WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained base flow

  1. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Matthew P; Buto, Susan G; Susong, David D; Rumsey, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    ...) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base...

  2. Towards Sustainable Flow Management - Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Timothy; Elle, Morten

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project......Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project...

  3. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  4. Towards Sustainable Flow Management: Local Agenda 21 - Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Timothy; Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Concluding on the casestudies of Local Agenda 21 as an instrument of sustainable flow management......Concluding on the casestudies of Local Agenda 21 as an instrument of sustainable flow management...

  5. Monitoring sustainable biomass flows : General methodology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    Transition to a bio-based economy will create new demand for biomass, e.g. the increasing use of bioenergy, but the impacts on existing markets are unclear. Furthermore, there is a growing public concern on the sustainability of biomass. This study proposes a methodological framework for mapping

  6. Sustainability and Risk: Towards a Risk-Based Sustainability Rating for Real Estate Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Meins; Daniel Sager

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To identify the relative contribution of selected sustainability features to property value risk with the aim of generating a risk-based weighting system for a property sustainability rating.Approach - For a given set of sustainability features, a discounted cash flow (DCF) model is used to derive the weights. The anticipated demand for each sustainability feature is described by three future states of nature. Subjective probability distributions describe the occurrence of the futur...

  7. Glacier melt buffering sustains river flow in the Pamir Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Eric; Andermann, Christoff; Gloaguen, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Central Asia's water resources and agricultural practices depend on snow and glacier melts in the high mountains. The Amu Darya, the main river draining the Pamir Mountains, exemplifies the resulting seasonality in stream flow. In winter, comparably low amounts of groundwater discharge feed the streams, while the bulk of precipitation is provided and stored as snow. Successive melting of snow cover and glaciers during summer releases these stored waters to the swelling rivers. Despite a strong variability in precipitation and temperatures over the entire Pamir Mountain region, river flow shows severely less variability. We investigate what processes lead to this apparent discrepancy by using a simple but robust hydrological model that we thoroughly validate with remote sensing snow cover observations, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, highlighting changes in total water storage, and hydrograph comparison. We find that glaciers play a paramount role by buffering extreme meteorological conditions to sustain stream flow. In a simplified scheme, low precipitation amounts in winter result in small snow stocks, compensated for by more intensive glacier melt, and vice versa. By carrying out analyses over the extensive catchment area of the Amu Darya in the high mountain domain, we highlight regional differences in the effectiveness of this mechanism. Regional influences of wind systems and associated moisture transport as well as glaciated area emerge as main factors. Modeled negative glacier mass balances between -0.38 and -0.93 m/year agree with other studies based on geodetic methods and indicate a future reduction in stream flow sustainability. This not only exacerbates the conflict potential between riparian countries downstream, but also means that extreme weather events are more likely to cause floods and droughts.

  8. Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez-Olalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an Activity-Based Sustainability (ABS integration model that complements other models from an inside-out perspective. Its assessment follows a procedure similar to that proposed by the Activity-Based Costing (ABC model of cost accounting. The model assigns impacts from activities in the value chain of a process to the objects of impact (products, services, clients, or markets that must be managed in terms of sustainability. The main limitations of the ABS model are the need to identify and describe processes, to locate every activity that constitutes the value chain, and to quantify the impacts of these activities. The ABS model is presented as an alternative to link sustainable management accounting and sustainable communication, as well as sustainable management control and sustainability assessment. It connects these sustainable elements through the bilateral identification of the linkages among skills, processes, and practices. It also links these aspects with the contribution to sustainable development and the development of competitive advantages.

  9. Harnessing Data Flow and Modelling Potentials for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim S Mwitondi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tackling the global challenges relating to health, poverty, business, and the environment is heavily dependent on the flow and utilisation of data. However, while enhancements in data generation, storage, modelling, dissemination, and the related integration of global economies and societies are fast transforming the way we live and interact, the resulting dynamic, globalised, information society remains digitally divided. On the African continent in particular, this division has resulted in a gap between the knowledge generation and its transformation into tangible products and services. This paper proposes some fundamental approaches for a sustainable transformation of data into knowledge for the purpose of improving the people's quality of life. Its main strategy is based on a generic data sharing model providing access to data utilising and generating entities in a multi-disciplinary environment. It highlights the great potentials in using unsupervised and supervised modelling in tackling the typically predictive-in-nature challenges we face. Using both simulated and real data, the paper demonstrates how some of the key parameters may be generated and embedded in models to enhance their predictive power and reliability. The paper's conclusions include a proposed implementation framework setting the scene for the creation of decision support systems capable of addressing the key issues in society. It is expected that a sustainable data flow will forge synergies among the private sector, academic, and research institutions within and among countries. It is also expected that the paper's findings will help in the design and development of knowledge extraction from data in the wake of cloud computing and, hence, contribute towards the improvement in the people's overall quality of life. To avoid running high implementation costs, selected open source tools are recommended for developing and sustaining the system.

  10. Sustainability Assessment Using a Unit-based Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sustainability assessment study was performed with three teaching departments at Rhodes University. – Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Anthropology, and Accounting. The assessment used a Unit-based. Sustainability Assessment Tool (USAT) and was guided by systems thinking and the ontological framework ...

  11. Sustainability Assessment Using a Unit-based Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sustainability assessment study was performed with three teaching departments at Rhodes University – Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Anthropology, and Accounting. The assessment used a Unit-based Sustainability Assessment Tool (USAT) and was guided by systems thinking and the ontological framework ...

  12. Problem Based Learning and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Løkke, Søren; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages and challe......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages...... and challenges that the PBL model offers for developing five key competences in sustainability: (i) system thinking, (ii) interpersonal competence, (iii) anticipatory competence, (iv) strategic competence, (v) normative competences. The study draws on the experiences from PBL activities performed at Aalborg...... University (AAU), Denmark, and focuses on the teaching of Life Cycle Assessment as a method for sustainability assessment. The objective is providing recommendations for future LCA teaching and learning. PBL activites performed at AAU were evaluated critically to detemine to what extent they addressed...

  13. Flow Chemistry for Designing Sustainable Chemical Synthesis (journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficiently designed continuous flow chemical process can lead to significant advantages in developing a sustainable chemical synthesis or process. These advantages are the direct result of being able to impart a higher degree of control on several key reactor and reaction par...

