results in a decrease in confinement time and density pumpout. Gas puffing was used to compensate the density pumpout in the pedestal while control of the stored energy was demonstrated by the application of non-axisymmetric fields.

  10. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Free-Burning Arc Plasma in Argon (United States)


    shall be briefly presented in the following. A tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) arc at normal pressure is burning between a tungsten cathode with a...temperature Te (Te≠T). Melting effects and metal vapor from the weld pool are not included. In the hydrodynamic model, the Navier-Stokes equations provide

  11. Experimental Investigation of Laser-sustained Plasma in Supersonic Argon Flow (United States)

    Sperber, David; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Moessinger, Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos


    Laser-induced energy deposition is widely discussed as a flow control technique in supersonic transportation. In case of thermal laser-plasma upstream of a blunt body, a substantial adaptation of shock wave geometry and magnitude of wave drag is predicted. Related to the research on laser supported detonation, the paper describes the implementation of laser-sustained plasma in a supersonic Argon jet. The stable plasma state is generated by the intersection of a Q-switched Nd:YAG-laser and a continuous wave CO2-laser beams, for ignition and maintenance of the plasma respectively. A miniature supersonic Ludwieg tube test facility generates a supersonic jet at velocities of Mach 2.1. Modifications of the flow and plasma conditions are investigated and characterized by Schlieren flow visualisation, laser energy transmission and plasma radiation measurements. The results include the discussions of the flow field as well as the required laser and gas parameters.

  12. A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels (United States)

    Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

    A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

  13. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)


    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  14. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance (United States)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  15. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  16. Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and in dusty plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Sung Nae


    An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in DC glow discharges. It is found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with electric field. The presented mechanism also describes the self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, demonstrating that oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow disc...

  17. Comparative Population Plasma and Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Micafungin in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Burn Injuries and Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection (United States)

    García-de-Lorenzo, A.; Grau, S.; Agrifoglio, A.; Cachafeiro, L.; Herrero, E.; Asensio, M. J.; Sánchez, S. M.; Roberts, J. A.


    Severely burned patients have altered drug pharmacokinetics (PKs), but it is unclear how different they are from those in other critically ill patient groups. The aim of the present study was to compare the population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in the plasma and burn eschar of severely burned patients with those of micafungin in the plasma and peritoneal fluid of postsurgical critically ill patients with intra-abdominal infection. Fifteen burn patients were compared with 10 patients with intra-abdominal infection; all patients were treated with 100 to 150 mg/day of micafungin. Micafungin concentrations in serial blood, peritoneal fluid, and burn tissue samples were determined and were subjected to a population pharmacokinetic analysis. The probability of target attainment was calculated using area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC cutoffs of 285 for Candida parapsilosis and 3,000 for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. by Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty-five patients (18 males; median age, 50 years; age range, 38 to 67 years; median total body surface area burned, 50%; range of total body surface area burned, 35 to 65%) were included. A three-compartment model described the data, and only the rate constant for the drug distribution from the tissue fluid to the central compartment was statistically significantly different between the burn and intra-abdominal infection patients (0.47 ± 0.47 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 h−1, respectively; P patients would achieve plasma PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of 90% for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. and C. parapsilosis with MICs of 0.008 and 0.064 mg/liter, respectively, for doses of 100 mg daily and 150 mg daily. The PKs of micafungin were not significantly different between burn patients and intra-abdominal infection patients. After the first dose, micafungin at 100 mg/day achieved the PK/PD targets in plasma for MIC values of ≤0.008 mg/liter and ≤0.064 mg/liter for non-parapsilosis Candida spp. and Candida

  18. Suppression of high-energy electrons generated in both disrupting and sustained MST tokamak plasmas (United States)

    Pandya, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Munaretto, S.; Cornille, B. S.; McCollam, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Goetz, J. A.


    High-energy electrons appearing during MST tokamak plasma disruptions are rapidly lost from the plasma due apparently to internal MHD activity. Work has just recently begun on generating and diagnosing disruptions in MST tokamak plasmas. Initial measurements show the characteristic drop in central temperature and density preceding a quench of the plasma current. This corresponds to a burst of dominantly n=1 MHD activity, which is accompanied by a short-lived burst of high-energy electrons. The short-lived nature of these electrons is suspected to be due to stochastic transport associated with the increased MHD. Earlier work shows that runaway electrons generated in low density, sustained plasmas are suppressed by a sufficiently large m=3 RMP in plasmas with q(a) MST's thick conducting shell. With an m=3 RMP, the degree of runaway suppression increases with RMP amplitude, while an m=1 RMP has little effect on the runaways. Nonlinear MHD modeling with NIMROD of these MST plasmas indicates increased stochasticity with an m=3 RMP, while no such increase in stochasticity is observed with an m=1 RMP. Work supported by US DOE.

  19. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome. (United States)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka; Grassl, Niklas; Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Torekov, Signe S; Mann, Matthias


    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly affected proteins. The adipocyte-secreted SERPINF1 and apolipoprotein APOF1 were most significantly regulated with fold changes of -16% and +37%, respectively (P plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. DIII-D research advancing the scientific basis for burning plasmas and fusion energy (United States)

    W. M. SolomonThe DIII-D Team


    The DIII-D tokamak has addressed key issues to advance the physics basis for ITER and future steady-state fusion devices. In work related to transient control, magnetic probing is used to identify a decrease in ideal stability, providing a basis for active instability sensing. Improved understanding of 3D interactions is emerging, with RMP-ELM suppression correlated with exciting an edge current driven mode. Should rapid plasma termination be necessary, shattered neon pellet injection has been shown to be tunable to adjust radiation and current quench rate. For predictive simulations, reduced transport models such as TGLF have reproduced changes in confinement associated with electron heating. A new wide-pedestal variant of QH-mode has been discovered where increased edge transport is found to allow higher pedestal pressure. New dimensionless scaling experiments suggest an intrinsic torque comparable to the beam-driven torque on ITER. In steady-state-related research, complete ELM suppression has been achieved that is relatively insensitive to q 95, having a weak effect on the pedestal. Both high-q min and hybrid steady-state plasmas have avoided fast ion instabilities and achieved increased performance by control of the fast ion pressure gradient and magnetic shear, and use of external control tools such as ECH. In the boundary, experiments have demonstrated the impact of E× B drifts on divertor detachment and divertor asymmetries. Measurements in helium plasmas have found that the radiation shortfall can be eliminated provided the density near the X-point is used as a constraint in the modeling. Experiments conducted with toroidal rings of tungsten in the divertor have indicated that control of the strike-point flux is important for limiting the core contamination. Future improvements are planned to the facility to advance physics issues related to the boundary, transients and high performance steady-state operation.

  1. Relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin and cortisol levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM and cortisol (Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn. Methods: A total of 30 children with sepsis after burn who were treated in the hospital between August 2014 and August 2016 were collected as observation group, and 30 normal children who received vaccination in the hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The pro-ADM and Cor levels in plasma as well as the levels of inflammatory factors, myocardial injury markers and intestinal barrier function indexes in serum of the two groups were determined. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation of plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in patients with sepsis after burn. Results: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group. Serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group; serum myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnⅠ and NT-proBNP levels were higher than those in normal control group; serum intestinal barrier function indexes ET, DAO and D-L levels were higher than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels increase in patients with sepsis after burn, and are highly consistent with systemic inflammatory response and target organ injury.

  2. Optimization of the Magnetic Field Structure for Sustained Plasma Gun Helicity Injection for Magnetic Turbulence Studies at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (United States)

    Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Schaffner, D. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.


    A long-pulsed magnetic coaxial plasma gun is being implemented and characterized at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). A cold cathode discharged between the cylindrical electrodes generates and launches plasma into a 24cm diameter, 2m long chamber. Three separately pulsed magnetic coils are carefully positioned to generate radial magnetic field between the electrodes at the gun edge in order to provide stuffing field. Magnetic helicity is continuously injected into the flux-conserving vacuum chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. The aim of this source, however, is to supply long pulses of turbulent magnetized plasma for measurement rather than for sustained spheromak production. The work shown here details the optimization of the magnetic field structure for this sustained helicity injection.

  3. Economics of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G


    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  4. Sustainable effect of skin stretching for burn scar excision: Long-term results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Bloemen, M.C.T.; Dokter, J.; Melis, P.; Middelkoop, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.


    Purpose: Primary wound closure of large defects after burn scar excision may be facilitated by intraoperative stretching of the adjacent skin. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the effect of skin stretching for wound closure after scar excision (SS) was compared to scar excision without

  5. Non-self-sustained discharge with hollow anode for plasma-based surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misiruk Ivan O.


    Full Text Available The paper discusses plasma methods for surface modification using the non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow anode. This discharge is characterised by low voltage and high values of electron and ion currents. It can be easily excited in vacuum-arc installations that are widely used for coatings deposition. It is shown that such type of discharge may be effectively used for ion pumping, film deposition, ion etching, diffusion saturation of metallic materials, fusion and brazing of metals, and for combined application of above mentioned technologies in a single vacuum cycle.

  6. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3 (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.


    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  7. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail:


    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  8. Burning Feet (United States)

    Symptoms Burning feet By Mayo Clinic Staff Burning feet — the sensation that your feet are painfully hot — can be mild or severe. In some cases, your burning feet may be so painful that the pain interferes ...

  9. The acute febrile response to burn injury in children may be modified by the type of intravenous fluid used during resuscitation--observations using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Hartmann's solution. (United States)

    Childs, C; Renshaw, A; Dunn, K W; Davenport, P J


    Fever is a common clinical problem in burned children. The purpose of this study was to compare rectal temperature (T(r)) in two groups of children with burns, > or =10% of the total body surface area (tbsa) who received fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or a crystalloid solution (Hartmann's) for restoration of blood volume. Twelve to 16 h after the burn T(r) reached a peak. The children who had received FFP for restoration of blood volume had significantly higher fever than those children who received crystalloid solutions only.

  10. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B; Fenger, M


    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... theophylline concentration....

  11. Use of Implementation Science for a Sustained Reduction of Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in a High-Volume, Regional Burn Unit. (United States)

    Sood, Geeta; Caffrey, Julie; Krout, Kelly; Khouri-Stevens, Zeina; Gerold, Kevin; Riedel, Stefan; McIntyre, Janet; Maragakis, Lisa L; Blanding, Renee; Zenilman, Jonathan; Bennett, Richard; Pronovost, Peter


    OBJECTIVE We describe the use of implementation science at the unit level and organizational level to guide an intervention to reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a high-volume, regional, burn intensive care unit (BICU). DESIGN A single center observational quasi-experimental study. SETTING A regional BICU in Maryland serving 300-400 burn patients annually. INTERVENTIONS In 2011, an organizational-level and unit-level intervention was implemented to reduce the rates of CLABSI in a high-risk patient population in the BICU. At the organization level, leaders declared a goal of zero infections, created an infrastructure to support improvement efforts by creating a coordinating team, and engaged bedside staff. Performance data were transparently shared. At the unit level, the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP)/ Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) model was used. A series of interventions were implemented: development of new blood culture procurement criteria, implementation of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine dressings, use of alcohol impregnated caps, routine performance of root-cause analysis with executive engagement, and routine central venous catheter changes. RESULTS The use of an implementation science framework to guide multiple interventions resulted in the reduction of CLABSI rates from 15.5 per 1,000 central-line days to zero with a sustained rate of zero CLABSIs over 3 years (rate difference, 15.5; 95% confidence interval, 8.54-22.48). CONCLUSIONS CLABSIs in high-risk units may be preventable with the a use a structured organizational and unit-level paradigm. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1306-1311.

  12. Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny


    Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

  13. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.


    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Burns dressings. (United States)

    Douglas, Helen E; Wood, Fiona


    Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression. This information includes the aims of burn wound dressings and indications for different types of dressings in different burn depths, advantages of blister debridement, and the reasoning behind advice given to patients after healing of the burn wound. This article provides a framework used by the State Burn Service of Western Australia, by which clinicians can understand the needs of a specific burn wound and apply these principles when choosing an appropriate burn dressing for their patient. Every intervention in the journey of a patient with a burn injury affects their eventual outcome. By managing all burn injuries effectively at every single step, we can reduce burn injury morbidity as a community.

  15. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  16. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology? (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.


    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972

  17. Ball lightning burn. (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip


    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  18. Fluid replacement in burned patients. (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D


    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  19. Retinal light input is required to sustain plasma melatonin rhythms in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus. (United States)

    Martinez-Chavez, C C; Migaud, H


    The aim of this work was to confirm previous findings suggesting that the eyes are required for night-time melatonin production in Nile tilapia and further characterise this divergent circadian organisation. To do so, melatonin levels were firstly measured in eyecups and plasma to determine circadian patterns of melatonin production. Secondly, the effect of partial ophthalmectomy on the suppression of melatonin production was determined in vivo as well as ex vivo pineal light/dark sensitivity. Finally, to investigate whether such findings could be related to post-surgery stress, melatonin analyses were performed in the subsequent 24 h and 7 days post-ophthalmectomy with cortisol levels assessed as an indicator of stress. Our results showed an inverse pattern of melatonin production in the eye cups of tilapia compared to blood circulating levels, suggesting different roles played by melatonin in these two tissues. Results then demonstrated that total or partial ophthalmectomy resulted in the suppression of night-time melatonin production. Furthermore, although pineals in culture were shown to be photosensitive, night-time melatonin levels were much lower than seen in other species. Finally, when performing sampling immediately or one week post-surgery, no difference in the melatonin profiles were observed. It is therefore unlikely that post-surgery stress would explain such suppression in melatonin production although all fish displayed high cortisol levels most probably due to social and handling stress. Taken together, these results provide further evidence of a new type of circadian organisation in a teleost species where the eyes are required to sustain night-time melatonin levels.

  20. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka


    by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  1. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  2. Iatrogenic Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaya


    Full Text Available Iatrogenic burns are rare complications that can occur after using medical devices and chemicals in hospitals. Usually, these burns are deep and cause additional morbidity to patients. In this article, 6 iatrogenic burn patients referred to our department are presented, and predisposing factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  3. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  4. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)


    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  5. The Potential of Cold Plasma for Safe and Sustainable Food Production. (United States)

    Bourke, Paula; Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Cullen, Patrick J; Keener, Kevin


    Cold plasma science and technology is increasingly investigated for translation to a plethora of issues in the agriculture and food sectors. The diversity of the mechanisms of action of cold plasma, and the flexibility as a standalone technology or one that can integrate with other technologies, provide a rich resource for driving innovative solutions. The emerging understanding of the longer-term role of cold plasma reactive species and follow-on effects across a range of systems will suggest how cold plasma may be optimally applied to biological systems in the agricultural and food sectors. Here we present the current status, emerging issues, regulatory context, and opportunities of cold plasma with respect to the broad stages of primary and secondary food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achievement of Sustained Net Plasma Heating in a Fusion Experiment with the Optometrist Algorithm. (United States)

    Baltz, E A; Trask, E; Binderbauer, M; Dikovsky, M; Gota, H; Mendoza, R; Platt, J C; Riley, P F


    Many fields of basic and applied science require efficiently exploring complex systems with high dimensionality. An example of such a challenge is optimising the performance of plasma fusion experiments. The highly-nonlinear and temporally-varying interaction between the plasma, its environment and external controls presents a considerable complexity in these experiments. A further difficulty arises from the fact that there is no single objective metric that fully captures both plasma quality and equipment constraints. To efficiently optimise the system, we develop the Optometrist Algorithm, a stochastic perturbation method combined with human choice. Analogous to getting an eyeglass prescription, the Optometrist Algorithm confronts a human operator with two alternative experimental settings and associated outcomes. A human operator then chooses which experiment produces subjectively better results. This innovative technique led to the discovery of an unexpected record confinement regime with positive net heating power in a field-reversed configuration plasma, characterised by a >50% reduction in the energy loss rate and concomitant increase in ion temperature and total plasma energy.

  7. Sustainable Methods for Decontamination of Microcystin in Water Using Cold Plasma and UV with Reusable TiO₂ Nanoparticle Coating. (United States)

    Jiang, Xuewen; Lee, Seungjun; Mok, Chulkyoon; Lee, Jiyoung


    Microcystins (MCs) are a family of cyanotoxins and pose detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecological health. Conventional water treatment processes have limited success in removing MCs without producing harmful byproducts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective and environmentally-friendly methods for treating MCs. The objective of this study was to develop sustainable and non-chemical-based methods for controlling MCs, such as using cold plasma and ultra violet (UV) light with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coating, which can be applied for diverse scale and settings. MCs, extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa, were treated with cold plasma or UV at irradiance of 1470 μW/cm² (high) or 180 μW/cm² (low). To assess synergistic effects, the outside of the UV treatment chamber was coated with nanoparticles (TiO₂) prior to irradiation, which can be reused for a long time. The degradation efficiency of UV was enhanced by the reusable TiO₂ coating at lower irradiance (70.41% [UV] vs. 79.61% [UV+TiO₂], 120 min), but no significant difference was observed at higher irradiance. Cold plasma removed MCs rapidly under experimental conditions (92%, 120 min), indicating that it is a promising candidate for controlling MCs in water without generating harmful disinfection byproducts. It can be also easily and practically used in household settings during emergency situations.

  8. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep. (United States)

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal


    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Mean buprenorphine concentration was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 192 h post-injection for group 1 and it was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 72 h post-injection for group 2. In conclusion, a long lasting potential analgesic plasma level of buprenorphine is attained following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg BW of SR buprenorphine in sheep. However the effective analgesic plasma threshold still needs to be determined in sheep.

  9. [Ocular burns]. (United States)

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N


    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential.

  10. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David


    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PIC/MCC analysis of a photoresonance plasma sustained in a sodium vapor (United States)

    Kusoglu Sarikaya, C.; Rafatov, I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.


    A parallel 1d3v Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC/MCC) code was derived and applied for the investigation of the formation of photoplasma in sodium vapor. The effects of particle weighting and the Courant number on the computed plasma properties were examined, and the convergence of the numerical method with respect to these parameters was demonstrated. Simulations were carried out for the stepwise spatial profile of the resonant sodium atoms density. The basic plasma parameters (such as eedf, iedf, atomic and molecular ion and electron densities, and electric field and potential) were computed. The results of the PIC/MCC simulations were compared to those obtained from the fluid model. Simulations revealed a strong spatial non-uniformity in the electron density and the electric potential over the computational domain that provides evidence in favour of photovoltaic conversion of light energy into electrical energy.

  12. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping (United States)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J.


    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  13. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  14. Catalyst-Free Plasma Enhanced Growth of Graphene from Sustainable Sources. (United States)

    Jacob, Mohan V; Rawat, Rajdeep S; Ouyang, Bo; Bazaka, Kateryna; Kumar, D Sakthi; Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Neupane, Ram; Varghese, Oomman K


    Details of a fast and sustainable bottom-up process to grow large area high quality graphene films without the aid of any catalyst are reported in this paper. We used Melaleuca alternifolia, a volatile natural extract from tea tree plant as the precursor. The as-fabricated graphene films yielded a stable contact angle of 135°, indicating their potential application in very high hydrophobic coatings. The electronic devices formed by sandwiching pentacene between graphene and aluminum films demonstrated memristive behavior, and hence, these graphene films could find use in nonvolatile memory devices also.

  15. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  17. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  18. Burns: dressings (United States)


    Introduction Burns are classified according to depth. This overview concerns the treatments for partial-thickness burns, which can be expected or have the potential to heal spontaneously (superficial partial-thickness and mid-dermal partial-thickness burns). Injuries that involve the deeper part of the dermis and require surgical treatments to achieve healing are not the focus of this overview. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for partial-thickness burns? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 322 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 193 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 160 studies and the further review of 33 full publications. Of the 33 full articles evaluated, two systematic reviews and two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 30 PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 10 interventions, based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of alginate dressing, biosynthetic dressing, chlorhexidine-impregnated paraffin gauze dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, paraffin gauze dressing, polyurethane film, silicone-coated nylon dressing, silver-impregnated dressing, and silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:26173045

  19. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments (United States)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob


    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  20. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo


    Full Text Available An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  2. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients


    Rui Fan; Meihong Xu; Junbo Wang; Zhaofeng Zhang; Qihe Chen; Ye Li; Jiaojiao Gu; Xiaxia Cai; Qianying Guo; Lei Bao; Yong Li


    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages ...

  3. Achievement of field-reversed configuration plasma sustainment via 10 MW neutral-beam injection on the C-2U device (United States)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S.; Garate, E.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Schmitz, L.; Lin, Z.; Ivanov, A. A.; Asai, T.; Allfrey, I.; Andow, R.; Beall, M.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Cappello, M.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K.; Deng, B. H.; Douglass, J.; Dunaevsky, A.; Feng, P.; Fulton, D.; Galeotti, L.; Granstedt, E.; Griswold, M.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Hubbard, K.; Isakov, I.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Magee, R.; Matvienko, V.; Mendoza, R.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Primavera, S.; Onofri, M.; Osin, D.; Rath, N.; Roche, T.; Romero, J.; Schindler, T.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sevier, L.; Sheftman, D.; Sibley, A.; Song, Y.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Valentine, T.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Waggoner, W.; Yushmanov, P.; Zhai, K.; The TAE Team


    Tri Alpha Energy’s experimental program has demonstrated reliable field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment, driven by fast ions via high-power neutral-beam (NB) injection. The world’s largest compact-toroid device, C-2U, was upgraded from C-2 with the following key system upgrades: increased total NB input power from ~4 MW (20 keV hydrogen) to 10+  MW (15 keV hydrogen) with tilted injection angle; enhanced edge-biasing capability inside of each end divertor for boundary/stability control. C-2U experiments with those upgraded systems have successfully demonstrated dramatic improvements in FRC performance and achieved sustainment of advanced beam-driven FRCs with a macroscopically stable and hot plasma state for up to 5+  ms. Plasma diamagnetism in the best discharges has reached record lifetimes of over 11 ms, timescales twice as long as C-2. The C-2U plasma performance, including the sustainment feature, has a strong correlation with NB pulse duration, with the diamagnetism persisting even several milliseconds after NB termination due to the accumulated fast-ion population by NB injection. Power balance analysis shows substantial improvements in equilibrium and transport parameters, whereby electron energy confinement time strongly correlates with electron temperature; i.e. the confinement time in C-2U scales strongly with a positive power of T e.

