WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained burning plasmas

  1. D-T plasma of self-sustained burning under high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xueyu

    2003-01-01

    By adopting a Bohm-type thermal diffusion coefficient related to the energy confinement enhancement factor H within the conventional magnetic shear regime, and a mixed Bohm-gyro-Bohm thermal diffusion coefficient related to the shear within the negative central magnetic shear regime, considering the effect of the α particle anomalous diffusion and the dynamic feedback heating, and starting from energy transport of electrons and ions, we have studied the high performance self-sustaining burning deuterium-tritium plasma under a given plasma density profile for the two different kinds of magnetic shear regimes. Some conclusions are obtained: under the conventional shear, only when H≥3, the D-T burning can produce a large power output, and when H is larger than a certain value (H≅4), D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating; under the negative central shear, the plasmas have a higher plasma performance and a larger power output than that under conventional shear, and D-T plasma self-sustained burning can be maintained without the dynamic feedback heating power, the suitable alpha particle diffusion is advantage ous to D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear, and D-T self-sustained burning cannot be maintained under a large α particle anomalous diffusion for the negative central shear. The dynamic feedback heating power is important for sustaining D-T plasma burning under the conventional shear

  2. Properties of plasma flames sustained by microwaves and burning hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-01-01

    Plasma flames made of atmospheric microwave plasma and a fuel-burning flame were presented and their properties were investigated experimentally. The plasma flame generator consists of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The plasma flames are sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The microwave plasma torch in the plasma flame system can burn a hydrocarbon fuel by high-temperature plasma and high atomic oxygen density, decomposing the hydrogen and carbon containing fuel. We present the visual observations of the sustained plasma flames and measure the gas temperature using a thermocouple device in terms of the gas-fuel mixture and flow rate. The plasma flame volume of the hydrocarbon fuel burners was more than approximately 30-50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 868 K at a measurement point, that of the diesel microwave plasma flame with the addition of 0.019 lpm diesel and 30 lpm oxygen increased drastically to about 2280 K. Preliminary experiments for methane plasma flame were also carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions. Finally, we investigated the influence of the microwave plasma on combustion flame by observing and comparing OH molecular spectra for the methane plasma flame and methane flame only

  3. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  4. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu

    1982-01-01

    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  5. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.

    2001-01-01

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  6. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  7. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  8. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  9. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  10. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  11. US plans for burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The first US burning plasma experiment will be the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The initial start-up with hydrogen is expected in December, 1983. The experiment by D-T reaction will begin in 1986. Because of the lack of shielding capability, later experiment is not yet defined. The informal scientific interaction with JET (European project) is kept. The design work on the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) continues, but is delayed. US fusion laboratories collaborated with IPP-Garching on the conceptual design of Zephyr experiment. The US continues to participate in INTOR activities, and will investigate into the critical issues relevant to both INTOR and FED in coming years. (Kato, T.)

  12. Simulation of burning plasma dynamics in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.F.; Amano, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Inoue, N.

    1996-02-01

    Dynamics of burning plasma for various transient situations in ITER plasma has been simulated with a 1.5-dimensional up-down asymmetry Tokamak Transport Simulation Code (TTSC). We have mainly paid attention to intrinsic plasma transport processes such as the confinement improvement and the change of plasma profiles. It is shown that a large excursion of the fusion power takes place with a small improvement of the plasma confinement; e.g., an increase of the global energy confinement by a factor of 1.22 yields the fusion power excursion of ∼ 30% within a few seconds. Any feedback control of fueling D-T gas is difficult to respond to this short time scale of fusion power transient. The effect of the plasma profile on the fusion power excursion has been studied, by changing the particle transport denoted by the inward pinch parameter C V . It is found that the fusion power excursion is mild and slow, and the feedback control is quite effective in suppressing the fusion power excursion and in shortening the duration time of power transient in this case. The change in the pumping efficiency has also been studied and a large excursion of the fusion power has not been observed, because of the decrease in the fuel density itself in the case of the increase in the pumping efficiency, and the helium ash accumulation in the case of the decrease in the pumping efficiency. Finally it is shown that the MHD sawteeth activity leads to the fusion power fluctuation of ± 20%, although it is helpful for the helium ash exhaust. (author)

  13. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha-particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha-particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on-axis are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (author)

  14. Exploration of burning plasmas in FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.; Kessel, C.E.; Hammett, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Studies (ARIES) have identified the key physics and technical issues that must be resolved before attractive fusion reactors can be designed and built. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) design study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to address the key burning plasma and advanced tokamak physics issues identified in the ARIES studies. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-AT, a steady-state advanced tokamak reactor based on a high-βand high-bootstrap-current operating regime. The key advanced tokamak features of FIRE are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple ( cr ). A longer term goal of FIRE is to explore 'steady-state' high-β advanced tokamak regimes with high bootstrap fractions (f BS ) ∼ 75% at β N ∼ 4 and moderate fusion gain (Q ∼ 5 to 10) under quasi-steady-state conditions for ∼ 3 τ cr . FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field, cryogenic-copper-coil tokamak with: R o = 2.14 m, a = 0.595 m, B t (R o ) = 6 to 10T, I p = 4.5 to 7.7 MA with a flat top time of 40 to 20 s for 150 MW of fusion power. FIRE will utilize only metal plasma facing components; Be coated tiles for the first wall and W brush divertors to reduce tritium retention as required for fusion reactors. FIRE will be able to test divertor and plasma facing components under reactor relevant power densities since the fusion power density of 6 MWm -3 and neutron wall loading of 2.3 MWm -2 approach those expected in a reactor. (author)

  15. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  16. The Burning Plasma Experiment conventional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Program Plasma Experiment (BPX) is phased to start construction of conventional facilities in July 1994, in conjunction with the conclusion of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project. This paper deals with the conceptual design of the BPX Conventional Facilities, for which Functional and Operational Requirements (F ampersand ORs) were developed. Existing TFTR buildings and utilities will be adapted and used to satisfy the BPX Project F ampersand ORs to the maximum extent possible. However, new conventional facilities will be required to support the BPX project. These facilities include: The BPX building; Site improvements and utilities; the Field Coil Power Conversion (FCPC) building; the TFTR modifications; the Motor Generation (MG) building; Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) building; and the associated Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) systems. The BPX building will provide for safe and efficient shielding, housing, operation, handling, maintenance and decontamination of the BPX and its support systems. Site improvements and utilities will feature a utility tunnel which will provide a space for utility services--including pulse power duct banks and liquid nitrogen coolant lines. The FCPC building will house eight additional power supplied for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The MG building will house the two MG sets larger than the existing TFTR MG sets. This paper also addresses the conventional facility cost estimating methodology and the rationale for the construction schedule developed. 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. NIFS symposium: toward the research of fusion burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae

    1993-07-01

    NIFS symposium, entitled 'Toward the research of Fusion Burning Plasmas - Present status and Future Strategy' was held at NIFS on July 15th 1992. This NIFS symposium covers various topics related to burning plasma, e.g., JET DT experiment, Plan for DT experiment on TFTR as well as the future trends among researchers. To study the critical issues and trends of future research, a questionnaire was sent to about 100 researchers. This report presents such activities in the NIFS symposium. (author)

  18. Liquefied petroleum gas cold burn sustained while refueling a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Bronwyn; Mitra, Biswadev; Maini, Amit; Cleland, Heather

    2010-02-01

    There have been few cases of cold burn related to the exposure of liquid petroleum gas (LPG). We present the case of a young woman exposed to LPG while refueling her car who sustained partial thickness burns to the dorsum of her hand. Contact with LPG leaking from a pressurized system causes tissue damage because of cold injury. Immediate management of LPG is extrapolated from the management of frostbite. The increasing use of LPG mandates an awareness of prevention strategies and management principles in the setting of adverse events.

  19. A Burning Plasma Experiment: the role of international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Stewart

    2003-04-01

    The world effort to develop fusion energy is at the threshold of a new stage in its research: the investigation of burning plasmas. A burning plasma is self-heated. The 100 million degree temperature of the plasma is maintained by the heat generated by the fusion reactions themselves, as occurs in burning stars. The fusion-generated alpha particles produce new physical phenomena that are strongly coupled together as a nonlinear complex system, posing a major plasma physics challenge. Two attractive options are being considered by the US fusion community as burning plasma facilities: the international ITER experiment and the US-based FIRE experiment. ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a large, power-plant scale facility. It was conceived and designed by a partnership of the European Union, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States. At the completion of the first engineering design in 1998, the US discontinued its participation. FIRE (the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a smaller, domestic facility that is at an advanced pre-conceptual design stage. Each facility has different scientific, programmatic and political implications. Selecting the optimal path for burning plasma science is itself a challenge. Recently, the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee recommended a dual path strategy in which the US seek to rejoin ITER, but be prepared to move forward with FIRE if the ITER negotiations do not reach fruition by July, 2004. Either the ITER or FIRE experiment would reveal the behavior of burning plasmas, generate large amounts of fusion power, and be a huge step in establishing the potential of fusion energy to contribute to the world's energy security.

  20. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain ((ge) 10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  1. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  2. Ignition and burn control in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Gruber, O.; Lackner, K.; Minardi, E.; Neuhauser, J.; Wilhelm, R.; Wunderlich, R.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Different schemes for the control of the thermal instability in an ignited fusion reactor are analysed by zero- and one-dimensional models. Passive stabilization methods considered are ripple-enhanced ion heat conduction, the effect of the major-radius variation of the plasma column in a time-independent vertical field, and the combination of both effects, including the spatial variation of the toroidal-ripple amplitude. Active control methods analysed are high-Q-driven operation and feedback-controlled major-radius variation following different scenarios. One-dimensional analyses taking into account only conductive losses show the existence of a single unstable mode in the energy balance, justifying, under these assumptions, the study of only global control. (author)

  3. Burn stability of tokamak fusion plasmas with synergetic current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burn in Tokamak-reactors with non-inductive current generated with the simultaneous application of various methods is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to the ITER synergetic current drive scenario involving LH waves, neoclassical effects and NB injection. For ITER-like confinement laws, it is shown that this scenario may be unstable on the plasma skin time scale. Figs

  4. Control of ITBs in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, S. R.; Newman, D. E.; Terry, P. W.; Sanchez, R.

    2017-10-01

    In the magnetically confined burning plasma devices (in this case Tokamaks), internal transport barriers (ITBs) are those regimes in which the turbulence is suppressed by the E X B velocity shear, reducing the turbulent transport. This often occurs at a critical gradient in the profiles. The change in the transport then modifies the density and temperature profiles feeding back on the system. These transport barriers have to be controlled both to form them for improved confinement and remove them to both prevent global instabilities and to remove the ash and unnecessary impurities in the device. In this work we focus on pellet injection and modulated RF heating as a way to trigger and control the ITBs. These have an immediate consequence on density and temperature and hence pressure profiles acting as a control knob. For example, depending upon pellet size and its radial position of injection, it either helps to form or strengthen the barrier or to get rid of ITBs in the different transport channels of the burning plasmas. This transport model is then used to investigate the control and dynamics of the transport barriers in burning plasmas using pellets and RF addition to the NBI power and alpha power.

  5. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  6. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M J; Balet, B; Jarvis, O N; Stubberfield, P M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Integrated predictive modelling simulations of burning plasma experiment designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, Glenn; Onjun, Thawatchai; Kritz, Arnold H

    2003-01-01

    Models for the height of the pedestal at the edge of H-mode plasmas (Onjun T et al 2002 Phys. Plasmas 9 5018) are used together with the Multi-Mode core transport model (Bateman G et al 1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1793) in the BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code to predict the performance of the ITER (Aymar A et al 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 519), FIRE (Meade D M et al 2001 Fusion Technol. 39 336), and IGNITOR (Coppi B et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1253) fusion reactor designs. The simulation protocol used in this paper is tested by comparing predicted temperature and density profiles against experimental data from 33 H-mode discharges in the JET (Rebut P H et al 1985 Nucl. Fusion 25 1011) and DIII-D (Luxon J L et al 1985 Fusion Technol. 8 441) tokamaks. The sensitivities of the predictions are evaluated for the burning plasma experimental designs by using variations of the pedestal temperature model that are one standard deviation above and below the standard model. Simulations of the fusion reactor designs are carried out for scans in which the plasma density and auxiliary heating power are varied

  8. Plasma chemistry for concept of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Yu.; Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Tsymbaliuk, O.M.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Chunikhina, K.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Iukhimenko, V.V.; Veremii, Iu.P.; Prisyazhnevych, I.V.; Prysiazhna, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the exploration of the compatibility of the hybrid plasma-catalytic conversion of liquid hydrocarbons into syngas with the concept of sustainable development. The results of the experimental investigations indicate the high efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion of ethanol to syngas and the small amount of waste (a few percent of feedstock weight). The results of the simulation of the kinetics using ZDPlasKin code for traditional thermochemical and hybrid plasma-catalytic conversions indicate some differences in their mechanisms, which lead to the significant changes in the syngas ratio.

  9. Testing program for burning plasma experiment vacuum vessel bolted joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, P.K.; Khan, M.Z.; Swanson, J.; Feng, T.; Dinkevich, S.; Warren, J.

    1992-01-01

    As presently designed, the Burning Plasma Experiment vacuum vessel will be segmentally fabricated and assembled by bolted joints in the field. Due to geometry constraints, most of the bolted joints have significant eccentricity which causes the joint behavior to be sensitive to joint clamping forces. Experience indicates that as a result of this eccentricity, the joint will tend to open at the side closest to the applied load with the extent of the opening being dependent on the initial preload. In this paper analytical models coupled with a confirmatory testing program are developed to investigate and predict the non-linear behavior of the vacuum vessel bolted joint

  10. Confinement projections for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Bateman, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Perkins, F.W.; Pomphrey, N.; Stotler, D.P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Porkolab, M.; Reidel, K.S.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Waltz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX, formerly CIT) is to study the physics of self-heated fusion plasmas (Q = 5 to ignition), and to demonstrate the production of substantial amounts of fusion power (P fus = 100 to 500 MW). Confinement projections for BPX have been made on the basis of (1) dimensional extrapolation (2) theory-based modeling calibrated to experiment, and (3) statistical scaling from the available empirical data base. The results of all three approaches, discussed in this paper, roughly coincide. We presently view the third approach, statistical scaling, as the most reliable means for projecting the confinement performance of BPX, and especially for assessing the uncertainty in the projection. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Stability and Control of Burning Tokamak Plasmas with Resistive Walls: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, George [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Brennan, Dylan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Cole, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Finn, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project is focused on theoretical and computational development for quantitative prediction of the stability and control of the equilibrium state evolution in toroidal burning plasmas, including its interaction with the surrounding resistive wall. The stability of long pulse burning plasmas is highly sensitive to the physics of resonant layers in the plasma, sources of momentum and flow, kinetic effects of energetic particles, and boundary conditions at the wall, including feedback control and error fields. In ITER in particular, the low toroidal flow equilibrium state, sustained primarily by energetic alpha particles from fusion reactions, will require the consideration of all of these key elements to predict quantitatively the stability and evolution. The principal investigators on this project have performed theoretical and computational analyses, guided by analytic modeling, to address this physics in realistic configurations. The overall goal has been to understand the key physics mechanisms that describe stable toroidal burning plasmas under active feedback control. Several relevant achievements have occurred during this project, leading to publications and invited conference presentations. In theoretical efforts, with the physics of the resonant layers, resistive wall, and toroidal momentum transport included, this study has extended from cylindrical resistive plasma - resistive wall models with feedback control to toroidal geometry with strong shaping to study mode coupling effects on the stability. These results have given insight into combined tearing and resistive wall mode behavior in simulations and experiment, while enabling a rapid exploration of plasma parameter space, to identify possible domains of interest for large plasma codes to investigate in more detail. Resonant field amplification and quasilinear torques in the presence of error fields and velocity shear have also been investigated. Here it was found, surprisingly, that the Maxwell

  12. ITER-FEAT - The future international burning plasma experiment - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Shimomura, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of effort in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) since 1998 has been the development of a new design to meet revised technical objectives and a cost reduction target of about 50% of the previously accepted cost estimate. Drawing on the design solutions already developed and using the latest physics results and outputs from technology R and D projects, the Joint Central Team and Home Teams, working jointly, have been able to converge towards a new design which will allow the exploration of a range of burning plasma conditions, with a capacity to progress towards possible modes of steady state operation. As such the new ITER design, whilst having reduced technical objectives from its predecessor, will nonetheless meet the programmatic objective of providing an integrated demonstration of the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. The main features of the current design and of its projected performance are introduced and the outlook for construction and operation is summarised. (author)

  13. Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Meade, D.; Neumeyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study

  14. Plasma-Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion Burn Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, John

    2010-11-01

    Several issues exist related to using plasma jets to implode a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) liner onto a magnetized plasmoid and compress it to fusion-relevant temperatures [1]. The poster will explore how well the liner's inertia provides transient plasma confinement and affects the burn dynamics. The investigation uses the University of Wisconsin's 1-D Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code, BUCKY, which solves single-fluid equations of motion with ion-electron interactions, PdV work, table-lookup equations of state, fast-ion energy deposition, pressure contributions from all species, and one or two temperatures. Extensions to the code include magnetic field evolution as the plasmoid compresses plus dependence of the thermal conductivity on the magnetic field. [4pt] [1] Y.C. F. Thio, et al.,``Magnetized Target Fusion in a Spheroidal Geometry with Standoff Drivers,'' in Current Trends in International Fusion Research, E. Panarella, ed. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999), p. 113.

  15. Plasma burn-through simulations using the DYON code and predictions for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; Sips, A C C; De Vries, P C

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss simulations of the full ionization process (i.e. plasma burn-through), fundamental to creating high temperature plasma. By means of an applied electric field, the gas is partially ionized by the electron avalanche process. In order for the electron temperature to increase, the remaining neutrals need to be fully ionized in the plasma burn-through phase, as radiation is the main contribution to the electron power loss. The radiated power loss can be significantly affected by impurities resulting from interaction with the plasma facing components. The DYON code is a plasma burn-through simulator developed at Joint European Torus (JET) (Kim et al and EFDA-JET Contributors 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 103016, Kim, Sips and EFDA-JET Contributors 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 083024). The dynamic evolution of the plasma temperature and plasma densities including the impurity content is calculated in a self-consistent way using plasma wall interaction models. The recent installation of a beryllium wall at JET enabled validation of the plasma burn-through model in the presence of new, metallic plasma facing components. The simulation results of the plasma burn-through phase show a consistent good agreement against experiments at JET, and explain differences observed during plasma initiation with the old carbon plasma facing components. In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the allowable toroidal electric field is restricted to 0.35 (V m −1 ), which is significantly lower compared to the typical value (∼1 (V m −1 )) used in the present devices. The limitation on toroidal electric field also reduces the range of other operation parameters during plasma formation in ITER. Thus, predictive simulations of plasma burn-through in ITER using validated model is of crucial importance. This paper provides an overview of the DYON code and the validation, together with new predictive simulations for ITER using the DYON code. (paper)

  16. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Bosco, O; Mariano, F; Dondi, A E; Goffi, A; Spatola, T; Cuccurullo, A; Tizzani, P; Brondino, G; Stella, M; Montrucchio, G

    2009-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists. Circulating levels of TPO are increased in patients with sepsis and are mainly related to sepsis severity. To investigate the potential contribution of elevated TPO levels in platelet activation during burn injury complicated or not by sepsis. We studied 22 burned patients, 10 without and 12 with sepsis, and 10 healthy subjects. We measured plasma levels of TPO, as well as leukocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression. The priming activity of plasma from burned patients or healthy subjects on platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and the role of TPO in these effects were also studied in vitro. Burned patients without and with sepsis showed higher circulating TPO levels and increased monocyte-platelet binding compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, TPO levels, monocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression were significantly higher in burned patients with sepsis than in burned patients without sepsis. In vitro, plasma from burned patients without and with sepsis, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation, monocyte-platelet binding and platelet P-selectin expression. The effect of plasma from burned patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that of plasma from burned patients without sepsis. An inhibitor of TPO prevented the priming effect of plasma from burned patients. Increased TPO levels may enhance platelet activation during burn injury and sepsis, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure in these diseases.

  17. Predicted effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on forest recovery and sustainability in southwest Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Charles T

    2006-12-01

    A model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clear-cutting on stand recovery and sustainability was conducted at Fort Benning, GA, in the southeastern USA. Two experiments were performed with the model. In the first experiment, forest recovery from degraded soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning. In the second experiment simulations began with 100 years of predicted stand growth, then forest sustainability was predicted for an additional 100 years under different combinations of prescribed burning and forest harvesting. Three levels of fire intensity (low, medium, and high), that corresponded to 17%, 33%, and 50% consumption of the forest floor C stock by fire, were evaluated at 1-, 2-, and 3-year fire return intervals. Relative to the control (no fire), prescribed burning with a 2- or 3-year return interval caused only a small reduction in predicted steady state soil C stocks (burns did adversely impact forest recovery and sustainability (after harvesting) on less sandy soils, but not on more sandy soils that had greater N availability. Higher intensity and frequency of ground fires increased the chance that tree biomass would not return to pre-harvest levels. Soil N limitation was indicated as the cause of unsustainable forests when prescribed burns were too frequent or too intense to permit stand recovery.

  18. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  19. Augmentation and Control of Burn Rates in Plasma Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourham, Mohamed

    1999-01-01

    Interaction of electrothermal plasmas with solid propellants necessitates thorough understanding of plasma-propellant interface physics, momentum and energy transfer, plasma flow regimes, and mixing processes...

  20. Decontamination of burn wounds using a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Koen; Hofmann, S.; Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination of burn wounds using a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet C.A.J. van Gils, S. Hofmann, B. Boekema and P. Bruggeman Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, group EPG, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven In the treatment of burn wounds bacterial infections are

  1. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  2. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the

  3. Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2018-02-01

    Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.

  4. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  5. Review of Burning Plasma Physics. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, Herb; Betti, Riccardo; Dahlburg, Jill; Freidberg, Jeff; Hopper, Bick; Meade, Dale; Navritil, Jerry; Nevins, Bill; Ono, Masa; Perkins, Rip; Prager, Stewart; Schoenburg, Kurt; Taylor, Tony; Uckan, Nermin

    2001-01-01

    The next frontier in the quest for magnetic fusion energy is the development of a basic understanding of plasma behavior in the regime of strong self-heating, the so called burning plasma regime. The general consensus in the fusion community is that the exploration of this frontier requires a new, relatively large experimental facility - a burning plasma experiment. The motivation, justification, and steps required to build such a facility are the primary focus of our report. The specific goals of the report are as follows. First, the report describes the critical scientific and engineering phenomena that are expected to arise for the first time, or else in a strongly modified form, in a burning plasma. Second, the report shows that the capabilities of existing experiments are inadequate to investigate these phenomena, thereby providing a major justification for a new facility. Third, the report compares the features and predicted performance of the three major next generation burning plasma experiments under current consideration (ITER-FEAT, FIRE, and IGNITOR), which are aimed at addressing these problems. Deliberately, no selection of the best option is made or attempted since such a decision involves complex scientific and cost issues that are beyond the scope of the present panel report. Fourth, the report makes specific recommendations regarding a process to move the burning plasma program forward, including a procedure for choosing the best option and the future activities of the Next Step Option (NSO) program. Fifth, the report attempts to provide a proper perspective for the role of burning plasmas with respect to the overall U.S. fusion program. The introduction provides the basic background information required for understanding the context in which the U.S. fusion community thinks about burning plasma issues. It sets the stage for the remainder of the report.

  6. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the proposed ITER scenarios foresees the creation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in order to improve the confinement properties of the hot core plasma. The more stringent requests are: the ITB must be sustained with electron heating only with no or very small external momentum source, the strong collisional coupling at the envisaged density (line average >1.0 1020 m-3) must not prevent the barrier existence, the bootstrap current created by the large induced gradients must have a radial profile consistent with that requested by the barrier creation and sustainment. To all these items the studies carried out in FTU in the same density range (ne0 ?1.5 1020 m-3) provide encouraging prospects. With pure electron heating and current drive (LH+ECH) steady electron barrier are generated and maintained with central e- temperature >5.0 keV. Almost full CD conditions are established with a bootstrap current close to 25% of the total and well aligned with that driven by the LH waves and responsible for the barrier building. The clear change in the density fluctuations close to the ITB radius, observed by reflectometry, indicates stabilization of turbulence that is consistent with the drop of the thermal electron diffusivity inside the ITB to very low values, ?e<0.5 m2/s estimated by the transport analysis. The 10 fold neutron rate increase testifies a significant collisional ion heating, even though usually ?Ti0/Ti0 does not exceed 40%, because the e--i + equipartition time, always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time, does not allow thermal equilibrium with electrons to be attained. The ion thermal diffusivity inside the barrier must be lowered to the neoclassical level to account for the observed Ti(r) profiles, clearly indicating at least a non-degraded ion transport. The global confinement in turn improves by 1.6 times above the FTU L-scaling. The ITB radius can be controlled by varying the LH power deposition profile that is

  7. Advanced fuelling system for use as a burn control tool in a burning plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak (AT) scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. Conventional fuelling methods have not demonstrated successful fuelling of ATtype discharges and may be incapable of deep fuelling long pulse ELM-free discharges in ITER. The capability to deposit fuel at any desired radial location within the tokamak would provide burn control capability through alteration of the density profile. The ability to peak the density profile would ease ignition requirements, while operating ITER with density profiles that are peaked would increase the fusion power output. An advanced fuelling system should also be capable of fuelling well past internal transport barriers. Compact Toroid (CT) fuelling [R. Raman, et al., 'Experimental demonstration of tokamak fuelling by compact toroid injection,' Nucl. Fusion, 37, 967 (1997)] has the potential to meet these needs, while simultaneously providing a source of toroidal momentum input. A CT is a selfcontained toroidal plasmoid with embedded magnetic fields. The 20 Hz injector consists of the formation region, compression, acceleration and transport regions. Fuel gas is puffed into the formation region, and a combination of magnetic field and electric current ionizes this gas and creates a self-contained plasma ring (the 'CT'). Then a fast current pulse compresses and accelerates the CT by electromagnetic forces. The accelerated CT will travel at a speed of over 30 cm/{mu}s and for reactors will create a particle inventory perturbation of < 1% per pulse. At this level of particle inventory perturbation, optimized density profiles will not be adversely perturbed. Experimental data needed for the design of

  8. Steady equilibrium of a cylindrically symmetric plasma sustained by fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yukihiro; Momota, Hiromu

    1993-01-01

    By introducing a novel and natural method to obtain a steady equilibrium, it is shown that a pressure gradient produced by the particle injection or resultant diamagnetic current can sustain only an equilibrium of a diffused linear pinch. For an extremely elongated FRC where magnetic field vanishes at a certain point, a seed current is needed to sustain configuration in a steady state equilibrium. A directed flow of fusion produced protons forms a seed current and consequently it sustains a steady FRC equilibrium by fueling only once D- 3 He burning takes place. Effects of anomalous transports on the sustainment are discussed. (author)

  9. The importance of the toroidal magnetic field for the feasibility of a tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2000-01-01

    The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER

  10. Review of D-T Experiments Relevant to Burning Plasma Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. The TFTR and JET, in conjunction with the worldwide fusion effort, have studied a broad range of topics including magnetohydrodynamic stability, transport, wave-particle interactions, the confinement of energetic particles, and plasma boundary interactions. The D-T experiments differ in three principal ways from previous experiments: isotope effects associated with the use of deuterium-tritium fuel, the presence of fusion-generated alpha particles, and technology issues associated with tritium handling and increased activation. The effect of deuterium-tritium fuel and the presence of alpha particles is reviewed and placed in the perspective of the much large r worldwide database using deuterium fuel and theoretical understanding. Both devices have contributed substantially to addressing the scientific and technical issues associated with burning plasmas. However, future burning plasma experiments will operate with larger ratios of alpha heating power to auxiliary power and will be able to access additional alpha-particle physics issues. The scientific opportunities for extending our understanding of burning plasmas beyond that provided by current experiments is described

  11. A one-dimensional transport code for the simulation of D-T burning tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Maki, Koichi; Kasai, Masao; Nishida, Hidetsugu

    1980-11-01

    A one-dimensional transport code for D-T burning tokamak plasma has been developed, which simulates the spatial behavior of fuel ions(D, T), alpha particles, impurities, temperatures of ions and electrons, plasma current, neutrals, heating of alpha and injected beam particles. The basic transport equations are represented by one generalized equation so that the improvement of models and the addition of new equations may be easily made. A model of burn control using a variable toroidal field ripple is employed. This report describes in detail the simulation model, numerical method and the usage of the code. Some typical examples to which the code has been applied are presented. (author)

  12. ICRF heating on the burning plasma experiment (BPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ryan, P.M.; Swain, D.W.; Tolliver, J.S.; Yugo, J.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaye, S.M.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Mau, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    RF power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) has been chosen as the primary heating technique for BPX. This decision is based on the wide success of ICRF heating in existing experiments (JET, TFTR, JT-60), the capability of ion cyclotron waves to penetrate the high-density plasmas of BPX, the ability to concentrate ICRF power deposition near the plasma center, and the ready availability of high-power sources at the appropriate frequency. The primary task of the ICRF system is to heat the plasma to ignition. However, other important roles are envisaged; these include the stabilization of sawteeth, preheating of the plasma during current ramp-up, and possible control of the plasma current profile by means of fast-wave current drive. We give a brief overview of the RF system, describe the operating scenarios planned for BPX, and discuss some of the antenna design issues for BPX. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Ignition and burn control characteristics of thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving the long sought goal of fusion energy requires the attainment of an ignited and controlled thermonuclear plasma. Obtaining an ignited plasma in a tokamak device requires consideration of both the physics of the plasma and the engineering of the machine. With the aide of completely analytical procedure optimized and ignited tokamaks are obtained under various physics assumptions. These designs show the possible advantage of tokamaks characterized by high (∼4.5) aspect ratio, and high (∼15 T) toroidal magnetic field. The control of an ignited plasma is investigated by using auxiliary power modulation. With auxiliary power stable operating points can be created with Q ∼50. Recognizing the need for a fast 1 1/2-D transport model for studying profile effects the plasma transport equations are solved using variational methods. A computer model based on the variational method has been developed. This model solves the 1 1/2-D transport equation very fast with little loss of accuracy. 74 refs., 70 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  15. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations

  16. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  17. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E. [Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  18. Optimization and Control of Burning Plasmas Through High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-18

    This project has revived the FACETS code, that has been developed under SciDAC fund- ing in 2008-2012. The code has been dormant for a number of years after the SciDAC funding stopped. FACETS depends on external packages. The external packages and libraries such as PETSc, FFTW, HDF5 and NETCDF that are included in FACETS have evolved during these years. Some packages in FACETS are also parts of other codes such as PlasmaState, NUBEAM, GACODES, and UEDGE. These packages have been also evolved together with their host codes which include TRANSP, TGYRO and XPTOR. Finally, there is also a set of packages in FACETS that are being developed and maintained by Tech-X. These packages include BILDER, SciMake, and FcioWrappers. Many of these packages evolved significantly during the last several years and FACETS had to be updated to synchronize with the re- cent progress in the external packages. The PI has introduced new changes to the BILDER package to support the updated interfaces to the external modules. During the last year of the project, the FACETS version of the UEDGE code has been extracted from FACETS as a standalone package. The PI collaborates with the scientists from LLNL on the updated UEDGE model in FACETS. Drs. T. Rognlien, M. Umansky and A. Dimits from LLNL are contributing to this task.