  14. Sustainable Brand-Based Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Nicky; Gyrd-Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    processes. The article applies the concept of design thinking to develop a framework for Sustainable Brand-based Innovation. It is suggested that traditional market-oriented strategies should be complemented with intuitive thinking and abductive reasoning as associated with the concept of design thinking......The role of the corporate brand as a strategic resource in orienting innovation projects has only been cursorily addressed in the literature. As innovation is a key driver of brand growth, this article discusses how corporate brands can contribute to both guiding and driving such innovation....... On the basis of this framework, a conceptual model is elaborated integrating the three key management imperatives of: (i) orienting innovation and investments around the brand (brand orientation); (ii) thinking on a human scale to generate unique customer insights (intuitive customer orientation); and (iii...

  15. Sustained shear flows in Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Tayler; Anders, Evan; Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Zonal shear flows play important roles in both the solar and geo dynamos. In two dimensional simulations, and at relatively narrow aspect ratios, Rayleigh-Bénard convection naturally achieves zonal shear flows. These zonal flows are driven by the convection and modify it, significantly altering the heat transport and convective structures. Here we study shear flows in two and three-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using the Dedalus pseudospectral framework. At small aspect ratios and at Prandtl number 1, a large horizontal shear naturally occurs. At larger aspect ratios, we find that shearing is naturally prevented unless manually induced; there is a bistability between states dominated by "flywheel" modes and states dominated by large scale shear. We explore these states and the possibilities of sustained large scale shear in 3-D simulations.

  16. Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable community based interventions for improving environment and health for communities in slums of Banda, Kampala City, Uganda : final technical report (2007-2011). Rapports. Eco-Health project start-up/methodological workshop , Sports View Hotel, Kireka, 11th-13th July 2007 : sustainable community based ...

  17. Electromagnetically Sustained Liquid Metal Flow for Feedback Stabilization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Seyyed Mohammad; Volpe, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal walls in fusion reactors, whether nearly static or rapidly flowing, will be subject to instabilities that will make them locally bulge, thus entering in contact with the plasma, or deplete, hence exposing the underlying solid substrate. To prevent this, research has begun at Columbia University to create liquid metal flows and demonstrate their stabilization by electromagnetic forces, adjusted in feedback with thickness measurements. Here we present initial results regarding the sustainment of a flow of Galinstan (a gallium, indium, tin alloy) by a special pump consisting of a ferromagnetic rotor, with permanent magnets mounted on it. The magnetic field is partly ``frozen'' in the liquid metal surrounding the rotor. Therefore, as the field rotates, the liquid metal rotates as well, although with a slip factor. This solution was preferred to conventional pumps, which would enter in electrical contact with the metal flow. The pump, 3D-printed at Columbia, allows to adjust the flow-velocity from few mm/s to several cm/s.

  18. Flow-Based Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: With information almost effortlessly created and spontaneously available, current progress in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has led to the complication that information must be scrutinized for trustworthiness and provenance. Information systems must become provenance-aware to be satisfactory in accountability, reproducibility, and trustworthiness of data. Background:\tMultiple models for abstract representation of provenance have been proposed to describe entities, people, and activities involved in producing a piece of data, including the Open Provenance Model (OPM and the World Wide Web Consortium. These models lack certain concepts necessary for specifying workflows and encoding the provenance of data products used and generated. Methodology: Without loss of generality, the focus of this paper is on OPM depiction of provenance in terms of a directed graph. We have redrawn several case studies in the framework of our proposed model in order to compare and evaluate it against OPM for representing these cases. Contribution: This paper offers an alternative flow-based diagrammatic language that can form a foundation for modeling of provenance. The model described here provides an (abstract machine-like representation of provenance. Findings: The results suggest a viable alternative in the area of diagrammatic representation for provenance applications. Future Research: Future work will seek to achieve more accurate comparisons with current models in the field.

  19. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  20. Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Rodríguez-Olalla; Carmen Aviles-Palacios

    2017-01-01

    .... Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability...

  1. Sustainability Base: The Self-guided "Tour"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymes, Rosalind; Poll, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This series of 6 information sheets was designed to familiarize readers with the performance capabilities of Sustainability Base. The set described the design intentions and operational characteristics of this LEED Platinum facility

  2. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...... the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome using various computer aided tools through a systematic and effiicient work-flow, The study includes process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA) according to a well-defined workflow that guarantees...

  3. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  4. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Flavio; Parisi, Giovanna; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  5. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fanelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  6. Transformation of Commercial Flows into Physical Flows of Electricity – Flow Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We are witnesses of large – scale electricity transport between European countries under the umbrella of the UCTE organization. This is due to the inabilyof generators to satisfy the growing consumption in some regions. In this content, we distinguish between two types of flow. The first type is physical flow, which causes costs in the transmission grid, whilst the second type is commercial flow, which provides revenues for the market participants. The old methods for allocating transfer capacity fail to take this duality into account. The old methods that allocate transmission border capacity to “virtual” commercial flows which, in fact, will not flow over this border, do not lead to optimal allocation. Some flows are uselessly rejected and conversely, some accepted flows can cause congestion on another border. The Flow Based Allocation method (FBA is a method which aims to solve this problem.Another goal of FBA is to ensure sustainable development of expansion of transmission capacity. Transmission capacity is important, because it represents a way to establish better transmission system stability, and it provides a distribution channel for electricity to customers abroad. For optimal development, it is necessary to ensure the right division of revenue allocation among the market participants.This paper contains a brief description of the FBA method. Problems of revenue maximization and optimal revenue distribution are mentioned. 

  7. SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLE MARKETING OF INDIVIDUALS: THE BASE OF SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mira Rakic; Beba Rakic

    2015-01-01

      This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI). The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual...

  8. Base Flow Model Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program focuses on turbulence modeling enhancements for predicting high-speed rocket base flows. A key component of the effort is the collection of high-fidelity...

  9. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    that the housing provision as currently practised is not socially sustainable as it does not rely on data from the .... Design Base. One of the first issues the architect always tries to address before embarking on a design is to obtain the design brief and analyse the data provided. ..... of Housing. Nigeria: Jos Universal. Press.