  4. A closer look at burn injuries and epilepsy in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injuries in South Africa result in significant morbidity and mortality, and specific vulnerable groups of patients are at increased risk of sustaining a burn injury. Epileptic patients are one such vulnerable group. The spectrum of burn injuries sustained by epileptic patients in a South African township and the ...

  5. Self-inflicted burns: a case series. (United States)

    Henderson, Antony; Wijewardena, Aruna; Streimer, Jeff; Vandervord, John


    Self-inflicted burns are regularly admitted to burns units worldwide. Most of these patients are referred to psychiatric services and are successfully treated however some return to hospital with recurrent self-inflicted burns. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of the recurrent self-inflicted burn patients admitted to the Royal North Shore Hospital during 2004-2011. Burn patients were drawn from a computerized database and recurrent self-inflicted burn patients were identified. Of the total of 1442 burn patients, 40 (2.8%) were identified as self-inflicted burns. Of these patients, 5 (0.4%) were identified to have sustained previous self-inflicted burns and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. Each patient had been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder and had suffered other forms of deliberate self-harm. Self-inflicted burns were utilized to relieve or help regulate psychological distress, rather than to commit suicide. Most patients had a history of emotional neglect, physical and/or sexual abuse during their early life experience. Following discharge from hospital, the patients described varying levels of psychiatric follow-up, from a post-discharge review at a local community mental health centre to twice-weekly psychotherapy. The patients who engaged in regular psychotherapy described feeling more in control of their emotions and reported having a longer period of abstinence from self-inflicted burn. Although these patients represent a small proportion of all burns, the repeat nature of their injuries led to a significant use of clinical resources. A coordinated and consistent treatment pathway involving surgical and psychiatric services for recurrent self-inflicted burns may assist in the management of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  7. Therapeutic treatment with sustained-release platelet-rich plasma restores blood perfusion by augmenting ischemia-induced angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in diabetic mice. (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kevil, Christopher G; Ikeda, Tadashi; Komeda, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Ryuzo


    The objective of this investigation was to establish the effectiveness of sustained-release platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on perfusion and neovascularization in diabetic murine hind limb ischemia. After surgery in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the mice were randomly assigned to the following 4 experimental groups: control (C), 100 μl of the sustained-release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 μl of the solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), and 100 μl of the sustained-release form of PRP (PRP-sr). Endpoint evaluations were: blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), vascular density by anti-vWF, and mature vessel density by anti-smooth muscle actin antibody. This study demonstrated that a sustained release of PRP increases the perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by LDPI (57 ± 12; 56 ± 9; 72 ± 7, and 98 ± 4 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05), capillary density (151 ± 16; 158 ± 12; 189 ± 39, and 276 ± 39 for groups C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr, respectively; p < 0.05), and mature vessel density (28 ± 2; 31 ± 3; 52 ± 10, and 85 ± 13 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05). A sustained release of PRP containing potent angiogenic growth factors restores blood perfusion by stimulating angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Lethal triad in severe burns. (United States)

    Sherren, P B; Hussey, J; Martin, R; Kundishora, T; Parker, M; Emerson, B


    Hypothermia, acidaemia and coagulopathy in trauma is associated with significant mortality. This study aimed to identify the incidence of the lethal triad in major burns, and describe demographics and outcomes. Patients admitted during a 71 month period with a total body surface area burn (TBSA)≥30% were identified. A structured review of a prospective database was conducted. The lethal triad was defined as a combination of coagulopathy (International normalised ratio>1.2), hypothermia (temperature≤35.5°C) and acidaemia (pH≤7.25). Fifteen of 117 patients fulfilled the criteria for the lethal triad on admission. Lethal triad patients had a higher median (IQR) abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) (12 (9-13) vs. 8.5 (6-10), p=0.001), mean (SD) TBSA burn (59.2% (18.7) vs. 47.9% (18.1), p=0.027), mean (SD) age (46 (22.6) vs. 33 (28.3) years, p=0.033), and had a higher incidence of inhalational injury (p0.05). The lethal triad was associated with increased mortality (66.7% vs. 13.7%, plethal triad was not shown to be a predictor of mortality (p>0.05). Burn patients with the lethal triad have a high mortality rate which reflects the severity of the injury sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergistic effect of EUV from the laser-sustained detonation plasma in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation on fluorinated polymers (United States)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Abe, Shingo; Kishida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Kumiko; Okamoto, Akio


    The contribution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from a laser-sustained plasma on the mass loss phenomenon of fluorinated polymer in a ground-based laser-detonation atomic oxygen beam source was evaluated. The atomic oxygen beam and EUV from the oxygen plasma were separated by the high-speed chopper wheel installed in the beam source. The mass changes of the fluorinated polymer and polyimide were measured from the frequency shift of the quartz crystal microbalance during the beam exposures. It has been made clear that the fluorinated polymer erodes by EUV exposure alone. In contrast, no erosion was detected for polyimide by EUV alone. The atomic oxygen-induced erosion was measured for both materials even without EUV exposure. However, no strong synergistic effect was observed for a fluorinated polymer even under the simultaneous exposure condition of atomic oxygen and EUV. Similar results were observed even in simultaneous exposure of atomic oxygen (without EUV) and 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from an excimer lamp. These experiments suggest that the primary origin of the accelerated erosion of fluorinated polymer observed in a laser detonation atomic oxygen source is not the EUV from the laser-sustained plasma.

  10. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari


    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  11. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns. (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F


    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick


    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of



    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  14. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma. (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  15. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  16. Minor burns - aftercare (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  17. Characteristics of adult scald burn patients-a single center study in western Kanagawa Prefecture. (United States)

    Morita, S; Higami, S; Aoki, H; Yamagiwa, T; Akieda, K; Inokuchi, S


    Burns sustained in bathtubs are a social and medical problem in Japan, especially among the elderly. Between October 2003 and March 2009, 22 adult scald burn patients (men, 17; average age, 65.3 ± 21.2 years) were transferred to Tokai University. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of these patients, and compared clinical parameters among patients with burns sustained in a bathtub (n = 10) and those with burns sustained due to other causes (n = 12). The average percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), dermal and deep burn area, and abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) were 27.6 ± 23.8, 19.9 ± 20.5%, 7.8 ± 13.1%, and 7.7 ± 3.1, respectively. All patients in the bathtub burn group were elderly, 6 developed internal diseases, 3 had alcohol-related burns, and 4 died. Additionally, their %TBSA and ABSI were higher than those of the non-bathtub burn group patients. Burns sustained in bathtubs were more severe than those sustained due to other causes. The bathtub-related burn patients were elderly, and their burns were extensive and deep; hence, they were at a higher risk of developing internal diseases. Thus, introduction of safer bathing styles and bath systems will decrease incidences of bathtub-related burns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Referral patterns in pediatric burn patients. (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Swanson, John M; Ladd, Mitchell R; Neff, Lucas P; Carter, Jeff E; Holmes, James H


    Though multiple studies have demonstrated superior outcomes amongst adult burn patients at verified burn centers (VBCs) relative to nondedicated burn centers (NBCs), roughly half of such patients meeting American Burn Association (ABA) referral guidelines are not sent to these centers. We sought examine referral patterns amongst pediatric burn patients. Retrospective review of a statewide patient database identified pediatric burn patients from 2000 to 2007 using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) discharge codes. These injuries were crossreferenced with ABA referral criteria to determine compliance with the ABA guidelines. 1831 children sustained burns requiring hospitalization during the study period, of which 1274 (70%) met ABA referral criteria. Of 557 treated at NBCs, 306 (55%) met criteria for transfer. Neither age, gender, nor payer status demonstrated significant association with treatment center. VBCs treated more severely injured patients, but there was no difference in survival or rate of discharge home from NBCs versus VBCs. Studies to evaluate differences in functional outcomes between pediatric burn patients treated at VBCs versus NBCs would be beneficial to ensure optimization of outcomes in this population.

  19. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dries


    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  20. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  1. Continuous, edge localized ion heating during non-solenoidal plasma startup and sustainment in a low aspect ratio tokamak (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.


    Plasmas in the Pegasus spherical tokamak are initiated and grown by the non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive technique. The LHI system consists of three adjacent electron current sources that inject multiple helical current filaments that can reconnect with each other. Anomalously high impurity ion temperatures are observed during LHI with T i,OV  ⩽  650 eV, which is in contrast to T i,OV  ⩽  70 eV from Ohmic heating alone. Spatial profiles of T i,OV indicate an edge localized heating source, with T i,OV ~ 650 eV near the outboard major radius of the injectors and dropping to ~150 eV near the plasma magnetic axis. Experiments without a background tokamak plasma indicate the ion heating results from magnetic reconnection between adjacent injected current filaments. In these experiments, the HeII T i perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to scale with the reconnecting field strength, local density, and guide field, while {{T}\\text{i,\\parallel}} experiences little change, in agreement with two-fluid reconnection theory. This ion heating is not expected to significantly impact the LHI plasma performance in Pegasus, as it does not contribute significantly to the electron heating. However, estimates of the power transfer to the bulk ion are quite large, and thus LHI current drive provides an auxiliary ion heating mechanism to the tokamak plasma.

  2. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse. (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Yamahara, Kenichi; Tsubota, Hideki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo


    While single growth factor has limitation to induce optimal neovascularization, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous reserver of various growth factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of PRP-related neovascularization.The objective of this investigation was to characterize the angiogenic and growth factor content of PRP and to determine, in vitro, its effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Additionally, this experiment sought to determine the effectiveness of different compositions of PRP (solution versus sustained release) on perfusion and neovascularization in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Different growth factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo study, we used gelatin hydrogel as a sustained release carrier for growth factors in PRP. We induced hind limb ischemia by excising right femoral artery in wild type C57BL6 mice. After surgery, mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; control (C), 100 muL of sustained release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 muL of solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), 100 muL of sustained release form of PRP (PRP-sr); each formulation was administered via an intramuscular injection to the ischemic hind limb. Endpoint evaluations were blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion image, vascular density by anti Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and mature vessel density by anti smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Green fluorescent protein (GFP+) transgenic mice were generated by transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells to wild type C57BL6 mice, and finally CD34+ cell in the ischemic site of transgenic mice was detected by staining with anti-CD34 antibody. In vitro study showed that PRP containing different growth factors induces endothelial cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. In vivo study demonstrated that sustained release of PRP increased perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) (57 +/- 12

  3. An atypical cause of alkali chemical burn: a case report. (United States)

    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N; Papini, R


    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  4. An Atypical Cause of Alkali Chemical Burn: a Case Report


    Boutefnouchet, T; Moiemen, N.; Papini, R.


    It has already been reported that wet ash turns into a strong alkali agent, which can cause full-thickness skin burns. A case is presented which has the particularity of sustained, self-inflicted contact with wet ash. The coal used was the self-igniting type normally used for burning scented weed or for smoking the hubbly bubbly or shisha pipe.

  5. Autopsy audit of burn patients; the Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background There are many studies detailing the improvement in the care and survival of burns patients. Very little have however been documented about the postmortem findings in patients that died after sustaining burns. This study was carried out to assess the severity of injury to skin and internal organs as revealed by ...

  6. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  7. Burns - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Nonlinear control and online optimization of the burn condition in ITER via heating, isotopic fueling and impurity injection (United States)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio


    The ITER tokamak, the next experimental step toward the development of nuclear fusion reactors, will explore the burning plasma regime in which the plasma temperature is sustained mostly by fusion heating. Regulation of the fusion power through modulation of fueling and external heating sources, referred to as burn control, is one of the fundamental problems in burning plasma research. Active control will be essential for achieving and maintaining desired operating points, responding to changing power demands, and ensuring stable operation. Most existing burn control efforts use either non-model-based control techniques or designs based on linearized models. These approaches must be designed for particular operating points and break down for large perturbations. In this work, we utilize a spatially averaged (zero-dimensional) nonlinear model to synthesize a multi-variable nonlinear burn control strategy that can reject large perturbations and move between operating points. The controller uses all of the available actuation techniques in tandem to ensure good performance, even if one or more of the actuators saturate. Adaptive parameter estimation is used to improve the model parameter estimates used by the feedback controller in real-time and ensure asymptotic tracking of the desired operating point. In addition, we propose the use of a model-based online optimization algorithm to drive the system to a state that minimizes a given cost function, while respecting input and state constraints. A zero-dimensional simulation study is presented to show the performance of the adaptive control scheme and the optimization scheme with a cost function weighting the fusion power and temperature tracking errors.

  9. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan


    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  10. Pattern of burn injury in hang-glider pilots. (United States)

    Campbell, D C; Nano, T; Pegg, S P


    High-voltage electrical injury has been well documented in a number of situations, such as the occupational hazard of linesmen and construction workers, and in the context of overhead railway power lines. Two cases of hang-glider pilots contacting 11,000-volt power lines have recently been treated in the Royal Brisbane Hospital Burns Unit. They demonstrate an interesting pattern of injury, not described in current burns literature, involving both hand and lower abdominal burns. Both patients sustained full-thickness patches of burn injury, with underlying muscle damage and peripheral neurological injury. This distribution of injury seems to be closely related to the design of the hang glider.

  11. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep


    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal


    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following b...

  12. Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 levels are associated with early, but not sustained virological response during treatment of acute or early chronic HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J Feld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 have been shown to be associated with impaired treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Whether IP-10 levels predict treatment in acute HCV infection is unknown. METHODS: Patients with acute or early chronic HCV infection from the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC cohort were evaluated. Baseline and on-treatment plasma IP-10 levels were measured by ELISA. IL28B genotype was determined by sequencing. RESULTS: Overall, 74 HCV mono-infected and 35 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were treated in ATAHC, of whom 89 were adherent to therapy and were included for analysis. IP-10 levels correlated with HCV RNA levels at baseline (r = 0.48, P600 pg/mL achieved RVR. There was no association with IP-10 levels and early virological response (EVR or sustained virological response (SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline IP-10 levels are associated with early viral kinetics but not ultimate treatment outcome in acute HCV infection. Given previous data showing that patients with high baseline IP-10 are unlikely to spontaneously clear acute HCV infection, they should be prioritized for early antiviral therapy.

  13. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang


    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  14. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update. (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El


    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries.

  15. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre. (United States)

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid


    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  16. [Treatment of burns in infants]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L


    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  17. Burn mortality in Iraq. (United States)

    Qader, Ari Raheem


    Mortality rates are important outcome parameters after burn, and can serve as objective end points for quality control. Causes of death after severe burn have changed over time. In a prospective study, eight hundred and eighty-four burn patients were admitted to the Burns and Plastic surgery Hospital in Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq in 2009. Age, gender, nationality, cause of burn, extent of injury, cause of death and mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed, 338 (38.2%) were male and 546 (61.8%) were female. The highest number of cases occurred in January, with the highest short period incidence occurring in April. Out of 884 cases, 260 persons died. Burn injuries were more frequent and larger with higher mortality in females than in males. Flame was the major cause of burns. Self-inflicted burns were noted mainly in young women. A large number of burns which affect children and females, occur in the domestic setting and could have been prevented. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs for health education relating to prevention of burn injuries focusing on the domestic setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Therapy in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmuş


    Full Text Available A burn is characterized by the damage to one’s body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The incidence of burn injuries has recently been decreasing. However, it is a fact that burns constitute a significant problem all over the world, with a few million people being affected by burns each year. A burn is an extensive trauma that affects the whole organism and determines the prognosis through its physiopathology. The case of the burn patient is also characterized by the acute phase response. Since burn patients have a non-functional skin barrier, they experience loss of liquids, minerals, proteins and electrolytes. They can also develop protein, energy and micro-nutrition deficiencies due to intense catabolic processes, infections and increased bodily needs in case of wound healing. Therefore, nutritional therapy is one of the major steps that need to be monitored from the initial moments of the burn injury through to the end of the burn treatment. This study focuses on the significance of nutritional therapy for burn patients in the light of current literature.

  19. [The pain from burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J


    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  20. Is there an increased risk of burns to Amish children? (United States)

    Rieman, Mary T; Hunley, Melissa; Woeste, Lori; Kagan, Richard J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, causes, and demographics of burn injuries in Amish children, treated at a pediatric burn center located in close proximity to the Midwestern Amish country. After Institutional Review Board approval, we used our TRACS Burn Registry to identify burn injuries in Amish and non-Amish children. We then compared the groups formed by gender and culture. We identified 37 Amish children (1.25%) among the 2972 acute burn patients admitted over the 12-year period of review. Importantly, Amish girls sustained significantly more extensive and deeper burns than Amish boys or non-Amish children of either gender (P Amish girls than for the non-Amish groups (P Amish girls was likely because of their significantly larger burn size. There were also overall significant differences in burn causes among Amish and non-Amish children (P = .002). Amish patients had a higher incidence of burns, by hot liquids not related to cooking, ignition of clothing, or ignition of flammable materials, than non-Amish children. Of note, Amish girls had a relatively shorter delay in admission to our burn center than did Amish boys and non-Amish children. Burn injuries to Amish children requiring inpatient treatment seem to be quite uncommon. When they do occur, burns in Amish children tend to be more extensive than similar injuries in non-Amish children. The data suggest that there may be significant and specific educational opportunities for burn prevention in Amish children in our burn center's referral area.

  1. Role of the blocking capacitor in control of ion energy distributions in pulsed capacitively coupled plasmas sustained in Ar/CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sang-Heon, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)


    In plasma etching for microelectronics fabrication, the quality of the process is in large part determined by the ability to control the ion energy distribution (IED) onto the wafer. To achieve this control, dual frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (DF-CCPs) have been developed with the goal of separately controlling the magnitude of the fluxes of ions and radicals with the high frequency (HF) and the shape of the IED with the low frequency (LF). In steady state operation, plasma properties are determined by a real time balance between electron sources and losses. As such, for a given geometry, pressure, and frequency of operation, the latitude for controlling the IED may be limited. Pulsed power is one technique being investigated to provide additional degrees of freedom to control the IED. In one configuration of a DF-CCP, the HF power is applied to the upper electrode and LF power is applied to the lower electrode which is serially connected to a blocking capacitor (BC) which generates a self dc-bias. In the steady state, the value of the dc-bias is, in fact, constant. During pulsed operation, however, there may be time modulation of the dc-bias which provides an additional means to control the IED. In this paper, IEDs to the wafer in pulsed DF-CCPs sustained in Ar/CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} are discussed with results from a two-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model. The IED can be manipulated depending on whether the LF or HF power is pulsed. The dynamic range of the control can be tuned by the dc-bias generated on the substrate, whose time variation depends on the size of the BC during pulsed operation. It was found that high energy ions can be preferentially produced when pulsing the HF power and low energy ions are preferentially produced when pulsing the LF power. A smaller BC value which allows the bias to follow the change in charged particle fluxes produces a larger dynamic range with which to control IEDs.

  2. Hybrid simulation of electron energy distributions and plasma characteristics in pulsed RF CCP sustained in Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Jia, Wen-Zhu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Zhong-Ling; Wang, You-Nian


    Pulsed-discharge plasmas offer great advantages in deposition of silicon-based films due to the fact that they can suppress cluster agglomeration, moderate the energy of bombarding ions, and prolong the species' diffusion time on the substrate. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo hybrid model is applied to study pulse modulated radio-frequency (RF) plasmas sustained in capacitively coupled Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges. First, the electron energy distributions in pulsed Ar and SiH4/Ar plasmas have been investigated and compared under identical discharge-circuit conditions. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in Ar discharge exhibits a familiar bi-Maxwellian shape during the power-on phase of the pulse, while a more complex (resembling a multi-Maxwellian) distribution with extra inflection points at lower energies is observed in the case of the SiH4/Ar mixture. These features become more prominent with the increasing fraction of SiH4 in the gas mixture. The difference in the shape of the EEDF (which is pronounced inside the plasma but not in the RF sheath where electron heating occurs) is mainly attributed to the electron-impact excitations of SiH4. During the power-off phase of the pulse, the EEDFs in both Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges evolve into bi-Maxwellian shapes, with shrinking high energy tails. Furthermore, the parameter of ion species in the case of SiH4/Ar discharge is strongly modulated by pulsing. For positive ions, such as SiH3+ and Si2H4+ , the particle fluxes overshoot at the beginning of the power-on interval. Meanwhile, for negative ions such as SiH2- and SiH3- , density profiles observed between the electrodes are saddle-shaped due to the repulsion by the self-bias electric field as it builds up. During the power-off phase, the wall fluxes of SiH2- and SiH3- gradually increase, leading to a significant decrease in the net surface charge density on the driven electrode. Compared with ions, the density of SiH3 is poorly modulated

  3. Burns and epilepsy. (United States)

    Berrocal, M


    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  4. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak


    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  5. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik


    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  6. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

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    Claudia Stefanutti


    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  7. Fully non-inductive second harmonic electron cyclotron plasma ramp-up in the QUEST spherical tokamak (United States)

    Idei, H.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Mishra, K.; Onchi, T.; Watanabe, O.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Qian, J.; Ejiri, A.; Alam, M. M.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Fukuyama, A.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Ide, S.; Maekawa, T.; Takase, Y.; Toi, K.


    Fully non-inductive second (2nd) harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) plasma current ramp-up was demonstrated with a newlly developed 28 GHz system in the QUEST spherical tokamak. A high plasma current of 54 kA was non-inductively ramped up and sustained stably for 0.9 s with a 270 kW 28 GHz wave. A higher plasma current of 66 kA was also non-inductively achieved with a slow ramp-up of the vertical field. We have achieved a significantly higher plasma current than those achieved previously with the 2nd harmonic EC waves. This fully non-inductive 2nd harmonic EC plasma ramp-up method might be useful for future burning plasma devices and fusion reactors, in particular for operations at half magnetic field with the same EC heating equipment.