  19. Simulation of MHD instability effects on burning plasma transport with ITB in tokamak and helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Yamada, I.; Taniguchi, S.; Oishi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The high performance plasma behavior is required to realize economic and environmental-friendly fusion reactors compatible with conventional power plant systems. To improve plasma confinement, the formation of internal transport barrier (ITB) is anticipated, and its behavior is analyzed by the simulation code TOTAL (Toroidal Transport Linkage Analysis). This TOTAL code comprises a 2- or 3-dimensional equilibrium and 1-dimensional predictive transport code for both tokamak and helical systems. In the tokamak code TOTAL-T, the external current drive, bootstrap current, sawtooth oscillation, ballooning mode and neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) analyses are included. The steady-state burning plasma operation is achieved by the feedback control of pellet injection fuelling and external heating power control. The impurity dynamics of iron and tungsten is also included in this code. The NTM effects are evaluated using the modified Rutherford Model with the stabilization of the ECCD current drive. The excitation of m=2/n=1 NTM leads to the 20 % reduction in the central temperature in ITER-like reactors. Recently, the external non-resonant helical field application is analyzed and its stabilization properties are evaluated. The pellet injection effects on ITB formation is also clarified in tokamak and helical plasmas. Relationship between sawtooth oscillation and impurity ejection is recently simulated in comparison with experimental data. In this conference, we will show above-stated new results on MHD instability effects on burning plasma transport. (author)

  20. Simulations of the operational control of a cryogenic plant for a superconducting burning-plasma tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N

    2001-01-01

    In recent proposals for next generation superconducting tokamaks, such as the ITER project, the nuclear burning plasma is confined by magnetic fields generated from a large set (up to 100 GJ stored energy) of superconducting magnets. These magnets suffer heat loads in operation from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as eddy currents and AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and resistive heat generated at the current lead transitions to room temperature. The initial cryoplant for such a tokamak is expected to have a steady state capacity of up to about 85 kW at 4.5 K, comparable to the system installed for LHC at CERN. Experimental tokamaks are expected to operate at least initially in a pulsed mode with 20-30 short plasma pulses and plasma burn periods each day. A conventional cryoplant, consisting of a cold box and a set of primary heat exchangers, is ill-suited to such a mode of operation as the instantaneou...

  1. DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCE, T.C.; WADE, M.R.; FERRON, J.R.; HYATT, A.W.; KELLMAN, A.G.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAHAY, R.J.; LASNIER, C.J.; MURAKAMI, M.; POLITZER, P.A.; SCOVILLE, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS. Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain Β N H 89 /q 95 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for > 6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditions. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption

  2. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  3. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the first two of the five technical sessions. The first one being the BCX overview, the second on the BCX candidate materials. The remaining three sessions in volume two are on the plasma materials interaction issues, research facilities and small working group meeting on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations

  4. Neutron time-of-flight counters and spectrometers for diagnostics of burning fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Olsson, M.

    1991-02-01

    Experiment with burning fusion plasmas in tokamaks will place particular requirements on neutron measurements from radiation resistance-, physics-, burn control- and reliability considerations. The possibility to meet these needs by measurements of neutron fluxes and energy spectra by means of time-of-flight techniques are described. Reference counters and spectrometers are proposed and characterized with respect to efficiency, count-rate capabilities, energy resolution and tolerable neutron and γ-radiation background levels. The instruments can be used in a neutron camera and are capable to operate in collimated neutron fluxes up to levels corresponding to full nuclear output power in the next generation of experiments. Energy resolutions of the spectrometers enables determination of ion temperatures from 3 (keV) through analysis of the Doppler broadening. Primarily, the instruments are aimed for studies of 14 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,t)-plasmas but can, after minor modifications, be used for analysis of 2.45 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,d)-plasma. (au) (33 refs.)

  5. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

  6. High-speed three-dimensional plasma temperature determination of axially symmetric free-burning arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Ekkert, K; Bachmann, J-P; Marques, J-L; Schein, J; Kozakov, R; Gött, G; Schöpp, H; Uhrlandt, D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an experimental technique that allows for high-speed, three-dimensional determination of electron density and temperature in axially symmetric free-burning arcs. Optical filters with narrow spectral bands of 487.5–488.5 nm and 689–699 nm are utilized to gain two-dimensional spectral information of a free-burning argon tungsten inert gas arc. A setup of mirrors allows one to image identical arc sections of the two spectral bands onto a single camera chip. Two-different Abel inversion algorithms have been developed to reconstruct the original radial distribution of emission coefficients detected with each spectral window and to confirm the results. With the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium we calculate emission coefficients as a function of temperature by application of the Saha equation, the ideal gas law, the quasineutral gas condition and the NIST compilation of spectral lines. Ratios of calculated emission coefficients are compared with measured ones yielding local plasma temperatures. In the case of axial symmetry the three-dimensional plasma temperature distributions have been determined at dc currents of 100, 125, 150 and 200 A yielding temperatures up to 20000 K in the hot cathode region. These measurements have been validated by four different techniques utilizing a high-resolution spectrometer at different positions in the plasma. Plasma temperatures show good agreement throughout the different methods. Additionally spatially resolved transient plasma temperatures have been measured of a dc pulsed process employing a high-speed frame rate of 33000 frames per second showing the modulation of the arc isothermals with time and providing information about the sensitivity of the experimental approach. (paper)

  7. About the Toroidal Magnetic Field of a Tokamak Burning Plasma Experiment with Superconducting Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    In tokamaks, the strong dependence on the toroidal magnetic field of both plasma pressure and energy confinement is what makes possible the construction of small and relatively inexpensive burning plasma experiments using high-field resistive coils. On the other hand, the toroidal magnetic field of tokamaks using superconducting coils is limited by the critical field of superconductivity. In this article, we examine the relative merit of raising the magnetic field of a tokamak plasma by increasing its aspect ratio at a constant value of the peak field in the toroidal magnet. Taking ITER-FEAT as an example, we find that it is possible to reach thermonuclear ignition using an aspect ratio of approximately 4.5 and a toroidal magnetic field of 7.3 T. Under these conditions, fusion power density and neutron wall loading are the same as in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor], but the normalized plasma beta is substantially smaller. Furthermore, such a tokamak would be able to reach an energy gain of approximately 15 even with the deterioration in plasma confinement that is known to occur near the density limit where ITER is forced to operate

  8. Thermal responses of tokamak reactor first walls during cyclic plasma burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Charak, I.

    1978-01-01

    The CINDA-3G computer code has been adapted to analyze the thermal responses and operating limitations of two fusion reactor first-wall concepts under normal cyclic operation. A component of an LMFBR computer code has been modified and adapted to analyze the ablative behavior of first-walls after a plasma disruption. The first-wall design concepts considered are a forced-circulation water-cooled stainless steel panel with and without a monolithic graphite liner. The thermal gradients in the metal wall and liner have been determined for several burn-cycle scenarios and the extent of surface ablation that results from a plasma disruption has been determined for stainless steel and graphite first surfaces

  9. Thermal responses of tokamak reactor first walls during cyclic plasma burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Charak, I.

    1977-01-01

    The CINDA-3G computer code has been adapted to analyze the thermal responses and operating limitations of two fusion reactor first-wall concepts under normal cyclic operation. A component of an LMFBR computer has been modified and adapted to analyze the ablative behavior of first-walls after a plasma disruption. The first-wall design concepts considered are a forced-circulation water-cooled stainless steel panel with and without a monolithic graphite liner. The thermal gradients in the metal wall and liner have been determined for several burn-cycle scenarios and the extent of surface ablation that results from a plasma disruption has been determined for stainless steel and graphite first surfaces

  10. Magnetic helicity balance in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.; Woodruff, S.; Bulmer, R.H.; Hill, D.N.; McLean, H.S.; Wood, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic helicity balance between the helicity input injected by a magnetized coaxial gun, the rate-of-change in plasma helicity content, and helicity dissipation in electrode sheaths and Ohmic losses have been examined in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, and R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)]. Helicity is treated as a flux function in the mean-field approximation, allowing separation of helicity drive and losses between closed and open field volumes. For nearly sustained spheromak plasmas with low fluctuations, helicity balance analysis implies a decreasing transport of helicity from the gun input into the spheromak core at higher spheromak electron temperature. Long pulse discharges with continuously increasing helicity and larger fluctuations show higher helicity coupling from the edge to the spheromak core. The magnitude of the sheath voltage drop, inferred from cathode heating and a current threshold dependence of the gun voltage, shows that sheath losses are important and reduce the helicity injection efficiency in SSPX

  11. Development of a real-time simulation tool towards self-consistent scenario of plasma start-up and sustainment on helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakamoto, R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, C.; Seki, R.; Satake, S.; Huang, B.; Nunami, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Sagara, A.; the FFHR Design Group

    2017-06-01

    This study closely investigates the plasma operation scenario for the LHD-type helical reactor FFHR-d1 in view of MHD equilibrium/stability, neoclassical transport, alpha energy loss and impurity effect. In 1D calculation code that reproduces the typical pellet discharges in LHD experiments, we identify a self-consistent solution of the plasma operation scenario which achieves steady-state sustainment of the burning plasma with a fusion gain of Q ~ 10 was found within the operation regime that has been already confirmed in LHD experiment. The developed calculation tool enables systematic analysis of the operation regime in real time.

  12. Enhancing the Sustainability of Nuclear Power: the Pebble Bed HTR in Deep Burn Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cruz, D.F.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Van Heek, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The scenario of a utility in an industrialized country starting new nuclear construction with a single PBMR reactor has been considered. To make the new construction project acceptable by government and society, a maximum effort to obtain sustainability (i.e. minimization of resource use and waste production) will have to be shown. Therefore the usual open cycle for HTR has been abandoned, and the spent fuel will be reprocessed once. The long-lived transuranic (TRU) elements Pu, Np, Am and Cm are all re-fabricated into so-called transmutation fuel elements, and loaded back into the same reactor, in our case a 110 MWe PBMR with low-enriched uranium cycle. In this study, the reactor physical prospects have been investigated: to what extent the amount of TRU could be reduced. In this way, 75% of the initial amount of TRU waste is being destructed, while the time span in which the waste is more radio-toxic than uranium ore is being reduced to one-third. Also, the amount of fresh driver fuel needed is decreases by 25%. A preliminary cost analysis has been performed as well. It shows that there is also a cost advantage of operating the reactor in Deep Burn mode in industrialized countries, where the waste storage fees charged per volume are relatively high. (authors)

  13. Conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic UHF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic waves in symmetric and dipolar modes, respectively. The treatment is fully electrodynamic. It is shown that the wave energy flux along the plasma column determines the conditions for sustaining the discharge. In particular as the plasma is sustained by a symmetric wave whose flux depends mainly on the radial distribution of the wave electric field whilst for a dipolar wave sustained plasma the flux is specified by the magnitude of the axial wave field component at the plasma-dielectric interface. (orig.)

  14. Radio-frequency heating and neutral atom transport in a fluid-magnetohydrodynamic treatment of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Mau, T.K.; Prinja, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A physical model for the space and time evolution of the primary parameters of ordinary and burning tokamak plasmas is described by employing a fluid plasma treatment coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium description, the solution to the appropriate Maxwell equations, and the solution of the linear transport equation describing neutral atom transport in plasmas. The specific problems of plasma heating by ion cyclotron radiofrequency (ICRF) waves and neutral atom transport in the plasma edge and in complicated geometrical components such as divertor channels or pumped limiter structures are analyzed. A theoretical, onedimensional slab model of ICRF heating at ω = 2ω/SUB cD/ is developed and applied to determine the space-time response of tokamak plasmas. Generally, strong single-pass absorption is found for high-density, high (β) plasmas using a low k 11 spectrum (0.05 to 0.1 cm -1 ) although for (β > 1%, electron Landau damping becomes important. Deterministic and Monte Carlo methods to solve the neutral atom transport problem are described. Specific application to determine the spectrum of neutral atoms emerging from the duct of a pump limiter shows it to be hard (mean energy > 20 eV), indicating very incomplete energy thermalization. Uncertainties are identified in the overall problem of dynamic burning plasma analysis caused by the complexity of the problem itself and by uncertainties in fundamental areas such as plasma transport coefficients, stability, and plasma edge physics

  15. Minority Ions Acceleration by ICRH: a tool for investigating Burning Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Briguglio, S.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Di Troia, C.; Fogaccia, G.; Marinucci, M.; Vlad, G.; Zonca, F.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough numerical analysis of the quasi-linear plasma-ICRH wave interaction has been made and will be presented in order to determine the characteristic fast-ion parameters that are necessary for addressing some of the main ITER burning plasma physics issues, e.g. fast ion transport due to collective mode excitations, cross-scale couplings of micro-turbulence with meso-scale fluctuations due to energetic particles, etc. These investigations refer to the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST), a conceptual tokamak design operating with deuterium plasmas in a dimensionless parameter range as close as possible to that of ITER and equipped with ICRH as a main heating scheme. The destabilization and saturation of fast ion driven Alfvenic modes below and above the EPM (Energetic Particle Modes) stability threshold are investigated by numerical simulations with the HMGC code, which assumes the anisotropic energetic particle distribution function accelerated by ICRH as input. The results of this study, obtained by integration of many numerical tools, are presented and discussed

  16. Self-sustained oscillations in the divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Kukushkin, A.S.; Pistunovich, V.I.; Pozharov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple analytical model of the edge plasma with high recycling, which relays on the presence of a small parameter - the ratio of the particle flows crossing the magnetic field to those impinging onto the divertor target, is proposed. A concept of the one-dimensional steady state (OSS) is introduced as the zero approximation in the small parameter. The mean number density N-tilde of the particles - ions plus neutrals - in the magnetic flux tube is choosen as the most representative and convenient parameter of the problem. The OSS are shown to be ambiguous in some N-tilde range for sufficiently high values of the energy flow entering the scrape-off layer from the bulk plasma. An equation, that describes a quasi-steady variations in OSS, is derived and a mechanism of exciting the self-sustained oscillations is developed. Results of simulation of the edge plasma oscillations are found to be in a good agreement with this mechanism, which could be responsible for the H-mode oscillations observed in the divertor experiments

  17. Demonstration in the DIII-D tokamak of an alternate baseline scenario for ITER and other burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Wade, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain β N H 89 / q 95 2 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for >6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditioning. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption. (author)

  18. Ex-vessel remote maintenance development plans for the Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.; Davis, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Remote maintenance (RM) is fundamental to the basic design requirements of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), and an extensive RM development and demonstration program is planned to meet these requirements. The program first draws from the experience base that exists in the fission community and Europe's Joint European Torus (JET) Project. Successful solutions are applied where possible and, in many cases, improved in order to achieve the performance demanded by a multiyear program that must be capable of efficiently executing RM procedures. Early, concurrent efforts in the design and fabrication of prototype remote handling (RH) equipment, remote tooling, and maintainable machine components will precede an extensive use of mock-up equipment in order to test, develop, and demonstrate the technology. 7 refs,. 5 figs

  19. Gravitational Contraction and Fusion Plasma Burn. Universal Expansion and the Hubble Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic approach is developed for the two principle phases of (i) gravitational condensation, and (ii) burning fusion plasma evolution. Comparison is made with conceptual descriptions of star formation and of subsequent decay towards red giant stars, white dwarfs, and other condensed core objects like neutron stars and black holes. The possibility of treating the expansion of the Universe by means of a similar approach is also discussed. The concept of negative diffusion is introduced for the contraction phase of star formation. The coefficients of defining the nonlinear diffusion are determined uniquely by physical conditions and for the case of the expansion of the universe, by the observation of the Hubble law. The contraction and evolution of large scale 3-D stars and 2-D galactic systems can thus be dynamically surveyed. In particular the time-scales can be determined

  20. Alpha particle effects in burning tokamak plasmas: overview and specific examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    Using the total power balance of an ignited tokamak plasma as a guideline, a range of alpha driven effects is surveyed regarding their impact on achieving and maintaining fusion burn. Specific examples of MHD and kinetic modes and multi species transport dynamics are discussed, including the possible interaction of these categories of effects. This power balance approach rather than a straightforward enumeration of possible effects serves to reveal their non-linear dependence and the ensuing fragility of our understanding of the approach to and maintenance of ignition. Specific examples are given of the interaction between α-power driven sawtoothing and ideal MHD stability, and direct α-effects on MHD modes including kinetic corrections. Anomalous ion heat transport and central impurity peaking mechanisms and anomalous and collisional α-transport including the ambipolar electric field are discussed

  1. Sustained high βN plasmas on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; the EAST team

    2018-05-01

    Sustained high normalized beta (βN ∼ 1.9) plasmas with an ITER-like tungsten divertor have been achieved on EAST tokamak recently. The high power NBI heating system of 4.8 MW and the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid wave of 1 MW were developed and applied to produce edge and internal transport barriers in high βN discharges. The central flat q profile with q (ρ) ∼ 1 at ρ safety factor q95 = 4.7 is identified by the multi-channel far-infrared laser polarimeter and the EFIT code. The fraction of non-inductive current is about 40%. The relation between fishbone activity and ITB formation is observed and discussed.

  2. Development of burning plasma and advanced scenarios in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of burning plasma scenarios, steady-state scenarios at high fusion performance, and basic tokamak physics has been made by the DIII-D Team. Discharges similar to the ITER baseline scenario have demonstrated normalized fusion performance nearly 50% higher than required for Q = 10 in ITER, under stationary conditions. Discharges that extrapolate to Q ∼ 10 for longer than one hour in ITER at reduced current have also been demonstrated in DIII-D under stationary conditions. Proof of high fusion performance with full noninductive operation has been obtained. Underlying this work are studies validating approaches to confinement extrapolation, disruption avoidance and mitigation, tritium retention, ELM avoidance, and operation above the no-wall pressure limit. In addition, the unique capabilities of the DIII-D facility have advanced studies of the sawtooth instability with unprecedented time and space resolution, threshold behavior in the electron heat transport, and rotation in plasmas in the absence of external torque. (author)

  3. Theory of self-sustained turbulence in confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews some aspects of recent theoretical activities in Japan on the problem of turbulent transport in confined plasmas. The method of self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The process of the renormalization is shown and the turbulent Prandtl number is introduced. Nonlinear destabilization by the electron momentum diffusion is explained. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived for the dressed-test-mode for the inhomogeneous plasma in the shear magnetic field. The eigenvalue equation is solved, and the least stable mode determines the anomalous transport coefficient. The formula of the thermal conductivity is presented for the system of bad average magnetic curvature (current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) turbulence) and that for the average good magnetic curvature (current diffusive ballooning mode (CDBM) turbulence). The transport coefficient, scale length of fluctuations and fluctuation level are shown to be an increasing function of the pressure gradient. Verification by use of the nonlinear simulation is shown. The bifurcation of the electric field and improved confinement are addressed, in order to explain the H-mode physics. The improved confinement and dynamics such as ELMs are explained. Application to the transport analysis of tokamaks is also presented, including explanations of the L-mode confinement, internal transport barrier, and the role of the current profile control

  4. Plasma NGAL predicts early acute kidney injury no earlier than s-creatinine or cystatin C in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker used in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnostics. Studies on burn patients have highlighted it as a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI. This study was designed to discover whether plasma NGAL is as a biomarker superior to serum creatinine and cystatin C in detecting AKI in severely burned patients. Nineteen subjects were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2014 in the Helsinki Burn Centre. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and plasma NGAL were collected from the patients at admission and every 12h during the first 48h and thereafter daily until seven days following admission. AKI was defined by acute kidney injury network criteria. Nine (47%) developed AKI during their intensive care unit stay and two (11%) underwent renal replacement therapy. All biomarkers were significantly higher in the AKI group but serum creatinine- and cystatin C values reacted more rapidly to changes in kidney function than did plasma NGAL. Plasma NGAL tended to rise on average 72h±29h (95% CI) later in patients with early AKI than did serum creatinine. Area-under-the-curve values calculated for each biomarker were 0.92 for serum creatinine, 0.87 for cystatin C, and 0.62 for plasma NGAL predicting AKI by the receiver-operating-characteristic method. This study demonstrated serum creatinine and cystatin C as faster and more reliable biomarkers than plasma NGAL in detecting early AKI within one week of injury in patients with severe burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. [Cooperation, Job Satisfaction and Burn Out - Sustainability in Outpatient Mental Health Care among Medical Specialists in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    Objective Cooperation, job satisfaction, and burn out risk are indicators of sustainability in mental health services. Thus they were assessed among registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany. Method A postal survey consisting of three questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was carried out among all registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany (n = 4,430). Results 14.1 % (n = 626) of the specialists responded to the survey. Quality and quantity of cooperation regarding mental health care services were rated diverse, job satisfaction was assessed medium to high, and burnout risk was low to medium. Higher job satisfaction correlated with good quality of cooperation, fewer years of practice, fewer patients' chronically ill, more patients who as well seek psychotherapy, and less time spent on cooperation. Low burn out risk correlated with good quality of cooperation, higher age, single practice setting and a higher amount of patients who as well seek psychotherapy. Conclusion Quality and quantity of cooperation in outpatient mental health care - especially regarding community mental health care institutions - should be fostered. Aspects to be considered to reinforce job satisfaction and minimize burn out risk are age, years of practice, quality and quantity of cooperation, practice setting, and the mixture of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Resuscitation Strategies for Burn Injuries Sustained in Austere Environments to Improve Renal Perfusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; MAP, mean arterial pressure; HIF, hypoxic inducible factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; ROS, reactive...TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; AQP, aquaporin; GSH, glutathione; MDA, malondialdehyde; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; MPO...shrunken glomeruli were present and tubular necrosis was demon- strated by detached basal lamina [42]. Similarly, while models of electrical burns

  7. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  8. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  9. Burning plasma simulation and environmental assessment of tokamak, spherical tokamak and helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Uemura, S.; Oishi, T.; Arimoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Garcia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Reference 1-GWe DT reactors (tokamak TR-1, spherical tokamak ST-1 and helical HR-1 reactors) are designed using physics, engineering and cost (PEC) code, and their plasma behaviours with internal transport barrier operations are analysed using toroidal transport analysis linkage (TOTAL) code, which clarifies the requirement of deep penetration of pellet fuelling to realize steady-state advanced burning operation. In addition, economical and environmental assessments were performed using extended PEC code, which shows the advantage of high beta tokamak reactors in the cost of electricity (COE) and the advantage of compact spherical tokamak in life-cycle CO 2 emission reduction. Comparing with other electric power generation systems, the COE of the fusion reactor is higher than that of the fission reactor, but on the same level as the oil thermal power system. CO 2 reduction can be achieved in fusion reactors the same as in the fission reactor. The energy payback ratio of the high-beta tokamak reactor TR-1 could be higher than that of other systems including the fission reactor.

  10. [Autogenous platelet-rich plasma gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix for treatment of deep II degree burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianzhi; Zhu, Jingmin; Hu, Wenbo; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhenhui; Wen, Xuehui; Zhou, Zhi; Lu, Gang; Liu, Jingjie; Li, Wen

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix in the treatment of deep II degree burns. From January 2007 to December 2009, 30 cases of deep II degree burns were treated. There were 19 males and 11 females with an average age of 42.5 years (range, 32-57 years). The burn area was 10% to 48% of total body surface area. The time from burn to hospitalization was 30 minutes to 8 hours. All patients were treated with tangential excision surgery, one side of the wounds were covered with autogenous PRP gel and acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix (PRP group), the other side of the wounds were covered with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix only (control group). The healing rate, healing time, infection condition, and scar formation were observed. At 7 days after operation, the infection rate in PRP group (6.7%, 2/30) was significantly lower than that in control group (16.7%, 5/30, P deep II degree burns as well as alleviate the scar proliferation.