  10. Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving Environment and Health in the Banda Slums, Kampala (Uganda). Rapid urbanization is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. About 12 000 people live in Banda parish in eastern Kampala. The area is swampy and prone to episodes of cholera. Incidence ...

  11. Ecological accounting based on extended exergy: a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chen, Bin; Sciubba, Enrico

    2014-08-19

    The excessive energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological destruction problems have gradually become huge obstacles for the development of societal-economic-natural complex ecosystems. Regarding the national ecological-economic system, how to make explicit the resource accounting, diagnose the resource conversion, and measure the disturbance of environmental emissions to the systems are the fundamental basis of sustainable development and coordinated management. This paper presents an extended exergy (EE) accounting including the material exergy and exergy equivalent of externalities consideration in a systematic process from production to consumption, and China in 2010 is chosen as a case study to foster an in-depth understanding of the conflict between high-speed development and the available resources. The whole society is decomposed into seven sectors (i.e., Agriculture, Extraction, Conversion, Industry, Transportation, Tertiary, and Domestic sectors) according to their distinct characteristics. An adaptive EE accounting database, which incorporates traditional energy, renewable energy, mineral element, and other natural resources as well as resource-based secondary products, is constructed on the basis of the internal flows in the system. In addition, the environmental emission accounting has been adjusted to calculate the externalities-equivalent exergy. The results show that the EE value for the year 2010 in China was 1.80 × 10(14) MJ, which is greatly increased. Furthermore, an EE-based sustainability indices system has been established to provide an epitomized exploration for evaluating the performance of flows and storages with the system from a sustainability perspective. The value of the EE-based sustainability indicator was calculated to be 0.23, much lower than the critical value of 1, implying that China is still developing in the stages of high energy consumption and a low sustainability level.

  12. Building Trust-Based Sustainable Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    influence relationships among entities? ■ What behaviors affect trust and sustainability (e.g., altruism , reciprocation, cooperation)? Based on these...addition, altruistic behavior can trigger the reciprocal altruistic relationship, the so called “reciprocal altruism .” In this rela- tionship, some... Prosocial Behavior , r. A. Hinde and J. Groebel, Eds. Cambridge univ. Press, 1991, pp. 27–48. [4] C. Castelfranchi and r. Falcone, TrustThe- ory: A

  13. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  14. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  15. Safe and Sustainable: Optimizing Material Flows in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    life cycles.However, a circular economy is only viable if it is both safe and sustainable. The dilemma is that sustainable does not necessarily imply safe and vice versa. When minimizing exposure to harmful chemicals in consumer products (safe), we often use more energy-demanding alternative solutions...... (unsustainable). When maximizing resource use efficiency and reducing carbon and other emissions through recycling (sustainable), direct consumer exposure is often increased through cross-contamination of recycled materials (unsafe). Hence, circular economy currently fails to unite the required expertise...... to imultaneously increase sustainability and reduce exposure to chemicals in materials reused across life cycles of different products. For a way out of this dilemma, a paradigm shift is needed towards a comprehensive and quantitative assessment framework....

  16. Sustainable conventional and organic vegetable flow to Europe: supply chain optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snels, J.C.M.A.; Westra, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to further develop successful supply chain concepts for sustainable export of qualitative high-grade export flow of, especially organic, vegetables from Argentina to Europe during the European winter season

  17. Self-sustained processes in the logarithmic layer of turbulent channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2011-06-01

    It has recently been shown that large-scale and very-large-scale motions can self-sustain in turbulent channel flows even in the absence of input from motions at smaller scales. Here we show that also motions at intermediate scales, mainly located in the logarithmic layer, survive when motions at smaller scales are artificially quenched. These elementary self-sustained motions involve the bursting and regeneration of sinuous streaks. This is a further indication that a full range of autonomous self-sustained processes exists in turbulent channel flows with scales ranging from those of the buffer layer streaks to those of the large scale motions in the outer layer.

  18. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R

    2009-02-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program?

  19. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  20. Self-sustaining processes at all scales in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun

    2017-03-01

    We collect and discuss the results of our recent studies which show evidence of the existence of a whole family of self-sustaining motions in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with scales ranging from those of buffer-layer streaks to those of large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer layer. The statistical and dynamical features of this family of self-sustaining motions, which are associated with streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices, are consistent with those of Townsend's attached eddies. Motions at each relevant scale are able to sustain themselves in the absence of forcing from larger- or smaller-scale motions by extracting energy from the mean flow via a coherent lift-up effect. The coherent self-sustaining process is embedded in a set of invariant solutions of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations which take into full account the Reynolds stresses associated with the residual smaller-scale motions.

  1. Harnessing Data Flow and Modelling Potentials for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mwitondi, Kassim S; Bugrien, Jamal B

    2012-01-01

    Tackling some of the global challenges relating to health, poverty, business and the environment is known to be heavily dependent on the flow and utilisation of data. However, while enhancements in data generation, storage, modelling, dissemination and the related integration of global economies and societies are fast transforming the way we live and interact, the resulting dynamic, globalised and information society remains digitally divided. On the African continent, in particular, the divi...

  2. Low Energy Flow - The Path Towards Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The global economy will in the near future have to adapt to its dependence on the limited ecological system. Only renewable energy sources can provide a truly sustainable supply of energy. In an environmental ranking of the various energy options, it is pointed out, however, that also the use...... of renewable energy sources can be unsustainable and otherwise damaging to the environment, if vigorously exploited. Since the energy saving options are more gentle to the environment than any supply options, we will be better off by keeping energy consumption very low. Technological efficiency can lower...... energy consumption by a factor three to five. But it is stressed, that these efficiency gains can easily be eaten up by decline in efficiencies in the ways we conduct our lifestyles and run our economies. To apply such an overall effciency view, however, turns out to pose a threat to the presently...

  3. Reconciling irrigated food production with environmental flows for Sustainable Development Goals implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Pastor, Amandine; Biemans, Hester; Gerten, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km3 per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs. If these volumes were to be reallocated to the ecosystems, half of globally irrigated cropland would face production losses of >=10%, with losses of ~20-30% of total country production especially in Central and South Asia. However, we explicitly show that improvement of irrigation practices can widely compensate for such losses on a sustainable basis. Integration with rainwater management can even achieve a 10% global net gain. Such management interventions are highlighted to act as a pivotal target in supporting the implementation of the ambitious and seemingly conflicting SDG agenda.