  8. Pediatric facial burns. (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K


    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  9. [Inherit enterprising spirit of burn discipline and meet the new challenge]. (United States)

    Sun, Y H


    Burn is a common trauma in peace time and war. Burn care was not designated as a specific discipline but a subspecialty of general surgery in China until the 1950s. In 1958, along with the development of metallurgical industry in China, the number of burn patients was increased remarkably, followed by establishment of modern burn departments. A steel worker sustaining a burn injury with size of 89% total burn surface area (TBSA) and full-thickness wound size of 23% TBSA was successfully cured by burn experts of Shanghai Guangci Hospital (renamed Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to the School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiao Tong University). This was considered as a miracle in the history of burn treatment in the world. Thenceforth a number of burn patients with size over 80% TBSA were saved in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Xi'an, and other cities. However, with rapid advances in burn treatment, it was soon recognized that one should fully grasp the science of the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. To fulfill these demands, specialists devoted themselves to the study of basic problems, and they made significant and valuable contributions to the knowledge concerning basic problems in burn injury, followed by significant improvements in burn care. In the meantime, Chinese Burn Association and Chinese Journal of Burns were inaugurated. An overall strategy for treatment of severe burn patients with Chinese characteristics was established. However, it is also important to inherit traditional ideologies, namely"morality, diligence, excellence, and creativity".

  10. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  11. Burns and Fire Safety (United States)

    ... Cairns BA, et al. Etiology and outcome of pediatric burns. J Pediatr Surg. 1996; 31(3): 329-33. ... RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): 1-7. 10 Baptiste MS, ...

  12. Are burns photographs useful? (United States)

    Nelson, L; Boyle, M; Taggart, I; Watson, S


    Routine photography of all patients admitted to the West of Scotland Regional Burns Unit was introduced in 2003. To date, there are few burns units to evaluate the usefulness of photographs taken. To assess the usefulness of photographs of patients admitted to the burns unit to various members of the multidisciplinary team. A questionnaire was completed by hospital staff involved in the management of burns patients over a 3-month period. A total of 43 questionnaires were completed. The majority of questionnaires were completed by nursing staff (55%) followed by medical staff (23%); physiotherapy (5%); anaesthetists (7%); theatre staff (5%); students (2%); dietician (2%). About 98% of respondents agreed that photographs were useful overall, particularly for teaching purposes. About 9% disagreed that photographs were useful for assessment due to difficulty in assessing depth of burn. About 72% agreed that the photographs were useful for patient management and improve patient care. About 88% agreed that all patients should have photographs available in future. Advantages of photographs include; moving and handling of patients; patient positioning in theatre; reviewing wound healing and complications. They are useful for assessing site, size and type of burn. Disadvantages include difficulty in assessing depth of burn, technical factors, and unavailability out of hours. Photographs of burns patients are useful overall to all members of the multidisciplinary team.

  13. Treating and Preventing Burns (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Burn Treatment & Prevention Tips for Families Page Content ​There are many different causes of serious burns in children, including sunburn , hot water or other hot liquids, and those due to ...

  14. Pain in burn patients. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M


    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  15. Blood transfusions in severe burn patients: Epidemiology and predictive factors. (United States)

    Wu, Guosheng; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Fan, Xiaoming; Hong, Xudong; Wang, Kangan; Wang, He; Chen, Zhengli; Sun, Yu; Xia, Zhaofan


    Blood is a vital resource commonly used in burn patients; however, description of blood transfusions in severe burns is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of blood transfusions and determine factors associated with increased transfusion quantity. This is a retrospective study of total 133 patients with >40% total body surface area (TBSA) burns admitted to the burn center of Changhai hospital from January 2008 to December 2013. The study characterized blood transfusions in severe burn patients. Univariate and Multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables with blood transfusions. The overall transfusion rate was 97.7% (130 of 133). The median amount of total blood (RBC and plasma), RBC and plasma transfusions was 54 units (Interquartile range (IQR), 20-84), 19 units (IQR, 4-37.8) and 28.5 units (IQR, 14.8-51.8), respectively. The number of RBC transfusion in and outside operation room was 7 (0, 14) and 11 (2, 20) units, and the number of plasma was 6 (0.5, 12) and 21 (11.5, 39.3) units. A median of one unit of blood was transfused per TBSA and an average of 4 units per operation was given in the series. The consumption of plasma is higher than that of RBC. On multivariate regression analysis, age, full-thickness TBSA and number of operations were significant independent predictors associated with the number of RBC transfusion, and coagulopathy and ICU length showed a trend toward RBC consumption. Predictors for increased plasma transfusion were female, high full-thickness TBSA burn and more operations. Severe burn patients received an ample volume of blood transfusions. Fully understanding of predictors of blood transfusions will allow physicians to better optimize burn patients during hospitalization in an effort to use blood appropriately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts]. (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L


    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  18. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study. (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid


    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (pburn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Rui Fan


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  20. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong


    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  1. Burning mouth and saliva. (United States)

    Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli


    Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia.

  2. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns. (United States)

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W


    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard.

  4. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.


    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  5. Burns and epilepsy--review and case report. (United States)

    Gragnani, Alfredo; Müller, Bruno Rafael; Oliveira, Andrea Fernandes; Ferreira, Lydia Masako


    Decompensation of epilepsy in burned patients may be caused by several factors. Burn is a classic etiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and evolves into two physiological phases. The first 48h after injury corresponds to the first phase involving severe hypovolemic shock. The second phase corresponds to the hypermetabolic response to burns. Altered pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsant drugs is observed. Albumin and other plasma proteins are reduced, leading to increased free fraction of phenytoin, resulting in greater clearance and a lower total drug concentration. Associated with metabolic changes of burned patient, this fact predisposes to seizures in epileptic burned patients. The authors present the case of an epileptic 36-year-old-woman who developed recurrent seizures after a thermal injury, despite using the same medications and doses of anticonvulsant drugs of last 12 years, with controlled epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Burn patients during the Summer Solstice festivities: A retrospective analysis in a hospital burn unit from 2005 to 2015. (United States)

    Pacheco Compaña, Francisco Javier; Avellaneda Oviedo, Edgar Mauricio; González Rodríguez, Alba; González Porto, Sara Alicia


    San Juan (Summer Solstice) is an annual festival celebrated in many parts of Spain on June 24 by lighting bonfires on beaches and in open air. The aim of this study is to analyse the patient profile of those sustaining burns the night before San Juan. The data of 179 patients who sustained burns on June 23 and 24 between 2005 and 2015 were collected retrospectively. The average age of the patients involved in this study was 27.33 years, with males constituting a higher proportion. Hands were the most affected area of the body, and the average burn area was 3.39%. No statistically significant relationship was found between the tidal times and the number of patients with burns, although the latter increased at low tide (p=0.177). The results of this study can guide prevention campaigns during these festivities in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash


    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  8. Pattern of burns identified in the Pediatrics Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City: Riyadh. (United States)

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Mutairi, Mohammad; AlQueflie, Sulaiman; Nefesa, Aminah Bin; Manie, Najd Bin; Nafesa, Salahaldin Bin; Al Zahrani, Fawaz Saeed


    The objective of the study was to report the incidence of pediatric burn injuries and describe the pattern and the trend of pediatrics burns seen in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through chart review of pediatrics patients aged 1-month to 14 years who presented with a burn injury to the pediatric emergency department during the year 2013. Burn patients were divided into two groups based on the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) burned: Either Burn incidence rate was 4.9 patients/1000/year. Children with burns on more than 10% TBSA accounted for 16% incidence (0.8/1000 emergency department patients). The burn injury severity ranged from 1% TBSA to 37%, with a mean of 5%. The proportion of male and female burn patients was 54.1% and 45.9%, respectively. Children between 1 and 3 years of age sustained the majority (48.6%) of burn injuries. Scald burns were found to be the most common cause of injury. Hot water and beverages were considered root for most of the scald burn injuries. As children advance in age, scald injury becomes less likely, and they are more obviously subjected to flame burn injuries. Burn injuries sustained at home were 35% compared to 2.7% occurring outside the home. None of the study variables were good predictors for severe burn injuries affecting more than 10% TBSA. The incidence and the severity of burn injuries remain high at the national level. Burn injuries continue to affect the pediatric population, predominantly, young children, which indicate the need for increasing parent educational programs and government regulations. Because we reported scald burns as the most common causes of burn injury, which are consistent with previous national reports, we recommend having legislation that focuses on scald burn prevention.

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  10. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  11. American Burn Association (United States)

    ... is the premier educational event for the entire burn care team. Submit an abstract or session idea, exhibit or sponsor the meeting, or plan to attend. Find out more about the 50th Annual Meeting in Chicago, ...

  12. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... oven. The liquid may heat unevenly, resulting in pockets of breast milk or formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard heaters may ...

  13. Management of burn wounds. (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin


    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Burn Wise Awareness Kit (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  15. [Burn shock, diagnostics, monitoring and fluid therapy of severe burns--new look]. (United States)

    Drozdz, Łukasz; Madry, Ryszard; Struzyna, Jerzy


    Pathomechanism of burn shock is associated with an important endocrine disorder and cytokines storm. As a result of the burns are released to bloodstream kinins such as: histamine, serotonin and bradykinin and also inflammatory mediators such as: tromboxans, prostacyclins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Arises temporary endothelial failure. Comes to the escape of liquid blood to the tissues and a sudden decrease in the quantity of the fluid in the vessels and appear symptoms of burn shock. Offset of fluids by vascular wall to the extravascular space described mathematically with Landis-Starling law. Treatment of burn shock relies on intensive fluid therapy to fill vessels. Fluid rules are based on infusion crystalloids, colloids, hypersaline or plasma. Effect of fluid resuscitation after severe burn are edemas of whole body. Severe burn receives up to 25 000 ml of fluids intravenous in the first 48 hours after injury. The quantity of water defaulting tissue after 48 hours is even 13 000-18 500 ml which is 300-400% of the volume of blood flow. From 3rd day after burn this may produce symptoms of acute circulatory insufficiency or polycompartment syndrom. Enforces this restrictive fluid treatment and removing significant quantities of water from the bloodstream. In East Poland Burn Center and Reconstructive Surgery we remove even 300-350 ml fluid/h by ultrafiltration during CVVHD CiCa. Additional application hemodynamic monitoring such Vigileo-Flotrac has considerably reduce the amount of complications such as: intra-abdominal hypertension IAH, acute heart syndrome, cerebral edema and pulmonary edema.

  16. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  18. Management of pediatric hand burns. (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix


    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.


    Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Kulp, Gabriela A; Jeschke, Marc G


    Background Severe burn is followed by profound cardiac stress. Propranolol, a non selective β1, β2-receptor antagonist, decreases cardiac stress, but little is known about the dose necessary to cause optimal effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine in a large prospective randomized controlled trial the dose of propranolol that would decrease heart rate at least 15% of admission heart rate and improve cardiac function. Four-hundred six patients with burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled and randomized to receive standard care (controls, n=235) or standard care plus propranolol (n=171). Methods Dose-response and drug kinetics of propranolol were performed. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured continuously. Cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), rate pressure product, and cardiac work (CW) were determined at regular intervals. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with Tukey and Bonferroni corrections and Student’s t-test when applicable. Significance was accepted at pPropranolol given initially at 1 mg/kg/day decreased heart rate by 15% compared to control patients but was increased to 4 mg/kg/day within the first 10 days to sustain treatment benefits (pPropranolol decreased CO, rate pressure product, and CW without deleterious effects on mean arterial pressure. The effective plasma drug concentrations were achieved in 30 minutes, and the half-life was 4 hours. Conclusions The data suggest that propranolol is an efficacious modulator of the post-burn cardiac response when given at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day, which decreases and sustains heart rate 15% below admission heart rate. PMID:20598332

  20. Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves (United States)

    Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.


    Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.

  1. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses


    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural


    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  2. Fire walking in Singapore-a study of the distribution of burns. (United States)

    Sayampanathan, Andrew A


    Fire walking is a religious ritual practiced by predominantly Indians and some Chinese living in Singapore. Eighteen new cases of burns, directly related to a firewalking ceremony on 05 October 09, were studied as to the pattern of burns. Burns on the soles of the feet occurred in 17 patients. All these injuries were superficial or partial thickness burns. There were no deep dermal burns. The extent of burns ranged from 0.25% to 1.5% of body surface area. Burns due to falls accounted for one casualty. He sustained a mixture of deep dermal and partial thickness burns, and the extent of burns was 20% of body surface area. A new classification for the distribution of burns related to fire walking was developed based on the mechanism of injury. It was predictive of the anatomical distribution of burns, the extent of burns (in terms of body surface area), the depth of burns and the general severity of the injury: Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. On the condition of UO2 nuclear fuel irradiated in a PWR to a burn-up in excess of 110 MWd/kgHM (United States)

    Restani, R.; Horvath, M.; Goll, W.; Bertsch, J.; Gavillet, D.; Hermann, A.; Martin, M.; Walker, C. T.


    Post-irradiation examination results are presented for UO2 fuel from a PWR fuel rod that had been irradiated to an average burn-up of 105 MWd/kgHM and showed high fission gas release of 42%. The radial distribution of xenon and the partitioning of fission gas between bubbles and the fuel matrix was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe microanalysis. It is concluded that release from the fuel at intermediate radial positions was mainly responsible for the high fission gas release. In this region thermal release had occurred from the high burn-up structure (HBS) at some point after the sixth irradiation cycle. The LA-ICP-MS results indicate that gas release had also occurred from the HBS in the vicinity of the pellet periphery. It is shown that the gas pressure in the HBS pores is well below the pressure that the fuel can sustain.

  4. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne


    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  5. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  6. Burn injuries and pregnancy. (United States)

    Kennedy, Betsy B; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H


    Although burn injuries during pregnancy are considered relatively rare, the exact incidence is not known. Multiple factors influence morbidity and mortality resulting from burn injuries during pregnancy. These factors include the depth and size of the burn, the woman's underlying health and age, and the estimated gestational age of the fetus. Associated inhalation injury and development of other significant secondary complications also influence maternal and fetal outcomes. Successful burn care requires a team approach in which almost every healthcare discipline is represented. Initial care is almost always provided by a specially trained emergency medical team in an out-of-hospital setting. During this phase, the ability of the team to communicate with emergency hospital personnel facilitates appropriate clinical management at the scene. In addition, continued communication regarding the woman's status and responses to treatment allows critical care specialists within the hospital to ensure that necessary personnel and resources are available when the patient arrives. From the time the pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital for additional acute and critical care through the extensive process of rehabilitation from burn injuries, providing care often evokes strong emotions and requires specialized skills to achieve the most positive outcomes.

  7. Hand chemical burns. (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby


    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin


    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  9. Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Jacob, Nebu C; Zarugh, Adel; Suraliwala, Khushroo H


    We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  11. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  12. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  13. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  14. Major Burn Injury From Lightning Strike: A Case Report and Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When lightning strikes, it draws the attention of the public, news media, and the medical profession. Since lightning rarely causes major burn, we hereby present a 75-year old man who sustained a major burn injury (TBSA-42%) from a lightning strike with a review of literature on lightning strike. METHOD: A 75-year old man ...

  15. A psychological morbidity study of patients with major burns seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... occurred among the patients that were studied. This psychological morbidity developed by 72 hours after sustaining the injury. The need for specialized multidisciplinary approach in burns is emphasized. Keywords: Burns, psychometric study, psychological morbidity. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp.

  16. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  17. Platelet Rich Plasma- mechanism of action and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Cozma


    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a blood-derived fraction containing high level of platelets, a high concentration of leukocytes and growth factors. PRP therapy has been growing as a viable treatment alternative for a number of clinical applications and has a potential benefit for use in wound healing. Nowadays platelet rich plasma is used in stimulating wound healing in skin and soft tissue ulcerations, accelerating wound healing in diabetic patients and facilitating bone proliferation in orthopedic and trauma surgery. It has also applications in maxillofacial surgery, spinal surgery, plastic and esthetic surgery, heart surgery and burns. This review of the literature shows a limited number of studies realized on humans that sustain PRP applications in orthopedic and plastic surgery. As the use of PRP increases, more properly structured clinical studies are necessary to confirm the results and to establish clearly the techniques of preparing, the conditions and the clinical indications of applying this therapy.

  18. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  19. Accumulative eschar after burn


    Ma, Fushun


    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb?bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  20. One Burn, One Standard (United States)


    law , no person shall be...Johannes Kepler University Linz Software GmbH Research Department Medical Informatics Hagenberg, Austria Herbert L. Haller, MD Trauma Hospital Linz of...0000000000000004 Address correspondence to M. Giretzlehner, PhD, Johannes Kepler University Linz, RISC Software GmbH, Research Department Medical Informatics, Softwarepark 35, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria. One Burn, One Standard LETTER TO THE EDITOR

  1. Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric Burns in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference? (United States)

    Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    To determine if differences exist between children who sustain burns in rural areas and in metropolitan areas, an analysis of children presenting to the Burns Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan areas were Indigenous Australian (P burns in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact burns, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all burns to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. Burns were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P burn injuries (≥10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the Burns Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between burns sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in burns prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners.

  2. Fire walking in Singapore: a profile of the burn patient. (United States)

    Sayampanathan, S R; Ngim, R C; Foo, C L


    Fire walking is a religious ritual practised mainly by Indians, but also by some Chinese, living in Singapore. Seventeen new cases of burns sustained after a fire walking ceremony are reported. All the patients were males. One patient was Catholic, the others being Hindus. All the patients were Indians. The mean age of the patients was 25.47 years (range 19-56 years). All the patients had burns on the feet only. Of the 17 patients, 15 had burns on the non-weight-bearing area of the foot, one had burns on the weight-bearing area of the foot and one had burns on both the weight-bearing and the non-weight-bearing areas of the foot. The mean percentage of total body surface area affected was 0.81% (range 0.25-1.25%). The burn injuries were either erythema or partial thickness burns. The mean duration of disability was 21.4 days (range 14-35 days). Of those burnt, three were novices, six had walked twice and the remaining eight had walked three to 16 times. The profile of a fire walker is generally a young Indian with partial thickness injuries on one or both feet involving the non-weight-bearing area.

  3. Use of telemedicine to improve burn care in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Knittel, Justin; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Global burn injuries have been described as the "forgotten public health crises" by the World Health Organization. Nearly 11 million people a year suffer burns severe enough to require medical attention; more people are burned each year than are infected with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tuberculosis combined. Telemedicine has the potential to link experts in specialized fields, such as burn care, to regions of the world that have limited or no access to such specialized care. A multilevel telemedicine program was developed between Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriners Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine. The program should lead to a sustainable improvement in the care of burn victims in Ukraine. The authors helped establish a Learning Center at City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine, through which they were able to consult from Shriners Hospital in Boston, on a total of 14 acute burn patients in Ukraine. This article discusses two case reports with the use of telemedicine and how it has allowed the authors to provide not only acute care consultation on an international scale, but also to arrange for direct expert examination and international transport to their specialized burn center in the United States. The authors have established a program through doctors from Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriner's Hospital in Boston, which works with a hospital in Ukraine and has provided acute consultation, as well as patient transportation to the United States for treatment and direct assessment.

  4. Fatal Burn due to Solarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever


    Full Text Available Radiation burns are uncommon and their etiologies are various. The ultraviolet lights are also a source of radiation burns. We present a case of life-threatening radiation burn caused by long wave ultraviolet lights (UV at the solarium center. Up to now, despite its widespread use, fatal radiation burns caused by the indoor tanning device at the solarium center have not been reported. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  6. Should pyogenic granulomas following burns be excised? (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing


    Patients with pygenic granuloma following burns (PGB) presents dramatic clinical features which are different from those with classic pyogenic granuloma. This review aims to discuss whether pyogenic granuloma following burns (PGB) need excision or not. Using the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and web of science databases. All articles which discussed diagnosis and treatment of pyogenic granuloma following burns with histological results were included from 1978 to 2013. Reports from meetings were not included. Only articles published in English were included. Twenty one articles excluded from a total of 32 studies. One study was excluded from the 11 descriptive studies because of typical histological results. The rest, 10 studies were case reports. Only one article was published in French, whose abstract was published in French and English. Patients with PGB presented six distinctive clinical features. First, all the patients had burns initially. The second, PGB acutely erupted between 1 and 4 weeks in patients' burned area, which may be infected by bacteria, fungus and virus. The fourth, PGB can be classified into proliferative and shrivelling stages. The fifth, three hisiological characteristics including hyperkeratosis or acanthosis, numerous newly formed proliferative vascular, edematous stroma with infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Finally, recurrence, 6 out of 16 patients with PGB involuted spontaneously with no recurrence. Three out of 16 patients were conservatively managed with no recurrence, neither patients (5) who had surgery and 2 patients treated with electro coagulation had recurrence. PGB lesions are benign based on clinical features and histological examinations. The clinical process of PGB could be divided into proliferative and shrivelling stages. Conservative treatment including wound management and antibiotic could be chosen firstly, especially when large PGBs are on the face or other important area of one's body. When conservative

  7. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol


    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  8. An evaluation of nutritional practice in a paediatric burns unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are especially vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies owing to their limited energy reserves. Methods. ... They sustained between 2% and 55% TBSA burns. Inadequate caloric intake ... In contrast, excess protein supplementation was seen in 24 of 29 group 1 patients and 6 of 11 group 2 patients. The dietician's food ...

  9. Low-dose baclofen therapy raised plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, but not into the normal range in a predictable and sustained manner in men with chronic spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Bauman, William A; La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; Spungen, Ann M


    To evaluate, whether once-daily oral baclofen administration increases and/or sustains plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in 11 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and IGF-1 deficiency (i.e. Plasma IGF-1 and self-reported side effects were measured at baseline and every other week for the duration of the study. The subjects were 43 ± 12 years old, had duration of injury of 20 ± 12 years; eight subjects had a complete motor injury, and eight had paraplegia. Nine of 11 subjects completed the 20 mg/day treatment and 5 subjects completed the 40 mg/day treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels improved with each baclofen dose; however, only one subject increased from baseline and remained above the targeted physiological range of 250 ng/ml throughout treatment. A significant increase in IGF-1concentration was observed between baseline and week 2 (154 ± 63 vs. 217 ± 69 ng/ml; P plasma IGF-1 concentrations in the physiological range in men with chronic SCI.

  10. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning. (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive


    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  11. Chemical Debridement of Burns (United States)

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli


    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and


    Simon, A.