  11. Direct evidence of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium in a free-burning arc-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radial profiles of gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density were measured in a free-burning atmospheric-pressure argon arc-discharge plasma using line-shape analysis of scattered laser light. This method yields gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density directly, with no reliance on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Our results show a significant departure from LTE in the center of the discharge, contrary to expectations

  12. Sustained oxidative stress causes late acute renal failure via duplex regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in severely burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area. Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. RESULTS: Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

  13. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Dohlman, Claes H; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation.

  14. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and

  15. Sustainability of a public system for plasma collection, contract fractionation and plasma-derived medicinal product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.

  16. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, T., E-mail: Naito.Teruki@bc.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Yamaura, S. [Information Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); Fukuma, Y. [Communication System Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Sakai, O. [Department of Electronic System Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  17. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuma, Y.; Sakai, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  18. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de N.; Palomares, J.M.; Iordanova, E.I.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined

  19. Formation and sustainment of a low aspect ratio tokamak by a series of plasma injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Shin; Taniguchi, Makoto; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    1995-01-01

    A low aspect ratio tokamak plasma was generated and sustained by injecting a series of plasmas from a magnetized coaxial gun into a flux conserver with toroidal field. The magnetized coaxial gun was supplied by an oscillating current with a d.c. component. The first few current pulses injected plasma and helicity into the flux conserver. This pulse helicity injection method worked effectively to maintain the low aspect ratio tokamak. 8 refs., 5 figs

  20. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2018-02-01

    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m-3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ˜3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Sustainment of spherical tokamak by means of repetitive injection of compact torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Shin; Matsura, Ken; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Sustainment of spherical tokamak (S.T.) has been studied. A compact torus (C.T.) plasma was injected into confinement region by magnetized coaxial gun. For start-up and sustainment of large main spherical tokamak, single pulsed injection of small C.T. is not sufficient in many cases. C.T.plasma injection of high repetition rate is required. For this purpose magnetized coaxial gun was driven with high repetition rate current. The first injected C.T. plasma could start-up S.T. without other help. The repetitive C.T. injection grew and sustained the S.T. plasma. A CCD camera with fast gated image intensifier took a cross sectional view of S.T. during the repetitive C.T. injection. (author)

  2. A remote in-vessel and ex-vessel force-reflecting telerobotic system for the burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Busko, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) has made an applaudable commitment to total remote maintenance which will undoubtedly move fusion energy closer to commercial reality. This commitment poses new and formidable challenges due to the dimensional constraints, diversity of maintenance operations, and the geometrically intricate equipment arrangements. These challenges must be addressed for successful hot operation of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory BPX. This paper reports on a new manipulator system, called the TeleMate, which is under development to contribute to this needed capability. This system combines enhancements to a proven mechanical design with state-of-the-art controls technology, to produce a flexible system that can be configured to address the numerous remote fusion applications. The mechanical portion of the system has many years of operation in existing radioactive facilities. This paper presents a system description, the development status, initial test data, and control system performance

  3. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  4. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  5. Generation and Sustainment of Plasma Rotation by ICRF Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, F. W.

    2000-10-01

    When tokamak plasmas are heated by the fundamental minority ion-cyclotron process, they are observed to rotate toroidally, even though this heating process introduces negligable angular momentum. This work proposes and evaluates a physics mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. The argument has two elements. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a v_tor = 0 boundary condition at the plasma surface and a torque-density source. When the source consists of separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a finite central rotation velocity results, even though the volume integrated torque density - the angular momentum input - vanishes. Secondly, ions energized by the ICRF process can generate separated regions of positive and negative torque density. Heating increases their banana widths which leads to radial energetic-particle transport that must be balanced by neutralizing radial currents and a j_rB_pR torque density in the bulk plasma. Additional, comparable torque density results from collisional transfer of mechanical angular momentum from energetic particles to the bulk plasma and particle loss through banana particles impacting the wall. Monte-Carlo calculations utilizing the ORBIT code evaluate all sources of torque density and rigorously assure that no net angular momentum is introduced. Two models of ICRF heating, diffusive and instantaneous, give similar results. When the resonance location is on the LFS, the calculated rotation has the magnitude, profile, and co-current sense of Alcator C-Mod observations. For HFS resonance locations, the model predicts counter-current rotation. Scans of rotational profiles vs. resonance location, initial energy, particle loss, pitch, and qm will be presented as will the location of the velocity shear layer its scaling to a reactor.

  6. Considerations on the Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Specifically for Burn Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, R.E.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of blood plasma with a platelet concentration above baseline. After activation of the platelets, growth factors are released, which are involved in wound-healing processes. Application of a multitude of growth factors seems to boost the healing process. In

  7. Radiofrequency initiation and radiofrequency sustainment of laser initiated seeded high pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Eric S.; Scharer, John E.; Akhtar, Kamran; Kelly, Kurt; Ding, Guowen

    2001-01-01

    We examine radiofrequency initiation of high pressure(1-70 Torr) inductive plasma discharges in argon, nitrogen, air and organic seed gas mixtures. Millimeter wave interferometry, optical emission and antenna wave impedance measurements for double half-turn helix and helical inductive antennas are used to interpret the rf/plasma coupling, measure the densities in the range of 10 12 cm -3 and analyze the ionization and excited states of the gas mixtures. We have also carried out 193 nm excimer laser initiation of an organic gas seed plasma which is sustained at higher pressures(150 Torr) by radiofrequency coupling at 2.8 kW power levels

  8. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...

  9. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  10. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  11. Modelling of microwave sustained capillary plasma columns at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencheva, M; Petrova, Ts; Benova, E; Zhelyazkov, I

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present a model of argon microwave sustained discharge at high pressure (1 atm), which includes two self-consistently linked parts - electrodynamic and kinetic ones. The model is based on a steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge numerically solved together with Maxwell's equation for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave and wave energy balance equation. It is applied for the purpose of theoretical description of the discharge in a stationary state. The phase diagram, the electron energy distribution function as well as the dependences of the electron and heavy particles densities and the mean input power per electron on the electron number density and wave number are presented

  12. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  13. Sustainment dynamo reexamined: nonlocal electrical conductivity of plasma in a stochastic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Moses, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma dynamo is both an intriguing and a practical concept. The intrigue derives from attempting to explain naturally occurring and man-made plasmas whose strong field-aligned currents j/sub parallel/ apparently disobey the most naive Ohm's law j/sub parallel/ = sigma/sub parallel/E/sub parallel/. The practical importance derives from the dynamo's role both in formation and in sustainment of reversed-field pinch (RFP) and Spheromak fusion plasmas. We will examine certain features of the documented quasi-steady discharges on ZT-40M, and RFP in apparent need of a sustainment dynamo. We will show that the tail electrons (which carry j/sub parallel/) are probably wandering (along stochastic B Vector-field lines) over much of the minor radius in one mean-free-path

  14. Profile formation and sustainment of autonomous tokamak plasma with current hole configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the profile formation and sustainment of tokamak plasmas with the current hole (CH) configuration by using 1.5D time-dependent transport simulations. A model of the current limit inside the CH on the basis of the Axisymmetric Tri-Magnetic-Islands equilibrium is introduced into the transport simulation. We found that a transport model with the sharp reduction of anomalous transport in the reversed-shear (RS) region can reproduce the time evolution of profiles observed in JT-60U experiments. The transport becomes neoclassical-level in the RS region, which results in the formation of profiles with internal transport barrier (ITB) and CH. The CH plasma has an autonomous property because of the strong interaction between a pressure profile and a current profile through the large bootstrap current fraction. The ITB width determined by the neoclassical-level transport agrees well with that measured in JT-60U. The energy confinement inside the ITB agrees with the scaling based on the JT-60U data. The scaling means the autonomous limitation of energy confinement in the CH plasma. The plasma with the large CH is sustained with the full current drive by the bootstrap current. The plasma with the small CH and the small bootstrap current fraction shrinks due to the penetration of inductive current. This shrink is prevented and the CH size can be controlled by the appropriate external current drive (CD). The CH plasma is found to respond autonomically to the external CD. (author)

  15. Generation and sustainment of plasma rotation by ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.; White, R.; Bonoli, P.T.; Chan, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed and evaluated for driving rotation in tokamak plasmas by minority ion-cyclotron heating, even though this process introduces negligible angular momentum. The mechanism has two elements: First, angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a non-slip boundary condition at the separatrix. Second, Monte-Carlo calculations show that energized particles will provide a torque density source which has a zero volume integral but separated positive and negative regions. With such a source, a solution of the diffusion equation predicts the on-axis rotation frequency Ω to be Ω=(4q max WJ*)eBR 3 a 2 n e (2π) 2 ) -1 (τ M /τ E ) where vertical bar J* vertical bar ∼ 5-10 is a non-dimensional rotation frequency calculated by the Monte-Carlo ORBIT code. Overall, agreement with experiment is good, when the resonance is on the low-field-side of the magnetic axis. The rotation becomes more counter-current and reverses sign on the high field side for a no-slip boundary. The velocity shear layer position is controllable and of sufficient magnitude to affect microinstabilities. (author)

  16. Evolution of α-particle distribution in burning plasmas including energy dependent α-transport effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.; Sigmar, D.; Woloch, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report resumes the essential results of a common OEFZS/MIT (Plasma Fusion Center) project to investigate fusion alpha transport. A computer code has been developed going beyond standard FOKKER-PLANCK-codes assuming that the fusion products give their energy to the plasma on the place of their birth. The present transport code admits the calculation of the α-distribution function. By means of the distribution function the energy deposition rates are calculated. The time-evolution of the α-distribution function has been evaluated for an ignited plasma. A description of the transport code, of the subroutines and of the input data as well as a listing is enclosed to this report. (Authors)

  17. Production of O2(1Δ) in flowing plasmas using spiker-sustainer excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Y.; Arakoni, Ramesh A.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    In chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COILs), oscillation at 1.315 μm in atomic iodine ( 2 P 1/2 → 2 P 3/2 ) is produced by collisional excitation transfer of O 2 ( 1 Δ) to I 2 and I. Plasma production of O 2 ( 1 Δ) in electrical COILs (eCOILs) eliminates liquid phase generators. For the flowing plasmas used for eCOILs (He/O 2 , a few to tens of torr), self-sustaining electron temperatures, T e , are 2-3 eV whereas excitation of O 2 ( 1 Δ) optimizes with T e =1-1.5 eV. One method to increase O 2 ( 1 Δ) production is by lowering the average value of T e using spiker-sustainer (SS) excitation where a high power pulse (spiker) is followed by a lower power period (sustainer). Excess ionization produced by the spiker enables the sustainer to operate with a lower T e . Previous investigations suggested that SS techniques can significantly raise yields of O 2 ( 1 Δ). In this paper, we report on the results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of radio frequency (rf) excited flowing He/O 2 plasmas with emphasis on SS excitation. We found that the efficiency of SS methods generally increase with increasing frequency by producing a higher electron density, lower T e , and, as a consequence, a more efficient production of O 2 ( 1 Δ)

  18. IGNITOR, ITER and NIF in the Context of the World Effort on Fusion Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E.; Coppi, B.; Velikhov, E.

    2012-03-01

    As of last summer, the ITER program has been recognized as being directed at providing an ``International Platform for Fusion Technology.'' Then, the two experimental programs that have the explicit goal to approach ignition conditions with D-T plasmas are NIF and IGNITOR. NIF, the National Ignition Facility, is based on the inertial confinement principle using a laser system capable of delivering 1.6 MJ and is being operated in Livermore. IGNITOR will be operated by the Kurchatov Institute within the research center of Troitzk presently owned by Rosatom and involves a high level collaboration between Italy and Russia. For this, Ignitor has been defined as a Flagship Project by Italy and the construction of its core has been funded. The Ignitor design is based on the experimental results obtained by the high field line of experiments carried out at MIT, within the Alcator Program, and in Italy within the Frascati Torus Program. A wide set of experiments in Japan, on high density plasmas, in the US, Russia and Europe have produced plasma physics results and technology developments that have guided the evolution of the Ignitor design. The main theoretical plasma physics issues to be dealt with in connection with this program are discussed.

  19. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  20. Computational study of plasma sustainability in radio frequency micro-discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Bogaerts, A.

    2014-01-01

    We apply an implicit particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo (PIC-MC) method to study a radio-frequency argon microdischarge at steady state in the glow discharge limit, in which the microdischarge is sustained by secondary electron emission from the electrodes. The plasma density, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), and electron temperature are calculated in a wide range of operating conditions, including driving voltage, microdischarge gap, and pressure. Also, the effect of gap size scaling (in the range of 50-1000 μm) on the plasma sustaining voltage and peak electron density at atmospheric pressure is examined, which has not been explored before. In our simulations, three different EEDFs, i.e., a so-called three temperature hybrid mode, a two temperature α mode, and a two temperature γ mode distribution, are identified at different gaps and voltages. The maximum sustaining voltage to avoid a transition from the glow mode to an arc is predicted, as well as the minimum sustaining voltage for a steady glow discharge. Our calculations elucidate that secondary electrons play an essential role in sustaining the discharge, and as a result the relationship between breakdown voltage and gap spacing is far away from the Paschen law at atmospheric pressure

  1. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. One-Dimensional Burn Dynamics of Plasma-Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, John

    2009-11-01

    This poster will discuss several issues related to using plasma jets to implode a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) liner onto a magnetized plasmoid and compress it to fusion-relevant temperatures [1]. The problem of pure plasma jet convergence and compression without a target present will be investigated. Cases with a target present will explore how well the liner's inertia provides transient plasma stability and confinement. The investigation uses UW's 1-D Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code, BUCKY, which solves single-fluid equations of motion with ion-electron interactions, PdV work, table-lookup equations of state, fast-ion energy deposition, and pressure contributions from all species. Extensions to the code include magnetic field evolution as the plasmoid compresses plus dependence of the thermal conductivity and fusion product energy deposition on the magnetic field.[4pt] [1] Y.C. F. Thio, et al.,``Magnetized Target Fusion in a Spheroidal Geometry with Standoff Drivers,'' in Current Trends in International Fusion Research, E. Panarella, ed. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999), p. 113.

  3. DIII-D research advancing the scientific basis for burning plasmas and fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. SolomonThe DIII-D Team

    2017-10-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has addressed key issues to advance the physics basis for ITER and future steady-state fusion devices. In work related to transient control, magnetic probing is used to identify a decrease in ideal stability, providing a basis for active instability sensing. Improved understanding of 3D interactions is emerging, with RMP-ELM suppression correlated with exciting an edge current driven mode. Should rapid plasma termination be necessary, shattered neon pellet injection has been shown to be tunable to adjust radiation and current quench rate. For predictive simulations, reduced transport models such as TGLF have reproduced changes in confinement associated with electron heating. A new wide-pedestal variant of QH-mode has been discovered where increased edge transport is found to allow higher pedestal pressure. New dimensionless scaling experiments suggest an intrinsic torque comparable to the beam-driven torque on ITER. In steady-state-related research, complete ELM suppression has been achieved that is relatively insensitive to q 95, having a weak effect on the pedestal. Both high-q min and hybrid steady-state plasmas have avoided fast ion instabilities and achieved increased performance by control of the fast ion pressure gradient and magnetic shear, and use of external control tools such as ECH. In the boundary, experiments have demonstrated the impact of E× B drifts on divertor detachment and divertor asymmetries. Measurements in helium plasmas have found that the radiation shortfall can be eliminated provided the density near the X-point is used as a constraint in the modeling. Experiments conducted with toroidal rings of tungsten in the divertor have indicated that control of the strike-point flux is important for limiting the core contamination. Future improvements are planned to the facility to advance physics issues related to the boundary, transients and high performance steady-state operation.

  4. Relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin and cortisol levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of plasma proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM and cortisol (Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in children with sepsis after burn. Methods: A total of 30 children with sepsis after burn who were treated in the hospital between August 2014 and August 2016 were collected as observation group, and 30 normal children who received vaccination in the hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The pro-ADM and Cor levels in plasma as well as the levels of inflammatory factors, myocardial injury markers and intestinal barrier function indexes in serum of the two groups were determined. Pearson test was used to assess the correlation of plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels with systemic inflammatory response and target organ damage in patients with sepsis after burn. Results: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group. Serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in observation group were higher than those in normal control group; serum myocardial injury markers CK-MB, cTnⅠ and NT-proBNP levels were higher than those in normal control group; serum intestinal barrier function indexes ET, DAO and D-L levels were higher than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Plasma pro-ADM and Cor levels increase in patients with sepsis after burn, and are highly consistent with systemic inflammatory response and target organ injury.

  5. Sustainment of high confinement in JT-60U reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Kamada, Y.; Ide, S.; Takeji, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Isayama, A.; Suzuki, T.; Oikawa, T.; Fukuda, T.

    2001-01-01

    confinement is achieved owing to strong internal transport barriers (ITBs), are reported. In a high current plasma with an L-mode edge, deuterium-tritium-equivalent fusion power gain, Q DT eq =0.5 was sustained for 0.8 s (∼ energy confinement time) by adjusting plasma beta precisely using feedback control of stored energy. In a high triangularity plasma with an ELMy H-mode edge, the shrinkage of reversed shear region was suppressed and quasi steady sustainment of high confinement was achieved by raising the poloidal beta and enhancing the bootstrap current peaked at the ITB layer. High bootstrap current fraction (∼80%) was obtained in a high q regime (q 95 ∼9), which leaded to full non-inductive current drive condition. The normalized beta (β N ) of ∼ 2 and H-factor of H 89 ∼3.5 (HH 98y2 ∼2.2) were sustained for 2.7 s (∼ 6 times energy confinement time). (author)

  6. Product surface hardening in non-self-sustained glow discharge plasma before synthesis of superhard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, P S; Metel, A S; Nay, H A

    2017-01-01

    Before the synthesis of superhard coating, the product surface is hardened by means of plasma nitriding, which prevents the surface deformations and the coating brittle rupture. The product heating by ions accelerated from plasma by applied to the product bias voltage leads to overheating and blunting of the product sharp edges. To prevent the blunting, it is proposed to heat the products with a broad beam of fast nitrogen molecules. The beam injection into a working vacuum chamber results in filling of the chamber with quite homogeneous plasma suitable for nitriding. Immersion in the plasma of the electrode and heightening of its potential up to 50–100 V initiate a non-self-sustained glow discharge between the electrode and the chamber. It enhances the plasma density by an order of magnitude and reduces its spatial nonuniformity down to 5–10%. When a cutting tool is isolated from the chamber, it is bombarded by plasma ions with an energy corresponding to its floating potential, which is lower than the sputtering threshold. Hence, the sharp edges are sputtered only by fast nitrogen molecules with the same rate as other parts of the tool surface. This leads to sharpening of the cutting tools instead of blunting. (paper)

  7. Final Report for grant ER54958, 'Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decyk, Viktor K.

    2011-01-01

    widely used in plasma modeling in DOE, not only in areas in fusion energy as exemplified by GTC, but in high energy physics, plasma accelerators, ICF, and other areas. In 2010, about 12% of the INCITE grants in DOE were devoted to PIC codes. We began by developing a simple 2D electrostatic PIC code for the NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU based on one of the codes from the UPIC Framework. The major new feature of this code was the implementation of a streaming algorithm, where the two major data elements (particles and fields) are read only once each time step with an optimal memory access pattern (unit stride). To achieve this, particles need to be ordered by cell and we developed a particle reordering scheme that worked effectively on this hardware. The first results used global memory only and achieved a speedup of 13 compared to a 2.67 GHz Intel Nehalem processor, and were published in the ICAP conference proceedings in 2009. In the next version, we parameterized the code to make it adaptable to different architectures. The reordering algorithm was generalized to allow more than one grid per sorting cell and more than one sorting cell per thread. We also added support for shared memory. The four tunable parameters were defined as follows: lth, the number of tightly coupled threads, ngpx and ngpy, the number of grids in a sorting cell, and ngpt, the number of sorting cells assigned to a thread. Increasing the number of grids per sorting cell reduced the cost of particle reordering, but it could increase the particle processing time because more shared memory was required. For the NVIDIA C1060, the optimal parameters were lth=32, ngpx=2, ngpy=3, ngpt = 1. Speedups of 15-25 were obtained compared to the Intel Nehalem, depending on plasma temperature. Details about the algorithm and performance results were published in 2011. The electrostatic PIC code was very simple, with low computational intensity (few floating point operations per memory access). Codes with higher

  8. Optimization of the Magnetic Field Structure for Sustained Plasma Gun Helicity Injection for Magnetic Turbulence Studies at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Schaffner, D. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.

    2017-10-01

    A long-pulsed magnetic coaxial plasma gun is being implemented and characterized at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). A cold cathode discharged between the cylindrical electrodes generates and launches plasma into a 24cm diameter, 2m long chamber. Three separately pulsed magnetic coils are carefully positioned to generate radial magnetic field between the electrodes at the gun edge in order to provide stuffing field. Magnetic helicity is continuously injected into the flux-conserving vacuum chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. The aim of this source, however, is to supply long pulses of turbulent magnetized plasma for measurement rather than for sustained spheromak production. The work shown here details the optimization of the magnetic field structure for this sustained helicity injection.

  9. BURNING PLASMA PROJECTIONS USING DRIFT WAVE TRANSPORT MODELS AND SCALINGS FOR THE H-MODE PEDESTAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KINSEY, J.E.; ONJUN, T.; BATEMAN, G.; KRITZ, A.; PANKIN, A.; STAEBLER, G.M.; WALTZ, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 The GLF23 and Multi-Mode (MM95) transport models are used along with a model for the H-mode pedestal to predict the fusion performance for the ITER, FIRE, and IGNITOR tokamak designs. The drift-wave predictive transport models reproduce the core profiles in a wide variety of tokamak discharges, yet they differ significantly in their response to temperature gradient (stiffness). Recent gyro-kinetic simulations of ITG/TEM and ETG modes motivate the renormalization of the GLF23 model. The normalizing coefficients for the ITG/TEM modes are reduced by a factor of 3.7 while the ETG mode coefficient is increased by a factor of 4.8 in comparison with the original model. A pedestal temperature model is developed for type I ELMy H-mode plasmas based on ballooning mode stability and a theory-motivated scaling for the pedestal width. In this pedestal model, the pedestal density is proportional to the line-averaged density and the pedestal temperature is inversely related to the pedestal density

  10. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  11. Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decyk, Viktor K.

    2008-01-01

    the GTC code into one flexible and extensible version. To do this, we developed a methodology to implement Design Patterns in Fortran90. Design Patterns are abstract solutions to generic programming problems, which allow one to handle increased complexity. This work was done in collaboration with Henry Gardner, a computer scientist (and former plasma physicist) from the Australian National University. As an example, the Strategy Pattern is being used in GTC to support multiple solvers. This new code is currently being used in the study of energetic particles. A document describing the evolution of the GTC code to this new object-oriented version is available to users of GTC.

  12. Plasma IL-8 signature correlates with pain and depressive symptomatology in patients with burning mouth syndrome: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Alison; O'Halloran, Ken D; McKenna, Joseph P; McCreary, Christine; Downer, Eric J

    2018-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a neuropathic orofacial pain condition of unknown aetiology that encompasses intra-oral burning pain without abnormal clinical findings. Psychological, neural and inflammatory processes are associated with BMS pathogenesis. Currently, studies characterising plasma cytokine/chemokine profiles with pain and depression in patients with BMS are lacking. Considering that inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of BMS, and that inflammation is closely associated with pain and depression, we aimed to correlate depressive symptomatology and oral cavity pain with plasma cytokine/chemokine signatures in a cohort of patients with BMS. In this study, plasma protein levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p70, TNF-α), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-13) and the chemokine IL-8 were assessed in patients with BMS (n = 10) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), using pro-inflammatory-10-plex assays. Clinical histories, alongside self-rated oral cavity pain intensities and depressive symptomatology were assessed using a visual analogue scale and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology questionnaires, respectively. We present evidence that BMS is associated with increased depressive symptomatology and enhanced oral cavity pain. Plasma isolated from BMS patients display enhanced expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8, when compared to plasma from healthy individuals. Plasma IL-8 signature correlates with pain and depressive symptomatology in the study cohort. Overall, these findings indicate that plasma IL-8 profiles are dysregulated in BMS and that modulation of IL-8 production in the disorder may be a tool in the management of BMS symptomatology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of kink instability and plasma flow during sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Kink instability and the subsequent plasma flow during the sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Analysis of the parallel current density λ profile in the central open column revealed that the n = 1 mode structure plays an important role in the relaxation and current drive. The toroidal flow (v t ≈ 37 km/s) is driven by magnetic reconnection occurring as a result of the helical kink distortion of the central open column during repetitive plasmoid ejection and merging. (author)

  14. Sustainable bio-energy production models for eradicating open field burning of paddy straw in Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Abhinav; Verma, Amit Ranjan; Kaur, Supreet; Jha, Bhaskar; Vijay, Vandit; Chandra, Ram; Vijay, Virendra Kumar; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Hariprasad, P.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    The mechanized harvesting of paddy crop has led into open field burning of paddy straw. Burning of million tonnes of paddy straw releases huge potent greenhouse gases which creates perturbations to regional atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents a case study on utilization of paddy straw for power generation through biomethane and bioethanol production on commercial scale and improved biomass cookstove on domestic scale. Three scenario (biomethane, bioethanol and pellet for improved biomass cookstove) have been compared for their energy economics and emission. It has been revealed that if paddy straw is not being burned, it can be effectively utilized for biomethanation and bioethanol production which can yield energy equivalent of 8.0 GJ/tonne and 5.6 GJ/tonne, respectively, while pelletized paddy straw can be used in improved biomass cookstoves to meet out thermal cooking energy requirement with reduced indoor air pollution. The analysis further revealed that biomethanation of paddy straw reduces net global warming potential by 2750 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. However, bioethanol production showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. The pelletization of paddy straw for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. - Highlights: • Biomethane production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 8.0 GJ/tonne. • Bioethanol production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 5.6 GJ/tonne. • Biomethanation route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2750 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. • Pelletization for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne. • Bioethanol route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO_2e kg emissions/tonne.

  15. Self-sustained turbulence and L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.

    1993-04-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The quantitative effect of the anomalous transport, which is caused by microscopic fluctuations, on the pressure-gradient- driven modes is analyzed. The ExB nonlinearity is renormalized in a form of the transport coefficient such as the thermal diffusivity, the ion viscosity and the current diffusivity. The destabilization by the current-diffusivity and the stabilization by the thermal transport and ion viscosity are analyzed. By use of the mean-field approximations, the nonlinear dispersion relation is solved. Growth rate and stability condition are expressed in terms of the renormalized transport coefficients. The transport coefficients in the steady state are obtained by the marginal stability condition for the least stable mode. This method is applied to the microscopic ballooning mode for the toroidal plasma with the magnetic well (such as tokamak). The comparison with experimental observations are made. A good agreement is found in a various aspects of the L-mode plasmas; The typical wavenumber and level of the fluctuations for the self-sustained turbulence is also obtained. The analysis is also made for the plasma with magnetic hill and shear (such as torsatron/Heliotron devices). This method is applied to the interchange modes. Formula of the anomalous transport is obtained. Also investigated is the case of the magnetic well and low magnetic shear (conventional stellarator). The roles of the pressure gradient and the collisionless skin depth in determining the anomalous transport are found to be generic in toroidal plasmas. The difference in the magnetic configuration affects the transport coefficient. These formula explain major experimental observations. (J.P.N.)