  4. PUBLIC DEBT ANALYSIS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DASCALU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of public debt, in terms of sustainability and vulnerability indicators, under a functioning market economy. The problems encountered regarding the high level of public debt or the potential risks of budgetary pressure converge to the idea that sustainability of public finances should be a major challenge for public policy. Thus, the policy adequate to address public finance sustainability must have as its starting point the overall strategy of the European Union, as well as the economic development of Member States, focusing on the most important performance components, namely, reducing public debt levels, increasing productivity and employment and, last but not the least, reforming social security systems. In order to achieve sustainable levels of public debt, the European Union Member States are required to establish and accomplish medium term strategic budgetary goals to ensure a downward trend in public debt.

  5. Rights-Based Approach: The Hub of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choondassery, Yesudas

    2017-01-01

    A rights-based approach to the environmental issues has been gaining momentum since the United Nations' Environmental Agency proposed a new rights-based agenda for sustainable development in the document, "Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (UN, 2015). Our moral responsibility toward the environment is…

  6. Amsterdam as a Sustainable European Metropolis : Integration of Water, Energy and Material Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hoek, J.P.; Struker, A.; Danschutter, J.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. The flows of energy, water and resources within the urban environment have a large potential to contribute to this ambition. The overall mass balances of phosphate, food, water, energy and material imports in

  7. Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-01-01

    From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained magne...

  8. Using Food Flow Data to Assess Sustainability: Land Use Displacement and Regional Decoupling in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Millones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food flow data provide unique insights into the debates surrounding the sustainability of land based production and consumption at multiple scales. Trade flows disguise the spatial correspondence of production and consumption and make their connection to land difficult. Two key components of this spatial disjuncture are land use displacement and economic regional decoupling. By displacing the environmental impact associated with food production from one region to another, environmental trajectories can falsely appear to be sustainable at a particular site or scale. When regional coupling is strong, peripheral areas where land based production occurs are strongly linked and proximate to consumption centers, and the environmental impact of production activities is visible. When food flows occur over longer distances, regional coupling weakens, and environmental impact is frequently overlooked. In this study, we present an analysis of a locally collected food flow dataset containing agricultural and livestock products transported to and from counties in Quintana Roo (QRoo. QRoo is an extensively forested border state in southeast Mexico, which was fully colonized by the state and non-native settlers only in the last century and now is home to some of the major tourist destinations. To approximate land displacement and regional decoupling, we decompose flows to and from QRoo by (1 direction; (2 product types and; (3 scale. Results indicate that QRoo is predominantly a consumer state: incoming flows outnumber outgoing flows by a factor of six, while exports are few, specialized, and with varied geographic reach (Yucatan, south and central Mexico, USA. Imports come predominantly from central Mexico. Local production in QRoo accounts for a small portion of its total consumption. In combining both subsets of agricultural and livestock products, we found that in most years, land consumption requirements were above 100% of the available land not under

  9. Sustainable Supply Chain Based on News Articles and Sustainability Reports: Text Mining with Leximancer and DICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwook Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore sustainable supply chain management (SSCM trends, and firms’ strategic positioning and execution with regard to sustainability in the textile and apparel industry based on news articles and sustainability reports. Further analysis of the rhetoric in Chief executive officer (CEO letters within sustainability reports is used to determine firms’ resoluteness, positive entailments, sharing of values, perception of reality, and sustainability strategy and execution feasibility. Computer-based content analysis is used for this research: Leximancer is applied for text analysis, while dictionary-based text mining program DICTION and SPSS are used for rhetorical analysis. Overall, contents similar to the literature on environmental, social, and economic aspects of the triple bottom line (TBL are observed, however, topics such as regulation, green incentives, and international standards are not readily observed. Furthmore, ethical issues, sustainable production, quality, and customer roles are emphasized in texts analyzed. The CEO letter analysis indicates that listed firms show relatively low realism and high commonality, while North American firms exhibit relatively high commonality, and Europe firms show relatively high realism. The results will serve as a baseline for providing academia guidelines in SSCM research, and provide an opportunity for businesses to complement their sustainability strategies and executions.

  10. facilitating sustainable development through market-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    behaviour impacting on the environment, is to prescribe a range of legislative standards, prohibitions and restrictions and ... Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004; and National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act 39 of 2004. ... and development are sustainable and that activities that impose high social and economic costs in ...

  11. Sustainability assessment in forest management based on individual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Susana; Martinez-Falero, Eugenio

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents a methodology to elicit the preferences of any individual in the assessment of sustainable forest management at the stand level. The elicitation procedure was based on the comparison of the sustainability of pairs of forest locations. A sustainability map of the whole territory was obtained according to the individual's preferences. Three forest sustainability indicators were pre-calculated for each point in a study area in a Scots pine forest in the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama in the Madrid Region in Spain to obtain the best management plan with the sustainability map. We followed a participatory process involving fifty people to assess the sustainability of the forest management and the methodology. The results highlighted the demand for conservative forest management, the usefulness of the methodology for managers, and the importance and necessity of incorporating stakeholders into forestry decision-making processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable inquiry based learning with ICT. Projectrapportage. SURFInnovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Boerner, Dirk; Rusman, Ellen; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Pannekeet, Kees; Specht, Marcus; Van der Klink, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the project “Sustainable inquiry based learning with ICT / Duurzaam onderzoekend leren met ICT” funded by the SURFnet Innovation grant for sustainable ICT solutions. This project was conducted from May 2013 to November 2013 by researchers of CELSTEC, OU. This

  13. Historical lessons for Africa's gender parity-based sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that such a macrore-examination may reveal key lessons that Africacan draw from in the pursuit of her sustainable development. Drawing on Integral Theory as the primary theoretical lens,this paper finds that aunited effort to industrialise Africa,based on the principles of sustainable development, will support the ...