    A method and apparatus are described for burning out neutral particles in an evacuated region and within a strong magnetic field. The method comprises injecting energetic molecular ions into the region perpendicular to the magnetic field and into the path of a dissociating, energetic arc discharge, the atomic ions formed in the dissociating process being trapped by the magnetic field, and then increasing the value of the trapped atomic ion current to such a value that the neutral particles are destroyed faster than they are formed, thereby causing a dense, energetic plasma to be built up and sustained by the magnetic field. (AEC)

  13. Patient adherence to burn care: A systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Szabo, Margo M; Urich, Monica A; Duncan, Christina L; Aballay, Ariel M


    Few studies have been conducted on treatment adherence to burn care. Given the prevalence of burn injuries across the lifespan and the impact of proper burn care on associated morbidity, it is important to understand factors associated with regimen non-adherence in this population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and critique all published literature on patient adherence to burn care. With no restriction on publication date, 13 relevant articles met the following inclusion criteria: (a) utilized a sample of patients who sustained a burn injury or their medical staff; (b) focused on treatment or healthcare adherence of the patient (e.g., adherence to pressure garment therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, diet, dressing changes, or sunscreen use); and (c) publication written or translated into English. Most studies (70%) used a correlational design, while only four studies used an experimental design (either longitudinal or single subject) to assess adherence to burn care treatment. Current research suggests that burn treatment characteristics, knowledge, and beliefs are associated with adherence to burn care regimens. Given that adherence may vary as a function of different factors, future research should assess pediatric burn patients as a separate population, as well as investigate adherence to multiple aspects of the burn care regimen. To enhance adherence to burn care, healthcare providers should educate their patients on various treatment components and tailor these components to meet patients' goals and needs, as feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Instant hot noodles: do they need to burn? (United States)

    Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A


    Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiophysical and geomagnetic effects of rocket burn and launch in the near-the-earth environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chernogor, Leonid F


    Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burn

  16. Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  17. Fungal Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  18. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns. (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B


    Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.


    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  20. Antiseptics for burns. (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C


    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  1. Ocular burns in eye traumatology emphatically on chemical burns


    Farský, Lukáš


    Burns to the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid are considered ocular burns. Ocular burn injuries are classified by etiologic agents as either chemical injuries (ie, acid, alkali) or radiant energy injuries (ie, thermal, ultraviolet). Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic (alkaline) compounds or acidic compounds. Alkali injuries are m...

  2. Burn Burn Burn - er du skræmt? - en analyse af Kræftens Bekæmpelses kampagnefilm Burn Burn Burn


    Knigge Kæstel-Hansen, Camilla; Wittrup Stæger, Cæcilie


    This project examines how to organize a health campaign to a specific target audience of 15-25 year olds. This audience very quickly filters out information they find irrelevant, and quickly moves on to new things. Thereby, this audience has high demands regarding health campaigns and their relevance. Conclusions will be based on Danish organization Kræftens Bekæmpelse’s campaign film Burn Burn Burn. The film target audience are youths aged 15- 25, and the film’s message is, that the use of t...

  3. Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis. (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter; Brammah, Susan; Wills, Edward


    Following a burn, the wound may become colonized and septic complications may ensue. Many organisms, commonly isolated from burn wounds produce biofilms, which are defined as a collection of organisms on a surface surrounded by a matrix. Biofilms are associated with development of antibiotic resistant organisms and are refractory to the immune system. The presence of biofilm in the burn wound has not been documented. A study was undertaken using light and electron microscopy to determine the presence of biofilm in the burn wound. Specific stains were used to detect the presence of micro-organisms and associated carbohydrate, a major constituent of the biofilm matrix. A concurrent microbiological study of the burn wound was also carried out. Biofilm was detected in ulcerated areas of the burn wound. Bacterial wound invasion with mixed organisms was also commonly detected. The finding of biofilm in the burn wound has significance in our understanding of burn wound sepsis and supports the evidence for early excision and closure of the burn wound. Due to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm associated sepsis and the difficulty in disrupting biofilm it has implications for the future development of wound care dressings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Copper uptake by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected burn patients. (United States)

    Abboud, Muayad M; Saeed, Humodi A; Tarawneh, Khaled A; Khleifat, Khaled M; Al Tarawneh, Amjad


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of gram positive bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis strain Israelis as well as gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis and Enterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two gram positive and gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

  5. Third-degree burn from a grounding pad during arthroscopy. (United States)

    Sanders, Samuel M; Krowka, Stephanie; Giacobbe, Andrew; Bisson, Leslie J


    We describe a healthy 59-year-old woman who sustained a third-degree burn from a grounding pad during shoulder arthroscopy. We wish to make surgeons aware of a rare complication associated with any arthroscopic procedure in which an electrocautery/grounding pad system is used. We detail the presentation, evaluation, treatment, and definitive care and review the possible causes of this complication and the mechanism by which an electrocautery/grounding pad system functions. Although this complication is not uncommon, we believe that this is the first case report describing a burn at the grounding pad site occurring during arthroscopy.

  6. [Heat stroke and burns resulting from use of sauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runitz, K.; Jensen, T.H.


    We describe a case of severe heat stroke resulting from exposure to extreme heat in a sauna for an unknown period of time. The patient sustained 20% 2nd degree burns. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient's temperature was 40.5 degrees C. At the critical care unit, the patient...... developed severe multi-organ failure and critical polyneuropathy. Severe heat stroke is a rare diagnosis in Denmark. The treatment is symptomatic and the prognosis is grave, especially in combination with severe burns Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26...

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for thermal burns. (United States)

    Villanueva, E; Bennett, M H; Wasiak, J; Lehm, J P


    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) consists of intermittently administering 100% oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere in a pressure vessel. This technology has been used to treat a variety of disease states and has been described as helping patients who have sustained burns. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) for the treatment of thermal burns. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (Ovid 1966 to November Week 2, 2003), CINAHL (Ovid 1982 to December Week 2 2003), EMBASE (Ovid 1980 to September 2003), DORCTHIM (Database of Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine) from inception to 2003, and reference lists of articles. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of HBOT with no HBOT (no treatment or sham). Two authors using standardised forms extracted the data independently. Each trial was assessed for internal validity with differences resolved by discussion. Data was extracted and entered into RevMan 4.2.3. Four randomised controlled trials were identified, of which two satisfied the inclusion criteria. The trials were of poor methodological quality. As a result, it was difficult to have confidence in the individual results and it would not have been appropriate to attempt to pool the data. One trial reported no difference in length of stay, mortality, or number of surgeries between the control and HBO-treated groups once these variables were adjusted for the patient's condition. The second trial reported mean healing times that were shorter in patients exposed to HBOT (mean: 19.7 days versus 43.8 days). This systematic review has not found sufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of HBOT for the management of thermal burns. Evidence from the two randomised controlled trials is insufficient to provide clear guidelines for practice. Further research is needed to better define

  8. [The organization of burn care]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques


    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  9. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns. (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K


    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiology of burns in France]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François


    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  11. The epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. hospital. (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Leal, Jesus; Andersen, Clark R; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos J; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N


    Young children are the most vulnerable for sustaining burns. At this pediatric burn hospital we have provided medical care to young children with severe burns from Mexico for many years. This study identified modifiable risk factors that could be used to assist in prevention of burns in this age group. A retrospective chart review was performed with children burns >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Primary causes of burns were flame and scalds. Children with flame injuries were older (3.0±1.5 years of age) than those with scalds (2.6±1.2 years of age). Admissions attributed to flame burns were largely from explosions by propane tanks, gas line leaks, and house fires. Most admissions for scalds were predominantly from falling in large containers of hot water, food, or grease; and fewer were attributed to spills from hot liquids. Most cases reported to a social service agency were to find resources for families. Mortality rate for flame and scald burns was low. It is important take into account demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic variables when developing and implementing prevention programs. Burn prevention instruction for parents is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Neonatal burns in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria: Epidemiology and outcome of management. (United States)

    Ugburo, Andrew Omotayo; Fadeyibi, Idowu Olusegun; Mofikoya, Bolaji Oyawoye; Akanmu, Olanrewaju Nurudeen; Temiye, Edamisan Olusoji; Kanu, Okezie Obasi; Chira, Muna Kenneth; Egbikuadje, Dennis Emonena; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe


    Burns in the neonate are rare and result mostly from iatrogenic sources in developed countries. The socioeconomic settings of developing countries are different from those in the developed countries. A review of the epidemiology and management of burns in the neonates in Lagos, Nigeria is presented. The case notes of burns in patients less than 29 days-old from 2004 to 2008 in 4 tertiary health institutions in Lagos were retrieved from the Medical Records Department; necessary data were extracted and analyzed. There were 21 neonates with burns within the study period. The incidence of neonatal burns ranged between 0.5 and 2.5%/year. The mean age was 16.38 ± 1.84 days and the mean BSA of 26.00 ± 5.53%. The etiology of burns was thermal in 19(90.5%) and chemical in 2(9.5%). Hypokalemia was common at early stages of their treatment. Burns were sustained at home in 90.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 43.5%. Inhalation and thermal injuries were associated with most of the deaths. Domestic incidents from flames are the commonest causes of neonatal burns in the study environment. These are associated with prolonged morbidity and high mortality rate. Health education, highlighting methods of prevention should be undertaken in the community. Well equipped burn centers should be established to treat burns in all age groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  14. Kenya cardinal burns condoms. (United States)


    Kenya's top Roman Catholic church official burned condoms and safe sex literature in a ceremony organized by a group opposed to contraception and sex education. About 250 people watched as Cardinal Maurice Otunga and two gynecologists prayed and sang before setting fire to several boxes of condoms and 100 copies of pamphlets promoting safe sex. The pamphlets encouraged condom use to fight the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1 million of Kenya's 26 million people are infected with HIV or AIDS. full text

  15. Peat Bog Ecosystems: Burning


    Lindsay, Richard; Birnie, Richard; Clough, Jack


    Fires occur naturally on bogs through lightning strikes, but for any given location this is a rare occurrence - perhaps once every 200 or 300 years. Current burning practice for grazing or to encourage grouse means that ground is burnt 10x more frequently than this, resulting in loss of natural peat bog biodiversity and peat-forming species. Full recovery may take considerably more than a century.\\ud \\ud This briefing note is part of a series aimed at policy makers, practitioners and academic...

  16. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  17. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  18. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns. (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A


    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  19. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  20. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  1. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  2. Acute Blood Loss During Burn and Soft Tissue Excisions: An Observational Study of Blood Product Resuscitation Practices and Focused Review (United States)


    pediatric burn patients. J Trauma. 1993;34(2):262Y263. 17. Kheirabadi BS, Terrazas IB, Williams JF, Hanson MA, Dubick MA, Blackbourne LH. Negative-pressure...Acute blood loss during burn and soft tissue excisions: An observational study of blood product resuscitation practices and focused review Heather F...coagulopathy with a balanced ratio of platelets and plasma to red blood cells. It is unclear to what degree this strategy is used during burn or soft tissue

  3. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics


    Alvarez, Mavis Dora


    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  4. Corneoscleral Laceration and Ocular Burns Caused by Electronic Cigarette Explosions. (United States)

    Paley, Grace L; Echalier, Elizabeth; Eck, Thomas W; Hong, Augustine R; Farooq, Asim V; Gregory, Darren G; Lubniewski, Anthony J


    To report cases of acute globe rupture and bilateral corneal burns from electronic cigarette (EC) explosions. Case series. We describe a series of patients with corneal injury caused by EC explosions. Both patients suffered bilateral corneal burns and decreased visual acuity, and one patient sustained a unilateral corneoscleral laceration with prolapsed iris tissue and hyphema. A review of the scientific literature revealed no prior reported cases of ocular injury secondary to EC explosions; however, multiple media and government agency articles describe fires and explosions involving ECs, including at least 4 with ocular injuries. Given these cases and the number of recent media reports, ECs pose a significant public health risk. Users should be warned regarding the possibility of severe injury, including sight-threatening ocular injuries ranging from corneal burns to full-thickness corneoscleral laceration.

  5. Burning more than calories: treadmill friction injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davidson, C C


    Treadmill injuries in young children are a serious but little documented problem. Friction burns occur when the hands come into contact with the moving belt resulting in deep burns that often require hospital admission and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the nature and prevalence of injuries sustained and to highlight treadmill friction burns as a public health issue previously undocumented in Ireland. A retrospective chart review from January 2006 until March 2008 was performed and functional outcome was assessed by the modified Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Eight girls and four boys from one year and seven months to seven years and five months were treated. Eight children required admission to hospital and to date three have required surgery for their injuries. This is a new and increasing problem in Ireland which must be highlighted.

  6. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  7. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  8. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burns surgery has traditionally been somewhat of a. “Cinderella” subspecialty, with the burn surgeon regularly being faced with significant physical and emotional demands. In addition, this branch of surgery has neither complicated surgical procedures nor a plethora of technological equipment to pique the interest of ...

  9. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... management of burns within a general hospital setting. Causes. About 90% of childhood burns are preventable. Informal housing, overcrowding and lack of electricity are underlying problems.4. The most frequent ... injury is not important from a wound treatment perspective, NAI has far-reaching social and ...

  10. Methysergide attenuates systemic burn edema in rats. (United States)

    Hernekamp, Jochen Frederick; Hu, S; Schmidt, K; Walther, A; Lehnhardt, M; Kremer, Thomas


    Thermal injuries of more than 20% total body surface area result in systemic shock with generalized edema. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. Administration of methysergide (Met), a serotoninergic receptor blocking agent, reduces generalized edema in endotoxemia in rats. In this study we evaluated the systemic effects of Met after thermal injury. Donor rats (DR [n=8]) for positive controls and study groups underwent thermal injury (100°C water, 30% TBSA (Total Burn Surface Area), 12s). Shamburn plasma was harvested after a shamburn procedure ([n=4], 37°C water, 30% TBSA, 12s). Plasma was harvested 4h posttrauma and was transferred to healthy individuals. Recipient animals were randomized in 3 groups (1: burnplasma, 2: shamburn, 3: burnplasma plus methysergide (Bolus of 1mg/kg body weight)). Intravital microscopy was performed in mesenteric venules (0/60/120min). Edema was assessed by FITC-albumin extravasation. Leukocyte sticking (cells/mm(2)) and microhemodynamic parameters were assessed. Significant systemic capillary leakage was observed after burnplasma-transfer. Edema formation was significantly lower in negative controls. Application of methysergide reduced FITC-efflux to baseline levels. Adherent leukocytes increased in all groups, at 120min the amount of adherent leukocytes in positive controls was significantly higher in comparison to shamburn, differences to MET-groups were not significant. Burnplasma transfer to healthy individuals induces leukocyte activation and plasma extravasation and this effect is reduced by administration of Met. This may be attributed to leukocyte dependent as well as independent mechanisms. Evaluation of more specific serotoninergic antagonists is required to distinguish between systemic and local effects. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The year in burns 2013. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D


    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Deaths related to chemical burns. (United States)

    Pavelites, Joseph J; Kemp, Walter L; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Prahlow, Joseph A


    The authors present a series of 6 deaths due to the uncommon cause of chemical burns. Of the 6 deaths due to chemical burns, 4 deaths were due to ingestion of a chemical, 1 death was caused by chemical burns of the skin, and 1 death resulted from rectal insufflation of a chemical. Seven additional cases where chemical burns may have been a contributing factor to the death or an incidental finding are also presented. Four cases are related to an incident involving chemical exposure during an industrial explosion. Three cases involve motor fuel burns of the skin. Two cases concern a plane crash incident, and 1 case involved a vehicular collision. Cases are derived from the records of the Dallas County Medical Examiner's Office and those of the authors' consultation practices. Each of the cases is presented, followed by a discussion of the various mechanisms of chemical injury.

  13. Why burn patients are referred? (United States)

    Latifi, Noor-Ahmad; Karimi, Hamid


    Many burn patients are needed to be referred to a tertiary burn hospital according to the American Burn Association (ABA) criteria. The purpose of this study was to verify the reasons for referring of the burn patients to the hospital. For 2 years, we prospectively surveyed the burn patients referred to a tertiary teaching burn hospital. Data for the following variables were collected and analyzed with SPSS software V21.0: causes of burn; age; gender; total body surface area (TBSA) measured at the referring center; TBSA measured at the receiving center; concomitant diseases and traumas; the reason for referral; condition of patients before and during the transportation; transportation time; presence of infection; presence of inhalation injury, electrical injury, and chemical injury; child abuse; insurance coverage; and results and outcomes of patients. A total of 578 burn patients (33.6% of the total admissions) were referred in the study period. Among these patients, 70.9% were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 35.3 (19.69) years. The mean (SD) of TBSA was 45.2 (26.3). Of the 578 patients, 45% were referred by request of the family or patients; 9% were referred because lack of diagnostic facility, approximately 43% were referred because of the need to be admitted in a tertiary burn center, 0.7% were referred because of a lack of capacity at other hospitals, and 0.5% were referred because of an error in the estimation of TBSA. A total of 45% of the referrals were by request of the family and patients. Tele-medicine may help to establish a direct contact between expert burn physicians and the patients and thus reduce unnecessary transfers. Approximately 9% of the referrals were because of lack of some diagnostic facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent Training Promoted Sustained Anti-Atherogenic Benefits In The Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerolemia Of Postmenopausal Women At 1-Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Picolo, Malena R; Monteiro, Paula A; Buonani, Camila; Lira, Fábio S; Freitas, Ismael F


    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and concurrent training (aerobic plus strength training) on the lipid profiles of normotriacylglycerolemic and hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women and to verify whether the benefits of aerobic and concurrent training were sustained after 1 year. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), Triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose were assessed in 46 normotriacylglycerolemic (TAGTraining (AT), Concurrent Training (CT) and a Control Group (CG). For CT group, hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women were recruited (TAG≥150 mg/dL, n=14). Total daily caloric consumption and free-living physical activity were evaluated by dietary questionnaires and accelerometer respectively and fat mass by DXA. In 16 weeks, CT was effective in increasing HDL-c (normotriacylglycerolemic: pre=57.1±17.3 mg/dL x post= 64.3±16.1 mg/dL; p=0.020 and hypertriacylglycerolemic: pre=44.7±9.6 mg/dL x post=50.3±15.3 mg/dL; p=0.012) and reducing the atherogenic index in normotriacylglycerolemic (pre= 3.6±0.9 mg/dL x post= 3.0±0.6 mg/dL; p=0.003) and hypertriacylglycerolemic (pre= 5.2±1.1 mg/dL x post= 4.7±1.2 mg/dL; p=0.018) postmenopausal women. In addition, the effects were sustained at the 1-year follow-up only among the hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women. The anti-atherogenic status in normo and hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women was changed by CT but without significant differences between groups. Furthermore, these benefits are sustained at the 1-year follow-up among the hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.

  15. Facial burns from exploding microwaved foods: Case series and review. (United States)

    Bagirathan, Shenbana; Rao, Krishna; Al-Benna, Sammy; O'Boyle, Ciaran P


    Microwave ovens allow for quick and simple cooking. However, the importance of adequate food preparation, prior to microwave cooking, and the consequences of inadequate preparation are not well-known. The authors conducted a retrospective outcome analysis of all patients who sustained facial burns from microwaved foods and were treated at a UK regional burns unit over a six-year period. Patients were identified from clinical records. Eight patients presented following inadequate preparation of either tinned potatoes (n=4) or eggs (n=4). All patients sustained burns. Mean age was 41 years (range 21-68 years). Six cases (75%) had associated ocular injury. One received amniotic membrane grafts; this individual's vision remains poor twelve months after injury. Rapid dielectric heating of water within foods may produce high steam and vapour pressure gradients and cause explosive decompression [1,5,11]. Consumers may fail to recognise differential heating and simply cook foods for longer if they remain cool on the outer surface. Education on safe use and risks of microwave-cooked foods may help prevent these potentially serious injuries. Microwave ovens have become ubiquitous. The authors recognise the need for improved public awareness of safe microwave cooking. Burns resulting from microwave-cooked foods may have life-changing consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Hot ash burns in the children of Western Australia: how and why they happen. (United States)

    Martin, L; Rea, S; McWilliams, T; Wood, F


    Burns from hot ash are common in the paediatric population in Western Australia. Fifty children were admitted to the paediatric burn centre with hot ash contact burns to the feet in 2011 and 2012. It is important to examine the extent of the problem, seasonal variations, and identify those at risk to determine strategies for prevention campaigns. Retrospective review of medical notes for all admissions to the paediatric burns unit was undertaken for 2011 and 2012. Data were collected for patient demographics, time, circumstance of injury, burn severity and treatment. Hot ash burns accounted for 8.6% of admissions but 16.1% of burns sustained in non-metro areas. Median age was just under 3 years, male or female. Median burn TBSA was 2%, and 44% of children required surgery. The burns were less common in summer, more common on non-school days and in children who were on camping trips away from home. Previous work has shown the value of targeted campaigns. The group for targeted prevention campaigns are the carers of very young children who go camping. Information distributed at camping shows and stores about the principles of campfire safety would reach the people at risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Agents, mechanisms and clinical features of non-scald burns in children: A prospective UK study. (United States)

    Johnson, E L; Maguire, S; Hollén, L I; Nuttall, D; Rea, D; Kemp, A M


    To inform childhood burn prevention by identifying demographics, clinical features and circumstances of unintentional non-scald burns. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted across Cardiff, Bristol and Manchester, including six emergency departments, three minor injury units and one burns unit between 13/01/2013-01/10/2015. Data collected for children aged burn (scald, contact, flame, radiation, chemical, electrical, friction) included: demographics, circumstances of injury and clinical features. Scalds and burns due to maltreatment were excluded from current analysis. Of 564 non-scald cases, 60.8% were boys, 51.1% were burns affected one anatomical site. Contact burns accounted for 86.7% (489/564), 34.8% (137/394) of which were from objects placed at >0.6m and 76.5% (349/456) affected the hands. Hairstyling devices were the most common agent of contact burns (20.5%, 100/487); 34.1% (30/88) of hairstyling devices were on the floor. Of children aged 10-15 years, 63.7% (65/102), sustained contact burns of which 23.2% (13/56) were preparing food, and when burnt from hairstyling devices, 73.3% (11/15) were using them at the time of injury. Parents of toddlers must learn safe storage of hazardous items. Older children should be taught skills in safe cooking and hairstyling device use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali-related ocular burns: a case series and review. (United States)

    Bunker, Daniel J L; George, Robert J; Kleinschmidt, Andrew; Kumar, Rohit J; Maitz, Peter


    Alkali burns are known to possess high pathological potential because of their inherent ability to lyse cell membranes and penetrate intraocular structures with devastating results. The authors aimed to evaluate the most common cause of this presentation, the current treatment approaches to injury, and eventual outcome as related to severity. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who sustained chemical-related ocular injuries seen at the Concord Hospital Burns Unit, Australia between January 2005 and March 2012. Management was based on cooperation between ophthalmic staff and the burns unit, with emphasis on early aggressive intervention and rigorous follow-up. The records of 39 patients who presented with chemical-related injury were assessed, 12 of whom had confirmed alkali burns involving the cornea. The most commonly implicated agent was sodium hydroxide, usually in the context of otherwise trivial domestic accidents. Acute medical management included copious irrigation and the use of analgesics, cycloplegics, and topical antibiotics. In half the cases, steroid drops and oral vitamin C were also used. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) had return to premorbid visual acuity. Complications included cicatrical ectropion (n = 1), pseudoexfoliative syndrome (n = 1), and symblepharon (n = 1). Surgical correction was needed in the one patient with cicatrical ectropion. This case series shows that appropriate acute management minimizes the potentially devastating sequelae of ocular alkali burns. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of domestic and workplace injuries when using alkaline products.