  16. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  17. Nonequilibrium phenomena and determination of plasma parameters in the hot core of the cathode region in free-burning arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Gerrit; Kock, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma parameters (electron density n e , electron temperature T e , gas temperature T g , underpopulation factor b) in the hot-core region in front of the cathode of a low-current, free-burning arc discharge in argon under atmospheric pressure. The discharge is operated in the hot-core mode, creating a hot cathode region with plasma parameters similar to high-current arcs in spite of the fact that we use comparatively low currents (less than 20 A). We use continuum emission and (optically thin) line emission to determine n e and T e . We apply relaxation measurements based on a power-interruption technique to investigate deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). These measurements let us determine the gas temperature T g . All measurements are performed side-on with charge-coupled-device cameras as detectors, so that all measured plasma parameters are spatially resolved after an Abel inversion. This yields the first ever spatially resolved observation of the non-LTE phenomena of the hot core in the near-cathode region of free-burning arcs. The results only partly coincide with previously published predictions and measurements in the literature

  18. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der; Palomares, J M

    2008-01-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n e , is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T e , is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n e values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) x 10 19 m -3 , whereas the n e value (2 ± 0.5) x 10 19 m -3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (∼10 20 m -3 ). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T e values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  19. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  20. Simulation study of burning control with internal transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, S.I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-02-01

    Dynamics of burning plasma with internal transport barrier is studied by use of a one dimensional transport simulation code. Two possible mechanisms are modeled for internal transport barrier collapse. One is the collapse, which occurs above the critical pressure gradient, the impact of which is modeled by the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The other is the collapse, which occurs due to the sawtooth trigger. The extended Kadomtsev type reconnection model with multiple resonant surfaces is introduced. Both models are examined for the analysis of long time sustainment of burning. A test of profile control to mitigate the collapse is investigated. The additional circulating power to suppress thermal quench (collapse) is evaluated. (author)

  1. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  2. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  3. The role of plasma radius as a condition for sustaining a coaxial discharge at various wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K; Bogdanov, T; Benova, E

    2012-01-01

    A gas discharge can be produced and sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in various geometries: planar, spherical, cylindrical and coaxial. An electromagnetic wave travelling along a dielectric tube can produce plasma outside the tube when a metal rod is placed along the tube axis, which is the typical arrangement of a coaxial surface-wave-sustained discharge (CSWD). The CSWD has been studied intensively both theoretically and experimentally since 1998. In the case of a SWD in cylindrical geometry, plasma is mainly produced and sustained by the azimuthally symmetric waves. In coaxial geometry, there are both experimental and theoretical indications showing that higher wave modes may also produce and sustain plasma under certain conditions. In order to find out these conditions theoretically, we developed a one-dimensional fluid model. The purpose of this work is to investigate theoretically the behavior of wave phase diagrams under various discharge conditions and to find the discharge conditions under which plasma can be produced, as well as those conditions when this is not possible.

  4. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  5. Fueling requirements of super-high-density plasmas towards innovative ignition regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-burning scenario with internal diffusion barrier is investigated. • Peaked density profiles allow to sustain self-burning plasma at lower temperature. • Core fueling beyond internal diffusion barrier is essential to sustain peaked density. • Acceptable pellet size becomes small to prevent fusion out perturbation. • Very high velocity pellet injection beyond 10 km/s is inevitable for this scenario. - Abstract: Super-high-density plasma with an internal diffusion barrier which is observed in the Large Helical Device has been extrapolated to a fusion reactor grade plasma to explore an innovative ignition regime and to clarify essential requirements for pellet fueling. The peaked density profiles due to the internal diffusion barrier formation allow reduction in the required minimum temperature to sustain a self-burning plasma down to 10 keV. Direct core fueling beyond the internal diffusion barrier is essential to sustain the peaked density profile. Furthermore, the acceptable pellet size becomes small in terms of fusion output perturbation because the effective volume of the burning plasma becomes small with the peaked density profile. In order to sustain a self-burning plasma with an internal diffusion barrier, therefore, extremely high velocity pellet injection beyond 10 km/s is inevitable unless another solution to the core fueling is found

  6. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E

    2011-10-01

    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  7. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  8. The effect of supplemental enteral glutamine on plasma levels, gut function, and outcome in severe burns: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ping; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Sun, Yong-Hua; Wang, Xiu-Rong; Ma, En-Ling; Wilmore, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of enterally administered glutamine (gln) dipeptide on metabolic, gastrointestinal, and outcome parameters after severe burn injury. Forty thermally injured patients with total body surface burns ranging between 50% and 80%, and third-degree burns ranging between 20% and 40% and without respiratory injuries, were randomized into a prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. One group received gln-enriched enteral nutrition and the other group received the standard enteral formulation. Tube feedings were initiated on postburn day 1 (PBD +1), and isocaloric and isonitrogenous feedings were administered to both groups until PBD +12. The gln was given as the dipeptide of alanyl-gln (Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan), which provided 0.35 g gln/kg body weight/d. Plasma amino acid profiles, serum endotoxin concentrations, and the lactulose/mannitol absorption ratio (which reflects gut permeability) were measured at specific times throughout the clinical course. Wound healing at day 30 was assessed, and length of hospital stay and total costs were determined at discharge. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age and extent of injury. Plasma gln concentrations were approximately 300 umol/L in both groups on PBD +1 and remained low in the control group (399 +/- 40 umol/L, mean +/- SD) but increased toward normal in the supplemented group to 591 +/- 74 (p = .048). Lactulose/mannitol ratios were increased above normal on POD +1 (control, 0.221 +/- 0.169; gln, 0.268 +/- 0.202; not significant), reflecting increased intestinal permeability after burn injury. On POD +3, the ratio in the gln group was lower than control (0.025 +/- 0.008 versus 0.049 +/- 0.016; p = .0001), and both groups returned toward normal ratios with time. Endotoxin levels on PBD +1 were elevated in both groups (control, 0.089 +/- 0.023 EU/mL; gln, 0.103 +/- 0.037 EU/mL; NS) but decreased significantly on PBD +3 in the patients receiving gln. Hospital stay

  9. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Porcine Burn Shock - Development of a Reliable Model and Response to Sodium, Water, and Plasma Loads Administered for Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    nm.ddt. inital, Diet n*Mf) Thomas L. Wachtel, M.D. G. R. McCahan, Jr., D.V.M. 0 REPORT CATS 70. TOTAL No. Or PAGE Nb O. or mrs June 1973 - w 78 0. CON...observations of caloric uptake of pigskin, rise in temperature at the dermis-fat interface as a function of both time and skin surface temperature and an...of Iso-, Hypo - and Hypertonic Sodium Solutions in the Treatment of Burn Shock in Mice," Surgery, 57: 698-704, May 1965. 24. Rosenthal, S. M

  11. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  12. A sustained increase in plasma NEFA upregulates the Toll-like receptor network in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Cipriani, Yolanda; Garduño-Garcia, Jesús; Anaya, Luis; Dube, John; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-sensitive tissues (muscle, liver) of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are in a state of low-grade inflammation, characterised by increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-driven signalling. However, the cause of this mild inflammatory state is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a prolonged mild increase in plasma NEFA will increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (nuclear factor κB [NFκB] and mitogen-activated kinase [MAPK]) and impair insulin action in muscle of lean healthy individuals. Twelve lean, normal-glucose-tolerant participants were randomised to receive a 48 h infusion (30 ml/h) of saline or Intralipid followed by a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and during the clamp. Lipid infusion impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01). The elevation in circulating NEFA increased expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR5, and several MAPK (MAPK8, MAP4K4, MAP2K3) and inhibitor of κB kinase-NFκB (CHUK [IKKA], c-REL [REL] and p65 [RELA, NFKB3, p65]) signalling genes (p < 0.05). The lipid infusion also increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the content of inhibitor of kappa Bα (p = 0.09). The muscle content of most diacylglycerol, ceramide and acylcarnitine species was unaffected. In summary, insulin resistance induced by prolonged low-dose lipid infusion occurs together with increased TLR-driven inflammatory signalling and impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. A sustained, mild elevation in plasma NEFA is sufficient to increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (NFκB and MAPK) in lean individuals. The activation of this pathway by NEFA may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01740817.

  13. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  14. Control of energy and matter at nanoscales: challenges and opportunities for plasma nanoscience in a sustainability age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya

    2011-01-01

    Plasma nanoscience is an emerging multidisciplinary research field at the cutting edge of a large number of disciplines including but not limited to physics and chemistry of plasmas and gas discharges, materials science, surface science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, solid-state physics, space physics and astrophysics, photonics, optics, plasmonics, spintronics, quantum information, physical chemistry, biomedical sciences and related engineering subjects. This paper examines the origin, progress and future perspectives of this research field driven by the global scientific and societal challenges. The future potential of plasma nanoscience to remain a highly topical area in the global research and technological agenda in the age of fundamental-level control for a sustainable future is assessed using a framework of the five Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences recently mapped by the US Department of Energy. It is concluded that the ongoing research is very relevant and is expected to substantially expand to competitively contribute to the solution of all of these Grand Challenges. The approach to controlling energy and matter at nano- and subnanoscales is based on identifying the prevailing carriers and transfer mechanisms of the energy and matter at the spatial and temporal scales that are most relevant to any particular nanofabrication process. Strong accent is made on the competitive edge of the plasma-based nanotechnology in applications related to the major socio-economic issues (energy, food, water, health and environment) that are crucial for a sustainable development of humankind. Several important emerging topics, opportunities and multidisciplinary synergies for plasma nanoscience are highlighted. The main nanosafety issues are also discussed and the environment- and human health-friendly features of plasma-based nanotech are emphasized.

  15. Control of energy and matter at nanoscales: challenges and opportunities for plasma nanoscience in a sustainability age

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2011-05-01

    Plasma nanoscience is an emerging multidisciplinary research field at the cutting edge of a large number of disciplines including but not limited to physics and chemistry of plasmas and gas discharges, materials science, surface science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, solid-state physics, space physics and astrophysics, photonics, optics, plasmonics, spintronics, quantum information, physical chemistry, biomedical sciences and related engineering subjects. This paper examines the origin, progress and future perspectives of this research field driven by the global scientific and societal challenges. The future potential of plasma nanoscience to remain a highly topical area in the global research and technological agenda in the age of fundamental-level control for a sustainable future is assessed using a framework of the five Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences recently mapped by the US Department of Energy. It is concluded that the ongoing research is very relevant and is expected to substantially expand to competitively contribute to the solution of all of these Grand Challenges. The approach to controlling energy and matter at nano- and subnanoscales is based on identifying the prevailing carriers and transfer mechanisms of the energy and matter at the spatial and temporal scales that are most relevant to any particular nanofabrication process. Strong accent is made on the competitive edge of the plasma-based nanotechnology in applications related to the major socio-economic issues (energy, food, water, health and environment) that are crucial for a sustainable development of humankind. Several important emerging topics, opportunities and multidisciplinary synergies for plasma nanoscience are highlighted. The main nanosafety issues are also discussed and the environment- and human health-friendly features of plasma-based nanotech are emphasized.

  16. Operation and control of ITER plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Features incorporated in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak and its ancillary and plasma diagnostic systems that will facilitate operation and control of ignited and/or high-Q DT plasmas are presented. Control methods based upon straight-forward extrapolation of techniques employed in the present generation of tokamaks are found to be adequate and effective for DT plasma control with burn durations of ≥1000 s. Examples of simulations of key plasma control functions including magnetic configuration control and fusion burn (power) control are given. The prospects for the creation and control of steady-state plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive are also discussed. (author)

  17. Operation and control of ITER plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Features incorporated in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak and its ancillary and plasma diagnostic systems that will facilitate operation and control of ignited and/or high-Q DT plasmas are presented. Control methods based upon straight-forward extrapolation of techniques employed in the present generation of tokamaks are found to be adequate and effective for DT plasma control with burn durations of ≥1000 s. Examples of simulations of key plasma control functions including magnetic configuration control and fusion burn (power) control are given. The prospects for the creation and control of steady-state plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive are also discussed. (author)

  18. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com; Burrell, K. H.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Eldon, D.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6900 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Liu, F.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER-like shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. The DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  19. Reduction in 14 MeV neutron generation rate by ICRF injection in D-3He burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    The triton distribution function during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves injection in D- 3 He plasmas is examined by solving the 2-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. Triton distribution function originally has a non-Maxwellian (tail) component around 1.01 MeV birth energy range due to D(d,p)T fusion reaction. Owing to the extension of the original tail by ICRF injection, the high-energy resonance tritons further increase, and the velocity-averaged T(d,n) 4 He fusion reaction rate coefficient, i.e. 14 MeV neutron generation rate, decreases from the values when triton is assumed to be Maxwellian. It is shown that when tritons absorb ∼1/200 of the fusion power from the waves in typical D- 3 He plasma, i.e. T=80 keV, n D =2x10 20 m -3 , τ E0 =3 sec and B=6T, the 14 MeV neutron generation rate is reduced by about ∼20% from the values for Maxwellian plasmas. (author)

  20. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  1. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar Colome, J.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  2. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  3. The Potential of Cold Plasma for Safe and Sustainable Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Paula; Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Cullen, Patrick J; Keener, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    Cold plasma science and technology is increasingly investigated for translation to a plethora of issues in the agriculture and food sectors. The diversity of the mechanisms of action of cold plasma, and the flexibility as a standalone technology or one that can integrate with other technologies, provide a rich resource for driving innovative solutions. The emerging understanding of the longer-term role of cold plasma reactive species and follow-on effects across a range of systems will suggest how cold plasma may be optimally applied to biological systems in the agricultural and food sectors. Here we present the current status, emerging issues, regulatory context, and opportunities of cold plasma with respect to the broad stages of primary and secondary food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of thermal effects on TIBER II [Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor] divertor during plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, M.L.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the disruption power flow from the mid-plane of the TIBER Engineering Test Reactor to its divertor and calculating the resulting thermal effects are accomplished through the modification and coupling of three presently existing computer codes. The resulting computer code TADDPAK (Thermal Analysis Divertor during Disruption PAcKage) provides three-dimensional graphic presentations of time and positional dependent thermal effects on a poloidal cross section of the double-null-divertor configured reactor. These thermal effects include incident heat flux, surface temperature, vaporization rate, total vaporization, and melting depth. The dependence of these thermal effects on material choice, disruption pulse shape, and the characteristic thickness of the plasma scrape-off layer is determined through parametric analysis with TADDPAK. This computer code is designed to be a convenient, rapid, and user-friendly modeling tool which can be easily adapted to most tokamak double-null-divertor reactor designs. 14 refs

  5. Modelling of a plasma column sustained by a travelling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave (m=1 mode) in the presence of a constant axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Staikov, P.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations modelling a low-pressure plasma column sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave in the dipolar mode in the presence of a constant external magnetic field is presented. It is shown that, from a practical point of view, only the m = 1 mode (the right-hand-polarized wave) can sustain plasma columns in a wide region of gas-discharge conditions: plasma radius R, wave frequency ω, magnetic field B 0 and low pressures, irrespective of the nature of the gas. The main result of this study is that the magnetic field makes it possible to sustain a plasma column for values of σ smaller than σ cr = 0.3726, below which, in the absence of a magnetic field, the dipolar wave cannot produce a plasma. Moreover, at a fixed wave power, the magnetic field - in contrast with the case of plasma columns sustained by azimuthally symmetric waves - increases the plasma density and its axial gradient. The limit of an infinite external magnetic field (Ω → ∞) is also considered. A three-dimensional wave structure is obtained, and it indicates that the wave can be a generalized surface mode, a pure surface or a pseudosurface one. (author)

  6. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1977-06-01

    The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)

  7. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)

  8. Plasma current sustainment after iron core saturation in the STOR-M tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitarai, O., E-mail: omitarai@ktmail.tokai-u.jp [Kumamoto Liberal Arts Education Center, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Ding, Y.; Hubeny, M.; Lu, Y.; Onchi, T.; McColl, D.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma current can be started up by small iron core without central solenoid. • Iron core removes central solenoid. • Plasma current can be maintained after iron core saturation. • Hysteresis curve shows the partial core saturation. • Image field from iron core is estimated during discharge. • Spherical tokamak reactor without CS is proposed using the small iron core. - Abstract: We propose to use of a small iron core transformer to start up the plasma current in a spherical tokamak (ST) reactor without central solenoid (CS). Taking advantage of the high aspect ratio of the STOR-M iron core tokamak, we have demonstrated that the plasma current up to 10–15 kA can be started up using the outer Ohmic heating (OH) coils without CS, and that the plasma current can be maintained further by increasing the outer OH coil current during iron core saturation phase. When the magnetizing current reaches 1.2 kA and the iron core becomes saturated, the third capacitor bank connected to the outer OH coils is discharged to maintain the plasma current. The plasma current is slightly increased and maintained for additional 5 ms as expected from numerical calculations. Core saturation has been clearly observed on the hysteresis curve. This is the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of slow transition from the iron core to air core transformer phase without CS. The results implies that a plasma current can be initiated by a small iron core and could be ramped up by additional heating and vertical field after iron core saturation in future STs without CS.

  9. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Wolf, Steven E; White, Chrsitopher E; Renz, Evan M; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Holcomb, John B; Barillo, David J

    2006-01-01

    ... of the burn resuscitation. Critical advances in air evacuation of the war wounded, thorough prewar planning, and sustained burn care education of deployed personnel have proven vital in the optimal care of our injured soldiers...

  11. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  12. Plasma current sustained by fusion charged particles in a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Momota, H.; Tajima, T.

    1987-04-01

    The distribution of energetic charged particles generated by thermonuclear fusion reactions in a field reversed configuration (FRC) are studied analytically and numerically. A fraction of the charged fusion products escapes directly while the others are trapped to form a directed particle flow parallel to the plasma current. It is shown that the resultant current density produced by these fusion charged particles can be comparable to background plasma current density that produces the original field reversed configuration in a D- 3 He reactor. Self-consistent equilibria arising from the currents of the background plasma and proton fusion products are constructed where the Larmor radius of the fusion product is of arbitrary size. Reactor relevant parameters are examined, such as how the fusion reactivity rate varies as a result of supporting the pressure associated with the fusion products. We also model the synchrotron emission from various pressure profiles and quantitatively show how synchrotron losses vary with different pressure profiles in an FRC configuration

  13. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  14. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  15. Computations of the Power to Sustain Plasma in Air with Relevance to Aerospace Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidmar, Robert

    2004-01-01

    ... level to 300,000 ft. An air chemistry code was upgraded and optimized for air-plasma research with key reactions that are functions of the reduced electric field, E/N, with a maximum value of 2E-15 V-sq cm...

  16. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J. [Physical Sciences Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation 2310, E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, California 90245 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  17. Magnetic structure in the entrance region of spheromaks sustained by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun under long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Takaichi, Kazuaki; Katsurai, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic structure in coaxial-gun-sustained spheromaks has been investigated. The plasma gun has been operated with a small axial/radial bias magnetic flux as compared to the azimuthal magnetic flux produced by the discharge current. Stronger magnetic field is observed in the entrance region (ER) than in the flux conserver (FC). In both ER and FC, the magnetic structure is nearly axisymmetric. The axial magnetic field in ER is amplified up to about sixteen times as large as the bias magnetic field. This amplification is limited by the drastic change in the magnetic structure, which occurs when the discharge current becomes very large. The magnetic structure before the drastic change is interpreted with the Bessel function model. The μ estimation shows that the magnetic structure is mainly determined by the boundary geometry, not by the external magnetic flux and current. (author)

  18. Plasma characteristics in an electrically asymmetric capacitive discharge sustained by multiple harmonics: operating in the very high frequency regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Hu, Yan-Ting; Gao, Fei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2018-05-01

    A novel method, the so-called electrical asymmetry effect (EAE), is gaining increasing interest for realizing the separate control of the ion flux and ion energy. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model combined with the full set of Maxwell equations is used to investigate the plasma properties in an electrically asymmetric capacitive discharge sustained by multiple consecutive harmonics operating in the very high frequency regime. The results indicate that by increasing the total number of consecutive harmonics k, the modulation of the dc self-bias induced by changing {θ }1 (the relative phase of the fundamental frequency) becomes different, especially for k ≤slant 6. In a discharge driven by eight consecutive harmonics, the dc self-bias varies with a period 2π, and the most positive value appears at {θ }1 = 3π/2. In addition, with the electromagnetic effects taken into account, the plasma density shifts from edge-high to uniform when {θ }1 increases from 0 to π, and the maximum moves again towards the radial wall at {θ }1 = 3π/2. Moreover, the transient behavior of electrodynamics is also important for a better understanding of the EAE. Within a period, three positive peaks of {P}z are observed, which cause substantial ionization at similar places. {P}r is characterized by a pronounced peak at the end of the period, and the lowest peak value appears at {θ }1 = π. The results obtained in this work are important for improving the plasma processes by utilizing the EAE, especially when the higher order harmonics are included.

  19. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  20. Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in argon plasmas sustained in a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Calzada, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma torches are suitable plasma sources for a wide range of applications. The capability of these discharges to produce processes like sample excitation or decomposition of molecules inside them depends on the density of the plasma species and their energies (temperatures). The relation between these parameters determines the specific state of thermodynamic equilibrium in the discharge. Thus, the understanding of plasma possibilities for application purposes is related to the knowledge of the plasma thermodynamic equilibrium degree. In this paper a discussion about the equilibrium state for Ar plasmas generated by using a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes, TIAGO device, is presented. Emission spectroscopy techniques were used to measure gas temperature and electron density at the exit of the nozzle torch and along the dart. Boltzmann-plots as well as b p parameters were calculated to characterize the type and degree of departure from partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). This study indicates that the closer situation to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) of the plasma corresponds to larger Ar flows which highlights the importance of the nitrogen (atmosphere surrounding the plasma) in the kinetics of Ar-TIAGO discharges. - Highlights: • Discharges sustained in Ar using a TIAGO Torch show a significant departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Nitrogen entrance from surrounding air highly influences Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Departure from LTE has been studied by means of Boltzmann plots and b p parameters. • The discharge is ionizing at the nozzle exit plasma, while along the dart it becomes recombining

  1. Singlet oxygen in the low-temperature plasma of an electron-beam-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Podmar'kov, Yu. P.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Frolov, M. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the production of singlet delta oxygen in a pulsed electron-beam-sustained discharge ignited in a large (∼18-1) volume at a total gas mixture pressure of up to 210 Torr. The measured yield of singlet oxygen reaches 10.5%. It is found that varying the reduced electric field from ∼2 to ∼11 kV/(cm atm) slightly affects singlet oxygen production. It is shown experimentally that an increase in the gas mixture pressure or the specific input energy reduces the duration of singlet oxygen luminescence. The calculated time evolution of the singlet oxygen concentration is compared with experimental results

  2. Atmospheric plasma assisted PLA/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) multilayer biocomposite for sustainable barrier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meriçer, Çağlar; Minelli, Matteo; Angelis, Maria G De

    2016-01-01

    Fully bio-based and biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), are considered in order to produce a completely renewable packaging solution for oxygen barrier applications, even at medium-high relative humidity (R.H.). Thin layers of MFC were coated...... on different PLA substrates by activating film surface with an atmospheric plasma treatment, leading to the fabrication of robust and transparent multilayer composite films, which were then characterized by different experimental techniques. UV transmission measurements confirmed the transparency of multilayer...... films (60% of UV transmission rate), while SEM micrographs showed the presence of a continuous, dense and defect free layer of MFC on PLA surface. Concerning the mechanical behavior of the samples, tensile tests revealed that the multilayer films significantly improved the stress at break value of neat...

  3. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  4. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical procedures in acute burns can be broadly divided into four groups: ablative (tangential or fascial ... tissue oedema due to extravasation of plasma into the interstitium. Fluid replacement will worsen the oedema, ... include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic ...

  5. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  6. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2014-10-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). The main purpose of this project is to enhance joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to several key physics issues on steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas. The fourth seminar on the A3 collaboration, as the fifth meeting of A3 program, took place in Kagoshima, Japan, 23-26 June 2014, which was hosted by National Institute for Fusion Science, to discuss achievement during past two years and to summarize intermediate report. New collaborative research was also encouraged as well as participation of young scientists. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configuration, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 41 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs

  8. Self-sustaining thin films as a means of reducing first wall erosion and plasma impurity influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neutral impurities ejected from Tokamak wall and limiter surfaces may travel several cm before being ionized very quickly upon entering the plasma edge. The influence of the unipolar sheath potential is exerted only within a very short distance of the surface and has no effect on neutral impurity atoms within a very short distance of the surface and has no effect on neutral impurity atoms which are subsequently ionized by charge-exchange collisions or electron impact ionization. However, secondary ions emanating from the limiter surfaces with kinetic energies less than the sheath potential will have essentially zero probability of traveling more than a few Debye lengths before being redeposited. Similarly, secondary ions originating at the first wall are redeposited as a result of the deflection produced by the magnetic field. Impurity influx resulting from sputtering would therefore be substantially reduced for surfaces which produce a very high ion/neutral ratio when sputtered. It has been previously shown that the high secondary ion yield associated with the alkali metal potassium does not apply to the bulk metal but pertains to ionic compounds and thin (mono-layer) films. Two processes are discussed as a means of producing these films in a self-sustaining manner compatible with the fusion reactor environment. (orig.)

  9. The impedance of energy efficiency of a coaxial magnetized plasma source used for spheromak formation and sustainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Marklin, G.J.; Knox, S.O.; Henins, I.

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic (dc) helicity injection has previously been shown to successfully sustain the magnetic fields of spheromaks and tokamaks. The magnitude of the injected magnetic helicity balances (within experimental error) the flux lost be resistive decay of the toroidal equilibrium. The problem of optimizing this current drive scheme hence involves maximizing the injected helicity (the voltage-connecting-flux product) while minimizing the current (which multiplied by the voltage represents the energy input and also possible damage to the electrodes). The impedance (voltage-to-current ratio) and energy efficiency of a dc helicity injection experiment are studied on the CTX spheromak. Over several years changes were made in the physical geometry of the coaxial magnetized plasmas source as well as changes in the external electrical circuit. The source could be operated over a wide range of external charging voltage (and hence current), applied axial flux, and source gas flow rate. A database of resulting voltage, helicity injection, efficiency, electron density, and rotation has been created. These experimental results are compared to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of magnetic flux flow. The theory is parameterized by the dimensionless Hall parameter, the ratio of electric to mass current. For a constant Hall parameter the theory explains why the voltage depends quadratically on the current at constant flux. The theory also explains the approximately linear dependence of the impedance-to-current ratio on the current-to-flux ratio of the source. 9 refs., 6 figs

  10. Perineal burn contractures: An experience in tertiary hospital of a Himalayan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineal burn contracture is a rare burn sequel. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases with perineal burn contractures managed in a tertiary care centre of a Himalayan state. We found that all cases sustained burn injury from burning firewood and the time of presentation was two to six years after the burn injury. We analyzed our treatment method and have classified these contractures into two types.

  11. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  12. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  13. Static or feedback stabilization of the burn in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1980-02-01

    The control of the burn in an ignited Tokamak using a space and time dependent external vertical magnetic field is discussed. It is shown that a static field, suitably shaped in space, is able to stabilize the burn for a certain range of the plasma parameters of physical interest. An oscillating magnetic field with constant frequency and amplitude fixed by the initial plasma parameters stabilizes the burn in all situations. (orig.)