  14. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  15. Sustainability assessment of farming in perspective of diminishing global emerge flows – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    Central to the emergy world-view is the realization of a pulsing world with the modern civilization being characterised as a mega pulse fuelled by fossil fuels. However, this basic assumption is often neglected when emergy flows are used to assess sustainability. For instance, when emergy...... of a system to sustain its integrity in a changing socio-ecological environment. We believe that an important objective is to identify and assess systems that can show a prosperous way down from the mega pulse. The case in our work is a dedicated organic stockless UK farming system with distribution...

  16. A pathway to a more sustainable water sector: sustainability-based asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, D R; Beale, D J; Burn, S

    2010-01-01

    The water sectors of many countries are faced with the need to address simultaneously two overarching challenges; the need to undertake effective asset management coupled with the broader need to evolve business processes so as to embrace sustainability principles. Research has thus been undertaken into the role sustainability principles play in asset management. As part of this research, a series of 25 in-depth interviews were undertaken with water sector professionals from around Australia. Drawing on the results of these interviews, this paper outlines the conceptual relationship between asset management and sustainability along with a synthesis of the relevant opinions voiced in the interviews. The interviews indicated that the participating water authorities have made a strong commitment to sustainability, but there is a need to facilitate change processes to embed sustainability principles into business as usual practices. Interviewees also noted that asset management and sustainability are interlinked from a number of perspectives, especially in the way decision making is undertaken with respect to assets and service provision. The interviews also provided insights into the research needed to develop a holistic sustainability-based asset management framework.

  17. Evaluating the Sustainability of School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Laser-sustained Plasma in Supersonic Argon Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, David; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Moessinger, Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2011-11-01

    Laser-induced energy deposition is widely discussed as a flow control technique in supersonic transportation. In case of thermal laser-plasma upstream of a blunt body, a substantial adaptation of shock wave geometry and magnitude of wave drag is predicted. Related to the research on laser supported detonation, the paper describes the implementation of laser-sustained plasma in a supersonic Argon jet. The stable plasma state is generated by the intersection of a Q-switched Nd:YAG-laser and a continuous wave CO2-laser beams, for ignition and maintenance of the plasma respectively. A miniature supersonic Ludwieg tube test facility generates a supersonic jet at velocities of Mach 2.1. Modifications of the flow and plasma conditions are investigated and characterized by Schlieren flow visualisation, laser energy transmission and plasma radiation measurements. The results include the discussions of the flow field as well as the required laser and gas parameters.

  19. Decorrelation-based blood flow velocity estimation: effect of spread of flow velocity, linear flow velocity gradients, and parabolic flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Mastik, F.; Korte, C.L. de

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow, based on the decorrelation of the radio frequency (RF) signals has been developed. In this paper, we investigated the influence of nonuniform flow on the velocity estimation. The decorrelation characteristics of transverse blood flow

  20. Learning for Sustainability Among Faith-Based Organizations in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Joanne M.; Sinclair, A. John; Diduck, Alan P.

    2014-08-01

    The complex and unpredictable contexts in which environmental and development work take place require an adaptable, learning approach. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) play a significant role in sustainability work around the world, and provide a unique setting in which to study learning. This paper explores individual learning for sustainability within two FBOs engaged in sustainability work in Kenya. Learning outcomes covered a broad range of areas, including the sustainability framework, environment/conservation, skills, community work, interpersonal engagement, and personal and faith development. These outcomes were acquired through embodied experience and activity, facilitation by the workplace, interpersonal interaction, personal reflection, and Bible study and worship. Grounded categories were compared to learning domains and processes described by Mezirow's transformative learning theory. The findings indicate that for learning in the sustainability field, instrumental learning and embodied learning processes are particularly important, and consequently they require greater attention in the theory when applied in this field.

  1. Learning for sustainability among faith-based organizations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Joanne M; Sinclair, A John; Diduck, Alan P

    2014-08-01

    The complex and unpredictable contexts in which environmental and development work take place require an adaptable, learning approach. Faith-based organizations (FBOs) play a significant role in sustainability work around the world, and provide a unique setting in which to study learning. This paper explores individual learning for sustainability within two FBOs engaged in sustainability work in Kenya. Learning outcomes covered a broad range of areas, including the sustainability framework, environment/conservation, skills, community work, interpersonal engagement, and personal and faith development. These outcomes were acquired through embodied experience and activity, facilitation by the workplace, interpersonal interaction, personal reflection, and Bible study and worship. Grounded categories were compared to learning domains and processes described by Mezirow's transformative learning theory. The findings indicate that for learning in the sustainability field, instrumental learning and embodied learning processes are particularly important, and consequently they require greater attention in the theory when applied in this field.

  2. The Role of Agricultural Management in Sustaining Zayandeh-rud Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Emami Heidari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural practices plays a vital role in reducing the use of limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions which could result in their sustainability. In this research, the role of managing agriculture in sustaining flow of Zayandeh-rud was studied by calculation of rice water requirement (actual evapotranspiration in paddy fields of Zarrin-shahr by using method of FAO-56 and comparing the results assuming a shift in cropping pattern from rice to other crops. Rice water requirement was estimated at 1485 mm and the volume of water required for irrigation of paddy fields with area of about 6630 Hectare was estimated at 77 MCM. Volume of irrigated waterwas also evaluated by water balance method, confirmed the reliability of FAO-56 method. The results show that, replacing rice or wheat-rice cropping pattern with some possible crops such as bean, maize, walnut, apple and grape decreases irrigation requirements about 27, 15, 24, 29 and 40 MCM, respectively. Generalizing results for the total paddy fields in Isfahan Province with estimated area of about 20000 Hectare will result in an increase of about 3.4 to 9.1 m3/s in Zayandeh-rud discharge during critical months of June to October, when the river flow highly decreases, causing sustainable flow of the river through the year.

  3. An information system for sustainable materials management with material flow accounting and waste input–output analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Cheng Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable materials management focuses on the dynamics of materials in economic and environmental activities to optimize material use efficiency and reduce environmental impact. A preliminary web-based information system is thus developed to analyze the issues of resource consumption and waste generation, enabling countries to manage resources and wastes from a life cycle perspective. This pioneering system features a four-layer framework that integrates information on physical flows and economic activities with material flow accounting and waste input–output table analysis. Within this framework, several applications were developed for different waste and resource management stakeholders. The hierarchical and interactive dashboards allow convenient overview of economy-wide material accounts, waste streams, and secondary resource circulation. Furthermore, the system can trace material flows through associated production supply chain and consumption activities. Integrated with economic models; this system can predict the possible overloading on the current waste management facility capacities and provide decision support for designing strategies to approach resource sustainability. The limitations of current system are specified for directing further enhancement of functionalities.