  19. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates. (United States)

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André


    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks.

  20. Kinetic model for DT ignition and burn in ICF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, S.I.; Oparin, A.M.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]|[L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 117940 Moscow (Russia)


    Ignition and burn of DT targets is studied taking into account kinetic effects. Kinetic equations describing the interaction of the high-energy reaction products with target plasma are solved using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code for collisional plasma. Volume and spark ignition configurations are simulated for initial temperatures and {l_angle}{rho}{ital R}{r_angle} values of practical interest and target masses between 0.1 and 10 mg. Optically thick configurations igniting at temperatures below 5 keV are considered. Burn of the targets with reduced tritium content is simulated. It was shown that, for 25{percent} tritium concentration, the energy output is reduced only by 15{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Complex chemical burns following a mass casualty chemical plant incident: how optimal planning and organisation can make a difference. (United States)

    O'Neill, Tomás B; Rawlins, Jeremy; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona


    Four employees at a chemical plant sustained extensive chemical burns following the explosion of a pipeline containing 100% sulphuric acid. We describe the management of these patients from the initial ED triage through to discharge from hospital in life and limb threatening chemical burns. Four patients who sustained chemical burns to the torso and extremities are reviewed. Data was retrieved from patient case notes and operating theatre logbooks. Four patients sustained chemical burns during the blast and were immediately transferred to a local ED where a prompt referral was made to the burns service. All patients were male aged 25-59 years (mean 46.5). Burn size was 2-50% BSA (mean 22.5). Following RFDS transfer to the state burns service two patients required immediate excisional surgery. In these patients the chemical burn involved full thickness skin loss with extensive underlying muscle and neurovascular damage. One patient required immediate above knee amputation of one leg and fascial burn excision of the other. The other patient required fascial burn excision of both legs followed by Integra placement 24h later. Both patients had prolonged hospital stays due to the complex nature of their injuries requiring multiple trips to theatre and lengthy rehabilitation. The two patients with smaller burns had straightforward surgery and an unremarkable recovery. Early communication following this mass casualty incident allowed for organisation of tertiary services and early radical surgery which was life saving. Management lessons were learnt following this mass casualty chemical burn incident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas


    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  3. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  4. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  5. Burns treatment in ancient times. (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija


    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  6. Plasma response to transient high voltage pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, India ... to a grounded wall. The non-neutral potential region between the plasma and the wall is called a sheath [1–4]. In weakly ionized plasma, the energy to sustain plasma .... researchers [46–48] have described the properties of ion rarefaction wave for various.

  7. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients. (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C


    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  9. Enhancement of burning velocity by dissociated oxygen atoms (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi


    Green technology, such as preventing global warming, has been developed for years. Researches on plasma assisted combustion is one of the technologies and have been done for investigating more efficient combustion, more efficient use of fossil fuel with plasmas or applying electric fields. In the ignition time delay analyses with the dissociated oxygen atoms which is generated by non-equilibrium plasma had significant effect on the ignition time. In this paper, dissociated oxygen could effect on burning velocity or not has been examined using CHEMKIN. As a result, no effect can be seen with dissociation degree of lower than 10-3. But there is an effect on the enhancement of burning velocity with higher degree of 10-3. At the dissociation degree of 5×10-2, the burning velocity is enhanced at a factor of 1.24. And it is found that the distributions of each species in front of preheat zone are completely different. The combustion process is proceeded several steps in advance, and generation of H2O, CO and CO2 can be seen before combustion in higher dissociation case. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  10. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  11. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric


    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  12. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.


    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  13. Honey dressing in pediatric burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A


    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of honey have been recognized since antiquity. Although used as an adjuvant method of accelerating wound healing from ancient times, honey has been sporadically used in the treatment of burns. Honey acts mainly as a hyperosmolar medium and prevents bacterial growth. Because of its high viscosity, it forms a physical barrier, and the presence of enzyme catalase gives honey an antioxidant property. Its high-nutrient content improves substrate supply in local environment promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis. In pediatric burn patients no exclusive study has been conducted using honey as a burn dressing. An attempt is being made to evaluate the effect of honey in the management of burns in pediatric patients.

  14. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors (United States)

    ... Harman Award Hickey Award Advocacy Award Edge Servant Leadership Award Contact Information News & Media Phoenix Blog Who We Are Get Involved Ways to Give Our Vision | Uniting the voice of the burn community around the globe to profoundly advance lifelong ...

  15. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G


    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  16. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P


    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  17. Electrothermal Ring Burn - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring.

  18. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment. (United States)

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P


    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cardiodepressor agents in the blood of burn patients and an assessment of the efficacy of their elimination]. (United States)

    Puzhevskiĭ, A S; Lifshits, R I


    The effect of hemosorption (HS) on cardiodepressor activity of plasma deproteinates (PD) and plasma level of medium-size molecular peptides (MSMP) has been studied, using microbiuret technique, in 14 patients with thermic burns (group I--moderate burns, group II--severe burns). Cardiac screening was performed on the isolated papillary muscle. It has been established that on the first day after HS in patients of group I normalization of MSMP level is accompanied by the disappearance of PD cardiodepressor effect and the recovery of positive inotropic effect, which is typical of healthy donors. In patients of group II the changes were not so marked, which is associated with a sufficiently high MSMP level 24 h after HS and its direct negative inotropic effect in burns. The data obtained indicate that HS is pathogenetically grounded for the correction of damaged myocardial contractility in burn-induced toxemia, as it eliminates cardiodepressor agents from blood.

  20. Chemical and Common Burns in Children. (United States)

    Yin, Shan


    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  1. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette


    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K


    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  2. Chemical burns: Diphoterine untangled. (United States)

    Alexander, K Skaria; Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather


    Diphoterine is a hypertonic, amphoteric, polyvalent and chelating decontamination solution used in the treatment of cutaneous and ocular chemical burns. Due to infrequent use by emergency physicians along with the small number of available studies, its debate in the literature as to its efficacy and safety remains inconclusive. A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and TOXNET to June 2016 for original English-language studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of Diphoterine. Methodological and reporting quality of pre-clinical animal studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias tool and Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Clinical studies were assessed using Chambers' criteria. 13 studies (seven in the pre-clinical, five in the clinical setting and one mixed) met the study inclusion criteria. Pre-clinical studies showed a faster resolution of pH and reduced tissue necrosis with Diphoterine. Clinical studies showed reduced tissue necrosis/severity of symptoms, faster pH resolution and a reduction in pain when using Diphoterine. No adverse events were attributable to Diphoterine. Reporting and methodology of the studies was poor or showed a high risk of bias. Diphoterine appears to be safe to use and is probably superior to other rinsing solutions. However, immediate decontamination is imperative and if Diphoterine is not available a different rinsing solution should be used. The methodology of the published literature for Diphoterine is generally poor and future publications should use the frameworks given as templates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scald burns in children aged 14 and younger in Australia and New Zealand—an analysis based on the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). (United States)

    Riedlinger, Dorothee I; Jennings, Paul A; Edgar, Dale W; Harvey, John G; Cleland, Ms Heather J; Wood, Fiona M; Cameron, Peter A


    Scalds are a common injury in children and a frequent reason for hospitalisation despite being a preventable injury. This retrospective two year study reports data from 730 children aged 14 years or younger who sustained a scald between 2009 and 2010 and were admitted to a burns centre in Australia or New Zealand. Data were extracted from the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ), which included data from 13 burns centres in Australia and New Zealand. Scald injury contributed 56% (95% CI 53-59%) of all pediatric burns. There were two high risk groups; male toddlers age one to two, contributing 34% (95% CI 31-38%) of all scalds, and indigenous children who were over 3 times more likely to experience a scald requiring admission to a burns unit than their non-indigenous peers. First aid cooling by non-professionals was initiated in 89% (95% CI 86-91%) of cases but only 20% (95% CI 16-23%) performed it as recommended. This study highlights that effective burn first aid reduces hospital stay and reinforces the need to encourage, carers and bystanders to deliver effective first aid and the importance of targeted prevention campaigns that reduce the burden of pediatric scald burns in Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin


    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  5. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan (United States)

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman


    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  6. Nonlinear burn condition control in tokamaks using isotopic fuel tailoring (United States)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio


    One of the fundamental problems in tokamak fusion reactors is how to control the plasma density and temperature in order to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the device. Control of these parameters will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. The most previous burn condition control efforts use either non-model based control designs or techniques based on models linearized around particular operating points. Such strategies limit the potential operational space and must be carefully retuned or redesigned to accommodate changes in operating points or plasma parameters. In this work, a nonlinear dynamic model of the spatial averages of energy and ion species densities is used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition. The nonlinear model-based control strategy guarantees a much larger operational space than previous linear controllers. Because it is not designed around a particular operating point, the controller can be used to move from one burn condition to another. The proposed scheme first attempts to use regulation of the auxiliary heating power to reject temperature perturbations, then, if necessary, uses isotopic fuel tailoring as a way to reduce fusion heating during positive temperature perturbations. A global model of hydrogen recycling is incorporated into the model used for design and simulation, and the proposed control scheme is tested for a range of recycling model parameters. As we find the possibility of changing the isotopic mix can be limited for certain unfavorable recycling conditions, we also consider impurity injection as a back-up method for controlling the system. A simple supervisory control strategy is proposed to switch between the primary and back-up control schemes based on stability and performance criteria. A zero-dimensional simulation study is used to study the performance of the control scheme for several scenarios and model parameters. Finally, a one

  7. Role of protein farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumasa Nakazawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia, are a major complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury and affect the prognosis of burn patients. Protein farnesylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of cysteine residues, has been emerging as a potential component of inflammatory response in sepsis. However, farnesylation has not yet been studied in major trauma. To study a role of farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic aberration, we examined the effects of farnesyltransferase (FTase inhibitor, FTI-277, on burn-induced insulin resistance and metabolic alterations in mouse skeletal muscle. METHODS: A full thickness burn (30% total body surface area was produced under anesthesia in male C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. After the mice were treated with FTI-277 (5 mg/kg/day, IP or vehicle for 3 days, muscle insulin signaling, metabolic alterations and inflammatory gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Burn increased FTase expression and farnesylated proteins in mouse muscle compared with sham-burn at 3 days after burn. Simultaneously, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR, insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, Akt and GSK-3β was decreased. Protein expression of PTP-1B (a negative regulator of IR-IRS-1 signaling, PTEN (a negative regulator of Akt-mediated signaling, protein degradation and lactate release by muscle, and plasma lactate levels were increased by burn. Burn-induced impaired insulin signaling and metabolic dysfunction were associated with increased inflammatory gene expression. These burn-induced alterations were reversed or ameliorated by FTI-277. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that burn increased FTase expression and protein farnesylation along with insulin resistance, metabolic alterations and inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle, all of which were prevented by FTI-277 treatment. These results indicate that increased protein farnesylation plays a

  8. LA50 in burn injuries (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.


    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  9. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin


    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  10. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Petrasso


    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments

  11. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch


    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  12. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson


    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  13. Scald burn, a preventable injury: Analysis of 4306 patients from a major tertiary care center. (United States)

    Sahu, Shamendra Anand; Agrawal, Karoon; Patel, Pankaj Kumar


    Scalds have distinct epidemiological and predisposing risk factors amongst all types of burns. Though scald affects all age groups, the brunt falls on the minor age groups. It may result in major physical disabilities and significant loss of school years. Apart from the economic burden on family, major scald burn may compromise overall development of the affected children. Most of the scald injuries occur in domestic settings and are preventable. Despite improvement in living conditions, the incidence of scald burn has failed to decline. Our aim was to study the detailed epidemiology and severity of scald burn amongst all age groups. A retrospective study was carried out from the records of all burn patients who attended a tertiary burn care center from January 2013 and December 2014. Data of the patients with scald injury was segregated and analyzed using Microsoft excel spreadsheet. 10,175 burn patients attended the burn casualty during the study period, of which 42.3% had sustained scald. 56.85% of patients were under 15 years of age with preschool children (36.4%) being the prime victims of scald. The % TBSA involved is also relatively larger in children. Scald follows definite seasonal variation peaking in winters. 36.8% patients arrived to the hospital without any first aid. 74.2% of patients reported to casualty with in 24hours after sustaining scald injury. The median time interval between injury and reporting to casualty was 3hours 30minutes. This study concludes that the scald is injury of all age groups, though majority of them are children. The first aid is not given to large number of patients and late reporting is quite common. These are the factors which may affect the course of scald burn. Spreading public awareness regarding safe household practises and educating them for proper first aid management after scald may have significant impact on the burden of care and outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina


    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  16. Exercise behaviors after burn injury. (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank


    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  17. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J


    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  18. The changing pattern of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Abeyasundara, Sandun L; Rajan, Vasant; Lam, Lawrence; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    After scalds, flame burns have been considered the next most common mode of burn injury in childhood. Recent experience in the authors' unit suggested that contact burns were becoming more frequent. The authors sought to determine the contemporary frequency of different burn modalities in children presenting to a burns unit. A retrospective review of 3621 children treated in the burns unit, both ambulatory and inpatient, at the authors' institution between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed. Patients were identified using the Burns Unit database. Data collected included age, gender, burn etiology and site, TBSA, and whether operative surgery was required. Of the 3515 patients eligible for inclusion, scalds accounted for 55.9%, contact 30.5%, and flame 7.9% of all burns. Contact burns were shown to be consistently more frequent than flame burns for every year of the study (z = 17.30, P burns, reflecting the variety of mechanisms involved. The data suggest a change in the historical pattern of pediatric burns previously reported in the literature. These findings have implications for public health awareness and burns prevention campaigns.

  19. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  20. Burn injury and wound healing in X-linked ichthyosis. (United States)

    Yancon, Andrea R; Wahl, Wendy L


    X-linked ichthyosis is a skin condition of decreased keratin degradation and hyperkeratosis resulting from a deficiency of steroid sulfatase causing scaly skin. Burns in these patients may require skin grafting and harvesting from diseased donor sites. No descriptions of the outcomes of attempted grafting, donor site healing, and burn recovery in patients with X-linked ichthyosis exist. The authors describe split-thickness skin grafting in one patient with X-linked ichthyosis who sustained a burn with crush injury to his bilateral lower extremities. Although he developed cellulitis, there is no evidence that patients with ichthyosis have higher rates of infection. The patient exhibited rapid healing at postgrafting clinic visits with a much flatter texture than expected early after meshed skin grafting. This could be a benefit of the excess keratin state. Wound healing was not impaired by the ichthyosis. Concerns over skin harvest were alleviated by aggressive topical emollients, which did not negatively impact harvest of donor skin or primary burn site healing.

  1. Spark plasma sintering of Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x} monolithic ceramics obtained by mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Amparo, E-mail: [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Salvador, Maria Dolores [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Rocha, Victoria [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Chicardi, Ernesto; Gotor, Francisco J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Calle Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)


    Nanometer-sized titanium-niobium carbonitride powders (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with different Ti/Nb atomic ratios were obtained by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, and sintered by spark plasma sintering technique at 1500 Degree-Sign C for 1 min in a vacuum atmosphere. Mechanical properties such as hardness and Young's modulus were determined by nanoindentation technique and friction and wear coefficients assessed by ball-on-disk testing using alumina ball in dry sliding conditions. The fracture surface and wear tracks of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that it is possible to obtain dense monolithic ceramics from the solid solution (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with good mechanical properties and excellent wear resistance. The optimum values of nanomechanical properties were found for the Ti{sub 0.3}Nb{sub 0.7}C{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} ceramic composition, which exhibited a high hardness over 26.0 GPa and Young's modulus around 400 GPa.

  2. Management of patients in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU) in a developing country. (United States)

    Hashmi, Madiha; Kamal, Rehana


    In Pakistan the practice of managing extensive burns in dedicated intensive care units is not well established. This audit aims to define the characteristics of the victims of major burns and factors that increase mortality and outcome of the protocol-based management in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU). This prospective audit included all patients admitted to the BICU of Suleiman Dawood Burns Unit in Karachi from 1st September 2002 to 31st August 2011. Demographic information, type and place of burn, total body surface area burn (TBSA), type of organ support provided, length of ICU stay, any associated medical diseases, and out outcome were documented. A total of 1597 patients were admitted to the BICU in 9 years. Median age of the patients was 22 (IQR =32-7). 32% victims were children 50 years old. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Fire was the leading cause of burns in adults (64%) and scald burns were most common in (64%) in children. 72.4% of the accidents happened at home, where kitchen was the commonest location (597 cases). Mean TBSA burnt was 32.5% (SD ± 22.95%, 95%CI: 31.36-33.61). 27% patients needed ventilatory support, 4% were dialyzed and split skin graftings were performed in 20% patients. Average length of ICU stay was 10.42 days. Epilepsy, psychiatric illness and drug addiction were not common associations with burns. Overall mortality was 41.30% but it decreased over the years from 75% to 27%. Groups of people most vulnerable to sustain burn are young females getting burnt in the kitchen, young males getting burnt at work, and small children falling in pots of hot water stored for drinking or bathing. TBSA >40%, age >50 years, fire burn and female gender were associated with a higher risk of death. Carefully planned, protocol based management of burn patients by burn teams of dedicated healthcare professionals, even with limited resources reduced mortality. Burn hazard awareness, prevention and educational programmes targeted at the

  3. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  4. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  5. [Burn out syndrome in oncology]. (United States)

    Schraub, Simon; Marx, E


    SEPS or burnout syndrome was described among health care workers. Oncology care givers--physicians and nurses--can be concerned. Burnout is a chronical stress reaction. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more prevalent than low personal accomplishment. Burnout is essentially assessed by questionnaires. Oncologists report an higher level of burnout, than AIDS medical or palliative care staff. Causes of burn out are numerous: insufficient personal time, sense of failure,... followed by poorly management and difficulties in staff or institution relationships. Prevention and therapy of burn out can be considered on three levels: personal, (psychotherapy, advices on health way of life), team (improvement in communication) and institution (support meetings and talking groups).

  6. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg


    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  7. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina


    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  8. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou


    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  9. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent


    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  10. Sustainable Learning (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert


    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  11. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to February 2011 at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center. Periodic wound swabs and blood samples were collected on 1st, 7th, and 14th days of hospital stay and processed with conventional culture and biochemical tests. Isolates ...

  12. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar


    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  13. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires and scalding: Be " ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  14. Pre-expanded occipito-dorsal flap reconstruction for neck burns: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Hassan


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the neck following a burn injury poses a significant challenge to reconstructive burn surgeons. Here, we report a case of successful application of pre-expanded occipito-dorsal flaps in the reconstruction of postburn scars and contractures in the neck. The patient was a 10-year-old boy who sustained scars and contractures secondary to a burn injury 4 years ago. "Super-thin" flaps were obtained through pre-expansion in the occipito-dorsal area and then transferred to the recipient site. This approach resulted in an esthetic satisfaction and a significant functional improvement, thereby having significant clinical implications in the reconstruction of soft tissue damage secondary to burn injuries in the neck.

  15. Foetal salvage by Caesarean section in a case of maternal burn injury. (United States)

    Banerjee, Tibar; Karmakar, Anirvan; Adhikari, Souvik


    Burn injury sustained during pregnancy is a serious clinical complication that requires individualisation of management. We describe the case of a 30-week pregnant woman who presented to the hospital in a state of shock with approximately 90% burn injuries. Resuscitation was carried out, and the patient's family consented to an emergency Caesarean section in view of the grave prognosis of such burn injuries. A live male infant was delivered via emergency Caesarean section. However, the mother succumbed to her injuries two days after the operation, while the baby was successfully resuscitated and discharged after ten days. This case highlights the importance of timely decision-making and coordination, which are required to salvage a near-term foetus. It also underscores that emergent resuscitation and timely operative procedures might be able to salvage a living foetus, particularly in patients with burns covering more than 60% of total body surface area.

  16. [Endoscopic treatment of chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis]. (United States)

    Nalbandova, D A; Sogreshilin, S S; Pinchuk, T P; Klokova, T V; Il'iashenko, K K


    The prevalence of acute poisoning with caustic substances in Russia is higher than in other countries and is reported by different authors as accounting for 10-32% cases among the patients admitted to acute poisoning treatment centres. Especially unfavorable prognosis is considered for necrotizing burns to the stomach that increase the risk of severe complications leading to disability of patients. The study aimed at improving the treatment of necrotizing chemical burn to the stomach by the infusion of a 5% Mexidole solution into the edges of a burn lesion at different stages of the treatment course. The paper presents the outcomes of patients who sustained chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis, and provides an assessment of early endoscopic treatment effect.

  17. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio correlates with burn severity and may serve as a risk predictor of increased susceptibility to infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tsurumi


    Full Text Available Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes, however identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma. The patient population consisted of 34 adult patients having early (≤48 hours since injury blood draws following severe (≥20% total burn surface area (TBSA burn injury, and suffering from a first infection episode at least one day after blood collection. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured to explore the association between the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, hypersusceptibility to infections, burn size (TBSA, and common severity scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHEII, Baux, modified Baux (R-Baux, Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI. TNF-α/IL10 plasma ratio measured shortly after burn trauma was inversely correlated with burn size and the injury severity scores investigated, and was predictive of repeated infections (≥3 infection episodes outcome (AUROC [95%CI] of 0.80 [0.63–0.93]. Early measures of circulating TNF-α/IL10 ratio may be a previously unidentified biomarker associated with burn injury severity and predictive of the risk of hypersusceptibility to repeated infections.