  14. The roles of electric field shear and Shafranov shift in sustaining high confinement in enhanced reversed shear plasmas on the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Beer, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    The relaxation of core transport barriers in TFTR Enhanced Reversed Shear plasmas has been studied by varying the radial electric field using different applied torques from neutral beam injection. Transport rates and fluctuations remain low over a wide range of radial electric field shear, but increase when the local E x B shearing rates are driven below a threshold comparable to the fastest linear growth rates of the dominant instabilities. Shafranov-shift-induced stabilization alone is not able to sustain enhanced confinement

  15. A closer look at burn injuries and epilepsy in a developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injuries in South Africa result in significant morbidity and mortality, and specific vulnerable groups of patients are at increased risk of sustaining a burn injury. Epileptic patients are one such vulnerable group. The spectrum of burn injuries sustained by epileptic patients in a South African township and the ...

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  17. Generation of uniform low-temperature plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a large-area hollow cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Denisov, V. V., E-mail: volodyadenisov@yandex.ru; Koval, N. N.; Kovalsky, S. S.; Lopatin, I. V.; Schanin, P. M.; Yakovlev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Generation of plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode with an area of ≥2 m{sup 2} at gas pressures of 0.4–1 Pa was studied experimentally. At an auxiliary arc-discharge current of 100 A and a main discharge voltage of 240 V, a pulse-periodic glow discharge with a current amplitude of 370 A, pulse duration of 340 μs, and repetition rate of 1 kHz was obtained. The possibility of creating a uniform gas-discharge plasma with a density of up to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of 1 eV in a volume of >0.2 m{sup 3} was demonstrated. Such plasma can be efficiently used to treat material surfaces and generate pulsed ion beams with a current density of up to 15 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.

    1998-10-01

    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  19. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. On the condition of UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel irradiated in a PWR to a burn-up in excess of 110 MWd/kgHM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restani, R.; Horvath, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Goll, W. [AREVA GmbH, P.O. Box 1109, DE-91001 Erlangen (Germany); Bertsch, J.; Gavillet, D.; Hermann, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Martin, M., E-mail: matthias.martin@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Walker, C.T. [The Grange, 66 High Street, Swinderby, Lincoln LN6 9LU (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Post-irradiation examination results are presented for UO{sub 2} fuel from a PWR fuel rod that had been irradiated to an average burn-up of 105 MWd/kgHM and showed high fission gas release of 42%. The radial distribution of xenon and the partitioning of fission gas between bubbles and the fuel matrix was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe microanalysis. It is concluded that release from the fuel at intermediate radial positions was mainly responsible for the high fission gas release. In this region thermal release had occurred from the high burn-up structure (HBS) at some point after the sixth irradiation cycle. The LA-ICP-MS results indicate that gas release had also occurred from the HBS in the vicinity of the pellet periphery. It is shown that the gas pressure in the HBS pores is well below the pressure that the fuel can sustain. - Highlights: • Gas retention measured by laser ablation induction coupled plasma mass spectrometry. • Thermal release from the high burn structure responsible for high gas release. • At a pellet burn-up of 115 MWd/kgHM the high burn-up structure is still evolving. • The gas pressure in HBS pores is well below the pressure that the fuel can sustain.

  1. Ignition Regime for Fusion in a Degenerate Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    We identify relevant parameter regimes in which aneutronic fuels can undergo fusion ignition in hot-ion degenerate plasma. Because of relativistic effects and partial degeneracy, the self-sustained burning regime is considerably larger than previously calculated. Inverse bremsstrahlung plays a major role in containing the reactor energy. We solve the radiation transfer equation and obtain the contribution to the heat conductivity from inverse bremsstrahlung

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  3. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  4. Plasmas in saline solutions sustained using rectified ac voltages: polarity and frequency effects on the discharge behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Hungwen; Hsu Chengche

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three major problems, namely severe electrode damage, poor plasma stability and excess power consumption, arising in ac-driven plasmas in saline solutions are solved using a rectified power source. Diagnostic studies on the effects of power source polarity and frequency on the plasma behaviour are performed. Examination of I-V characteristics and temporally resolved light emission shows that the polarity significantly influences the current amplitude when the plasma exists, while the frequency alters the bubble dynamics, which in turn affects the plasma ignition voltage. When the plasma is driven by a rectified ac power source, the electrode erosion is reduced substantially. With a low frequency, moderate applied voltage and positively rectified ac power source (e.g. 100 Hz and 350 V), a stable plasma is ignited in nearly every power cycle. (paper)

  5. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  6. Proceedings of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-06-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). A seminar on the A3 collaboration took place in Hotel Gozensui, Kushiro, Japan, 22-25 January 2013. This seminar was organized by National Institute for Fusion Science. One special talk and 36 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 13 Chinese, 14 Japanese and 9 Korean attendees. Steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing a nuclear fusion reactor. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results on fusion experiments and theory obtained through A3 foresight program during recent two years were discussed and summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in three countries. This issue is the collection of 29 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 29 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Sustained high plasma mannose less sensitive to fluctuating blood glucose in glycogen storage disease type Ia children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Takatani, Tomozumi; Asano, Hisaki; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Mayuko; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Haruki; Hiejima, Eitaro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Miida, Takashi; Ohtake, Akira; Taguchi, Tadao; Miwa, Ichitomo

    Plasma mannose is suggested to be largely generated from liver glycogen-oriented glucose-6-phosphate. This study examined plasma mannose in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) lacking conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the liver. We initially examined fasting-and postprandial 2

  8. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Yamahara, Kenichi; Tsubota, Hideki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2009-10-01

    While single growth factor has limitation to induce optimal neovascularization, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous reserver of various growth factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of PRP-related neovascularization.The objective of this investigation was to characterize the angiogenic and growth factor content of PRP and to determine, in vitro, its effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Additionally, this experiment sought to determine the effectiveness of different compositions of PRP (solution versus sustained release) on perfusion and neovascularization in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Different growth factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo study, we used gelatin hydrogel as a sustained release carrier for growth factors in PRP. We induced hind limb ischemia by excising right femoral artery in wild type C57BL6 mice. After surgery, mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; control (C), 100 muL of sustained release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 muL of solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), 100 muL of sustained release form of PRP (PRP-sr); each formulation was administered via an intramuscular injection to the ischemic hind limb. Endpoint evaluations were blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion image, vascular density by anti Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and mature vessel density by anti smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Green fluorescent protein (GFP+) transgenic mice were generated by transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells to wild type C57BL6 mice, and finally CD34+ cell in the ischemic site of transgenic mice was detected by staining with anti-CD34 antibody. In vitro study showed that PRP containing different growth factors induces endothelial cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. In vivo study demonstrated that sustained release of PRP increased perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) (57 +/- 12

  9. The application of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of deep dermal burns: A randomized, double-blind, intra-patient controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, Roos E.; Gardien, Kim L. M.; Stekelenburg, Carlijn M.; Vehmeijer, Marielle; Baas, D.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Breederveld, Roelf S.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of blood with a platelet concentration above baseline. When platelets get activated, growth factors involved in wound healing are released. The application of PRP has shown good results in wound care, however, up to date no substantial research has been

  10. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources.

  11. Visible Spectrometer at the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment, the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment and the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak for Doppler Width and Shift Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A; Howard, S; Horton, R; Hwang, D; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; McLean, H; Terry, J

    2006-05-15

    A novel Doppler spectrometer is currently being used for ion or neutral velocity and temperature measurements on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The spectrometer has an f/No. of {approx}3.1 and is appropriate for visible light (3500-6700 {angstrom}). The full width at half maximum from a line emitting calibration source has been measured to be as small as 0.4 {angstrom}. The ultimate time resolution is line brightness light limited and on the order of ms. A new photon efficient detector is being used for the setup at C-Mod. Time resolution is achieved by moving the camera during a plasma discharge in a perpendicular direction through the dispersion plane of the spectrometer causing a vertical streaking across the camera face. Initial results from C-Mod as well as previous measurements from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) and the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) are presented.

  12. A review of campfire burns in children: The QLD experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, O; Zhu, L; Kimble, R M; Stockton, K A

    2018-03-27

    Campfire burns in children are a significant health issue. It is imperative that the extent of the problem is examined and strategies discussed to inform future prevention campaigns. A retrospective review of data from the Queensland Paediatric Burns Registry for all children presenting with campfire burns between January 2013 and December 2014 (inclusive). Information collected included patient demographics, detail regarding mechanism of injury, first aid, Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), burn depth, and treatment. Seventy-five children with campfire burns were seen in our paediatric burns centre during this 2-year period. The median age of patients was 3 years (range 10 days-14 years). The hands and feet were the areas most commonly affected. Eleven percent of patients suffered flame burns, whilst 89% suffered contact burns from the hot coals or ashes. Of the latter group, approximately half experienced burns from campfires that had been extinguished for at least one night. Thirteen percent of patients underwent split thickness skin grafting. The incidence of burns was increased during school holiday months. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of targeted campaigns in reducing the incidence of campfire burns. A significant portion of patients sustained burns from incorrectly extinguished campfires. These injuries are likely to be preventable with ongoing public awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous, edge localized ion heating during non-solenoidal plasma startup and sustainment in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus spherical tokamak are initiated and grown by the non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive technique. The LHI system consists of three adjacent electron current sources that inject multiple helical current filaments that can reconnect with each other. Anomalously high impurity ion temperatures are observed during LHI with T i,OV  ⩽  650 eV, which is in contrast to T i,OV  ⩽  70 eV from Ohmic heating alone. Spatial profiles of T i,OV indicate an edge localized heating source, with T i,OV ~ 650 eV near the outboard major radius of the injectors and dropping to ~150 eV near the plasma magnetic axis. Experiments without a background tokamak plasma indicate the ion heating results from magnetic reconnection between adjacent injected current filaments. In these experiments, the HeII T i perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to scale with the reconnecting field strength, local density, and guide field, while {{T}\\text{i,\\parallel}} experiences little change, in agreement with two-fluid reconnection theory. This ion heating is not expected to significantly impact the LHI plasma performance in Pegasus, as it does not contribute significantly to the electron heating. However, estimates of the power transfer to the bulk ion are quite large, and thus LHI current drive provides an auxiliary ion heating mechanism to the tokamak plasma.

  14. Changes in Zinc metabolism after burns : observations, explanations, clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de K.E.C.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; Boxma, H.; Groot, de C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Zinc in plasma and urine and serum albumin and alpha 2-macroglobulin were measured in 48 patients with burns. Mean total burned surface area amounted to 18%, ranging from 2 to 55%, and mean hospitalization time amounted to 35 days, ranging from 10 to 124 days. All parameters showed a decrease during

  15. Proceedings of the third meeting for A3 foresight program workshop on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the first academic year under this A3 foresight program, this workshop was hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and held in Beijing during 19-24 May, 2013. Collaborated research and communication with other A3 programs and bilateral programs, as well as participation of young scientists were encouraged in this workshop. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 40 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 40 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2015-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was launched from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the second academic year under this A3 foresight program, the 6th workshop hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences was held in Nanning during 6-9 January, 2015. The research collaboration carried out by young scientists was also encouraged with participation of graduated students. The three topics of steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles are mainly discussed in addition to relevant studies in small devices. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 39 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  18. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  19. A simple data acquisition system based on arduino platform for non-self-sustained gas discharge plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiruk, I.O.; Garkusha, I.E.; Timoshenko, O.I.; Taran, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    A simple data acquisition system based on Arduino Nano platform is developed. Bluetooth wireless protocol is used for data transmission. Android OS application for data visualization and recording is developed. The system was success-fully applied for acquiring data of Langmuir probe measurements in the non-self-sustained discharge with a hollow anode.

  20. Magnetic Configuration Control of ITER Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, R.; Artaserse, G.; Mattei, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Crisanti, F.; Tommasi, G. de; Fresa, R.; Portone, A.; Sartori, F.; Villone, F.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the capability of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system of controlling the broad range of plasma configurations presently forecasted during ITER operation. The attention is focused on the axi-symmetric aspects of plasma magnetic configuration control since they pose the greatest challenges in terms of control power and they have the largest impact on machine capital cost. The paper is broadly divided in two main sections devoted, respectively, to open loop (feed-forward) and closed loop (feedback) control. In the first part of the study the PF system is assessed with respect to the initiation, ramp-up, sustained burn, ramp-down phases of the main plasma inductive scenario. The limiter-to-divertor configuration transition phase is considered in detail with the aim of assessing the PF capability to form an X-point at the lowest possible current and, therefore, to relax the thermal load on the limiter surfaces. Moreover, during the sustained burn it is important to control plasmas with a broad range of current density profiles. In the second part of the study the plasma vertical feedback control requirements are assessed in details, in particular for the high elongation configurations achievable during the early limiter-to-X point transition phase. Non-rigid plasma displacement models are used to assess the control system voltage and current requirements of different radial field control circuits obtained, for example, by connecting the outermost PF coils, some CS coils, coils sub-sections etc. At last, the main 3D effects of the vessel ports are modeled and their impact of vertical stabilization evaluated. (author)

  1. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.

    1993-01-01

    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  2. The Impact of Housing in Paediatrics Burns Cases: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the impact of housing on paediatric Burns Cases in Lagos Design: Prospective Study Subject: 40 children aged 10 days to 10 years admitted for Management after sustaining burns. Main Outcome Measurements: Housing plays a significant role in paediatric Burns Cases. Results: 70% of a total of ...

  3. Plasma regimes and research goals of JT-60SA towards ITER and DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Y.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Suzuki, T.; Matsunaga, G.; Yoshida, M.; Shinohara, K.; Urano, H.; Nakano, T.; Sakurai, S.; Kawashima, H.; Barabaschi, P.; Lackner, K.; Ishida, S.; Bolzonella, T.

    2011-01-01

    The JT-60SA device has been designed as a highly shaped large superconducting tokamak with a variety of plasma actuators (heating, current drive, momentum input, stability control coils, resonant magnetic perturbation coils, W-shaped divertor, fuelling, pumping, etc) in order to satisfy the central research needs for ITER and DEMO. In the ITER- and DEMO-relevant plasma parameter regimes and with DEMO-equivalent plasma shapes, JT-60SA quantifies the operation limits, plasma responses and operational margins in terms of MHD stability, plasma transport and confinement, high-energy particle behaviour, pedestal structures, scrape-off layer and divertor characteristics. By integrating advanced studies in these research fields, the project proceeds 'simultaneous and steady-state sustainment of the key performances required for DEMO' with integrated control scenario development applicable to the highly self-regulating burning high-β high bootstrap current fraction plasmas.

  4. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El

    2017-01-01

    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries. PMID:28379160

  5. Reacting plasma project at IPP Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, A.; Momota, H.; Hamada, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Akimune, H.

    1981-01-01

    Contributed papers of the seminar on burning plasma held at UCLA are collected. Paper on ''overview of reacting plasma project'' described aim and philosophy of R-Project in Japan. Paper on ''Burning plasma and requirements for design'' gave theoretical aspect of reacting plasma physics while paper on ''plasma container, heating and diagnostics'' treated experimental aspect. Tritium handling is essential for the next step experiment; therefore, paper on ''Tritium problems in burning plasma experiments'' took an important part of this seminar. As appendix, paper on ''a new type of D - ion source using Si-semiconductor'' was added because such an advanced R and D work is essential for R-Project. (author)

  6. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  7. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  8. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  9. A spectroscopic method to determine the electron temperature of an argon surface wave sustained plasmas using a collision radiative model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E; Hartgers, A; Veldhuizen, E M van; Donker, M J van der; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    A method is presented to determine the electron temperature in a low pressure argon plasma using emission spectroscopic measurements and a collisional radiative (CR) model. Absolute line intensity measurements are made in order to construct the atomic state distribution function. In addition to the excited states, the ground state density is also taken into account. Because of this, the excitation temperature can be determined with high precision. A CR-model has been used to determine the degree of equilibrium departure and to obtain the relationship between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature. This method is applied to a microwave plasma which has been generated inside a quartz tube using a surfatron device. The densities of argon levels close to the continuum are used to get an estimated value of the electron density. These values are used as input data for the CR-model. For an argon pressure of 6 mbar, the 4p level densities vary between 8 x 10{sup 14} and 6 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. Using the estimated values for the electron density, between 2 x 10{sup 19} and 3 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, the electron temperature was found to range between 1.15 and 1.20 eV. An extensive error analysis showed that the relative error in the electron temperature is less than 6%.

  10. A spectroscopic method to determine the electron temperature of an argon surface wave sustained plasmas using a collision radiative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E; Hartgers, A; Veldhuizen, E M van; Donker, M J van der; Mullen, J J A M van der

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the electron temperature in a low pressure argon plasma using emission spectroscopic measurements and a collisional radiative (CR) model. Absolute line intensity measurements are made in order to construct the atomic state distribution function. In addition to the excited states, the ground state density is also taken into account. Because of this, the excitation temperature can be determined with high precision. A CR-model has been used to determine the degree of equilibrium departure and to obtain the relationship between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature. This method is applied to a microwave plasma which has been generated inside a quartz tube using a surfatron device. The densities of argon levels close to the continuum are used to get an estimated value of the electron density. These values are used as input data for the CR-model. For an argon pressure of 6 mbar, the 4p level densities vary between 8 x 10 14 and 6 x 10 15 m -3 . Using the estimated values for the electron density, between 2 x 10 19 and 3 x 10 19 m -3 , the electron temperature was found to range between 1.15 and 1.20 eV. An extensive error analysis showed that the relative error in the electron temperature is less than 6%

  11. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  12. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    K A Kamala; S Sankethguddad; S G Sujith; Praveena Tantradi

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to different...

  13. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  14. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  15. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  16. New approach for sustaining energetic, efficient and scalable non-equilibrium plasma in water vapours at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2012-01-01

    Energetic and scalable non-equilibrium plasma was formed in pure water vapour at atmospheric pressure between wire-to-strip electrodes on a dielectric surface with one of the electrodes extended forming a conductive plane on the back side of the dielectric surface. The energy deposition increased by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional pulsed corona discharges under the same conditions. The scalability was demonstrated by operating two electrode assemblies with a common conductive plane between two dielectric layers. The energy yields for hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide generation were measured as ∼1.2 g H 2 /kWh and ∼4 g H 2 O 2 /kWh. (fast track communication)

  17. Effects of radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianming; Xiao Jiasi

    1996-01-01

    Changes in hemodynamics after radiation, burn and combined radiation burn injury within eight hours post injury were studied. The results indicate: (1) Shock of rats in the combined injury group is more severe than that in the burn group. One of the reasons is that the blood volume in the combined injury group is less than that in the burn group. Radiation injury plays an important role in this effect, which enhances the increase in vascular permeability and causes the loss of plasma. (2) Decrease in cardiac output and stroke work and increase in vascular resistance in the combined radiation burn group are more drastic than those in the burn group, which may cause and enhance shock. Replenishing fluid is useful for recovery of hemodynamics. (3) Rb uptake is increased in the radiation group which indicates that compensated increase of myocardial nutritional blood flow may take place before the changes of hemodynamics and shock. Changes of Rb uptake in the combined injury group is different from that in the radiation groups and in the burn group. The results also suggest that changes of ion channel activities may occur to a different extent after injury. (4) Verapamil is helpful to the recovery of hemodynamics post injury. It is better to combine verapamil with replenishing fluid

  18. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  19. Hybrid simulation of electron energy distributions and plasma characteristics in pulsed RF CCP sustained in Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Jia, Wen-Zhu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Zhong-Ling; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed-discharge plasmas offer great advantages in deposition of silicon-based films due to the fact that they can suppress cluster agglomeration, moderate the energy of bombarding ions, and prolong the species' diffusion time on the substrate. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo hybrid model is applied to study pulse modulated radio-frequency (RF) plasmas sustained in capacitively coupled Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges. First, the electron energy distributions in pulsed Ar and SiH4/Ar plasmas have been investigated and compared under identical discharge-circuit conditions. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in Ar discharge exhibits a familiar bi-Maxwellian shape during the power-on phase of the pulse, while a more complex (resembling a multi-Maxwellian) distribution with extra inflection points at lower energies is observed in the case of the SiH4/Ar mixture. These features become more prominent with the increasing fraction of SiH4 in the gas mixture. The difference in the shape of the EEDF (which is pronounced inside the plasma but not in the RF sheath where electron heating occurs) is mainly attributed to the electron-impact excitations of SiH4. During the power-off phase of the pulse, the EEDFs in both Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges evolve into bi-Maxwellian shapes, with shrinking high energy tails. Furthermore, the parameter of ion species in the case of SiH4/Ar discharge is strongly modulated by pulsing. For positive ions, such as SiH3+ and Si2H4+ , the particle fluxes overshoot at the beginning of the power-on interval. Meanwhile, for negative ions such as SiH2- and SiH3- , density profiles observed between the electrodes are saddle-shaped due to the repulsion by the self-bias electric field as it builds up. During the power-off phase, the wall fluxes of SiH2- and SiH3- gradually increase, leading to a significant decrease in the net surface charge density on the driven electrode. Compared with ions, the density of SiH3 is poorly modulated

  20. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  1. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection. Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can ... burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin: Signs ... pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters. Healing ...

  2. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  3. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  4. Terminal Maturation of Orthochromatic Erythroblasts Is Impaired in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Mosier, Michael J; Conrad, Peggie; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali

    2018-02-20

    Mechanisms of erythropoietin (Epo)-resistant anemia in burn patients are poorly understood. We have recently found that administering a nonselective beta 1,2-adrenergic blocker propranolol (PR) was effective in reversing myelo-erythroid commitment through MafB regulation and increase megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors in burn patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived ex vivo culture system. Having known that Epo-dependent proliferation of early erythroblasts is intact after burn injury, here we inquired whether or not Epo-independent maturation stage of erythropoiesis is affected by burn injury and the relative role of PR on late-stage erythropoiesis. While majority of erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, maturation into reticulocytes is crucial for their release into sinusoids to occupy the peripheral circulation for which enucleation is vital. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from burn patients were extended beyond commitment and proliferation stages to late maturation stage in ex vivo culture to understand the role of PR in burn patients. Burn impedes late maturation of orthochromatic erythroblasts into reticulocytes by restricting the enucleation step. Late-stage erythropoiesis is impaired in burn patients irrespective of PR treatment. Further, substituting the microenvironment with control plasma (homologous) in place of autologous plasma rescues the conversion of orthochromatic erythroblasts to reticulocytes. Results show promise in formulating interventions to regulate late-stage erythropoiesis, which can be used in combination with PR to reduce the number of transfusions.

  5. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R 2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  6. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  7. A mechanism for the formation and sustainment of the self-organized global profile and E   ×   B staircase in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism for the formation and sustainment of a self-organized global profile and the ‘ E   ×   B staircase’ are investigated through simulations of a flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence based on GKNET, a 5D global gyrokinetic code. The staircase is found to be initiated from the radially extended ITG mode structures with nearly up-down symmetry during the saturation phase, and is established as it evolves into a quasi-steady turbulence, leading to a self-organized global temperature profile and to meso-scale isomorphic profiles of the radial electric field and the temperature gradient. It is found that the quasi-regular E   ×   B shear flow pattern is primarily originated from an even-symmetrical zonal flow produced by the extended ITG mode, which flow pattern exhibits an in-phase relation with the mean flow variation induced by the temperature relaxation. Consequently, the staircase is initiated through the profiles of total electric field and temperature gradient with a self-organized manner. Since the sign of E   ×   B shear flow at the central part are opposite to that at both edges, it disintegrates the ITG mode into smaller scale eddies. Meanwhile, smaller scale eddies tend to be aligned radially by spontaneous phase matching, which can provide the growth of mode amplitude and the formation of radially extended mode structures, leading to the bursty heat transport. This process is repeated quasi-periodically, sustaining self-organized structures and the E   ×   B staircase. Moreover, the equilibrium mean field is found to be of specific importance in causing the structures and dynamics from meso- to macro scales in toroidal plasmas.

  8. Technology Issues of Burning Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The ITER Tokamak will require many diagnostics both for safe and reliable operation of the machine and for understanding of the physics underlying the performance. The design of these diagnostics raises many challenging technical issues not faced on smaller machines. These arise partly from the increase demands on established diagnostics arising from the increased size, higher magnetic field, large heating power, and in particular the dramatically longer pulse duration of ITER, which make issue such as power loading on first wall components more challenging. The demands on reliability and availability of the machine in order to achieve the objectives within the agreed time schedule also place severe additional demands on the design, quality assurance and maintainability of diagnostics. ITER will produce many orders of magnitude more neutrons than previous Tokamaks and will be a licensed nuclear facility. This has important implications for the traceability, quality assurance and availability of safety critical diagnostics, and for the control of the design and procurement of all diagnostics. The high neutron flux/fluence also constrains the design of diagnostics, which must offer shielding consistent with the allowable dose rates on critical components of the Tokamak, and themselves be tolerant of the radiation level at the diagnostic. This paper presents an overview of the more critical issues for ITER diagnostics

  9. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  10. Methamphetamine-related burns in the cornbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget A; Lewis, Robert W; Latenser, Barbara A; Chung, Joseph Y; Willoughby, Clark; Kealey, G Patrick; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive drug that is easily manufactured from everyday household products and chemicals found at local farm stores. The proliferation of small MA labs has led to a dramatic increase in patients sustaining thermal injury while making and/or using MA. We hypothesized that these patients have larger injuries with longer hospital stays, and larger, nonreimbursed hospital bills compared with burn patients not manufacturing or using MA. In a retrospective case-control study, all burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted to our burn center from January 2002 to December 2005 were stratified into two groups based on urine MA status. Of the 660 burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted during this 4 year period, urine drug screens were obtained at admission on 410 patients (62%); 10% of urine drug screens were MA (+). MA (+) patients have larger burns compared with MA (-) patients (9.3 vs 8.6% body surface area burns), have higher rates of inhalation injuries (20.4 vs 9.3%, P = .015), and more nonthermal trauma (13.0 vs 3.1%, P = .001). When compared with MA (-) patients, MA (+) patients require longer hospital stays (median 9.5 vs 7.0 days, P = .036), accrue greater hospital bills per day (dollars 4292 vs dollars 2797, P = .01), and lack medical insurance (66.7 vs 17.7%, P manufacture mandates that burn centers monitor patients for MA use and develop and institute protocols to ensure proper care of this increasingly costly population.

  11. Contact radiator burn subsequent to spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, C; Aysal, B K; Sahin, C; Kulahci, Y

    2012-06-30

    An unusual case is reported in which a patient sustained a third-degree burn of the plantar surface of the right foot as the result of contact with a heating radiator. This occurred when the patient fell asleep in his hospital bed after knee surgery. Spinal anaesthesia is easy to perform, and the risk factors, though present, are not serious. Such accidents are not infrequent and care should be taken to prevent them.

  12. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-09-13

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  14. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  15. Electrical burns of the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  16. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  17. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale.

  18. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresenc...