  4. Sustainable bio-based materials: opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Research in the area of bio-based materials aims to achieve breakthroughs in bio-based materials development. A novel way is presented to organise bio-based materials research with a value chain approach in which sustainability research is integrated in the research program. This research approach

  5. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  6. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; Industry Assessment and Demonstration Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/019 SUSTAINABILITY ...To) December 2014 - February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING - SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE - DEMONSTRATION; INDUSTRY... SUSTAINABILITY POWER INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT CONTINGENCY BASES CAPABILITY GAPS WASTE ACADEMIA DATA COLLECTION CONTINGENCY

  7. On a self-sustaining process at large scale in the turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows has been understood as the place where an independent self-sustaining cycle exists, and the associated coherent motions in this region have been rigorously described with traveling waves and/or unstable periodic orbits in the phase space. On the other hand, in the outer region, turbulent motions have often been thought to be produced from the active near-wall cycles via so called the `bottom-up' process. However, recent investigations revealed that outer layer motions can experience significant non-normal amplifications. These findings suggest that self-sustaining processes could also exist at large scale. In this study, we consider a fully-developed turbulent channel at Reτ 550. We show that large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer region can sustain even when smaller-scale structures in the near-wall and the logarithmic regions are artificially quenched. The self-sustaining process is active only at the lengths scales larger than LxxLz 3h x1.5h, in good accordance with the most energetic length scales observed in the outer region.

  8. Itzama Project : Sustainable Indigenous Development based on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Itzama Project : Sustainable Indigenous Development based on the Ethnobotanical Garden and Traditional Medicine Concept. The Itzama project began with the indigenous Maya in Belize. It is based on the premise that, in a context of cultural and biodiversity conservation, traditional botanical and medicinal knowledge ...

  9. Challenges for sustainability of home based economic activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors accountable for successful and sustainable home based economic activities were determined. Impacts of home based economic activities were found to be significant in the education of the children, income security and social welfare of families. The study emphasized home economic entrepreneurial education, ...

  10. Sustainable selective oxidations using ceria-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Rothenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    This Perspective covers sustainable oxidation processes using doped cerias, ceria-supported catalysts and ceria-based mixed oxides. Firstly, we consider the general properties of ceria-based catalysts. We outline the advantages of the ceria redox cycle, and explain the dynamic behaviour of these

  11. Sustained Hospital-based Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Karen; Jeffers, Katharine; Kaiser, Leslie; McKinley, Lee; Kuhn, Thomas; Voorhies, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Beginning as a grassroots initiative, a community hospital employing 2800 celebrates the stress-transforming benefits of HeartMath for its employees and community. Initially introduced to address the deleterious effects of personal stress experienced by the high healthcare claimants of the organization, HeartMath was eventually introduced to every stratification of the organization's population health management. The ensuing depth and breadth of HeartMath's presence in the organization is a consequence of a deliberate effort to integrate the program at every possible and sensible touch point of the organization and, ultimately, patient care. Today, 5 years later, the success of HeartMath at Indiana University (IU) Health Bloomington continues to be a tribute to the grassroots movement of an established worksite wellness program. Methods: HeartMath was initiated as an intervention for transforming the stress of a workforce's highest healthcare claimants: those with the complexities of co-morbidities as well as challenging psychosocial and economic realities. This segment of a workforce is invariably the greatest strain to any organization's health plan. As importantly, on an individual level and subsequent to their health status, the respective employees can experience tremendous personal strain in several dimensions of their lives. Further compounding their marginal and worsening physical health, the inherent challenges of the current medical system to integrate and advocate for their care requires that stress be addressed and skills developed for a positive, long-term, and sustainable outcome. From this small but powerful vantage point, IU Health Bloomington's platinum worksite wellness program (a distinction of the Wellness Council of America) extended HeartMath to every population health management stratification within the organization. This specific program migration happened initially by way of departments and units that expressed, in an

  12. Sustainable urban regeneration based on energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Zwetsloot, J.; Brezet, H.; Silvester, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming

  13. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource......-based growth strategy over time....

  14. Sustainable Virtual Utilities Based on Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Gustavsson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Next generation of energy systems, being dependant on Renewable Energy Resources (RES and Distributed Generation (DG, will typically be based on flexible virtual cells of cells of balanced power consumption – generation, that is microgrids, rather than present day vertical hierarchical grid systems. Furthermore, the supporting information infrastructure and nonlinear dependencies will pose new dependability challenges to the systems involved. As a consequence, we have to decouple present day proprietary hierarchical SCADA systems into sets of services that allow for horizontal as well as vertical integration supporting operations and business models of future virtual utilities. The virtual utilities are integrating two critical infrastructures; power grids and cyber networks. To allow for this flexibility and assuring dependability we argue that the underlying infrastructures should be modelled as Service Oriented Architectures (SOA. We propose in this paper a methodology towards ensuring quality of service in virtual utilities based on microgrids.

  15. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    the stomatal apparatus of leaf regulate the water flow through plant, transpiration rate is reduced, soil solution concentration increases, plant nutrition supply rate becomes higher than at a stage of water field capacity. The rate of plant biomass growth is highest at water thermodynamic potential of -0.2-0.4 MPa. No excessive irrigation intra-soil mass transfer, nor excessive transpiration, evaporation and seepage. New intra-soil pulse discrete paradigm of irrigation optimizes the plant organogenesis, reduces consumption of water per unit of biological product. The biological productivity increases. Fresh water saving is up to 20 times. The new sustainable world strategy of Ecosystem Maintaining Productivity is to be based on the Biogeosystem Technique, it suits well the robotic nowadays noosphere technological platform and implements the principals of Geoethics in technologies of Biosphere. Key words: Paradigm, Biogeosystem technique, intra-soil pulse discrete watering. SSS8.1 Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded lands in arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean environments Batukaev Abdulmalik A. Chechen State University, Agrotechnological Institute, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, Director, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, batukaevmalik@mail.ru Kalinichenko Valery P. Institute of Fertility of Soils of South Russia, Dr Sc (Biol), Professor, Director, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region. Russia, kalinitch@mail.ru Minkina Tatiana M., Southern Federal University, Dr Sc (Biol), Head of the Soil Science Chair, 344006, Bolshaja Sadovaja st., 105/42, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, tminkina@mail.ru Zarmaev Ali A. Agrotechnological Institute of Chechen State University, Head of the Agrotechnology Chair, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, ali5073@mail.ru Skovpen Andrey N. Don State Agrarian University, PhD, Ass. Professor of Ecology Chair, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region, Russia, instit03@mail