  18. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings (United States)

    Packer, Kathleen J.


    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  19. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.


    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  20. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya


    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  1. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  2. The Burn-Out Syndrome. (United States)

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ


    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  3. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found outside of the burns theatre. Challenges include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic monitoring and positioning, impaired temperature regulation, altered drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, renal dysfunction and sepsis.2 To be able to effectively ...

  4. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process...

  5. Antibiotics and the burn patient. (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard


    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'. (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E


    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  7. The importance of family environment for young adults burned during childhood. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Laura; Blakeney, Patricia; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Robert, Rhonda S; Meyer, Walter J


    This study examined the role of family environment for young adult burn survivors making the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Ninety-three young adults who sustained large burns as children were asked to describe their families using the Family Environment Scale (FES). When examining the difference between burn survivors and the normative sample of the FES, burn survivors did not perceive their current family environment different than the normative group. However, burn survivors endorsed more items in the areas of achievement orientation and moral-religious emphasis, and less involvement in intellectual-cultural activities. We also examined the relationship between family characteristics on the FES and psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR). Increased conflict on the FES was positively associated with YASR total problem score, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors. In addition, participation in recreational and social activities and organization both inversely correlated with YASR total problem score. In conclusion, increased family conflict was associated with decreased psychological adjustment of burn survivors as measured by the YASR total problem score.

  8. Airbag-related chest wall burn as a marker of underlying injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkhouse Simon J


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case of a man who sustained an airbag-induced thoracic injury and burn, highlights the potential harm that can be caused by airbags. It also serves to illustrate that a surface burn which looks small and benign can actually be a surface marker of a more serious injury. Staff working in emergency departments need to be aware of the risk of possible airbag-associated injuries. Case presentation A 65-year-old man was the driver in a frontal collision. He was wearing a seatbelt. The airbag was activated and caused a superficial chest wall burn. Initial chest x-rays were unremarkable but following deterioration in his condition, a computed tomography scan revealed a serious sternal fracture. The location of the fracture was marked on the surface by the burn. Conclusion Airbags can cause significant chest wall injuries and burns. Surface burns at the point of impact should not be dismissed as trivial as the forces involved can cause significant injury. We recommend that all people with chest wall injuries and/or burns due to airbags should have more detailed chest imaging as initial emergency radiographs can be falsely reassuring.

  9. Investigation of burn effect on skin using simultaneous Raman-Brillouin spectroscopy, and fluorescence microspectroscopy (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Traverso, Andrew; Ballmann, Charles; Petrov, Georgi; Ibey, Bennett L.; Yakovlev, Vladislav


    Burns are thermal injuries that can completely damage or at least compromise the protective function of skin, and affect the ability of tissues to manage moisture. Burn-damaged tissues exhibit lower elasticity than healthy tissues, due to significantly reduced water concentrations and plasma retention. Current methods for determining burn intensity are limited to visual inspection, and potential hospital x-ray examination. We present a unique confocal microscope capable of measuring Raman and Brillouin spectra simultaneously, with concurrent fluorescence investigation from a single spatial location, and demonstrate application by investigating and characterizing the properties of burn-afflicted tissue on chicken skin model. Raman and Brillouin scattering offer complementary information about a material's chemical and mechanical structure, while fluorescence can serve as a useful diagnostic indicator and imaging tool. The developed instrument has the potential for very diverse analytical applications in basic biomedical science and biomedical diagnostics and imaging.

  10. Effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions in deuterium-tritium burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michta, D; Graziani, F; Pruet, J; Luu, T


    We investigate the effects of non-equilibrium particle distributions resulting from rapid deuterium-tritium burning in plasmas using a Fokker-Planck code that incorporates small-angle Coulomb scattering, Brehmsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and thermal-nuclear burning. We find that in inertial confinement fusion environments, deviations away from Maxwellian distributions for either deuterium or tritium ions are small and result in 1% changes in the energy production rates. The deuterium and tritium effective temperatures are not equal, but differ by only about 2.5% near the time of peak burn rate. Simulations with high Z (Xe) dopants show that the dopant temperature closely tracks that of the fuel. On the other hand, fusion product ion distributions are highly non-Maxwellian, and careful treatments of energy-exchange between these ions and other particles is important for determining burn rates.

  11. Management of post burn hand deformities


    Sabapathy S; Bajantri Babu; Bharathi R


    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of s...

  12. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 2. Keywords: burn, smoke inhalation, vitamin E, patients, oxidative stress, pulmonary function, ICU days 3. Accomplishments: a...Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit (PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...Galveston, the Burn Intensive Care Unit at Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit

  13. Parecoxib reduces systemic inflammation and acute lung injury in burned animals with delayed fluid resuscitation. (United States)

    Chong, Si Jack; Wong, Yong Chiat; Wu, Jian; Tan, Mui Hong; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir M


    Burn injuries result in the release of proinflammatory mediators causing both local and systemic inflammation. Multiple organ dysfunctions secondary to systemic inflammation after severe burn contribute to adverse outcome, with the lungs being the first organ to fail. In this study, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Parecoxib, a parenteral COX-2 inhibitor, in a delayed fluid resuscitation burned rat model. Anaesthetized Sprague Dawley rats were inflicted with 45% total body surface area full-thickness scald burns and subsequently subjected to delayed resuscitation with Hartmann's solution. Parecoxib (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg) was delivered intramuscularly 20 min after injury followed by 12 h interval and the rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h. Burn rats developed elevated blood cytokines, transaminase, creatinine, and increased lung MPO levels. Animals treated with 1 mg/kg Parecoxib showed significantly reduced plasma level of CINC-1, IL-6, PGEM, and lung MPO. Treatment of 1 mg/kg Parecoxib is shown to mitigate systemic and lung inflammation without significantly affecting other organs. At present, no specific therapeutic agent is available to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response secondary to burn injury. The results suggest that Parecoxib may have the potential to be used both as an analgesic and ameliorate the effects of lung injury following burn.

  14. Auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. (United States)

    Latuska, Richard F; Carlson, Matthew L; Neff, Brian A; Driscoll, Colin L; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S


    To raise awareness of the potential hazard of auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. Retrospective case series and summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse event reports pertaining to microscope related auricular thermal injuries. All patients who sustained auricular burns while using the operating microscope during otologic surgery at 2 tertiary academic referral centers. Surgical procedure, microscope model, intensity of illumination, length of procedure, focal length, location and severity of burn, and patient outcome. A total of 4 microscope-related auricular thermal injuries were identified from the authors' institutions. Additionally, 82 unique cases of soft tissue burns associated with the use of an operative microscope have been voluntarily reported to the FDA since 2004. A disproportionately large percent (∼ 30%) of these occurred within the field of otology, the majority of which were during tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy procedures at focal length distances of 300 mm or less with xenon light source microscopes. Simultaneous advancements in light delivery technologies and lens optics have continued to improve the efficiency of the operating microscope; however, these improvements also increase the potential for thermal injuries. Although rare, a review of the FDA MAUDE database suggests that microscope-related soft tissue burns occur more frequently in otology than any other surgical specialty. A variety of factors may help explain this finding, including the unique anatomy of the external ear with thin skin and limited underlying adipose tissue. Preventative measures should be taken to decrease the risk of thermal injuries including use of the lowest comfortable light intensity, adjusting the aperture width to match the operative field, frequent wound irrigation, and covering exposed portions of the pinna

  15. Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a burn intensive care unit patient. (United States)

    Vaghaiwalla, Tanaz; Satahoo, Shevonne S; Zarifa, Rolla; Dauer, Marc; Davis, James S; Dearmas, Doreann; Namias, Nicholas; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I


    Infection is the leading cause of death in burn patients. Historically, this was due to burn wound sepsis but pneumonia has now emerged as the most common source. In light of the increasing incidence of multi-drug-resistant organisms, the description of rare infections is paramount in continuing the fight against deadly pathogens. We aim to describe the second case of non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) reported in a burn patient. Difficulties in diagnosis and management will also be highlighted. A 70-y-old Caucasian female, with a past medical history for type 2 diabetes mellitus, was transferred to our facility after a house fire. She had sustained a 28% total body surface area (TBSA) flame burn to her neck, torso, and all four extremities. She underwent excision and grafting on hospital day five with multiple subsequent attempts at excision and grafting due to graft loss. On hospital day 14, a tracheostomy was performed. Her hospital course was complicated by ongoing respiratory failure, renal injury, and sepsis. Mycobacterium abscessus was found on blood cultures from central venous catheters and arterial line catheters as well as on tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on hospital day 86. Imaging then revealed multiple pulmonary nodular densities with patchy ground-glass opacities. After multiple adjustments to the antibiotic regimen, tigecycline, clarithromycin, and cefoxitin therapy was started. She remained on this regimen for almost 4 wks. Her other infections included Acinetobacter baumanii treated with tobramycin and colistin, as well as Candida albicans for which she received fluconazole. Ultimately, her clinical state worsened leading to withdrawal of care. Sepsis NTM is rare in burn patients with only one other case described in the English-language literature. Both cases reflect differences in diagnosis and management. This highlights the need to discuss rare infections in an attempt to broaden the clinician's awareness of such

  16. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  17. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India. (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit


    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days. There were 299 operations

  18. Temperature Prediction in a Free-Burning Arc and Electrodes for Nanostructured Materials and Systems. (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Jong-Chul


    Temperature in a free-burning arc used for synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials is generally around 20,000 K just below the cathode, falling to about 15,000 K just above the anode, and decreasing rapidly in the radial direction. Therefore, the electrode erosion is indispensable for these atmospheric plasma systems, as well as for switching devices, due to the high heat flux transferred from high temperature arcs to electrodes, but experimental and theoretical works have not identified the characteristic phenomena because of the complex physical processes. To the previous study, we have focused on the arc self-induced fluid flow in a free-burning arc using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. At this time, our investigation is concerned with the whole region of free-burning high-intensity arcs including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode using a unified numerical model for applying synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials practically.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fifteen (5.3%) occurred in vehicles following road traffic accidents. Flame constituted the largest source of burn in 147 (49.1%) patients while scald burn from hot fluids( water, soup, hot tea, pap{custard} )constituted the next large group of 108. (37,9%). Twenty patients (7.0%) were due to chemical burns while electrical ...

  20. Costs of burn care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Polinder, S.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.


    Burn care is traditionally considered expensive care. However, detailed information about the costs of burn care is scarce despite the increased need for this information and the enhanced focus on healthcare cost control. In this study, economic literature on burn care was systematically reviewed to

  1. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phone have been described.[3]. We report on a case of first‑degree burn due to overheating of. Compaq Presario cq50 on the patient's left foot. So far, there have been a few case reports about portable computer causing burns, but until now burning induced in such a quick succession of time (3 days) has not been reported.

  2. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue. (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W


    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  3. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.


    Chitkara, D. K.; McNeela, B. J.


    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  4. Impact of obesity on body image dissatisfaction and social integration difficulty in adolescent and young adult burn injury survivors. (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Sidossis, Labros S; Richardson, Lisa M; Temple, Jeff R; van den Berg, Patricia A; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J


    Burn injury deformities and obesity have been associated with social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction. However, the combined effects of obesity and burn injury on social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction are unknown. Adolescent and young adult burn injury survivors were categorized as normal weight (n = 47) or overweight and obese (n = 21). Burn-related and anthropometric information were obtained from patients' medical records, and validated questionnaires were used to assess the main outcomes and possible confounders. Analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were performed to evaluate the objectives of this study. Obese and overweight burn injury survivors did not experience increased body image dissatisfaction (12 ± 4.3 vs 13.1 ± 4.4; P = .57) or social integration difficulty (17.5 ± 6.9 vs 15.5 ± 5.7; P = .16) compared with normal weight burn injury survivors. Weight status was not a significant predictor of social integration difficulty or body image dissatisfaction (P = .19 and P = .24, respectively). However, mobility limitations predicted greater social integration difficulty (P = .005) and body image dissatisfaction (P body image dissatisfaction (P = .05). Obese and overweight adolescents and young adults, who sustained major burn injury as children, do not experience greater social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction compared with normal weight burn injury survivors. Mobility limitations and higher weight status at burn are likely more important factors affecting the long-term social integration difficulty and body image dissatisfaction of these young people.

  5. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning (United States)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  6. Response of a rare endemic, Penstemon clutei, to burning and reduced belowground competition (United States)

    Peter Z. Fule; Judith D. Springer; David W. Huffman; W. Wallace Covington


    Penstemon clutei, a rare perennial beardtongue endemic to the ponderosa pine forest of the Sunset Crater volcanic field of northern Arizona, presents an opportunity to test the hypothesis that restoration of historic ecosystem conditions may enhance the sustainability of a rare species. We tested prescribed burning and root trenching treatments as proxies for the...

  7. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J


    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  8. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim


    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  9. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  10. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang


    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  13. Agriculture: Sustainability (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  14. Sustainable finance


    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG


    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  16. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Prescribed burning and its effect on plant biomass and species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three burning regime (fire protected, early burning, late burning) and their effects on plant biomass and species diversity in Dabagi forest Reserve of Sokoto State were investigated. Prescribed burning was carried out on randomly selected plots (10 m x 10 m) in November (early burn) and March (late burn) 2004.

  18. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.


    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  19. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  20. The NBT test in burned patients. (United States)

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.


    The number of polymorphs which stained with the dye nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT "Positive") increased sharply during the first week after burning, reaching levels 4--5 times above values for healthy volunteers. In burns of more than 20% of the body surface a second, smaller increase in the number of NBT "positives" occurred 4 to 6 weeks after burning. The high levels of NBT "positive" polymorphs occurred independently of infection on the burns. A burned patient who died from septicaemia had very low numbers of NBT "positive" polymorphs for 3 weeks before death. PMID:444418

  1. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  2. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn. (United States)

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj


    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisphosphonate and regular physiotherapy. He is now waiting for the HO bone to mature before having definitive excision of his lesions in 12-18 months time.

  3. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons


    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  4. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.


    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  5. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical burns in children: Aetiology and prevention. (United States)

    D'Cruz, Rachel; Pang, Tony C Y; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Chemical burns account for a small proportion of total burns in children, but may require specific first aid and different modes of prevention. A retrospective study between 2006 and 2012 of children ≤16 years treated with chemical burns at a specialist paediatric burn centre. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. 56 episodes of chemical burns occurred during the study period. The majority (54%) occurred in boys. There were 39 (72%) patients chemical burns occurred in the domestic setting, especially in the chemicals by an unattended child accounted for half of all (n=22, 49%) chemical burns burns in patients ≥10 years resulted from self-harm. The most common aetiological agents were household cleaners and aerosols in the younger and older age groups respectively. Chemical burns remain infrequent but potentially preventable. These burns mainly occur in the domestic setting due to non-intentional exposure of household chemicals in children burns in children <10. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population. (United States)

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M


    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to work reintegration and burn survivors' perspectives on educating work colleagues. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Tram; Lorrain, Mélyssa; Pognon-Hanna, Joe Nayima; Elfassy, Caroline; Calva, Valerie; de Oliveira, Ana; Nedelec, Bernadette


    Work reintegration constitutes a major milestone in the rehabilitation process of adults who have sustained a burn. Research studies with other conditions demonstrated that open, explicit communication about the worker's condition and potential limitations may facilitate this transition. However, the best approach to enable this discussion to occur has yet to be described. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate burn survivors' and clinicians' perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to work reintegration that could be addressed through education of work colleagues, which information to communicate to the workplace and the most effective method to disseminate this knowledge. Five semi-structured focus groups were conducted with three groups of informants including: (1) 13 burn survivors who had already returned to work; (2) 7 who were planning on returning; and (3) 9 burn care professionals. Qualitative data were inductively analyzed employing constant comparative techniques. Key barriers and facilitators that were identified included residual impairments, individual characteristics, support from the social environment, work accommodations and resources from the healthcare and compensation systems. Burn survivors agreed that return to work efforts were not adequately supported and that education should be provided to work colleagues about the burn and rehabilitation process, but that information on residual impairments should be communicated judiciously as it may be used prejudiciously against those seeking new employment. In the latter case, it is preferable to inform the workplace of their strengths and abilities. Extensive literature demonstrating the benefits of educational programs for the peers and teachers of pediatric burn survivors when they return to school already exists. This study provides evidence that there is a need for a similar process for adult burn survivors returning to work. The educational material must be

  9. [Burns care following a nuclear incident]. (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T


    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  10. Pediatric hand burns: thermal, electrical, chemical. (United States)

    Choi, Mark; Armstrong, Milton B; Panthaki, Zubin J


    Young children often use their hands for exploration of their surroundings, and this often leads to the hand being the primary site of injury. Because of this and many associated factors, burns of the pediatric hands are relatively common, with thermal injuries being the most frequent. Electrical and chemical etiologies contribute a minor portion of the burn injuries in the pediatric population. Some key differences should be considered in the management of hand burns in a pediatric patient versus an adult. In general, minor superficial burns will heal satisfactorily only with topical care. Deeper partial-thickness and full-thickness burns, however, require surgical interventions. Special care should always be taken in the management of electrical and chemical burns because the pathophysiology of these injuries are unique. Treatment of pediatric hand burns should also involve close and thorough follow-up to assess not only for healing and restoration of function of the injury but also for psychologic and emotional trauma.

  11. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  12. Repeated expansion in burn sequela. (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo


    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  13. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK


    growth of human keratinocyte stem cells capable of producing epithelia for large-scale grafting in burns and maintain long-term functionality as a self-renewing tissue. The normal functioning of such an in vitro constructed graft under long-term artificial growth conditions is limited by the difficulties of maintaining the epidermal stem cell compartment. An apparent answer to this problem of stem cell depletion during autograft preparation would be to start with a pure population of progenitor stem cells and derive sustainable autograft from them. We have been aiming to this solution and currently attempting to isolate a pool of epidermal progenitor cells using Mebiol gel, which is a Thermo-Reversible Gelation polymer and was shown by others to support the growth of multi-potent skin-derived epithelial progenitor-1 cells. Additionally, the usefulness of Mebiol gel in maintaining epidermal stem cell compartment without FBS and/or animal origin feeder cells is being investigated by our group.

  14. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns


    Medi Eslani; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Asadolah Movahedan; Djalilian, Ali R.


    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts wit...

  15. Burn Treatment for the Unburned (United States)


    5. Prasad JK, Feller I, Thomson PD: Use of amnion for the treatment of dressing is more rapid in patients with TEN-simple loss of Stevens - Johnson ...dermatologists, increases the risk of infection, Heimbach et al and other pediatricians, neurologists ( phenytoin [Dilantin] is a common authors quite... syndrome . J Trauma 1986;26:945-946. the epidermis is not the equivalent of a burn. As is the case in 6. Halebian PH, Madden MR, Finklestein JL, et al

  16. Chemical detoxification of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in a microwave discharge plasma reactor at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.


    This report focuses on the application of plasma technology to hazardous waste treatment. Microwave sustained plasmas are used to thermal degrade trichloroethylene and trichloroethane at atmospheric pressure. (JL)

  17. Non-thermal-plasma-activated de-NOxcatalysis. (United States)

    Gholami, Rahman; Stere, Cristina E; Goguet, Alexandre; Hardacre, Christopher


    The combination of non-thermal plasma (NTP) with catalyst systems as an alternative technology to remove NO x emissions in the exhaust of lean-burn stationary and mobile sources is reviewed. Several factors, such as low exhaust gas temperatures (below 300°C), low selectivity to N 2 and the presence of impurities, make current thermally activated technologies inefficient. Various hybrid plasma-catalyst systems have been examined and shown to have a synergistic effect on de-NO x efficiency when compared with NTP or catalyst-alone systems. The NTP is believed to form oxygenated species, such as aldehydes and nitrogen-containing organic species, and to convert NO to NO 2 , which improves the reduction efficiency of N 2 during hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction reactions. The NTP has been used as a pretreatment to convert NO to its higher oxidation states such as NO 2 to improve NO x reduction efficiency in the subsequent processes, e.g. NH 3 -selective catalytic reduction. It has been applied to the lean phase of the NO x storage to improve the adsorption capacity of the catalyst by conversion of NO to NO 2 Alternatively, a catalyst with high adsorption capacity is chosen and the NTP is applied to the rich phase to improve the reduction activity of the catalyst at low temperature.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  19. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention. (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin


    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  20. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano


    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  1. Sustainability Evaluation. (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz


    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  2. The slash-and-burn agriculture: a system in transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior


    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for thousands of years in the forests around the world, especially in the tropics, where it provides for the livelihood of countless poor rural populations. Characterized by an array of techniques based on crop diversification and shifting land use, this cultivation system has on the utilization of forest decomposing vegetation´s energetic capital its main asset. Many studies claim that slash-and-burn agriculture is sustainable only when performed under conditions of low human demographic density and maintenance or even increase of local biodiversity. However, it is growing in the academic literature, as well as in development debates, the concern regarding the role that this system has been playing in the deforestation of the planet´s tropical forests. This process appears to be closely linked to changes in land use patterns (agricultural intensification and urban and rural demographic growth. On the thread of these concerns, this article presents a critical review of the international and national academic literature on slash-and-burn agriculture. Thus, this review intend to draw a broad scenario of the current academic debate on this issue, as well as to identify the main alternatives strategies proposed to maintain or replace this cultivation system.

  3. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chappel


    Full Text Available Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods and across planned burn shifts; and (b examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED and in light- (LPA, moderate- (MPA and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively. No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period. Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time.

  4. Chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid. (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Engfeldt, Malin; Svedman, Cecilia; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Hindsén, Monica; Bruze, Magnus


    Trifluoroacetic acid is a very strong carboxylic acid. The acid has been suspected to have similar toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid on skin contact. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic, owing to skin penetration by fluoride ions. A spill of hydrofluoric acid on the skin may be fatal. As trifluoroacetic acid contains fluorine, patients with chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid have been given particular attention when treated in the hospital. To gather the known cases of trifluoroacetic acid burns from our department to give an overview of how they were exposed, the clinical presentation, and treatment. Five patients with chemical skin burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid were reviewed with regard to the extent of the burn, treatment, blood samples taken, and systemic effects. The chemical burns reported were limited (burns healed as expected for chemical burns caused by acids. None of the patients showed any symptoms or signs that are typical for hydrofluoric acid burns. Localized chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid should be regarded as being similar to burns from other acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. To our knowledge, there are no indications that trifluoroacetic acid causes the same toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept (United States)

    Menikoff, R.; Shaw, M. S.