  19. Methylated spirit burns following traditional hair dressing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Afieharo I; Iyun, Ayodele O

    2018-02-01

    Methylated spirit burns have been reported following domestic uses such as igniting fondues. It has also been used as an accelerant for self-immolation. We report the first documented case of severe methylated spirit burns sustained during traditional hair dressing. Increased awareness on the dangers of methylated spirit as well as making it less readily available for domestic use is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  1. Mechanism of acute depletion of plasma fibronectin following thermal injury in rats. Appearance of a gelatinlike ligand in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deno, D.C.; McCafferty, M.H.; Saba, T.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin was depleted within 15 min following sublethal burn, followed by partial recovery at 8 h and complete restoration by 24 h in anesthetized rats. Radiolabeled 75 Se-plasma fibronectin, injected intravenously before burn, was rapidly sequestered in burn skin as well as the liver. Fibronectin levels at 2 h postburn as detected by immunoassay vs. 75 Se-plasma fibronectin indicated that more fibronectin was in the plasma than detected by electroimmunoassay. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis of fibronectin in early postburn plasma demonstrated a reduced electrophoretic mobility of the fibronectin antigen. Addition of heparin or fibrin, both of which have affinity for fibronectin, to normal plasma was unable to reproduce this altered fibronectin electrophoretic pattern. In contrast, addition of gelatin or native collagen to normal plasma reproduced the abnormal electrophoretic pattern of fibronectin seen in burn plasma. Extracts of burned skin, but not extracts of normal skin, when added to normal plasma, elicited a similar altered electrophoretic pattern for fibronectin. By gel filtration, fibronectin in burn plasma had an apparent molecular weight approximately 40% greater than that observed in normal plasma. These data suggest the release into the blood of a gelatinlike ligand from burned skin, which complexes with plasma fibronectin. Thus, fibronectin deficiency acutely postburn appears mediated by (a) its accumulation at the site of burn injury; (b) its removal from the circulation by the liver; and (c) its presence in the plasma in a form that is less detectable by immunoassay

  2. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  3. American Burn Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  4. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  5. Burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia van Echtelt

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie is alleen elektronisch verkrijgbaar (downloaden van deze site) Burn-out (ofwel: emotionele uitputting) komt relatief vaak voor: ongeveer één op de acht werknemers in Nederland heeft er last van. Het wordt dan ook gezien als een serieus maatschappelijk probleem dat beleidsmatig aandacht vergt. Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van twee specifieke analyses over burn-out. Ten eerste gaan we na wat het effect is van emotionele uitputting op de loopbaan van werknemers. Ten twee...

  6. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewska, Joanna; Buchanan, John A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: update

    OpenAIRE

    Cassol Spanemberg, Juliana; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Ma Eugenia; Jané Salas, Enric; López López, José, 1958-

    2014-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although ...

  9. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a...

  10. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  11. Plasma position and shape control for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portone, A.; Gribov, Y.; Huguet, M.

    1995-01-01

    Key features and main results about the control of the plasma shape in ITER are presented. A control algorithm is designed to control up to 6 gaps between the plasma separatrix and the plasma facing components during the reference burn phase. Nonlinear simulations show the performances of the controller in the presence of plasma vertical position offsets, beta drops and power supply voltage saturation

  12. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  13. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  14. Electroacupuncture improves burn-induced impairment in gastric motility mediated via the vagal mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Yin, J; Sallam, H S; Bai, T; Chen, Y; Chen, J D Z

    2013-10-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (GE) is common in patients with severe burns. This study was designed to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastric motility in rats with burns. Male rats (intact and vagotomized) were implanted with gastric electrodes, chest and abdominal wall electrodes for investigating the effects of EA at ST-36 (stomach-36 or Zusanli) on GE, gastric slow waves, autonomic functions, and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) 6 and 24 h post severe burns. (i) Burn delayed GE (P Electroacupuncture improved GE 6 and 24 h post burn (P Electroacupuncture improved burn-induced gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of normal slow waves was increased with EA 6 and 24 h post burn (P = 0.02). (iii) Electroacupuncture increased vagal activity assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The high-frequency component reflecting vagal component was increased with EA 6 (P = 0.004) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.03, vs sham-EA). (iv) Electroacupuncture attenuated burn-induced increase in plasma IL-6 at both 6 (P = 0.03) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.003). Electroacupuncture at ST-36 improves gastric dysrhythmia and accelerates GE in rats with burns. The improvement seems to be mediated via the vagal pathway involving the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  16. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  17. Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebu C Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  19. Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned

  20. Multi-Stage Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penetrante, B

    1997-01-01

    .... A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO2. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NOx in lean-burn engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

  1. [Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.

  2. A rare case of failed healing in previously burned skin after a secondary burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Parsons, Shaun; Menezes, Hana; Ives, Andrew; Cleland, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting with large surface area burns are common in our practice; however, patients with a secondary large burn on pre-existing burn scars and grafts are rare and not reported. We report on an unusual case of a patient sustaining a secondary large burn to areas previously injured by a burn from a different mechanism. We discuss the potential implications when managing a case like this and suggest potential biological reasons why the skin may behave differently. Our patient was a 33-year-old man who presented with a 5% TBSA burn on skin scarred by a previous 40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn and skin grafts. Initially assessed as superficial partial thickness in depth, the wounds were treated conservatively with dressings; however, they failed to heal and became infected requiring surgical management. Burns sustained in areas of previous burn scars and grafts may behave differently to normal patterns of healing, requiring more aggressive management and surgical intervention at an early stage.

  3. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  5. [Burns in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  6. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  7. Burns - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Burn Care - Русский (Russian) Bilingual ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. One Burn, One Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Giretzlehner M., Haller H. L., Faucher L. D., Pressman M. A., Salinas J., Jeng J. C., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...AUVA Linz, Austria Lee D. Faucher, MD University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Melissa A. Pressman , PhD Arizona Burn Center Phoenix

  9. Treadmills: a preventable source of pediatric friction burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña, Pirko; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Treadmills are a burn risk for children. A child's hand can get trapped in the conveyor belt, causing friction burns to the underlying tissue. The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the characteristics and treatment of treadmill-related burns in children from 1998 to 2002. Ten patients, at a mean age of 3.4 years, sustained injuries associated with treadmill use. Trapping of the hand between the conveyor belt and the base was the most frequent injury mechanism. Burn location was predominantly on fingers and palms. Four patients required operative intervention. All patients required specialized wound care as well as scar management and occupational therapy. Treadmills pose a danger to children. Current safety devices are ineffective for preventing serious hand injuries in children. New design modifications and public awareness are needed to improve child safety.

  10. Contact palm burns in toddlers from glass enclosed fireplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, C M; Scott, E C; Kraatz, J J; Anderson, P M; Twomey, J A; Peltier, G L

    2004-01-01

    We have seen an alarming increase in the incidence of pediatric palm burns associated with gas fireplaces. The increasing popularity of these units places more children at risk. Medical records of patients under the age of 5 years who sustained hand burns from contact with the glass enclosure of gas fireplaces from 1996 through 2002 were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were identified, with a mean age of 12.8 months. A 15-fold increase in incidence was observed. Thirty-three patients suffered superficial second-degree burns that were treated conservatively. Twenty-one percent of children developed significant wound complications requiring intensive therapy including extension splinting or surgery. Pediatric burns resulting from palmar contact with the glass enclosures of gas fireplaces have emerged as an avoidable new danger within the home. Although most of these injuries heal with conservative treatment alone, many require surgery or other intensive management to regain acceptable function.

  11. Fusion burn equilibria sensitive to the ratio between energy and helium transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, M.A.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Jaspers, R.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the burn equilibria of fusion reactors of the tokamak family is presented. The global (zero-dimensional) analysis is self-consistent in that it takes into account the dependence of the energy confinement on the variables of the burning plasma, such as temperature and density.

  12. [Heat stroke and burns resulting from use of sauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runitz, K.; Jensen, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of severe heat stroke resulting from exposure to extreme heat in a sauna for an unknown period of time. The patient sustained 20% 2nd degree burns. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient's temperature was 40.5 degrees C. At the critical care unit, the patient devel...... developed severe multi-organ failure and critical polyneuropathy. Severe heat stroke is a rare diagnosis in Denmark. The treatment is symptomatic and the prognosis is grave, especially in combination with severe burns Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26......We describe a case of severe heat stroke resulting from exposure to extreme heat in a sauna for an unknown period of time. The patient sustained 20% 2nd degree burns. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient's temperature was 40.5 degrees C. At the critical care unit, the patient...

  13. Use of telemedicine to improve burn care in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Knittel, Justin; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Global burn injuries have been described as the "forgotten public health crises" by the World Health Organization. Nearly 11 million people a year suffer burns severe enough to require medical attention; more people are burned each year than are infected with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tuberculosis combined. Telemedicine has the potential to link experts in specialized fields, such as burn care, to regions of the world that have limited or no access to such specialized care. A multilevel telemedicine program was developed between Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriners Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine. The program should lead to a sustainable improvement in the care of burn victims in Ukraine. The authors helped establish a Learning Center at City Hospital #8 in Lviv, Ukraine, through which they were able to consult from Shriners Hospital in Boston, on a total of 14 acute burn patients in Ukraine. This article discusses two case reports with the use of telemedicine and how it has allowed the authors to provide not only acute care consultation on an international scale, but also to arrange for direct expert examination and international transport to their specialized burn center in the United States. The authors have established a program through doctors from Massachusetts General Hospital/Shriner's Hospital in Boston, which works with a hospital in Ukraine and has provided acute consultation, as well as patient transportation to the United States for treatment and direct assessment.

  14. Epidemiology and mortality of 162 major burns in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, R L; Ghoneim, I E

    1996-09-01

    The burns intensive care unit at IBN Sina Hospital reopened in July 1991, following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait and the Gulf War. Epidemiology and mortality of 162 burn patients with 30 per cent and over total body surface area (TBSA) burns, treated from July 1991 to December 1994, is presented. There were 91 males and 71 females with a ratio of 1.3 to 1. The median age was 30 years (range 4 months to 93 years) and 44 per cent of the patients were 15-40 years of age. 124 (76.5 per cent) accidents occurred at home and the flame burn was the commonest involving 131 (80.9 per cent) patients. The median burn surface area was 45.5 per cent and the majority of them sustained deep burns. The hospital stay of the surviving patients ranged from 11 to 174 days (median 38 days), while the day of the death was from 1 to 134 days. Forty-six deaths represent an overall mortality rate of 28.4 per cent amongst our patients. All the patients whose Baux score was 130 and above died. Burn shock was responsible for 10 deaths, and out of them eight were not actively resuscitated due to high Baux score. Sixteen deaths occurred within 48 h postburn. Septicaemia and its related effects were responsible for the majority of the deaths.

  15. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  16. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  17. The Treatment of Thermal Burns with the Antibiotic Powder "Nebisep" - USSR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valigura, Ya

    1960-01-01

    There exist many methods of treating burns. At their basis lies the struggle against shock, pain, the loss of plasma and proteins, intoxication of the organism, prophylaxis of secondary infection and late complications...

  18. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  19. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  20. Platelet Rich Plasma- mechanism of action and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Cozma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a blood-derived fraction containing high level of platelets, a high concentration of leukocytes and growth factors. PRP therapy has been growing as a viable treatment alternative for a number of clinical applications and has a potential benefit for use in wound healing. Nowadays platelet rich plasma is used in stimulating wound healing in skin and soft tissue ulcerations, accelerating wound healing in diabetic patients and facilitating bone proliferation in orthopedic and trauma surgery. It has also applications in maxillofacial surgery, spinal surgery, plastic and esthetic surgery, heart surgery and burns. This review of the literature shows a limited number of studies realized on humans that sustain PRP applications in orthopedic and plastic surgery. As the use of PRP increases, more properly structured clinical studies are necessary to confirm the results and to establish clearly the techniques of preparing, the conditions and the clinical indications of applying this therapy.

  1. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  2. ANFO truck burn trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen von, B.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the investigation of a tractor-trailer explosion. A truck loaded with 18,000 kg of commercial explosives, of which 13,000 kg was ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO), caught fire when it struck a rockcut near Walden, Ontario on August 5, 1998. The fire resulted in the detonation of the load. The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) conducted a test program to examine the suitability of existing explosive transportation regulations. Unconfined burns of ANFO were performed. The accident was recreated in two burn trials in an attempt to identify the mechanism that led from fire to detonation. Two full-scale tests were conducted using complete tractor-trailers, each in a jack-knifed position with most of the explosives placed on the ground in front of the trailer. ANFO was used in the first test to determine its response to thermal stimulus and the likelihood of detonation or explosion. The second test involved ANFO, a slurry and an emulsion. Thermocouples and video cameras were used to observe the burning characteristics of the explosives, the truck and its components. The explosives burned steadily for 80 minutes in each test. Many truck components, such as tires, spring brake chambers and the fuel tank ruptured violently due to the heat. Although no detonation occurred in the test trials, it was concluded that under favourable conditions, many truck components, might produce fragments with enough energy to initiate heat-sensitized explosives. It was suggested that a fragment impact caused the detonation at Walden. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  4. Burns resulting from spontaneous combustion of electronic cigarettes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckter, Clifford; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Paro, John; Karanas, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) sales have grown rapidly in recent years, coinciding with a public perception that they are a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. However, there have been numerous media reports of fires associated with e-cigarette spontaneous combustion. Three severe burns caused by spontaneous combustion of e-cigarettes within a 6-month period were treated at the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Burn Unit. Patients sustained partial and full-thickness burns. Two required hospitalization and surgical treatment. E-cigarettes are dangerous devices and have the potential to cause significant burns. Consumers and the general public should be made aware of these life-threatening devices.

  5. Instant hot noodles: do they need to burn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A

    2013-03-01

    Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  7. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin

    2006-01-01

    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  8. Poverty, population density, and the epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. pediatric burn facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Marta; Rosenberg, Laura; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Andersen, Clark R; Capek, Karel D; Leal, Jesus; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N

    2018-03-07

    Children 5 and younger are at risk for sustaining serious burn injuries. The causes of burns vary depending on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic variables. At this pediatric burn center we provided medical care to children from Mexico with severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of demographic distribution and modifiable risk factors of burns in young children to help guide prevention. A retrospective chart review was performed with children 5 and younger from Mexico who were injured from 2000-2013. The medical records of 447 acute patients were reviewed. Frequency counts and percentages were used to identify geographic distribution and calculate incidence of burns. Microsoft Powermap software was used to create a geographical map of Mexico based on types of burns. A binomial logistic regression was used to model the incidence of flame burns as opposed to scald burns in each state with relation to population density and poverty percentage. In all statistical tests, alpha=0.05 for a 95% level of confidence. Burns were primarily caused by flame and scald injuries. Admissions from flame injuries were mainly from explosions of propane tanks and gas lines and house fires. Flame injuries were predominantly from the states of Jalisco, Chihuahua, and Distrito Federal. Scalds were attributed to falling in large containers of hot water or food on the ground, and spills of hot liquids. Scald injuries were largely from the states of Oaxaca, Distrito Federal, and Hidalgo. The odds of a patient having flame burns were significantly associated with poverty percentage (ppoverty led to decrease in odds of a flame burn, but an increase in the odds of scald burns. Similarly, we found that increasing population density led to a decrease in the odds of a flame burn, but an increase in the odds of a scald burn. Burns in young children from Mexico who received medical care at this pediatric burn center were attributed to flame and scalds. Potential

  9. Radiophysical and geomagnetic effects of rocket burn and launch in the near-the-earth environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chernogor, Leonid F

    2013-01-01

    Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burn

  10. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  11. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  12. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  13. Prestudy of burn control in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-02-01

    The present report describes our ongoing work on a number of selected topics, and the plans for the nearest future. In chapter 2 we have specialized the system of the previous report to form an easily tractable, second-order system. In this case one can give an explicit, analytical condition for stability. A code providing quick answers regarding stability, time scales and eigenvectors has been written and tested. The zerodimensional modelling of a burning plasma described by space dependent equations is often done in a heuristic way, with no clear relation between the two systems of equations. We have tried to put the approximation procedure involved in the transition to 0-D models on a more formal basis. This is the topic of chapter 3. The 1-D equilibrium solution is also investigated with respect to its stability properties, which are shown to be the same as those derived from the simplest 0-D space averaged model. Chapter 4 contains a few emerging thoughts on burn control. First, the limited swing of the auxiliary heating gives rise to limitations on the possibilities to intervene against temperature excursions by an auxiliary heating modulation. This problem becomes severe when one operates at high Q values. Another analysis concerns the problem of selecting a proper control action when a temperature profile differs from the equilibrium shape. A couple of alternative schemes for burn control, minor radius alterations and dynamic stabilization are tentatively discussed; no definite answers on their feasibility are obtained. The problem of diagnosing the plasma with respect to burn conditions is the topic of chapter 5. The influence on the energy distribution of control actions and the reliability of neutron measurements are discussed, and the question of how to handle sawteeth is briefly revisited. Chapter 6 is a description of process identification and how it could be used for burn control. A particular advantage is that it can be combined with physical

  14. Dynamic stabilization of D—T burn in Tokamak reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiBing-Ren; LongYong-Xing

    1997-01-01

    A simple,engineeringly feasible dynamic method is supposed to control the deuterium-tritium burn process in Tokamak reactors operated in an advanced scenario.The thermal transport of the D-T plasma is described by an anomalous thermal conduction which is a radially increasing function and the central conduction value is proportional to the central temperature of the plasma.The dynamic external heating power is selected to be inversely proportional to certain power function of this temperature,As a result,the D-T burn can undergo in controllable way in different temperature regimes with different power output.Anomalous alpha particle transport effect is taken into account.It can affect the resultant plasma equilibrium ,the reactor efficency,the operation mode and so on.

  15. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs

  16. Psychosocial needs of burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services.

  17. Community integration after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  18. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale. PMID:25356371

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Bruning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation of one or several oral soft tissues with the tongue being affected the most, and may be associated with some other symptoms outside the oral structures. The oral symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually within a time course, may be persistent throughout the day or get more intense as the day progresses in a complaint-free patient in the morning. The syndrome affects mostly women and those over 50 years old, and usually caused by multiple factors....

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage; Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi; Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the ...

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and alte...

  2. Pre-study of burn control in Tokamak reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-04-01

    Findings from a general study of issues associated with control of burning fusion plasmas are reported, and applications to ITER are given. A number of control variables are discussed. A zerodimensional system has been developed and stability against coupled temperature and density variations are studied. Also space dependent energy balance and transition to thermonuclear burn are analysed as well as maximum obtainable Q-values under subignited operation conditions. Control designs with different input-output strategies are analysed and numerically simulated, and a numerical experiment of system identification is made. Requirements on diagnostics are discussed and areas for further studies are identified. (au) (64 refs.)

  3. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  4. Concurrent Training Promoted Sustained Anti-Atherogenic Benefits In The Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerolemia Of Postmenopausal Women At 1-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Picolo, Malena R; Monteiro, Paula A; Buonani, Camila; Lira, Fábio S; Freitas, Ismael F

    2016-11-16

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and concurrent training (aerobic plus strength training) on the lipid profiles of normotriacylglycerolemic and hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women and to verify whether the benefits of aerobic and concurrent training were sustained after 1 year. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), Triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose were assessed in 46 normotriacylglycerolemic (TAGbenefits are sustained at the 1-year follow-up among the hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.

  5. The epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Leal, Jesus; Andersen, Clark R; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos J; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N

    2016-12-01

    Young children are the most vulnerable for sustaining burns. At this pediatric burn hospital we have provided medical care to young children with severe burns from Mexico for many years. This study identified modifiable risk factors that could be used to assist in prevention of burns in this age group. A retrospective chart review was performed with children Mexico who were injured from 2000 to 2013. The medical records of 447 acute patients were reviewed. There were 187 females and 260 males with large burns >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Primary causes of burns were flame and scalds. Children with flame injuries were older (3.0±1.5 years of age) than those with scalds (2.6±1.2 years of age). Admissions attributed to flame burns were largely from explosions by propane tanks, gas line leaks, and house fires. Most admissions for scalds were predominantly from falling in large containers of hot water, food, or grease; and fewer were attributed to spills from hot liquids. Most cases reported to a social service agency were to find resources for families. Mortality rate for flame and scald burns was low. It is important take into account demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic variables when developing and implementing prevention programs. Burn prevention instruction for parents is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M

    2016-03-01

    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  7. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, and is intended ... The Sustainable Development Agenda has 17 global goals with 169 targets. .... Quality human capital has become one of the front burning issues in Nigeria today.

  8. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  9. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  10. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  11. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  12. Burning more than calories: treadmill friction injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davidson, C C

    2012-02-01

    Treadmill injuries in young children are a serious but little documented problem. Friction burns occur when the hands come into contact with the moving belt resulting in deep burns that often require hospital admission and surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the nature and prevalence of injuries sustained and to highlight treadmill friction burns as a public health issue previously undocumented in Ireland. A retrospective chart review from January 2006 until March 2008 was performed and functional outcome was assessed by the modified Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Eight girls and four boys from one year and seven months to seven years and five months were treated. Eight children required admission to hospital and to date three have required surgery for their injuries. This is a new and increasing problem in Ireland which must be highlighted.

  13. Increased fuel burn-up and fuel cycle equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of nuclear competitiveness will rely mainly on increased fuel performance, with higher burn-up, and reactors sustained life. Regarding spent fuel management, the EDF current policy relies on UO 2 fuel reprocessing (around 850 MTHM/year at La Hague) and MOX recycling to ensure plutonium flux adequacy (around 100 MTHM/year, with an electricity production equivalent to 30 TWh). This policy enables to reuse fuel material, while maintaining global kWh economy with existing facilities. It goes along with current perspective to increase fuel burn-up up to 57 GWday/t mean in 2010. The following presentation describes the consequences of higher fuel burn-up on fuel cycle and waste management and implementation of a long term and global equilibrium for decades in spent fuel management resulting from this strategy. (author)

  14. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  15. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the oral mucosa. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. This article provides an overview of the literature on this syndrome with special reference to the etiological factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management with reference to the most recent studies.

  17. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  18. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  19. Thermonuclear burn criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, van G.; Jaspers, R.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    After more than 50 years of fusion research the time has arrived when fusion processes in experimental plasmas are increasingly getting important. In JET the genuine fuel (deuterium-tritium) of a fusion reactor was used for the first time in late 1991, in TFTR the same happened in 1993, and in JET

  20. Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2016-04-01

    Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical study on the postburn change in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-mian; Liang, Zi-qian; Luo, Zuo-jie

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the postburn dynamic changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients. Fifty burn patients were enrolled in the study. The plasma contents of total GC (cortisol), ACTH and aldosterone (ALDO) and urinary contents of 17-OHO and 17-KS were determined with radio-immunological assay (RIA) method after burn injury to compare with the normal values which were well established clinically. The postburn plasma and urinary contents of the above indices were increased evidently with two peak values in shock and infectious stages, whilst the majority of he indices were lower than the normal values after 6 postburn weeks (PBWs). The values of these hormones were the lowest in dying patients. On the other hand, the values approached normal levels in those patients whose burn wounds were healing. Increases of the plasma and urinary levels of hypothalamus-pituitary -adrenal hormones in severely burned patients were constantly seen. Burn shock and infection seemed to be the two major factors in inducing postburn stress reaction in burn victims. Abrupt decrease of the hormone levels in plasma and or urine indicated adrenal failure predicting a poor prognosis of the burn patients.

  2. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  3. Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on insulin signalling and inflammation in skeletal muscle from human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Tantiwong, Puntip; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Mohan, Sumathy; Espinoza, Sara; Defronzo, Ralph A; Dubé, John J; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Reducing plasma FFA concentration in obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanism by which FFA reduction improves insulin sensitivity in human subjects is not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological FFA reduction enhances insulin action by reducing local (muscle) inflammation, leading to improved insulin signalling. Insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal (TGD), plasma FFA species, muscle insulin signalling, IBα protein, c-Jun phosphorylation, inflammatory gene (toll-like receptor 4 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1) expression, and ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were measured in muscle from a group of obese and T2DM subjects before and after administration of the antilipolytic drug acipimox for 7 days, and the results were compared to lean individuals. We found that obese and T2DM subjects had elevated saturated and unsaturated FFAs in plasma, and acipimox reduced all FFA species. Acipimox-induced reductions in plasma FFAs improved TGD and insulin signalling in obese and T2DM subjects. Acipimox increased IBα protein (an indication of decreased IB kinase-nuclear factor B signalling) in both obese and T2DM subjects, but did not affect c-Jun phosphorylation in any group. Acipimox also decreased inflammatory gene expression, although this reduction only occurred in T2DM subjects. Ceramide and DAG content did not change. To summarize, pharmacological FFA reduction improves insulin signalling in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects. This beneficial effect on insulin action could be related to a decrease in local inflammation. Notably, the improvements in insulin action were more pronounced in T2DM, indicating that these subjects are more susceptible to the toxic effect of FFAs.

  4. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging.

  5. Minor Actinide Burn in Thermal Spectrum with Enhanced Moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Huang, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Resolving the issue of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste management is the necessary condition for long-term sustainability of nuclear power, and requires addressing plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and fission products. Various strategies from once-through homogeneous burn to partitioning and transmutation, and from thermal to fast systems, are being considered. The optimum system-level performance will likely require advanced critical or subcritical systems with a range of neutron spectra. Thermal systems, while not optimum, may be deployed sooner, and may provide mid-term amelioration of the issue. This paper examines burn of MA in thermal systems. One specific concern in this case is deterioration of safety parameters due to a high thermal absorption cross section of MA. Enhanced moderation has potential to at least partly remedy this concern. Therefore, we have evaluated adopting the IRIS neutronic design to MA burn. The IRIS reactor design offers enhanced safety margin, due to its fully passive safety systems and safety-by-design approach. Also, in addition to the standard UO 2 fuel (reference IRIS design), an alternative core with enhanced moderation fuel was considered. These two features (safety margin, enhanced moderation) provide a good starting point for MA burn in a thermal system. Further modifications to accommodate MA-bearing rods will be discussed. The paper will examine the benefit of the enhanced moderation in comparison to homogeneous MA burn in a typical PWR reactor.(author).

  6. Life expectancy in elderly patients following burns injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehripour, Sarvnaz; Duggineni, Sirisha; Shahsavari, Somaya; Dheansa, Baljit

    2018-05-18

    Burn injuries commonly occur in vulnerable age and social groups. Previous research has shown that frailty may represent a more important marker of adverse outcome in healthcare rather than chronological age (Roberts et al., 2012). In this paper we determined the relationship between burn injury, frailty, co-morbidities and long-term survival. Retrospective data collection from patients aged 75 with burns injuries, treated and discharged at Queen Victoria Hospital. The Clinical Frailty Scale (Rockwood et al., 2005) was used to calculate frailty at the time of admission. The expected mortality age (life expectancy) of deceased patients was obtained from two survival predictors. The data shows a statistically significant correlation between frailty score and complications and a statistically significant correlation between total body surface area percentage and complications. No significant difference was found between expected and observed age of death or life expectancy amongst the deceased (p value of 0.109). Based on the data from our unit, sustaining a burn as an elderly person does not reduce life expectancy. Medical and surgical complications, immediate, early and late, although higher with greater frailty and TBSA of burn, but do not adversely affect survival in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term repeated prescribed burning increases evenness in the basidiomycete laccase gene pool in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Rebekka R E; Reid, Eileen; Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D; Cairney, John W G

    2009-03-01

    Repeated prescribed burning alters the biologically labile fraction of nutrients and carbon of soil organic matter (SOM). Using a long-term (30 years) repeated burning experiment where burning has been carried out at a 2- or 4-year frequency, we analysed the effect of prescribed burning on gross potential C turnover rates and phenol oxidase activity in relation to shifts in SOM composition as observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In tandem, we assessed the genetic diversity of basidiomycete laccases. While the overall effect of burning was a decline in phenol oxidase activity, Shannon diversity and evenness of laccases was significantly higher in burned sites. Co-correspondence analysis of SOM composition and laccase operational taxonomic unit frequency data also suggested a strong correlation. While this correlation could indicate that the observed increase in laccase genetic diversity due to burning is due to increased resource diversity, a temporal replacement of the most abundant members of the assembly by an otherwise dormant pool of fungi cannot be excluded. As such, our results fit the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Effects were stronger in plots burned in 2-year rotations, suggesting that the 4-year burn frequency may be a more sustainable practice to ensure the long-term stability of C cycling in such ecosystems.