  16. Emulsion Flow Analysis of a Sensor Probe for Sustainable Machine Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Sander

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Working fluids possess several applications in manufacturing processes, for instance lubricants in metals machining. Typical metal working fluids are formulated as oil-in-water emulsions. The maintenance of the physical stability of the working fluid during operation is a key factor for the sustainability of the relevant process. Therefore, continuous control of the working fluids stability and performance during machine operation is an essential tool for maintenance of the process performance. Turbidity measurement (TM is a process technique for emulsion stability and quality assessment, where light transmission and absorption of an emulsion system is analyzed. However, for in-process measurement and fluid quality detection during the machine operation by TM, it is necessary to implement a transmission inline sensor into the working fluid flow line. The continuous flow measurement may cause problems for long-term sensor operation regarding, e.g., biofouling of the sensor optical glasses or erroneous measurements due to emulsion droplets segregation effects. In the present investigation, computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulations have been adapted to obtain the emulsion flow conditions within a typical TM sensor probe, thereby allowing an assessment of the adhesion probability of microorganisms as well as droplet segregation effects. The simulation results indicate some temporal changes of the dispersed phase concentration in the detected emulsion flow. Due to droplet segregation in the emulsion, the flow velocity needs to exceed a certain value for reliable operation. It is shown here that in this flow regime microbiological attachments on the probe surfaces may be sufficiently avoided. A minimum critical flow velocity is derived to avoid biomolecule adhesion and thus durable operation of the sensor.

  17. High frequency image-based flow detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, R [National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Prager, R W [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gee, A H [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Treece, G M [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis refers to neovascular development on a microvascular scale and is an early indicator of cancer. Prototype high frequency pulsed Doppler systems using 50 MHz transducers have been reported to detect microvascular flow in vessels 0.02 mm to 0.5 mm in diameter at superficial depths of 0.5 mm. Detecting flow in microvasculature at deeper depths requires lower frequency transducers with a resulting tradeoff in spatial resolution. Using a 22 MHz transducer, we demonstrate a speckle decorrelation technique to detect in vitro flow in soft tubing of 0.5 mm diameter at a depth of 2 cm. This image-based decorrelation technique is capable of detecting flow in significantly narrower diameters down to 0.125 mm by decreasing the region of interest.

  18. Reactive or proactive approach towards sustainability? A conceptual framework based on sustainable business models to increase stakeholders' sustainable value capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2016-01-01

    to stakeholders' expectations is supported by motivations derived from marketing, corporate social responsibility, international standards, sustainability reporting, labelling, etc. However, these demands are not always aligned with sustainability, creating tensions between stakeholder satisfaction and corporate...... sustainability. In this sense, a proactive approach to foster sustainable value capture can complement the reactive approach by delivering value beyond stakeholders' expectations. In this case, companies use their capabilities to identify opportunities to create and deliver sustainable value that stakeholders...

  19. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  20. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington

    2010-01-01

    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  1. Identifying asset-based trends in sustainable programmes which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we argue that the asset-based approach is one explanation for sustainability in programmes supporting vulnerable children. We structure our argument by formulating five questions and then pursuing tentative answers to them. We start our contention by highlighting the particularity of the challenges faced in ...

  2. Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was investigated with a view to understanding its efficiency and effectiveness as a tool for sustainable forest management in the State. Four sets of questionnaire were administered to forestry officials; forest edge communities; timber ...

  3. Design and Construction Documents Associated with N232, Sustainability Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetzer, Steven F.; Schuler, Raymond F.; Grymes, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    This request comprehensively covers documents associated with the design and construction of Sustainability Base, N232. The intent of this project specifically envisioned broad dissemination of these materials to others undertaking the design and construction of high-performing energy- and resource-efficient buildings in comparable climate zones.

  4. Trend Analysis of Worldwide FDI Flows in the Context of Promoting Sustainable Development and National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.

  5. Advancing City Sustainability via Its Systems of Flows: The Urban Metabolism of Birmingham and Its Hinterland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities are dependent on their hinterlands for their function and survival. They provide resources such as people, materials, water, food and energy, as well as areas for waste disposal. Over the last 50 years, commerce and trade has become increasingly global with resources sourced from further afield often due to cheap labour costs, better transportation and a plentiful supply of energy and raw materials. However, the use and transportation of resources is becoming increasingly unsustainable as the global population increases, raw materials become increasing scarce, and energy costs rise. This paper builds on research undertaken in the Liveable Cities Programme on the resource flows of Birmingham, UK. It investigates how people, material, and food flows interact within regional, national, and international hinterlands through road and rail transportation and assesses their sustainability across all three pillars (economic, social, and environmental. The type and weight of goods is highlighted together with their costs and energy used. For a city to move with greatest effect towards sustainability it needs to: (i source as much as it can locally, to minimise transportation and energy costs; (ii adopt such principles as the “circular economy”; and (iii provide clean and efficient means to move people, especially public transportation.

  6. On the self-sustained nature of large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Subhandu; Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun; Rincon, François

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows are frequently interpreted as resulting from an aggregation process of smaller-scale structures. Here, we explore the alternative possibility that such large-scale motions are themselves self-sustained and do not draw their energy from smaller-scale turbulent motions activated in buffer layers. To this end, it is first shown that large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow at Re=2150 self-sustain even when active processes at smaller scales are artificially quenched by increasing the Smagorinsky constant Cs in large eddy simulations. These results are in agreement with earlier results on pressure driven turbulent channels. We further investigate the nature of the large-scale coherent motions by computing upper and lower-branch nonlinear steady solutions of the filtered (LES) equations with a Newton-Krylov solver,and find that they are connected by a saddle-node bifurcation at large values of Cs. Upper branch solutions for the filtered large scale motions are computed for Reynolds numbers up to Re=2187 using specific paths in the Re-Cs parameter plane and compared to large-scale coherent motions. Continuation to Cs = 0 reveals that these large-scale steady solutions of the filtered equations are connected to the Nagata-Clever-Busse-Waleffe branch of steady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In contrast, we find it impossible to connect the latter to buffer layer motions through a continuation to higher Reynolds numbers in minimal flow units.