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i) the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t) = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps) = [Nbc(Ps)]-1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t) = ∫t0 D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P) is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  6. Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. (United States)

    Ombati, Alex N; Ndaguatha, Peter L W; Wanjeri, Joseph K


    The kerosene stove is a common cooking appliance in lower and middle income households in Kenya and if it explodes, life threatening thermal burn injuries may be sustained by those using the appliance. Women tend to be victims more frequently since traditionally they are the ones who are involved in cooking. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors predisposing to kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Forty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study over a period of 6 months from November 2010 to April 2011 and the data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The analysis, using SPSS version 17.0 was done by associating occurrence of injury to: age, sex, socioeconomic status and level of education of patient. Charts and tables were used to present the results. The mean age of patients who sustained kerosene stove explosion burns was 23.6 years (SD ± 11.7) with the commonest age group being 20-39 years. More females were affected than males by a ratio of 7:3 and ninety two percent of those who sustained these burns were either from poor or lower middle socio-economic class. Stove explosions occurred mainly during cooking and when kerosene refill was being done. Most of the patients (63%) reported having bought kerosene from fuel vendors and almost all explosions were caused by the wick type of stove (98%). Young females from poor socioeconomic background were found to be at a higher risk for kerosene stove explosion burns. The wick stove is a common cause of burns especially when users unwittingly refill it with kerosene when already lit resulting in an explosion. Prevention can be done through evidence based public health education targeting the groups at risk and enactment of relevant laws. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The second lecture will explore some of the key physics phenomena which govern the behaviour of magnetic fusion plasmas and which have been the subject of intense research during the past 50 years: plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability and plasma-wall interactions encompass the major areas of plasma physics which must be understood to assemble an overall description of fusion plasma behaviour. In addition, as fusion plasmas approach the “burning plasma” regime, where internal heating due to fusion products dominates other forms of heating, the physics of the interaction between the α-particles produced by D-T fusion reactions and the thermal “background” plasma becomes significant. This lecture will also introduce the basic physics of fusion plasma production, plasma heating and current drive, and plasma measurements (“diagnostics”).

  8. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning (United States)

    Keek, L.; Heger, A.


    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10 per cent of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can ensue.

  9. A thematic study of the role of social support in the body image of burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Hodder


    Full Text Available There is evidence that social support is important for the development and mainte- nance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6. Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries.

  10. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland. (United States)

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M


    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  11. Use of preputial skin for coverage of post-burn contractures of fingers in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Zaroo


    Full Text Available Objective: Hand burns are common injuries. Children frequently sustain burn injuries, especially to their hands. Contractures are a common sequel of severe burns around joints. The prepuce, or foreskin, has been used as a skin graft for a number of indications. We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilising the preputial skin for the management of post-burn contractures of fingers in uncircumcised male children. Materials and Methods: Preputial skin was used for the coverage of released contractures of fingers in 12 patients aged 2-6 years. The aetiology of burns was "Kangri" burn in eight patients and scalding in four patients. Six patients had contracture in two fingers, four patients in one finger, and two patients had contractures in three fingers. Results: None of the patients had graft loss, and all the wounds healed within 2 weeks. All patients had complete release of contractures without any recurrence. Hyperpigmentation of the grafts was observed over a period of time, which was well accepted by the parents. Conclusions: Preputial skin can be used successfully for male children with mild-to-moderate contractures of 2-3 fingers for restoration of the hand function, minimal donor site morbidity.

  12. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.


    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  13. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  14. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  15. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  16. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich


    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  17. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  18. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.


    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  19. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine


    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  20. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  1. Imipenem in burn patients: pharmacokinetic profile and PK/PD target attainment. (United States)

    Gomez, David S; Sanches-Giraud, Cristina; Silva, Carlindo V; Oliveira, Amanda M Ribas Rosa; da Silva, Joao Manoel; Gemperli, Rolf; Santos, Silvia R C J


    Unpredictable pharmacokinetics (PK) in burn patients may result in plasma concentrations below concentrations that are effective against common pathogens. The present study evaluated the imipenem PK profile and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) correlation in burn patients. Fifty-one burn patients, 38.7 years of age (mean), 68.0 kg, 36.3% total burn surface area (TBSA), of whom 84% (43/51) exhibited thermal injury, 63% inhalation injury and 16% electrical injury (8/51), all of whom were receiving imipenem treatment were investigated. Drug plasma monitoring, PK study (120 sets of plasma levels) and PK/PD correlation were performed in a series of blood samples. Only 250 μl of plasma samples were required for drug plasma measurements using the ultra filtration technique for the purification of biological matrix and quantification using liquid chromatography. Probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using a PD target of 40% free drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (40%fT>MIC). Significant differences in PK parameters (medians), such as biological half-life (2.2 vs 5.5 h), plasma clearance (16.2 vs 1.4 l h(-1)) and volume of distribution (0.86 vs 0.19 l kg(-1)), were registered in burn patients via comparisons of set periods with normal renal function against periods of renal failure. Correlations between creatinine clearance and total body plasma clearance were also obtained. In addition, the PK profile did not change according to TBSA during sets when renal function was preserved. PTA was >89% for MIC values up to 4 mg l(-1). In conclusion, imipenem efficacy for the control of hospital infection on the basis of PK/PD correlation was guaranteed for burn in patients at the recommended dose regimens for normal renal function (31.1±9.7 mg kg(-1) daily), but the daily dose must be reduced to 17.2±9.7 mg kg(-1) during renal failure to avoid neurotoxicity.

  2. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents in burns. (United States)

    Ollstein, R N; McDonald, C


    Infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns. Burn wound infection is defined as burn wound bacterial proliferation in a density equal to or greater than 10(5) bacteria per gram of tissue. Gram-negative bacteria, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as staphylococci and fungal opportunists, have been identified as prominent invaders. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are essential adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection. Topical antimicrobial therapy is indicated in all hospitalized burn patients. Short-term use of systemic antimicrobials for prophylaxis and treatment is required in all moderate and major burns, specifically for early prophylaxis, perioperative prophylaxis, and clinical infection. Antimicrobial choice is based on specific patient or environmental bacteriological data.

  3. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hryniw, Natalia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Jon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kesler, Leigh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  4. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review. (United States)

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S


    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  5. Infection control in severely burned patients


    Coban, Yusuf Kenan


    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  6. Pyruvate in oral rehydration salt improves hemodynamics, vasopermeability and survival after burns in dogs. (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Hu, Xiao-Hang; Wang, Shu-Ming; Guo, Si-Jia; Li, Zong-Yu; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Fang-Qiang; Hu, Sen


    To investigate whether pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS), compared with citrate-enriched ORS (Cit-ORS), improves hemodynamics and organ function by alleviating vasopermeability and plasma volume loss during intra-gastric fluid rehydration in dogs with severe burn. Forty dogs subjected to severe burn were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): two oral rehydrated groups with Pyr-ORS and Cit-ORS (group PR and group CR), respectively, according to the Parkland formula during the first 24h after burns. Other two groups were the intravenous (IV) resuscitation (group VR) with lactated Ringer's solution with the same dosage and no fluid rehydration (group NR). During the next 24h, all groups received the same IV infusion. The hemodynamics, plasma volume, vasopermeability and water contents and function of various organs were determined. Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet activating factor (PAF) were detected by ELISA. Hemodynamics parameters were significantly improved in group PR superior to group CR after burns. Levels of VEGF and PAF were significantly lower in group PR than in group CR. Organ function parameters were also greatly preserved in group PR, relative to groups CR and NR. Lactic acidosis was fully corrected and survival increased in group PR (50.0%), compared to group CR (20.0%). Pyr-ORS was more effective than Cit-ORS in improving hemodynamics, visceral blood perfusion and organ function by alleviating vasopermeability-induced visceral edema and plasma volume loss in dogs with severe burn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Burns (United States)

    ... or grabbing hot items such as irons and oven doors. Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove so that children can't grab them and they can't accidentally be knocked over. Place fire extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and ...

  8. Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country. (United States)

    Fadeyibi, Idowu Olusegun; Ibrahim, Nasiru Akanmu; Mustafa, Ibrahim Akinwunmi; Ugburo, Andrew Omotayo; Adejumo, Adedeji Olusola; Buari, Adedayo


    First aid with cool running water reduces the severity of burn. Low level of knowledge of first aid in burns was shown in previous studies with few patients receiving first aid by water lavage. A study investigating the use of water lavage as first aid in patients presenting to hospital with burn in Lagos, Nigeria was carried out. Patients admitted to a University Teaching Hospital for treatment of burns were recruited for this prospective study. Data detailing demographics, scene and aetiology of burns, material used for first aid, who administered first aid, level of education and relationship of first-aider with patients, length of hospital stay, complications and outcome of treatment were collected and statistical analysis performed. 168 patients; 73 (43.4%) children and 95 (56.6%) adults were seen. Burns were sustained at home in 95 (74.2%) cases and outside in 33 (25.8%). Water lavage was used in 49 (29.2%) cases, raw eggs in 21 (12.5%), pap in 16 (9.5%) and other materials in 48.8%. 40 (23.8%) patients had not received any form of first aid at presentation. Patients that received no water first aid had higher complication rate (35.3% versus 18.4%) compared with those that had water first aid. The use of water first aid in burns was shown to reduce complication rate in this study. People should be educated on the efficacy of water first aid in pre-hospital care of burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  10. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  11. Management of the Chronic Burn Wound. (United States)

    Elkins-Williams, Stephen Tyler; Marston, William A; Hultman, Charles Scott


    This article reviews the current evidence in using hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in burn wounds. There is also separate consideration of diabetic foot burns and a protocol for use of HBOT in a specific case. The challenges of using HBOT in an acute burn care setting are reviewed. Next the pathophysiology of Marjolin ulcers is reviewed. The current thinking in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Marjolin ulcers is discussed. Finally, a background in using topical growth factors (tGF) is provided, followed by a summary of the current evidence of tGF in burn wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad


    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  13. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  14. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza


    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  15. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... scale fires can overcome these heat losses, as they typically have higher burning rates, which increase the heat feedback to the fuel surface and therefore can result in the higher burning efficiencies....

  16. A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients (United States)


    objectives were met and study equipment was distributed. • Reliability testing of goniometry measurement methods within and between investigators...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0148 TITLE: A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients...SUBTITLE A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0148 5c

  17. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.


    to 1990 with only 31 papers per year on average, and a total of some 1300 papers, precedes a considerable growth of some 35-50% in research activity every five years, over the last 20 years or so. As shown in the table, the annual dissemination of the field is more than 1600 papers and the total number of papers is in excess of 20000. This upwards trajectory is typical of a strong and growing subject area in physical science, with considerable capacity in both fundamental science and applications. PeriodNumber of papersPapers per annum 1948-1990130031 1991-19952279456 1996-20003447689 2001-20054571914 2006-201066401328 2011 1658 In many of the dense plasma jets discussed above, strong physical forces generated by the plasma are often desired and this favours plasma generation at elevated gas pressure, including atmospheric pressure, which favours a high level of gas ionization. Historically it has been challenging to reduce and control the strong physical forces in high-pressure plasmas for applications where these are unwanted, for example, surface modification of polymeric sheets [5]. Indeed, there is a real need for a vast range of material processing applications at temperatures below 100oC (or below 400 K) and this favours atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained far from thermal equilibrium with the dissipated electrical energy largely used not in heat generation but in unleashing non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The long-standing difficulty of effectively controlling the level of gas ionization at atmospheric pressure was overcome by the technological breakthrough of achieving atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in the late 1980s [6]. A related challenge stemming from high collisionality of atmospheric-pressure plasmas (v >> ω0) means that large-area plasmas sustained between parallel-plate electrodes are very susceptible to strong plasma instabilities when molecular gases are introduced for processing applications. This led to an effective

  18. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  19. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  20. Viable placental allograft as a biological dressing in the clinical management of full-thickness thermal occupational burns: Two case reports. (United States)

    Johnson, Eric L; Tassis, Elisabet K; Michael, Georgina M; Whittinghill, Susan G


    Occupational burn injuries can be detrimental and difficult to manage. The majority of complex cases are referred and managed at regional burn centers where access to specialized care is available. As an alternative to hospitalization with staged surgical procedures, placental products may be used for outpatient medical management of these common burn injuries, especially if access to a regional burn center is limited or restricted.Fresh amnion has been a treatment of choice in burns for more than 100 years. As a biological covering with a broad scope of potential uses, human placental membranes represent a dressing that is particularly advantageous for burn therapy. Recent advances in tissue-preservation technology have allowed for the commercialization of placental amnion products. To address several complications associated with burn injuries-contractures, scar formation, and pain-a viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM) (Grafix-PRIME, Osiris Therapeutics, Inc., MD) retaining the anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and antimicrobial properties of fresh placental tissues was chosen for clinical use in the 2 cases reported, where both patients had restricted access to the regional burn center. Two cases of work-related extremity burns presented to a local rural hospital for immediate post-injury assessment. The 1 case was of a man who sustained a 55.4 cm full-thickness 3 degree thermal burn with exposed bone and tendon, to the left dorsal forefoot after having an industrial pressure washer caught on his work boot. The 2 case was of a female who sustained a 4.7 cm full-thickness 3 degree crush burn to the dorsum extensor surface of her dominant hand's index finger after applying 80-pounds per square inch of heated pressure from a hydraulic press. Both burn patients elected to continue their care at the outpatient-based wound and hyperbaric center, receiving a combination of weekly ad libitum debridement, applications of vCPM, and occupational therapy

  1. Burns: The epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and ...

  2. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  3. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han


    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan R Patil


    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to another without effective management having significant emotional impact on patients. As the dental profession expands its scope of care to oral medicine and geriatrics, BMS will be more effectively diagnosed and managed by these dental surgeons. Hence, they should be more involved in evaluation and management of these patients. The present article provides updated information on BMS including possible etiological factors and current treatment options, although data on the effectiveness of these treatment modalities remain limited. Recently researchers found that treatment with a familiar nutritional supplement- lipoic acid- is of remarkable benefit with minimal adverse effects. ALA (alpha-lipoic acid may be the effective treatment modality in management of BMS.

  5. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  6. Harvesting as an Alternative to Burning for Managing Spinifex Grasslands in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshi K. Gamage


    Full Text Available Sustainable harvesting of grasslands can buffer large scale wildfires and the harvested biomass can be used for various products. Spinifex (Triodia spp. grasslands cover ≈30% of the Australian continent and form the dominant vegetation in the driest regions. Harvesting near settlements is being considered as a means to reduce the occurrence and intensity of wildfires and to source biomaterials for sustainable desert living. However, it is unknown if harvesting spinifex grasslands can be done sustainably without loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We examined the trajectory of plant regeneration of burned and harvested spinifex grassland, floristic diversity, nutrient concentrations in soil and plants, and seed germination in controlled ex situ conditions. After two to three years of burning or harvesting in dry or wet seasons, species richness, diversity, and concentrations of most nutrients in soil and leaves of regenerating spinifex plants were overall similar in burned and harvested plots. Germination tests showed that 20% of species require fire-related cues to trigger germination, indicating that fire is essential for the regeneration of some species. Further experimentation should evaluate these findings and explore if harvesting and intervention, such as sowing of fire-cued seeds, allow sustainable, localised harvesting of spinifex grasslands.

  7. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J


    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  8. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D


    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  10. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG


    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  11. One World, One Standard for Burn Care: Nursing's Role in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl A Ramstad


    Full Text Available In 1978, a landmark United Nations conference in Alma-Ata declared the goal of health for all by the year 2000 (WHO, 1978. Yet, today significant disparities exist between the health care afforded individuals in resource-limited countries and those in the industrialized world. Nursing, as a global profession, can become a powerful force for change so that better health is universally achieved. Problem/Background: This project started with a partnership between a burn center in the United States and a pediatric burn center (Burn Center in Peru, a country in which it is estimated that 15,000 children endure burn injuries each year (Huby-Vidaurre, 2016. Most are under the age of five, and suffer scald burns from pots with hot liquids left to cool on the floors of their homes. Pressure garment therapy (PGT is a major treatment to reduce scarring for pediatric burn survivors in the United States since the early 1970s, but is unavailable in Peru. Strategy: The Doctor of Nursing Practice project leader worked with the Burn Center team to develop a plan to use PGT as an intervention to address disfiguring scarring among pediatric burn survivors, utilizing the twinning approach. Methods: This quality improvement project involved interdisciplinary collaboration and international partnerships between resource-rich and resource-challenged nations. Obtaining supplies needed to promote PGT in Peru required cultivating relationships with many people in the United States, including translators and interpreters to assist in overcoming language barriers among the participants, manufacturers and distributors of pressure garments to donate fabrics, and people regularly traveling to Peru who transported the donated PGT materials. It also involved working closely with the Burn Center team on developing a culture conducive to conforming to an international standard of practice. Results: Resources were successfully leveraged to build a sustainable PGT program for all

  12. Simulations of Atmospheric Plasma Arcs (United States)

    Pearcy, Jacob; Chopra, Nirbhav; Jaworski, Michael


    We present the results of computer simulation of cylindrical plasma arcs with characteristics similar to those predicted to be relevant in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion systems. These arcs, with core temperatures on the order of 1 eV, place stringent limitations on the lifetime of conventional electrodes used in such systems, suggesting that a detailed analysis of arc characteristics will be crucial in designing more robust electrode systems. Simulations utilize results from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) program to solve the Elenbaas-Heller equation in a variety of plasma compositions, including approximations of coal-burning plasmas as well as pure gas discharges. The effect of carbon dioxide injection on arc characteristics, emulating discharges from molten carbonate salt electrodes, is also analyzed. Results include radial temperature profiles, composition maps, and current-voltage (IV) characteristics of these arcs. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto


    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  14. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study. (United States)

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C


    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  15. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  16. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  17. EPiderniolo y and bacterial colonization of burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKOOl) '. Bacterial isolates. Figure 2 shows the range of bacteria isolated from burn wounds. S. alfl'fl/J', P. mlmlaz'lz's and streptococci were the commonest isolates. The other Gram negatives were. Paeruglnara (4.5%). Salmonella, E. roll and Klebsz'ella app. Discussion. The epidemiology of burns reported from this study is.

  18. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection (United States)


    mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of...William J1. Northam. Peter A. lDorsaneo, and Paulette langlinais MS. model may be useful in evaluation of experimental antibi - prov ided technical support

  19. Zelfzorg als buffer voor burn-out


    Damman, Caroline; Dewaele, Bart


    Burn-out komt vaak voor bij hulpverleners. Door hun eigenheid durven ze niet snel hulp vragen. In geen enkele missietekst van een organisatie staat dat de organisatie zelfzorg bij hulpverleners als kerntaak opneemt. Zelfzorg is de beste buffer tegen burn-out.

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  1. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆ (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  2. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud


    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  3. Burned Oaks: Which Ones Will Survive?


    McCreary, Doug; Nader, Glenn


    Wildfire in an oak woodland can kill some trees outright and leave others with burn damage that may or may not eventually kill them, too. Here is a quick method for assessing the extent of burn damage and the likelihood that an affected tree will survive.

  4. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine (United States)

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington


    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  5. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline


    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  6. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  7. Burn out: Cognitieve problemen, stress en vermoeidheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.


    Veel burn-out patiënten rapporteren cognitieve problemen. Presteren burn-out patiënten ook minder goed op cognitieve taken? En met welke mechanismen hangen deze problemen samen? Onderzoek laat zien dat deze cognitieve problemen objectief zijn aan te tonen en dat ze meer met stress lijken samen te

  8. Prevention of Burn in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Kursun


    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, advances in medical care and longevity have resulting in an increase in the elderly population, and the world and Turkey populations have become older. In parallel with the aging population, problems seen in old people have been increasing. Burn, one of these problems, causes more serious injuries and high level of mortality in people aged 65 years and over compared to the general population. Reduction in sensory/cognitive functions, slowing reflexes, limited movements and accompanying situations (chronic diseases, alcoholism, used medication, neurological and psychiatric disorders which are due to physiology of elderly people increase the burn incidence and the severity of burn. In addition, these factors could also raise the ventilation requirement, complications and hospitalization period in burnt patients. Despite the recent developmetns in burn treatment and care, burn is still a serious health problem for elderly people. As the majority of the burn injuries are preventable, the essential point of burn administration in elderly people should be related to the prevention of burn incidence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 251-254

  9. Thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patient. (United States)

    Warner, Petra; Fields, Amanda L; Braun, Lindsay C; James, Laura E; Bailey, J Kevin; Yakuboff, Kevin P; Kagan, Richard J


    Thrombocytopenia is initially seen in patients with burn injury as a transient occurrence during the first week after injury. Subsequent decreases occur later in the course of treatment and are commonly due to sepsis, dilutional effects, and medication exposure. Although studies have demonstrated that thrombocytopenia in the critically ill patients is associated with a worse prognosis, there is limited literature as to the significance of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. In this study, the authors evaluate the prognostic implications of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. They performed a 5-year retrospective chart of patients aged 18 years or younger with burns >20% TBSA admitted to their institution. Data collected included patient demographics, burn etiology and %TBSA involvement, length of stay, pertinent laboratory values, and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Of the 187 patients studied, thrombocytopenia occurred in 112 patients. Eighty-two percent demonstrated thrombocytopenia within the first week of injury and 18% demonstrated additional episodes of thrombocytopenia after this time. A reactive thrombocytosis occurred in 130 (70%) patients. The incidence of thrombocytopenia could not be attributed to age, gender, or burn etiology. However, patients with thrombocytopenia were more likely to have inhalation injury and extensive TBSA involvement than those without (P thrombocytosis in the pediatric burn patient is associated with increased mortality risk and is influenced by the extent of burn, inhalation injury, and the development of sepsis.

  10. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of these metabolic alterations include increased gluconeogenesis, increased proteolysis, increased ureagenesis, sequestration of micronutrients and altered lipid metabolism. The magnitude of the response parallels the extent of the burn injury and reaches a maximum of about twice normal when the burn size exceeds ...