  8. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  9. Assault by burning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  10. Experience and outcomes of micrografting for major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Martinez, R; Potgieter, D; Adams, S; Rogers, A D

    2017-08-01

    The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery. A cohort study was performed of all paediatric patients with major burn who underwent Meek micrografting at a dedicated paediatric burn centre in a developing country over a five year period. Demographics, details of their burns, operative management and clinical course and outcomes were collected from patient records and operative notes and analysed. Thirty-five patients were managed using the micrografting technique during the study period. The mean patient age was 4.1 years (range 3 months-11 years) and their mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn was 49.7% (range 15-86%). Eleven patients sustained inhalation injuries and five developed a re-feeding syndrome on account of delayed referral. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 8.5 (range 2-13). The hospital length of stay in the 27 survivors was a mean of 75.5 days, equating to 1.4 days per percentage burn. Eight patients died during the course of treatment, with a mean TBSA burn of 67.75% (range 38-86%). Graft take one month after surgery was documented to be more than 90% in 24 patients, of whom 3 subsequently died. Eleven patients had less than 90% graft take at this time, of whom 5 died. There is a considerable 'learning curve' associated with this technique. In order to achieve success one must ensure a completely viable, non-infected bed, obtained by tangential or fascial excision, followed by allografting as temporary coverage and to 'test the wound bed' for definitive

  11. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  12. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  13. Burning Plasma” Diagnostics for the Physics of JET and ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Murari, A.; Bertalot, L.; Bonheure, G.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Kiptily, V.G.; Lawson, K.; Popovichev, S.; Tardocchi, M.; Afanasyiev, V.; Angelone, M.; Fasoli, A.; Kallne, J.; Mironov, M.; Mlynář, Jan; Testa, D.; Zastrow, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 47, 12B (2005), B249-B262 ISSN 0741-3335. [EPS Conference on Plasma Physics/32nd./. Tarragona, 27.6.2005-1.7.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : JET * ITER * neutrons diagnostics * alphas diagnostics * burning plasma * reactor * isotopic composition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.902, year: 2005 http://eps2005.ciemat.es

  14. Plasma processing: Technologies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to present the fundamentals of physics of plasmas, methods of generation, diagnostics, and applications for processing of materials. The first chapter defines plasma in general as well as its main parameters, the most important differential equations in plasma physics, and classifies the types of plasmas. the various methods and techniques to create and sustain plasma are presented in the second chapter. Chapter 3 focuses on plasma diagnostic methods and tools. While chapter 4 deals with applications of plasma processing such as; surface modification of materials, plasma ashing and etching, plasma cutting, and the environmental applications of plasma. Plasma polymerization and its various applications have been presented in more details in the last chapter. (Author)

  15. Calculation of triton confinement and burn-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Battistoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the confinement and subsequent burn-up of fusion produced tritons in a deuterium Tokamak plasma. Explicit approximations are obtained for the triton confinement factor, clearly displaying the scaling with physical parameters. The importance of pitch angle scattering losses during the triton slowing down is also estimated. A comparison with experiments and numerical calculations on the FT Tokamak slows good qualitative agreement. (authors)

  16. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  17. Burns resulting from spontaneous combustion of electronic cigarettes: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Sheckter, Clifford; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Paro, John; Karanas, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) sales have grown rapidly in recent years, coinciding with a public perception that they are a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. However, there have been numerous media reports of fires associated with e-cigarette spontaneous combustion. Case Presentation Three severe burns caused by spontaneous combustion of e-cigarettes within a 6-month period were treated at the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Burn Unit. Patients sustained partial a...

  18. A burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Converting unwanted biomass to fuel pellets four times denser than wood has local companies in Queensland, Australia excited. The well-tested 'old technology' of burning wood is going through a renaissance. There is a growing focus on producing high- density biomass pellets from feedstock that would otherwise be considered waste. Their uniform size reduces transport costs, the energy content varies, about 4-5MWh/tonne, compared to 2.8MWh/t for brown coal or 8.3MWh/t for black coal. The biomass estimates from sugarcane, other agricultural wastes and wood wastes suggest Australia has huge biomass resources, but whether or not Australia's political settings see the potential fulfilled is yet to be seen. Altus Renewables recently disclosed plans to build a biofuel pelletisation plant at Queensland's largest sawmill. Altus are very interested in the European market, the world's leading pellet consuming region, where according to the IEA, biomass represents 65% of the renewables. Cheap power provided by waste biomass could potentially power biomass converters, desalination plants, or even pump water inland to arid regions.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Woda, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Objective To review the clinical entity of primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS), its pathophysiological mechanisms, accurate new diagnostic methods and evidence-based treatment options, and to describe novel lines for future research regarding aetiology, pathophysiology, and new therapeutic strategies. Description Primary BMS is a chronic neuropathic intraoral pain condition that despite typical symptoms lacks clear clinical signs of neuropathic involvement. With advanced diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing of small somatosensory and taste afferents, neurophysiological recordings of the trigeminal system, and peripheral nerve blocks, most BMS patients can be classified into the peripheral or central type of neuropathic pain. These two types differ regarding pathophysiological mechanisms, efficacy of available treatments, and psychiatric comorbidity. The two types may overlap in individual patients. BMS is most frequent in postmenopausal women, with general population prevalence of around 1%. Treatment of BMS is difficult; best evidence exists for efficacy of topical and systemic clonazepam. Hormonal substitution, dopaminergic medications, and therapeutic non-invasive neuromodulation may provide efficient mechanism-based treatments for BMS in the future. Conclusion We present a novel comprehensive hypothesis of primary BMS, gathering the hormonal, neuropathic, and genetic factors presumably required in the genesis of the condition. This will aid in future research on pathophysiology and risk factors of BMS, and boost treatment trials taking into account individual mechanism profiles and subgroup-clusters.

  20. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  1. Lawn mower-related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C

    2000-01-01

    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.

  2. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... an area of stasis where sluggish circulation and release of inflammatory mediators will .... way to estimate medium to large burns in patients older than 10 .... on day 1 decreases stress hormone release, improves nitrogen ...

  3. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing when you handle chemicals. Store chemicals, including gasoline, out of the reach of children. To prevent ... mild burn? What is the treatment for smoke inhalation? Resources American Red Cross, Home Fire Safety Centers ...

  4. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  5. Burning of fuelwood in South Africa: when is it sustainable?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available to exclude stems that are too small for harvesting. The model assumes that the entire area consists of semi natural savanna. Corrections for the land lost as a result of land transformation and degradation would have to be included. Data on land loss can most...

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan R Patil; R S Sathawane

    2008-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to anoth...

  7. Mathematical modeling plasma transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiang, Ji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the author applied a systematic calibration, validation and application procedure based on the methodology of mathematical modeling to international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) ignition studies. The multi-mode plasma transport model used here includes a linear combination of drift wave branch and ballooning branch instabilities with two a priori uncertain constants to account for anomalous plasma transport in tokamaks. A Bayesian parameter estimation method is used including experimental calibration error/model offsets and error bar rescaling factors to determine the two uncertain constants in the transport model with quantitative confidence level estimates for the calibrated parameters, which gives two saturation levels of instabilities. This method is first tested using a gyroBohm multi-mode transport model with a pair of DIII-D discharge experimental data, and then applied to calibrating a nominal multi-mode transport model against a broad database using twelve discharges from seven different tokamaks. The calibrated transport model is then validated on five discharges from JT-60 with no adjustable constants. The results are in a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the resulting class of multi-mode tokamak plasma transport models is applied to the transport analysis of the ignition probability in a next generation machine, ITER. A reference simulation of basic ITER engineering design activity (EDA) parameters shows that a self-sustained thermonuclear burn with 1.5 GW output power can be achieved provided that impurity control makes radiative losses sufficiently small at an average plasma density of 1.2 X 1020/m3 with 50 MW auxiliary heating. The ignition probability of ITER for the EDA parameters, can be formally as high as 99.9% in the present context. The same probability for concept design activity (CDA) parameters of ITER, which has smaller size and lower current, is only 62.6%.

  8. Mathematical modeling plasma transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiang, Ji

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the author applied a systematic calibration, validation and application procedure based on the methodology of mathematical modeling to international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) ignition studies. The multi-mode plasma transport model used here includes a linear combination of drift wave branch and ballooning branch instabilities with two a priori uncertain constants to account for anomalous plasma transport in tokamaks. A Bayesian parameter estimation method is used including experimental calibration error/model offsets and error bar rescaling factors to determine the two uncertain constants in the transport model with quantitative confidence level estimates for the calibrated parameters, which gives two saturation levels of instabilities. This method is first tested using a gyroBohm multi-mode transport model with a pair of DIII-D discharge experimental data, and then applied to calibrating a nominal multi-mode transport model against a broad database using twelve discharges from seven different tokamaks. The calibrated transport model is then validated on five discharges from JT-60 with no adjustable constants. The results are in a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the resulting class of multi-mode tokamak plasma transport models is applied to the transport analysis of the ignition probability in a next generation machine, ITER. A reference simulation of basic ITER engineering design activity (EDA) parameters shows that a self-sustained thermonuclear burn with 1.5 GW output power can be achieved provided that impurity control makes radiative losses sufficiently small at an average plasma density of 1.2 X 10 20 /m 3 with 50 MW auxiliary heating. The ignition probability of ITER for the EDA parameters, can be formally as high as 99.9% in the present context. The same probability for concept design activity (CDA) parameters of ITER, which has smaller size and lower current, is only 62.6%

  9. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  10. Effects of plasma treatment on wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Lim, C.T.; Goh, J.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Cold plasma treatment of wounds is gaining much interest, because it will offer a non-contact, painless and harmless therapy to manage large-area lesions (burn wounds, chronic ulcerations). One of the important issues in plasma wound healing is the safety of the method. In this work we study in

  11. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  12. Propofol clearance and volume of distribution are increased in patients with major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Hyung; Greenblatt, David J; Martyn, J A Jeevendra

    2009-07-01

    Propofol pharmacokinetics were examined in 17 adults with major burns during the hyperdynamic convalescent phase. Eighteen nonburned surgical patients served as controls. After a 2-mg/kg intravenous dose of propofol, blood samples were collected at multiple time points. Noncompartmental methods were used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The following indices were higher in burns than controls: propofol clearance (64+/-17 vs 29+/-4 mL/kg/min, Pclearance of propofol in burned patients may imply that these patients require higher doses or infusion rates of propofol to attain a target plasma concentration or pharmacodynamic effect.

  13. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Mirizzi, F.; Spassovsky, I.; Ravera, G. L.; Surrenti, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R&D development.

  14. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  15. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C2H2 plasma: From C2H2 injection to the formation of an organized structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal; Lacroix, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  16. Burning minor actinides in a HTR energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christoph; Rütten, H. Jochem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burn-up analysis for varying plutonium/minor actinide fuel compositions. ► The influence of varying heavy metal fuel element loads is investigated. ► Significant burn-up via radiative capture and subsequently fission is observed. ► Difference observed between fuel element burn-up and total actinide burning rate. - Abstract: The generation of nuclear energy by means of the existing nuclear reactor systems is based mainly on the fission of U-235. But this comes along with the capture of neutrons by the U-238 faction and results in a build-up of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides as neptunium, americium and curium. These actinides are dominant for the long time assessment of the radiological risk of a final disposal therefore a minimization of the long living isotopes is aspired. Burning the actinides in a high temperature helium cooled graphite moderated reactor (HTR) is one of these options. The use of plutonium isotopes to sustain the criticality of the system is intended to avoid on the one hand highly enriched uranium because of international regulations and on the other hand low enriched uranium because of the build up of new actinides from neutron capture in the U-238 fraction. Because initial minor actinide isotopes are typically not fissionable by thermal neutrons the idea is to fission instead the intermediate isotopes generated by the first neutron capture. This paper comprises calculations for plutonium/minor actinides/thorium fuel compositions and their correlated final burn-up for a generic pebble bed HTR based on the reference design of the 400 MW PBMR. In particular the cross sections and the neutron balance of the different minor actinide isotopes in the higher thermal energy spectrum of a HTR will be discussed. For a fuel mixture of plutonium and minor actinides a significant burn-up of these actinides up to 20% can be achieved but at the expense of a higher residual fraction of plutonium in the burned fuel. Combining

  17. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  18. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  19. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  1. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  2. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  3. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  5. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  6. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek

    2016-02-01

    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (Plocations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress towards internal transport barriers at high plasma density sustained by pure electron heating and current drive in the FTU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Barbato, E.; Buratti, P.

    2003-01-01

    Strong electron Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) are obtained in FTU by the combined injection of Lower Hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and Electron Cyclotron (EC up to 0.8 MW) radio frequency waves. ITBs occur during either the current plateau or the ramp up phase, and both in full and partial current drive (CD) regimes, up to peak densities n e0 >1.2·10 20 m -3 , relevant to ITER operation. Central electron temperatures T e0 >11 keV, at n e0 ∼0.8·10 20 m -3 are sustained longer than 6 confinement times. The ITB extends over a region where a slightly reversed magnetic shear is established by off-axis LHCD and can be as wide as r/a=0.5. The EC power, instead, is used either to benefit from this improved confinement by heating inside the ITB, or to enhance the peripheral LH power deposition and CD with off axis resonance. Collisional ion heating is also observed, but thermal equilibrium with the electrons cannot be attained since the e-i equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time. The transport analysis performed with both ASTRA and JETTO codes shows a very good relation between the foot of the barrier and the weak/reversed shear region, which in turn depends on the LH deposition profile. The Bohm-gyroBohm model accounts for the electron transport until T e0 <6 keV, but is pessimistic at higher temperatures, where often also a reduction in the ion thermal conductivity is observed, provided any magneto hydrodynamic activity is suppressed. (author)

  8. Effect of burn and first-pass splanchnic leucine extraction on protein kinetics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstad, M.D.; DeMichele, S.J.; Istfan, N.; Blackburn, G.L.; Bistrian, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of burn and first-pass splanchnic leucine extraction (FPE) on protein kinetics and energy expenditure were assessed by measuring O 2 consumption, CO 2 production, nitrogen balance, leucine kinetics, and tissue fractional protein synthetic rates (FSR-%/day) in enterally fed rats. Anesthetized male rats (200 g) were scalded on their dorsum with boiling water (25-30% body surface area) and enterally fed isovolemic diets that provided 60 kcal/day and 2.4 g of amino acids/day for 3 days. Controls were not burned. An intravenous or intragastric infusion of L-[1- 14 C]leucine was used to assess protein kinetics on day 3. FPE was taken as the ratio of intragastric to intravenous plasma leucine specific activity. There was a 69% reduction in cumulative nitrogen balance (P less than 0.001) and a 17-19% increase in leucine oxidation (P less than 0.05) and total energy expenditure (P less than 0.01) in burned rats. A 15% decrease in plasma leucine clearance (P less than 0.05) was accompanied by a 20% increase in plasma [leucine] (P less than 0.01) in burned rats. Burn decreased rectus muscle FSR from 5.0 +/- 0.4 to 3.5 +/- 0.5 (P less than 0.05) and increased liver FSR from 19.0 +/- 0.5 to 39.2 +/- 3.4 (P less than 0.01). First pass extraction of dietary leucine by the splanchnic bed was 8% in controls and 26% in burned rats. Leucine kinetics corrected for FPE showed increased protein degradation with burn that was not evident without FPE correction. This hypermetabolic burn model can be useful in the design of enteral diets that optimize rates of protein synthesis and degradation

  9. A Bayesian approach to degradation-based burn-in optimization for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Tao; Bae, Suk Joo; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the two-phase degradation phenomena observed in light displays (e.g., plasma display panels (PDPs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)), this study proposes a new degradation-based burn-in testing plan for display products exhibiting two-phase degradation patterns. The primary focus of the burn-in test in this study is to eliminate the initial rapid degradation phase, while the major purpose of traditional burn-in tests is to detect and eliminate early failures from weak units. A hierarchical Bayesian bi-exponential model is used to capture two-phase degradation patterns of the burn-in population. Mission reliability and total cost are introduced as planning criteria. The proposed burn-in approach accounts for unit-to-unit variability within the burn-in population, and uncertainty concerning the model parameters, mainly in the hierarchical Bayesian framework. Available pre-burn-in data is conveniently incorporated into the burn-in decision-making procedure. A practical example of PDP degradation data is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. The proposed method is compared to other approaches such as the maximum likelihood method or the change-point regression. - Highlights: • We propose a degradation-based burn-in test for products with two-phase degradation. • Mission reliability and total cost are used as planning criteria. • The proposed burn-in approach is built within the hierarchical Bayesian framework. • A practical example was used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  10. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  11. Management of patients in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU) in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Madiha; Kamal, Rehana

    2013-05-01

    In Pakistan the practice of managing extensive burns in dedicated intensive care units is not well established. This audit aims to define the characteristics of the victims of major burns and factors that increase mortality and outcome of the protocol-based management in a dedicated burns intensive care unit (BICU). This prospective audit included all patients admitted to the BICU of Suleiman Dawood Burns Unit in Karachi from 1st September 2002 to 31st August 2011. Demographic information, type and place of burn, total body surface area burn (TBSA), type of organ support provided, length of ICU stay, any associated medical diseases, and out outcome were documented. A total of 1597 patients were admitted to the BICU in 9 years. Median age of the patients was 22 (IQR =32-7). 32% victims were children 50 years old. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Fire was the leading cause of burns in adults (64%) and scald burns were most common in (64%) in children. 72.4% of the accidents happened at home, where kitchen was the commonest location (597 cases). Mean TBSA burnt was 32.5% (SD ± 22.95%, 95%CI: 31.36-33.61). 27% patients needed ventilatory support, 4% were dialyzed and split skin graftings were performed in 20% patients. Average length of ICU stay was 10.42 days. Epilepsy, psychiatric illness and drug addiction were not common associations with burns. Overall mortality was 41.30% but it decreased over the years from 75% to 27%. Groups of people most vulnerable to sustain burn are young females getting burnt in the kitchen, young males getting burnt at work, and small children falling in pots of hot water stored for drinking or bathing. TBSA >40%, age >50 years, fire burn and female gender were associated with a higher risk of death. Carefully planned, protocol based management of burn patients by burn teams of dedicated healthcare professionals, even with limited resources reduced mortality. Burn hazard awareness, prevention and educational programmes targeted at the

  12. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  13. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  14. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  15. Optimal control theory applied to fusion plasma thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.; Miley, G.; Maya, I.

    1985-01-01

    Many authors have investigated stability characteristics and performance of various burn control schemes. The work presented here represents the first application of optimal control theory to the problem of fusion plasma thermal stabilization. The objectives of this initial investigation were to develop analysis methods, demonstrate tractability, and present some preliminary results of optimal control theory in burn control research

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also rep...

  17. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  18. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  20. Epidemiology of Burn Injury and Demography of Burn Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    epidemiologic surveillance, vide the nursing care required by an exten- microbiology support is required for diagno-v sively burned patient is one of the...MA. Pittsburgh bur study. 28. Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Prescott PR. Child abuse bynig an iandnci o, suspiciro JA Traumarg 1988 t Pittsburgh and Allegheny

  1. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  2. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  3. The road to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like

  4. Neutron spectrometer for DD/DT burning ratio measurement in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Keisuke; Naoi, Norihiro; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Nishitani, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    The most feasible fuels for a fusion reactor are D (Deuterium) and T (Tritium). DD and/or DT fusion reaction or nuclear burning reaction provides two kinds of neutrons, DD neutron and DT neutron, respectively. DD/DT burning ratio, which can be estimated by DD/DT neutron ratio in the burning plasma, is essential for burn control, alpha particle emission rate monitoring and tritium fuel cycle estimation. Here we propose a new neutron spectrometer for the absolute DD/DT burning ratio measurement. The system consists of a Proton Recoil Telescope (PRT) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. We have conducted preliminary experiments with a prototype detector and a DT neutron beam (φ20 mm) at the Fusion Neutronics Source, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), to assess its basic performance. The detection efficiency obtained by the experiment is consistent with the calculation results in PRT, and sufficient energy resolution for the DD/DT neutron discrimination has been achieved in PRT and TOF. The validity of the Monte Carlo calculation has also been confirmed by comparing the experimental results with the calculation results. The design consideration of this system for use in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has shown that this system is capable of monitoring the line-integrated DD/DT burning ratio for the plasma core line of sight with the required measurement accuracy of 20% in the upper 4 decades of the ITER operation (fusion power: 100 kW-700 MW). (author)

  5. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Petrasso

    2007-01-01

    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments

  6. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Petrasso

    2007-02-14

    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments

  7. Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity-2 Predicts Hospital Mortality in Burn Patients: An Observational Prospective Cohort Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Bosacoma, Pau; Dos Santos, Bruce; Baena, Jacinto; Guilabert, Patricia; Marin-Corral, Judith; Masclans, Joan R; Roca, Oriol; Barret, Juan P

    2018-04-10

    The IL33/ST2 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases. Our aim was to analyze whether plasma levels of biomarkers involved in the IL33/ST2 axis might help to predict mortality in burn patients. Single-center prospective observational cohort pilot study performed at the Burns Unit of the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona). All patients aged ≥18 years old with second or third-degree burns requiring admission to the Burns Unit were considered for inclusion. Blood samples were taken to measure levels of interleukins (IL)6, IL8, IL33, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2) within 24 h of admission to the Burns Unit and at day 3. Results are expressed as medians and interquartile ranges or as frequencies and percentages. Sixty-nine patients (58 [84.1%] male, mean age 52 [35-63] years, total body surface area burned 21% [13%-30%], Abbreviated Burn Severity Index 6 [4-8]) were included. Thirteen (18.8%) finally died in the Burns Unit. Plasma levels of sST2 measured at day 3 after admission demonstrated the best prediction accuracy for survival (area under the ROC curve 0.85 [0.71-0.99]; P < 0.001). The best cutoff point for the AUROC index was estimated to be 2,561. In the Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for potential confounding, a plasma sST2 level ≥2,561 measured at day 3 was significantly associated with mortality (HR 6.94 [1.73-27.74]; P = 0.006). Plasma sST2 at day 3 predicts hospital mortality in burn patients.

  8. Astronaut observations of global biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed

  9. Reliability enhancement through optimal burn-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W.

    1984-06-01

    A numerical reliability and cost model is defined for production line burn-in tests of electronic components. The necessity of burn-in is governed by upper and lower bounds: burn-in is mandatory for operation-critical or nonreparable component; no burn-in is needed when failure effects are insignificant or easily repairable. The model considers electronic systems in terms of a series of components connected by a single black box. The infant mortality rate is described with a Weibull distribution. Performance reaches a steady state after burn-in, and the cost of burn-in is a linear function for each component. A minimum cost is calculated among the costs and total time of burn-in, shop repair, and field repair, with attention given to possible losses in future sales from inadequate burn-in testing.

  10. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...

  11. EPIDEMOLOGY OF BURNS IN ENUGU, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JIBURUM

    community is encouraged to study the epidemiology of burns since this important ... CONCLUSION The incidence and mortality of burn injury has remained high in this .... they are a group at risk. ... epidemiology and the compliance factors in.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  14. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.

    2015-01-01

    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  15. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  16. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  17. 14 year follow-up for a severe electrical burn to mouth and lip: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Roberto; Garcia, Javier; Espinosa, Roberto; Saadia, Marc; Valencia, Evaristo

    2010-01-01

    Electrical burns range from 4 to 7% of the total burn accidents and many of them affect primarily children biting on a live wire. Great confusion exists in the literature about the proper management of electrical burns to the mouth in the acute and late phases. 14 year results are shown in a severe electrical burn sustained in a 1 year 2 months old girl, involving 90% of the lips and commissures, tongue, alveolar ridges and teeth (primary central incisors and permanent dental germs). Two weeks after she was out of danger, an active splint expansion device was built and used for 8 months to prevent secondary microstomia. Later a new active splint device was used for a year after lip plastic surgery. At age 13, orthopedics and orthodontics were accomplished with a lip tattoo completed at age 15. No matter how good the final esthetic and occlusal results are, prevention is always the best option.

  18. Medical Treatment for Burn Patients with Eating Disorders: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minekatsu Akimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many cases of burn patients who also suffer from psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. We present a case of a 38-year-old female with an eating disorder and depression who became light-headed and fell, spilling boiling water from a kettle on herself at home sustaining partial thickness and full thickness burns over 5% of her total body surface area: left buttock and right thigh and calf. Eating disorders (in the present case, anorexia nervosa cause emaciation and malnutrition, and consent for hospitalization from the patient and/or family is often difficult. During the medical treatment of burns for these patients, consideration not only of physical symptoms caused by malnutrition but also the psychiatric issues is required. Therefore, multifaceted and complex care must be given to burn patients with eating disorders.

  19. Auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuska, Richard F; Carlson, Matthew L; Neff, Brian A; Driscoll, Colin L; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S

    2014-02-01

    To raise awareness of the potential hazard of auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. Retrospective case series and summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse event reports pertaining to microscope related auricular thermal injuries. All patients who sustained auricular burns while using the operating microscope during otologic surgery at 2 tertiary academic referral centers. Surgical procedure, microscope model, intensity of illumination, length of procedure, focal length, location and severity of burn, and patient outcome. A total of 4 microscope-related auricular thermal injuries were identified from the authors' institutions. Additionally, 82 unique cases of soft tissue burns associated with the use of an operative microscope have been voluntarily reported to the FDA since 2004. A disproportionately large percent (∼ 30%) of these occurred within the field of otology, the majority of which were during tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy procedures at focal length distances of 300 mm or less with xenon light source microscopes. Simultaneous advancements in light delivery technologies and lens optics have continued to improve the efficiency of the operating microscope; however, these improvements also increase the potential for thermal injuries. Although rare, a review of the FDA MAUDE database suggests that microscope-related soft tissue burns occur more frequently in otology than any other surgical specialty. A variety of factors may help explain this finding, including the unique anatomy of the external ear with thin skin and limited underlying adipose tissue. Preventative measures should be taken to decrease the risk of thermal injuries including use of the lowest comfortable light intensity, adjusting the aperture width to match the operative field, frequent wound irrigation, and covering exposed portions of the pinna

  20. The treatment of extensively burned patents and β irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhongyi; Lu Xingan; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang

    1994-01-01

    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds β injured burns are discussed. The article also describes the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Firework injuries presenting to a national burn's unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D; Lee, W; Rea, S; Donnell, M O; Eadie, P A

    2004-09-01

    The sale to the general public of fireworks is illegal in Ireland. However, many fireworks are readily available on the black market from illegal traders. The number of firework injuries presenting to our unit during the three week run-up to Hallowe'en October 2001 was recorded. In addition, each patient was contacted to determine how the fireworks were obtained, the average amount of money spent, and the level of adult supervision present at the time of injury. A total of 19 patients presented, 18 from the local catchment area, with a mean age of 16 yrs (range 5-46 yrs). Thirteen patients required admission. Sixteen patients sustained hand injuries including burns, and three sustained burns to other body areas. The amount of money spent varied between adults and children, the average amount among the paediatric group was Euro 2-4, but Euro 45 in the adult group. None were willing to identify the local source of their fireworks, but most fireworks originated in Northern Ireland. This small review highlights an ongoing problem in Ireland; fireworks are illegal, yet they are easily and cheaply available without quality or safety controls. Our public awareness campaign has failed to reach its target audience, and the illegal traders who sell these often inferior products are seldom charged. Children and adults will continue to sustain serious injuries as a result.

  2. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  3. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  4. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  5. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  6. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  7. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  8. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  10. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  11. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  12. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio correlates with burn severity and may serve as a risk predictor of increased susceptibility to infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Tsurumi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes, however identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma. The patient population consisted of 34 adult patients having early (≤48 hours since injury blood draws following severe (≥20% total burn surface area (TBSA burn injury, and suffering from a first infection episode at least one day after blood collection. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured to explore the association between the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, hypersusceptibility to infections, burn size (TBSA, and common severity scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHEII, Baux, modified Baux (R-Baux, Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI. TNF-α/IL10 plasma ratio measured shortly after burn trauma was inversely correlated with burn size and the injury severity scores investigated, and was predictive of repeated infections (≥3 infection episodes outcome (AUROC [95%CI] of 0.80 [0.63–0.93]. Early measures of circulating TNF-α/IL10 ratio may be a previously unidentified biomarker associated with burn injury severity and predictive of the risk of hypersusceptibility to repeated infections.

  13. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  14. Application of transient burning rate model of solid propellant in electrothermal-chemical launch simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie Ni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley's modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.

  15. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  16. Glutamine granule-supplemented enteral nutrition maintains immunological function in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2006-08-01

    Glutamine is an important energy source for immune cells. It is a necessary nutrient for cell proliferation, and serves as specific fuel for lymphocytes, macrophages, and enterocytes when it is present in appropriate concentrations. The purpose of this clinical study was to observe the effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine granules on immunologic function in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severely burned patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trail. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, Gln and B group patents were given glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kgd for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The plasma level of glutamine and several indices of immunologic function including lymphocyte transformation ratio, neutrophil phagocytosis index (NPI), CD4/CD8 ratio, the content of immunoglobulin, complement C3, C4 and IL-2 levels were determined. Moreover, wound healing rate of burn area was observed and then hospital stay was recorded. The results showed significantly reduced plasma glutamine and damaged immunological function after severe burn Indices of cellular immunity function were remarkably decreased from normal controls. After taking glutamine granules for 14 days, plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher in Gln group than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). In addition, wound healing was better and hospital stay days were reduced in Gln group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, Pburn; supplemented glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding abate the degree of immunosuppression, improve immunological function

  17. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  18. Sustained spheromak technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed.

  19. Sustained spheromak technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Hoida, H.W.; Henins, I.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to devise a technique for driving a spheromak using dc-powered electrodes. The reduction or elimination of pulsed power components in the spheromak source would result in more attractive reactors, and simpler, cheaper experiments. This is important as experiments get larger and approach reactor size. According to some concepts, the dc spheromak would operate with plasma injection so that it would clean up any impurities produced during its formation. These features make the investigation of dc-powered spheromaks interesting. The questions that need to be answered in this investigation are: (1) can a spheromak be sustained by a dc source; and (2) can a practical source be designed to produce a hot clean plasma. After summarizing the evidence which suggests an answer to question one, the approach being taken to answer question two is discussed

  20. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Silicon Burning. II. Quasi-Equilibrium and Explosive Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hix, W.R.; Thielemann, F.

    1999-01-01

    Having examined the application of quasi-equilibrium to hydrostatic silicon burning in Paper I of this series, we now turn our attention to explosive silicon burning. Previous authors have shown that for material that is heated to high temperature by a passing shock and then cooled by adiabatic expansion, the results can be divided into three broad categories, incomplete burning, normal freezeout, and α-rich freezeout, with the outcome depending on the temperature, density, and cooling timescale. In all three cases, we find that the important abundances obey quasi-equilibrium for temperatures greater than approximately 3x10 9 K, with relatively little nucleosynthesis occurring following the breakdown of quasi-equilibrium. We will show that quasi-equilibrium provides better abundance estimates than global nuclear statistical equilibrium, even for normal freezeout, and particularly for α-rich freezeout. We will also examine the accuracy with which the final nuclear abundances can be estimated from quasi-equilibrium. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  2. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  3. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  4. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  5. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  6. Thermal Plasma decomposition of fluoriated greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Seok; Watanabe, Takayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Park, Dong Wha [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Fluorinated compounds mainly used in the semiconductor industry are potent greenhouse gases. Recently, thermal plasma gas scrubbers have been gradually replacing conventional burn-wet type gas scrubbers which are based on the combustion of fossil fuels because high conversion efficiency and control of byproduct generation are achievable in chemically reactive high temperature thermal plasma. Chemical equilibrium composition at high temperature and numerical analysis on a complex thermal flow in the thermal plasma decomposition system are used to predict the process of thermal decomposition of fluorinated gas. In order to increase economic feasibility of the thermal plasma decomposition process, increase of thermal efficiency of the plasma torch and enhancement of gas mixing between the thermal plasma jet and waste gas are discussed. In addition, noble thermal plasma systems to be applied in the thermal plasma gas treatment are introduced in the present paper.

  7. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase deficient mice are protected against the development of multiorgan failure and exhibit reduced inflammatory response during burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2017-08-01

    Considering the role of H 2 S in critical illness, the aim of this study was to compare the outcome of burn in wild-type mice and in mice deficient in CSE, one of the principal mammalian H 2 S-generating enzymes. Animals were subjected to scald burn. Outcome variables included indices of organ injury, clinical chemistry parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Plasma levels of H 2 S significantly increased in response to burn in wild-type mice, but remained unchanged in CSE -/- mice. Expression of the three H 2 S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS and 3-MST) in the lung and liver, and the capacity of tissue homogenates to produce H 2 S, however, was not affected by burn. In CSE deficient mice there was a significant amelioration of burn-induced accumulation of myeloperoxidase levels in heart, lung, liver and kidney and significantly lower degree of malon dialdehyde accumulation in the heart, lung and kidney than in wild-type mice. CSE deficient mice, compared to wild-type mice, showed a significant attenuation of the burn-induced elevation in circulating alkaline aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, indicative of protective effects of CSE deficiency against burn-induced hepatic, and renal functional impairment. Multiple burn-induced inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12) were significantly lower in the plasma of CSE -/- animals after burn than in the plasma of wild-type controls subjected to burns. In conclusion, CSE deficiency improves organ function and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration

  9. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  10. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  12. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  13. Method for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  15. Goal-Directed Fluid Resuscitation Protocol Based on Arterial Waveform Analysis of Major Burn Patients in a Mass Burn Casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chou, Chang-Yi; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2018-02-01

    Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015. Because of the limited capacity of intensive care units (ICUs), 23 intubated patients were transferred from the burn wards or emergency department to the ICU within 24 hours. Fluid administration was adjusted to achieve a urine output of 30 to 50 mL/h, cardiac index greater than 2.5 L/min/m, and stroke volume variation (SVV) less than 12%. The hourly crystalloid fluid infusion rate was titrated based on SVV and hourly urine output. Of the 23 critically burned patients admitted to the ICU, 13 patients who followed the goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol within 12 hours postburn were included in the analysis. The mean age (years) was 21.8, and the mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned (%) was 68.0. The mean Revised Baux score was 106.8. All patients sustained inhalation injury. The fluid volumes administered to patients in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/% total body surface area) were 3.62 ± 1.23 and 2.89 ± 0.79, respectively. The urine outputs in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/h) were 1.13 ± 0.66 and 1.53 ± 0.87, respectively. All patients achieved the established goals within 32 hours postburn. In-hospital mortality rate was 0%. The SVV-based goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol leads to less unnecessary fluid administration during the early resuscitation phase. Clinicians can efficaciously manage the dynamic body fluid changes in major burn patients under the guidance of the protocol.

  16. User's guide for FRMOD, a zero dimensional FRM burn code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeryer, D.; Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-dimensional FRM plasma burn code, FRMOD is written in the FORTRAN language and is currently available on the Control Data Corporation (CDC) 7600 computer at the Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (MFECC), sponsored by the US Department of Energy, in Livermore, CA. This guide assumes that the user is familiar with the system architecture and some of the utility programs available on the MFE-7600 machine, since online documentation is available for system routines through the use of the DOCUMENT utility. Users may therefore refer to it for answers to system related questions

  17. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    growth of human keratinocyte stem cells capable of producing epithelia for large-scale grafting in burns and maintain long-term functionality as a self-renewing tissue. The normal functioning of such an in vitro constructed graft under long-term artificial growth conditions is limited by the difficulties of maintaining the epidermal stem cell compartment. An apparent answer to this problem of stem cell depletion during autograft preparation would be to start with a pure population of progenitor stem cells and derive sustainable autograft from them. We have been aiming to this solution and currently attempting to isolate a pool of epidermal progenitor cells using Mebiol gel, which is a Thermo-Reversible Gelation polymer and was shown by others to support the growth of multi-potent skin-derived epithelial progenitor-1 cells. Additionally, the usefulness of Mebiol gel in maintaining epidermal stem cell compartment without FBS and/or animal origin feeder cells is being investigated by our group.

  18. Burning Phosphorus under Water Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Larry C.

    1997-09-01

    A safer method for demonstrating the burning of white phosphorous under water is described. This demonstration uses 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and manganese dioxide as the oxygen source, eliminating the use of potentially explosive potassium chlorate. The oxygen generation is manually controlled by means of a stopcock on the dropping funnel. The apparatus has been designed to provide a most spectacular display, especially in the dark, lasting an hour or longer if desired, and eliminates the noxious phosphorous odor.

  19. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M

    2013-01-01

    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury.

  20. Barriers and facilitators to work reintegration and burn survivors' perspectives on educating work colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Tram; Lorrain, Mélyssa; Pognon-Hanna, Joe Nayima; Elfassy, Caroline; Calva, Valerie; de Oliveira, Ana; Nedelec, Bernadette

    2016-11-01

    Work reintegration constitutes a major milestone in the rehabilitation process of adults who have sustained a burn. Research studies with other conditions demonstrated that open, explicit communication about the worker's condition and potential limitations may facilitate this transition. However, the best approach to enable this discussion to occur has yet to be described. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate burn survivors' and clinicians' perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to work reintegration that could be addressed through education of work colleagues, which information to communicate to the workplace and the most effective method to disseminate this knowledge. Five semi-structured focus groups were conducted with three groups of informants including: (1) 13 burn survivors who had already returned to work; (2) 7 who were planning on returning; and (3) 9 burn care professionals. Qualitative data were inductively analyzed employing constant comparative techniques. Key barriers and facilitators that were identified included residual impairments, individual characteristics, support from the social environment, work accommodations and resources from the healthcare and compensation systems. Burn survivors agreed that return to work efforts were not adequately supported and that education should be provided to work colleagues about the burn and rehabilitation process, but that information on residual impairments should be communicated judiciously as it may be used prejudiciously against those seeking new employment. In the latter case, it is preferable to inform the workplace of their strengths and abilities. Extensive literature demonstrating the benefits of educational programs for the peers and teachers of pediatric burn survivors when they return to school already exists. This study provides evidence that there is a need for a similar process for adult burn survivors returning to work. The educational material must be

  1. Method of burning petrochemical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, I

    1973-01-12

    This invention concerns a method of burning wastes such as polyvinyl chloride or other synthetic resin products and rubbers, in which wastes are burned in a nearly smokeless and odorless state. The method is characterized by a process by which petrochemical waste products are subjected to a spontaneous combustion in a casserole state in a closed combustion room in such a way that no air is supplied whatever, and subsequently the gas so generated is sent successively in an adequate amount into a separately installed second combustion room where it is reburnt at a high temperature of more than 1000 C by a jet flame from the oil burners mounted inside the combustion room. Usually, petrochemical products emanate black smoke of Ringelmann concentration of more than five and a strong odor, but in this method, particularly in the case of polyvinyl chloride the exhaust smoke has a Ringelmann smoke concentration of less than one and is almost odorless because the plastic is completely gasified by the spontaneous combustion and completely burned at 1300 to 1400/sup 0/C with oil and air in the second combustion room. When the exhaust smoke is passed through a neutralization tank to remove the chloride compounds in the smoke, the damaging contribution of the exhaust gas or smoke to the secondary pollution can be completely eliminated.

  2. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Manolopoulou, M.; Charalambous, S.

    1989-01-01

    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg -1 (average 65.5 Bq kg -1 . About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y) -1 . The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y -1 , that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  3. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The main focus of the work by the Fusion Plasma Engineering Group at the University during the prior contract year involved a study of fusion ash (helium) effects on burn efficiency and on potential ways to control ash buildup. This work has wide application to a variety of fusion reactor concepts, but the immediate application for the present work is in the ARIES tokamak reactor design study now being undertaken by a national design team headed by the UCLA. The examples presented here largely deal with the ARIES-I design which is a D-T device operating in the first instability regime

  4. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  5. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  6. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  7. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  8. Impact of cathode evaporation on a free-burning arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemadi, K.

    1990-01-01

    In the center of a free-burning, high intensity argon arc at atmospheric pressure, a highly ionized vapor beam of copper has been generated by a continuous feeding of a thin (0.5 and 1 mm diameter) copper wire to the hot surface region of the cathode in the vicinity of the plasma attachment. The copper vapor is carried into the plasma column between the electrodes by the self-magnetic induced plasma flow caused by the conical shape of the cathode. In order to study the vapor beam, the arc is modeled at atmospheric pressure, with a current of 150 A, a gap spacing of 1 cm, a cathode tip of 60 degrees and a copper vapor flow of 1 mg/s. The temperature, mass flow, current flow and Cu concentration are calculated for the entire plasma region. The intensity distribution of CuI spectral line at 5218.2 angstrom is also recorded by emission spectroscopy and compared with the calculated values. The copper vapor in the cathode region has velocities of 210 m/s with a mass concentration of above 90% within 0.5 mm from the arc axis. The vapor passes from the cathode toward the anode with a slight diffusion in the argon plasma. Higher temperatures and current densities in the core of the arc, caused by the cathode evaporation, are calculated

  9. The slash-and-burn agriculture: a system in transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for thousands of years in the forests around the world, especially in the tropics, where it provides for the livelihood of countless poor rural populations. Characterized by an array of techniques based on crop diversification and shifting land use, this cultivation system has on the utilization of forest decomposing vegetation´s energetic capital its main asset. Many studies claim that slash-and-burn agriculture is sustainable only when performed under conditions of low human demographic density and maintenance or even increase of local biodiversity. However, it is growing in the academic literature, as well as in development debates, the concern regarding the role that this system has been playing in the deforestation of the planet´s tropical forests. This process appears to be closely linked to changes in land use patterns (agricultural intensification and urban and rural demographic growth. On the thread of these concerns, this article presents a critical review of the international and national academic literature on slash-and-burn agriculture. Thus, this review intend to draw a broad scenario of the current academic debate on this issue, as well as to identify the main alternatives strategies proposed to maintain or replace this cultivation system.

  10. A comparison study of the 1MeV triton burn-up in JET using the HECTOR and SOCRATE codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Kovanen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The burn-up of the 1MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas has been measured in JET for various plasma conditions. To interpret these measurements the containment, slowing down and burn-up of fast tritons needs to be modelled with a reasonable accuracy. The numerical code SOCRATE has been written for this specific purpose and a second code, HECTOR, has been adapted to study the triton burn-up problem. In this paper we compare the results from the two codes in order to exclude possible errors in the numerical models, to assess their accuracy and to study the sensitivity of the calculation to various physical effects. (author)

  11. Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

  12. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  13. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  14. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  15. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  16. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  19. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  20. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  1. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  2. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  3. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  4. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  5. Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Thermonuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, R.; Coppi, B.

    2017-10-01

    Considering that fusion reaction products (e.g. α-particles) deposit their energy on the electrons, the relevant thermal energy balance equation is characterized by a fusion source term, a relatively large longitudinal thermal conductivity and an appropriate transverse thermal conductivity. Then, looking for modes that are radially localized around rational surfaces, reconnected field configurations are found that can be sustained by the electron thermal energy source due to fusion reactions. Then this process can be included in the category of endogenous reconnection processes and may be viewed as a form of the thermonuclear instability that can develop in an ignited inhomogeneous plasma. A complete analysis of the equations supporting the relevant theory is reported. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  6. CE: Original Research: The Lived Experience of Social Media by Young Adult Burn Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Marie S

    2016-08-01

    : Young adult burn survivors who were burned before they reached young adulthood (before the age of 18) face particular challenges in meeting their needs for socialization. Social media are widely used by adolescents and young adults, and permit socialization without face-to-face communication. This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted in order to explore and describe the lived experience of social media by young adult burn survivors. Five women and four men between the ages of 20 and 25 years were interviewed; before the age of 18 years, each had sustained burns over more than 25% of their total body surface area. Van Manen's phenomenological methodology provided the study framework. Five essential themes emerged: identity, connectivity, social support, making meaning, and privacy. The participants used social media as a way to express their identity while safeguarding their privacy, and as a way to make meaning out of their traumatic experiences. Connecting with others facilitated a flow of social support and information, which was motivating and encouraging. The findings indicate that the use of social media by young adult burn survivors may be warranted as a way to further their healing processes. The knowledge gained from this study may also be useful in facilitating the development of nursing interventions aimed at preparing young adult burn survivors for reentry into society.

  7. A thematic study of the role of social support in the body image of burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Hodder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that social support is important for the development and mainte- nance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6. Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries.

  8. Use of preputial skin for coverage of post-burn contractures of fingers in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Zaroo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hand burns are common injuries. Children frequently sustain burn injuries, especially to their hands. Contractures are a common sequel of severe burns around joints. The prepuce, or foreskin, has been used as a skin graft for a number of indications. We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilising the preputial skin for the management of post-burn contractures of fingers in uncircumcised male children. Materials and Methods: Preputial skin was used for the coverage of released contractures of fingers in 12 patients aged 2-6 years. The aetiology of burns was "Kangri" burn in eight patients and scalding in four patients. Six patients had contracture in two fingers, four patients in one finger, and two patients had contractures in three fingers. Results: None of the patients had graft loss, and all the wounds healed within 2 weeks. All patients had complete release of contractures without any recurrence. Hyperpigmentation of the grafts was observed over a period of time, which was well accepted by the parents. Conclusions: Preputial skin can be used successfully for male children with mild-to-moderate contractures of 2-3 fingers for restoration of the hand function, minimal donor site morbidity.

  9. Full and Partial Thickness Burns from Spontaneous Combustion of E-Cigarette Lithium-Ion Batteries with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitl, Daniela; Solomon, Rachele; Davare, Dafney L; Sanchez, Rafael; Kiffin, Chauniqua

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased worldwide. Most electronic nicotine delivery systems use rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are relatively safe, but in rare cases these batteries can spontaneously combust, leading to serious full and partial thickness burn injuries. Explosions from lithium-ion batteries can cause a flash fire and accelerant-related burn injuries. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 3 patients with lithium-ion battery burns seen at our Level I community-based trauma center. Clinical presentation, management, and outcome are presented. All 3 patients sustained burn injuries (total body surface area range 5-13%) from the spontaneous combustion of lithium-ion batteries used for e-cigarettes. All patients were treated with debridement and local wound care. All fully recovered without sequelae. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians can expect to treat burn cases due to spontaneous lithium-ion battery combustion as e-cigarette use continues to increase. The cases presented here are intended to bring attention to lithium-ion battery-related burns, prepare physicians for the clinical presentation of this burn mechanism, and facilitate patient education to minimize burn risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ignition and burn in inertially confined magnetized fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the third International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, we presented computational results which suggested that ''breakeven'' experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) may be possible with existing driver technology. We recently used the ICF simulation code LASNEX to calculate the performance of an idealized magnetized fuel target. The parameter space in which magnetized fuel operates is remote from that of both ''conventional'' ICF and magnetic confinement fusion devices. In particular, the plasma has a very high β and is wall confined, not magnetically confined. The role of the field is to reduce the electron thermal conductivity and to partially trap the DT alphas. The plasma is contained in a pusher which is imploded to compress and adiabatically heat the plasma from an initial condition of preheat and pre-magnetization to the conditions necessary for fusion ignition. The initial density must be quite low by ICF standards in order to insure that the electron thermal conductivity is suppressed and to minimize the generation of radiation from the plasma. Because the energy loss terms are effectively suppressed, the implosion may proceed at a relatively slow rate of about 1 to 3 cm/μs. Also, the need for low density fuel dictates a much larger target, so that magnetized fuel can use drivers with much lower power and power density. Therefore, magnetized fuel allows the use of efficient drivers that are not suitable for laser or particle beam fusion due to insufficient focus or too long pulse length. The ignition and burn of magnetized fuel involves very different dominant physical processes than does ''conventional'' ICF. The fusion time scale becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic time scale, but other processes that limit the burn in unmagnetized fuel are of no consequence. The idealized low gain magnetized fuel target presented here is large and requires a very low implosion velocity. 11 refs

  11. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  12. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks. Keep children from climbing ... injuries of the lungs. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... putting a child in the bathtub. Cover unused electric outlets with safety caps, and replace damaged, frayed or brittle electrical cords. Keep fire extinguishers on every floor of your house, especially in the kitchen, and know how to use them. Do not ...

  14. High-burn-up fuels for fast reactors. Past experience and novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Kevan D.; Gilleland, John; Whitmer, Charles; Zimmerman, George

    2009-01-01

    Fast reactors in the U.S. routinely achieved fuel burn-ups of 10%, with some fuel able to reach peak burn-ups of 20%, notably in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. Maximum burn-up has historically been constrained by chemical and mechanical interactions between the fuel and its cladding, and to some extent by radiation damage and thermal effects (e.g., radiation-induced creep, thermal creep, and radiation embrittlement) that cause the cladding to weaken. Although fast reactors have used several kinds of fuel - including oxide, metal alloy, carbide, and nitride - the vast majority of experience with fast reactors has been using oxide (including mixed oxide) and metal-alloy fuels based on uranium. Our understanding of high-burn-up operation is also limited by the fact that breeder reactor programs have historically assumed that their fuel would eventually undergo reprocessing; the programs thus have not made high burn-up a top priority. Recently a set of novel designs have emerged for fast reactors that require little initial enrichment and no reprocessing. These reactors exploit a concept known as a traveling wave (sometimes referred to as a breed-and-burn wave, fission wave, or nuclear-burning wave). By breeding and using its own fuel in place as it operates, a traveling-wave reactor can obtain burn-ups that approach 50%, well beyond the current base of knowledge and experience. Our computational work on the physics of traveling-wave reactors shows that they require metal-alloy fuel to provide the margins of reactivity necessary to sustain a breed-and-burn wave. This paper reviews operating experience with high-burn-up fuels and the technical feasibility of moving to a qualitatively new burn-up regime. We discuss our calculations on traveling-wave reactors, including those concerning the possible use of thorium. The challenges associated with high burn-up and fluence in fuels and materials are also discussed. (author)

  15. Inability to determine tissue health is main indication of allograft use in intermediate extent burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, John L; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Sinha, Indranil; Leung, Kai P; Renz, Evan M; Chan, Rodney K

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous allograft is commonly used in the early coverage of excised burns when autograft is unavailable. However, allograft is also applied in intermediate-extent burns (25-50%), during cases in which it is possible to autograft. In this population, there is a paucity of data on the indications for allograft use. This study explores the indications for allograft usage in moderate size burns. Under an IRB-approved protocol, patients admitted to our burn unit between March 2003 and December 2010 were identified through a review of the burn registry. Data on allograft use, total burn surface area, operation performed, operative intent, number of operations, intensive care unit length of stay, and overall length of stay were collected and analyzed. Data are presented as means±standard deviations, except where noted. In the study period, 146 patients received allograft during their acute hospitalization. Twenty-five percent of allograft recipients sustained intermediate-extent burns. Patients with intermediate-extent burns received allograft later in their hospitalization than those with large-extent (50-75% TBSA) burns (6.8 days vs. 3.4 days, p=0.01). Allografted patients with intermediate-extent burns underwent more operations (10.8 vs. 6.1, p=0.002) and had longer hospitalizations (78.3 days vs. 40.9 days, ppatients, when controlled for TBSA. Clinical rationale for placement of allograft in this population included autograft failure, uncertain depth of excision, lack of autograft donor site, and wound complexity. When uncertain depth of excision was the indication, allograft was universally applied onto the face. In half of allografted intermediate-extent burn patients the inability to identify a viable recipient bed was the ultimate reason for allograft use. Unlike large body surface area burns, allograft skin use in intermediate-extent injury occurs later in the hospitalization and is driven by the inability to determine wound bed suitability for autograft

  16. A human-driven decline in global burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fire regimes are changing rapidly across the globe, driven by human land management and climate. We assessed long-term trends in fire activity using multiple satellite data sets and developed a new global data set on individual fire dynamics to understand the implications of changing fire regimes. Despite warming climate, burned area declined across most of the tropics, contributing to a global decline in burned area of 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area was largest in savannas and grasslands, where agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. In tropical forests, frequent fires for deforestation and agricultural management yield a sharp rise in fire activity with the expansion of settled land uses, but the use of fire decreases with increasing investment in agricultural areas in both savanna and forested landscapes. Disparate patterns of recent socieconomic development resulted in contrasting fire trends between southern Africa (increase) and South America (decrease). A strong inverse relationship between burned area and economic development in savannas and grasslands suggests that despite potential increasing fire risk from climate change, ongoing socioeconomic development will likely sustain observed declines in fire in these ecosystems during coming decades. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. The spatiotemporal distribution of fire size, duration, speed and direction of spread provided new insights in continental scale differences in fire regimes driven by human and climatic factors. Understanding these dynamics over larger scales is critical to achieve a balance between conservation of fire-dependent ecosystems and increasing agricultural production to support growing populations that will require careful management of fire activity in human-dominated landscapes.

  17. Training and burn care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamania Shobha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

  18. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, A E; Antia, U E; Udosen, J

    1997-06-01

    In a ten year retrospective study of burns in children in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, the main causes were hot water, hot soup or oil (56.6%) involving children mostly in the one to three year age group. The relative safety of the home environment seen in other forms of paediatric trauma is not observed in burns in children. A changing pattern of burns in children has emerged within the region with naked flames/bush fire coming second and affecting 22.7% of the children. Chemical burns hitherto a rare occurrence is now frequent because of the storage of caustic soda and acids in living rooms by soap making parents. Burns affecting the perineum, axilla and buttocks are difficult to keep clean and frequently lead to infections, with associated increased morbidity. Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlightenment campaigns on the various methods of prevention.

  19. Maternal burn-out: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R; Leboullenger, A; Callahan, S

    2018-02-21

    Maternal burn-out is a psychological, emotional and physiological condition resulting from the accumulation of various stressors characterised by a moderate but also a chronic and repetitive dimension. Little research has focused on this syndrome. The current study aims to assess maternal burn-out rate and to identify factors associated with this state of exhaustion. 263 French mothers aged between 20 and 49 years answered five scales quantifying maternal burn-out, perceived social support, parental stress, depression and anxiety symptoms and history of postnatal depression. About 20% of mothers were affected by maternal burn-out. The main factors related to maternal burn-out were having a child perceived as difficult, history of postnatal depression, anxiety, satisfaction of a balance between professional and personal life and parental stress. This research shows the need for further work on maternal burn-out to better understand and prevent this syndrome.

  20. Theory of edge plasma in a spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Properties of the edge plasma in the SSPX spheromak during the plasma formation and sustainment phases are discussed. For the breakdown and formation phase, the main emphasis is on the analysis of possible plasma contamination by impurities from the electrodes of the plasma gun (helicity injector). The issue of an azimuthally uniform breakdown initiation is also discussed. After the plasma settles down in the main vacuum chamber, one has to sustain the current between the electrodes, in order to continuously inject helicity. We discuss properties of the plasma on the field lines intersecting the electrodes. We conclude that the thermal balance of this plasma is maintained by Joule heating competing with parallel heat losses to the electrodes. The resulting plasma temperature is in the range of 15 - 30 eV. Under the expected operational conditions, the ''current'' velocity of the electrons is only slightly below their thermal velocity. Implications of this observation are briefly discussed