  11. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food? (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won


    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  12. An Approach to Modeling a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu M


    Full Text Available The temperature and smoke components distributions inside a burning cigarette have been briefly reviewed. Then, focusing on our mathematical model to explain the natural smoldering mechanism of a cigarette and new mathematical models recently published by other authors, an approach to modeling a burning cigarette has been outlined.

  13. Emergency burn rehabilitation: cost, risk, effectiveness (United States)

    Scott R. Miles; Donald M. Haskins; Darrel W. Ranken


    The fires of 1987 had a heavy impact on the Hayfork Ranger District. Over 50,000 acres were burned within the South Fork Trinity River watershed, which contains an important anadromous fishery. Major problems within the burned area were found to be: (1) slopes having highly erodible soils where intense wildfire resulted in a total loss of ground cover, and (2) burnout...

  14. Epidemiology and trends in severe burns in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, J.; Vloemans, A.F.; Beerthuizen, G.I.J.M.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Boxma, H.; Breederveld, R.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of severe burns in the Netherlands, including trends in burn centre admissions, non burn centre admissions and differences by age.

  15. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this ...

  16. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  17. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard


    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  18. Stubble Burning and Consciousness Level of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülistan Erdal


    Full Text Available This study analyses the consciousness levels, attitudes and behaviours of farmers against stubble burning and the damages of stubble burning which is a part of land misuse. 86 farmers from 9 villages in Zile county of Tokat province were surveyed for the study. These data was used to state farmers' socio-demographical characteristics and their behaviours against stubble burning was analysed. According to the study results, 99% of the farmers says that stubble burning is a wrong application. They states that stubble burning causes natural damages and the most importantly it is harmful by 76% to the living creatures in the nature. 57% of them prefers the method of mixing stubble to the soil.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotic use in pediatric burn units. (United States)

    Ergün, O; Celik, A; Ergün, G; Ozok, G


    Prophylactic antibiotic use in childhood burns is controversial. The efficiency of antibiotic prophylaxis in 77 pediatric burn patients was evaluated. Forty-seven patients received prophylactic antibiotics (Group AP), while 30 patients received no prophylaxis (Group NP). Age, wound depth, day of admission, mechanism of burn injury, type of dressings were similar for both groups (p > 0.05). Wound infection rates were 21.3 % in Group AP and 16.7 % in Group NP (p > 0.05). S. aureus, Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and E. coli were the most common microorganisms. Patients with wound colonization and infection had a larger burned total body surface area (BTBSA) in both groups (p beneficial and cost-effective results in the treatment of childhood burns is recommended.

  20. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  1. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review. (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis


    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  2. Early management of the burned pediatric hand. (United States)

    Feldmann, Mark E; Evans, Jill; O, Seung-Jun


    Unique anatomic and pathophysiologic features of the thermally burned pediatric hand are reviewed, with a focus on direct management of the injured tissue in the early phases of the treatment process. A nonoperative approach to most pediatric hand burns is advocated, and principles of early wound care, including antimicrobial therapy, and escharotomy are described. Specific emphasis is placed on distinctive characteristics of the fifth digit which make it prone to contracture patterns resembling a boutonniere-type deformity and on newer wound care technologies that simplify the application process without loss of antimicrobial and barrier function. The technical principles of full-thickness burn excision, as well as considerations in selecting suitable graft for burn closure, are also discussed. Finally, basic techniques for splinting, positioning, and exercising the burned pediatric hand are described. When properly applied, the principles discussed herein have rendered the severely scarred, functionless hand a rarity after thermal injury.

  3. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment. (United States)

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S


    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur.

  4. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.


    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  5. Paediatric Burns in the Acute Phase: Specific Aspects


    Grisolia, G.A.; Pinzauti, E.; Pancani, S.; Pavone, M.


    This paper deals with specific aspects of paediatric burns in the acute phase and considers how the treatment of burned children differs from that of burned adults. The epidemiology of paediatric burns is reviewed. Particular aspects of the treatment of burned children are presented, with regard to treatment at the site of the accident, first aid, resuscitation, and local treatment. The importance of the accurate assessment of paediatric burns is stressed.

  6. A case report on a burned ear: Elastic memory of cartilage following temporary burial in a skin pocket. (United States)

    Visscher, D O; van Zuijlen, P P M


    Preserving exposed ear cartilage following a facial burn remains a major challenge. Normally, burned ear cartilage cannot be preserved in case of a full thickness burn of the overlying skin, and the cartilage has to be surgically removed. Sometimes, reconstructions can be performed at a later stage. We report a case where burned ear cartilage was directly surgically buried in a retroauricular skin pocket showing remarkable elastic memory: the buried ear cartilage, in this case the antihelix, regenerated over time and regained its original position protruding from the facial area. This case illustrates that ear cartilage is highly resilient, even when it has sustained significant thermal damage, and can be buried in a retroauricular skin pocket to avoid radical excision of the framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra


    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  8. The ocular surface chemical burns. (United States)

    Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Movahedan, Asadolah; Djalilian, Ali R


    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients' needs.

  9. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  10. Keeping the Betty Lamp Burning. (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.


    Presents American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences Leaders and New Achievers' viewpoints regarding characterizations of family and consumer sciences, core values of the field, factors that motivate them to sustain their commitment to the profession, and recommendations for transmitting the essence of the profession. (Contains 23…


    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.


    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  12. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  13. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce leukocyte-derived bioactive substance accumulation in patients operated for burn trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Krarup, Annabel Lee


    for burn trauma are investigated. 24 consecutive patients were randomly selected to receive transfusion with non-filtered blood components (group A, n = 12) or similar products, which were prestorage leukofiltered (group B, n = 12). The burn injury was scored using the Bull and Fischer index of age...... and burn surface area. Histamine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed in plasma or serum collected from all patients 30 min before skin incision, at skin incision and 5, 10 and 30 min and thereafter every...... died in group A and 2 in group B; all with a Bull and Fischer index between 1.0 and 2.0. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce transfusion related accumulation of various bioactive substances and the requirement for blood in burn trauma patients....

  14. DEMO diagnostics and burn control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biel, W.; de M. Baar,; Dinklage, A.; Felici, F.; Konig, R.; Meister, H.; Treutterer, W.; Wenninger, R.


    The development of the control system for a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) faces unprecedented challenges. First, the requirements for control reliability and accuracy are more stringent than on existing fusion devices: any loss of plasma control on DEMO may result in a disruption which

  15. Plasma Viscosity with Mass Transport in Spherical ICF Implosion Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vold, Erik L; Ortega, Mario I; Moll, Ryan; Fenn, Daniel; Molvig, Kim


    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrange hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduc...

  16. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.


    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  17. Issues to address in burn care for ethnic minority children: A qualitative study of the experiences of health care staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, J.; Dokter, J.; van Loey, N.; Essink-Bot, M. L.


    Introduction: Numerous studies have shown that ethnic minority children in the developed world are at greater risk of sustaining burns compared to children from non-ethnic minority backgrounds. However, little is known about the experiences of hospital health care staff with ethnic minority children

  18. Long-term Effects of Pediatric Burns on the Circulatory System. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    The systemic responses to burns (in particular, elevated levels of catecholamines and stress hormones) have been shown to have an impact on cardiac function for at least 3 years in children with burns. However, it is not clear if these changes lead to long-term effects on the heart. The aim of this study was to assess whether pediatric burn injury is associated with increased long-term hospital use for circulatory diseases. A population-based longitudinal study was undertaken using linked hospital and death data from Western Australia for children younger than 15 years when hospitalized for a first burn injury (n = 10 436) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched noninjury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations (n = 40 819). Crude admission rates and cumulative length of stay for circulatory diseases were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling were used to generate incidence rate ratios and hazard ratios, respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors and preexisting health status, the burn cohort had 1.33 (incidence rate ratio) times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.64) as many circulatory system hospitalizations, 2.26 times the number of days in hospital with a diagnosis of a circulatory disease (2.26, 95% CI: 1.06-4.81), and were at a higher risk of incident admissions (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.46), compared with the uninjured cohort. Children who sustain burn injury experience elevated hospital admission rates and increased length of hospital stay for diseases of the circulatory system for a prolonged period of time after burn discharge. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. A systematic review of methods of eye irrigation for adults and children with ocular chemical burns. (United States)

    Chau, Janita P C; Lee, Diana T F; Lo, Suzanne H S


    To present the best available research evidence on eye irrigation methods for ocular chemical burns to facilitate better-informed clinical decisions. Randomized, quasi-randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing the effectiveness of eye irrigation methods among adults or children as an active form of emergency treatment for ocular chemical burns were reviewed. Electronic databases in English and Chinese were searched from inception to June 2010. Two reviewers made independent decisions on whether to include each publication in the review and critically appraised the study quality independently. Given the clinical and methodological diversity among the studies, the review findings are presented in a narrative form. Four studies involving 302 adults and children were identified. The results of this review indicate that patients who underwent irrigation with tap water immediately following alkali burns at the scene of injury had significantly better clinical and ocular outcomes. The evidence also suggests that in hospital settings, more patients preferred balanced saline solution (BSS) plus than other irrigation fluids. Irrigation with diphoterine was found in one study that resulted in better ocular outcomes following grade 1 and 2 ocular burns. With regard to duration of eye irrigation, patients with ocular chemical burns treated with prolonged irrigation reported shorter duration of treatment at hospital and absence from work. The results should be treated with caution, as there were significant differences between the comparison groups in some studies. As prompt eye irrigation with tap water immediately after alkali burns had better outcomes, it would be important to commence eye irrigation immediately after burns are sustained. In this review, irrigating fluids including normal saline, lactated Ringer's, normal saline with sodium bicarbonate added, BSS Plus, and diphoterine solutions all yielded positive ocular outcomes suggesting for its use

  20. Burns caused by electronic vaping devices (e-cigarettes): A new classification proposal based on mechanisms. (United States)

    Serror, K; Chaouat, M; Legrand, Matthieu M; Depret, F; Haddad, J; Malca, N; Mimoun, M; Boccara, D


    Introduction With more than 10 million of daily users, e-cigarettes encountered a great success. But in the past few years, the number of medical reports of injuries caused by the explosion of e-cigarettes has significantly increased. This article aims at reporting our series and reviewing the literature to propose a new classification based on the mechanisms of injuries related to e-cigarettes that can guide non-specialists and specialists in the management of these patients. Method We performed a retrospective review of our institutional burn database from June 2016 to July 2017 for injuries caused by or in the context of using an e-cigarette. The patients' demographics (age, gender), burn injury mechanisms, depth, localization, surface and interventions were described. Results Ten patients suffered from burns related to the use of e-cigarettes. The burns were located at the thigh (80%) and the hand (50%) with a mean surface of 3% of TBSA. Four different mechanisms could be described: Type A: thermal burns with flames due to the phenomenon of "thermal runaway", Type B: blasts lesions secondary to the explosion, Type C: chemical alkali burns caused by spreading of the electrolyte solution and Type D: thermal burns without flames due to overheating. These different mechanisms suggest specific surgical and non-surgical management. Conclusion Management of injuries sustained from e-cigarettes' explosions should be approached from the standpoint of mechanisms. Different mechanisms could be associated and should be considered in specific management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam: two case reports. (United States)

    Imran, Farrah-Hani; Karim, Rahamah; Maat, Noor Hidayah


    Successful wound healing depends on various factors, including exudate control, prevention of microbial contaminants, and moisture balance. We report two cases of managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam dressing. In Case 1, a 2-year-old Asian girl presented with a delayed (11 days) wound on her right leg. She sustained a thermal injury from a hot iron that was left idle on the floor. Clinical inspection revealed an infected wound with overlying eschar that traversed her knee joint. As her parents refused surgical debridement under general anesthesia, hydrotherapy and wound dressing using SMARTPORE Technology Polyurethane foam were used. Despite the delay in presentation of this linear thermal pediatric burn injury that crossed the knee joint, the patient's response to treatment and its outcome were highly encouraging. She was cooperative and tolerated each dressing change without the need of supplemental analgesia. Her wound was healed by 24 days post-admission. In Case 2, a 25-year-old Asian man presented with a mixed thickness thermal flame burn on his left leg. On examination, the injury was a mix of deep and superficial partial thickness burn, comprising approximately 3% of his total body surface area. SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam was used on his wound; his response to the treatment was very encouraging as the dressing facilitated physiotherapy and mobility. The patient rated the pain during dressing change as 2 on a scale of 10 and his pain score remained the same in every subsequent change. His wound showed evidence of epithelialization by day 7 post-burn. There were no adverse events reported. Managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam resulted in reduced pain during dressing changes and the successful healing of partial and mixed thickness wounds. The use of SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam dressings showed encouraging results and requires further research as a desirable management option in

  2. [Decrease of the incidence of sepsis syndrome after early enteral nutrition of patients with severe burns]. (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Gómez-Cia, T; Garrido, M; Parejo, J; Jódar, E; Serrano, P; Romero, H; Fraile, J; Franco, A; García-Luna, P P


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early enteral nutrition on the incidence of the septic syndrome as well as its tolerance, in patients with severe burns. We retrospectively studied 64 patients older than 15 years of age, with a greater than 20% burned body surface area. They were divided into 2 groups as a function of the time elapsed between the beginning of Enteral Nutrition and the time of the burning: 23 patients were given Enteral Nutrition within 24 hours after the burn, and in 41 patients the enteral nutrition was started later than 24 hours after sustaining the thermal injury. Both groups were similar with respect to age, sex, percentage of 2nd and 3rd degree burns, incidence of inhalation, and deaths. All patients received the Enteral Nutrition through a nasogastric tube, with administration of a polymeric, hyperprotein and hypocaloric formula through a continuous infusion pump. In our study we saw a reduction of the incidence of the septic syndrome in the patients who received early enteral Nutrition (26%; 6 patients of a total of 23), with respect to those who did non receive early Enteral Nutrition (54%; 22 patients of a total of 41), with a statistical significance of p > 0.05. There were no differences between both groups with respect to the digestive tolerance to Enteral Nutrition. From our study we can deduce that early Enteral Nutrition reduces the incidence of septic complications, without this increasing the digestive intolerance to the same.

  3. The effect of occlusive dressings on the energy metabolism of severely burned children. (United States)

    Caldwell, F T; Bowser, B H; Crabtree, J H


    Metabolic studies were performed on 23 burned children. They were studied sequentially until their burn wounds were healed. A metabolic study lasted 20 minutes, during which continuous measurements were made of O2 consumption and CO2 production rates, rectal temperature, average surface temperatures (dressings, skin and wound), body heat content, and rate of body weight loss using a bed scale. These measurements allowed solution of the heat balance equation for each study period. After 24 hours in a constant temperature room kept at 28 C and 40% relative humidity, metabolic studies were initiated when blood was drawn for catecholamine assay, followed by a metabolic analysis, after which dressings were removed and fresh silvadene applied to the wounds. No dressings were applied. Metabolic analyses were repeated after two and four hours of exposure, after which blood for catecholamine analysis was drawn and the study terminated. Without dressings in a thermally neutral environment, burn patients demonstrated an increased rate of heat loss of 27 watts/square meter body surface area (W/M2), compared with the predicted normal. The major portion of this increment is by evaporation, which increased 300%. The rate of heat production equals heat loss, and is increased 50% above the predicted normal. Occlusive dressings result in a 15 W/M2 decrease in the rate of heat loss, about evenly divided between evaporative and dry routes, with a corresponding 15 W/M2 decrease in the rate of heat production. Plasma catecholamine levels of bandaged burn patients are not significantly different from values for healed burn patients, and do not correlate with the rate of heat production. The increased heat production of burn patients is a response to an increased rate of heat loss, not vice versa. The use of occlusive dressings substantially reduces the energy requirements to manageable levels, even in patients with very large burns. PMID:7235763

  4. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance (United States)


    concentrations, muscle lipid metabolism , and insulin resistance, than exercise alone during rehabilitation in burn children. Aims: In these aims...1) liver and plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations; 2) muscle lipid metabolism (fat oxidation, concentrations of TG and fatty acid...therapeutic use of the testosterone analog, oxandrolone combined with the therapeutic use of the propranolol over a treatment period of 1 year

  5. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran. (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R


    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  6. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

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    Bruno Merk


    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  7. Management of difficult pediatric facial burns: reconstruction of burn-related lower eyelid ectropion and perioral contractures. (United States)

    Egeland, Brent; More, Sunita; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S


    Despite significant burn treatment advances, modern multidisciplinary care, and improved survival after burns, facial burn scars remain clinically challenging. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. Pediatric facial burns present the same reconstructive challenges seen in adults, with additional developmental and psychologic concerns. In this paper, we describe the basic principals of facial burn care in the pediatric burn population, with a specific focus on lower-eyelid burn ectropion and oral commissure burn scar contracture leading to microstomia. Several cases are demonstrated.

  8. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of resilience in the recovery of the burn-injured patient: an integrative review

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    Kornhaber R


    Full Text Available R Kornhaber,1 H Bridgman,2 L McLean,3–6 J Vandervord7 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 2Centre for Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 3Brain and Mind Centre, 4Westmead Psychotherapy Program, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Sydney West and Greater Southern Psychiatry Training Network, Cumberland Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, 6Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 7Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia Abstract: Severe burn injuries are catastrophic life events resulting in significant physical and psychological effects. With long periods of hospitalization and rehabilitation, burn survivors encounter many issues, including an altered body image and loss of function and independence that subsequently influence quality of life and the family unit. Consequently, resilience has been identified as a fundamental concept that facilitates the adaptability required to navigate the lengthy and complex recovery process. However, over time, the notion of resilience has shifted from a static, innate trait to a fluid and multidimensional concept. Here, we review the evidence surrounding the role of resilience in the recovery of burn injury. This integrative review was based on a systematic search of five electronic databases. Of the 89 articles identified, ten primary research papers met the inclusion criteria. Three key themes were identified encompassing relational strengths, positive coping, and the resistance to trauma symptoms that are fundamental constructs associated with developing and sustaining resilience that resonate with the broader literature on burn recovery. However, limited evidence is currently available within the burns context. While resilience appears to be a vital

  10. Not child's play: National estimates of microwave-related burn injuries among young children. (United States)

    Lowell, Gina; Quinlan, Kyran


    Previous studies have shown that children as young as 18 months can open a microwave and remove its contents causing sometimes severe scalds. Although this mechanism may be uniquely preventable by an engineering fix, no national estimate of this type of child burn injury has been reported. We analyzed the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System data on emergency department-treated microwave-related burn injuries from January 2002 through December 2012 in children aged 12 months to 4 years. Based on the narrative description of how the injury occurred, we defined a case as a burn with a mechanism of either definitely or probably involving a child himself or herself opening a microwave oven and accessing the heated contents. National estimates of cases and their characteristics were calculated. During the 11 years studied, an estimated 10,902 (95% confidence interval, 8,231-13,573) microwave-related burns occurred in children aged 12 months to 4 years. Of these, 7,274 (66.7%) (95% confidence interval, 5,135-9,413) were cases of children burned after accessing the contents of the microwave themselves. A total of 1,124 (15.5%) cases required hospitalization or transfer from the treating emergency department. Narratives for children as young as 12 months described the child himself or herself being able to access microwave contents. The most commonly burned body parts were the upper trunk (3,056 cases) and the face (1,039 cases). The most common scalding substances were water (2,863 cases), noodles (1,011 cases), and soup (931 cases). The majority of microwave-related burns in young children occur as a result of the child himself or herself accessing the microwave and removing the contents. More than 600 young children are treated in US emergency departments annually for such burns. Children as young as 12 months sustained burns caused by this mechanism of injury. These burns could be prevented with a redesign of microwaves to

  11. Modelling of Burning Surface Regression of Taper Convex Star Propellant Grain


    Himanshu Shekhar


    The burn area calc,ulhtion of al propellant, grain with taper convex star Port is discussed and a software developed, usIng a new zoning definition of the star cross-section,is elaborated. The evolution of lengthwise conditions,inclusion of a coupled sustainer mode, real-time calculations andcalculation for sliver burrling part make this software a versatile tool for propellant grain design and parametric studies.

  12. Virtual Sustainability

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    William Sims Bainbridge


    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  13. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  14. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting. (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  15. Research in burns - Present and future

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    Burd Andrew


    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in burns care over the past 50 years. Much of this, but not all, can be attributed to basic science and clinically related research. Out of the best centres in the world, centres that are fully funded and richly resourced, best practice guidelines result in impressive outcomes not only in terms of survival but also in terms of a quality of survival. Indeed the remaining clinical challenges in these centres are the elderly, the inhalational burns, and the very extensive burns. There are however other challenges when looking at burns care in a global context and in particular is the provision of even minimal standards of acceptable care for burns patients in many parts of the world. Whilst the justification for research funding in the wealthy countries becomes increasingly esoteric, for example looking at the immunology of face transplantation, the global health challenges of burns care still remain. Perhaps, the greatest research challenge in burns care in the 21st century lies not in furthering our understanding of the phenomenon we observe but the global application of the knowledge we already possess.

  16. Infections in critically ill burn patients. (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P


    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

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    Wei-tao Yang


    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  18. The trends of burns epidemiology in a tropical regional burns centre. (United States)

    Hwee, Jolie; Song, Christopher; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack


    Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a regional burns centre in Southeast Asia and is the only dedicated burns facility providing specialized burns care in Singapore. A cohort study was performed for burns patients admitted to SGH from 2011 to 2013. We compared our data with earlier studies and observed the trends of burns epidemiology in Singapore. Results were analyzed using the SPSS programme. 655 patients were admitted during this study period, a 35.9% increase from 2003 to 2005. Scalding by water and flame injury remain the top causes of burns and the mean extent of burn is 9.5%. TBSA correlates with the incidence of burn infection, bacteremia and mortality. Patients with ≥20% TBSA are at a higher risk of bacteremia, and ≥ 34% TBSA is a predictor of mortality. 4.9% (n=32) of our patients developed bacteremia. Bacteremia was associated with a surgical duration of ≥80min. Patients with bacteremia incurred longer hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates. Overall mortality rate of our burns patients has decreased from 4.5% to 2.7% (n=18). Key factors of mortality include inhalational injury, bacteremia and ≥20% TBSA. This is a large epidemiology study of a tropical region burns centre. A total of 655 burns cases over a 3-year period were analyzed. We analysed the key factors associated with adverse outcomes including burns infection, bacteremia and mortality, factors associated with mortality, and discussed strategies on the optimization of burns care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data! (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.


    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  20. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow? (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.