  7. A Risk-Based Ecohydrological Approach to Assessing Environmental Flow Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgregor, Glenn B; Marshall, Jonathan C; Lobegeiger, Jaye S; Holloway, Dean; Menke, Norbert; Coysh, Julie

    2017-03-27

    For several decades there has been recognition that water resource development alters river flow regimes and impacts ecosystem values. Determining strategies to protect or restore flow regimes to achieve ecological outcomes is a focus of water policy and legislation in many parts of the world. However, consideration of existing environmental flow assessment approaches for application in Queensland identified deficiencies precluding their adoption. Firstly, in managing flows and using ecosystem condition as an indicator of effectiveness, many approaches ignore the fact that river ecosystems are subjected to threatening processes other than flow regime alteration. Secondly, many focus on providing flows for responses without considering how often they are necessary to sustain ecological values in the long-term. Finally, few consider requirements at spatial-scales relevant to the desired outcomes, with frequent focus on individual places rather than the regions supporting sustainability. Consequently, we developed a risk-based ecohydrological approach that identifies ecosystem values linked to desired ecological outcomes, is sensitive to flow alteration and uses indicators of broader ecosystem requirements. Monitoring and research is undertaken to quantify flow-dependencies and ecological modelling is used to quantify flow-related ecological responses over an historical flow period. The relative risk from different flow management scenarios can be evaluated at relevant spatial-scales. This overcomes the deficiencies identified above and provides a robust and useful foundation upon which to build the information needed to support water planning decisions. Application of the risk assessment approach is illustrated here by two case studies.

  8. A power flow mode theory based on a system's damping distribution and power flow design approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Ye-Ping; Xing, J. T.; Price, W.G.

    2005-01-01

    A power flow mode theory is developed to describe the natural power flow behaviour of a dynamic system based on its inherent damping distribution. The system's characteristic-damping matrix is constructed and it is shown that the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix identify natural power flow characteristics. These eigenvectors, or power flow mode vectors, are chosen as a set of base-vectors spanning the power flow space and completely describe the power flow in the system. The genera...

  9. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  10. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new......Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a modeling method used for modeling complex industrial plant. Currently, MFM is supported with a standalone software tool called MFM Workbench, which is equipped with causal-relation analysis and other functionalities. The aim of this paper is to offer a new design...

  11. Sustainable management of a coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem using multi-criteria simulation based optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new simulation-based integrated water management tool for sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments. This tool delivers optimised groundwater withdrawal scenarios considering saltwater intrusion as a result of agricultural and municipal water abstraction. It also yields a substantially improved water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture. To allow for a robust and fast operation we unified process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques. The aquifer behaviour is represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) which emulates a numerical density-dependent groundwater flow model. The impact of agriculture is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). Simulation-based optimisation techniques together with the SCWPF and ANN deliver optimal groundwater abstraction and cropping patterns. To address contradicting objectives, e.g. profit-oriented agriculture vs. sustainable abstraction scenarios, we performed multi-objective optimisations using a multi-criteria optimisation algorithm.

  12. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  13. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  14. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  15. Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  16. A New Sustainability City Index Based on Intellectual Capital Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Alfaro-Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability is a key factor that must be considered at the local level, however, there are few studies that consider sustainability using the triple bottom line approach and apply it to a large number of cities. In this paper, we develop a sustainability city index based on the triple bottom line using an intellectual capital approach that attempts to solve the negative aspects identified in the main indices proposed in the existing literature, such as the use of: subjective weightings, an arithmetic average or index that is not comparable. Here, we have used information available in the Urban Audit database for 2009. The results for 158 cities in 24 European countries show that the cities with the best positions are in the northern European countries. German cities occupied the best positions in the three dimensions of sustainability, albeit with a slightly worse performance in the social dimension. Moreover, the proposal index is consistent, without redundancy among the variables considered in the three dimensions.

  17. Problem Based Learning and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2012-01-01

    are problem based learning (PBL), project based learning (PjBL), case study, role play, group discussion, field work, etc. These learning approaches are capable of integrating education for sustainable development (ESD) in engineering education at different levels, and do not aim to substitute the core......An engineering education that integrates education for sustainable development (ESD) perspectives claims for a learning approach centred on students, interdisciplinary and problem oriented, and this cannot be achieve through an “add on” strategy. Example of such active learning approaches...... scientific and technological knowledge but instead align it with the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the professional practice. It is agreed among ESD experts that PBL is a suitable learning approach to integrate ESD in the engineering curricula. This paper provides an overview...

  18. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  19. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Liu

    2009-02-20

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  20. Activity-based Sustainability Assessment of Highly Automated Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki; Alting, Leo

    . It uses a top-down decision-making process known from financial target setting for each cost center and the well-known life-cycle perspective according to ISO 14040 [2] in Sustainability Assessment. Thereby it is possible to allocate absolute environmental thresholds of functionalities (e.......g. “transportation”) down to smallest production units by using activity-based target setting in a consistent way to lowers risks in the planning phase of products and production....

  1. On the failure of sustained oscillations in the bromate/hypophosphite-acetone/dual catalyst flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paulo A.; Faria, Roberto B.; Varela, Hamilton

    2013-02-01

    In this report we present experimental results on the dynamical behavior of the bromate/hypophosphite-acetone/dual catalyst system. According to our findings we state that this two-catalyst system does not show oscillations under flow conditions. Our discussion is based on the sequential action of the two catalysts system.

  2. Development of a sustainable community-based dental education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorowski, Wilhelm A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Mastey, Jerry; Krell, Rachel E

    2011-08-01

    Increasing the use of community-based programs is an important trend in improving dental education to meet the needs of students and the public. To support this trend, understanding the history of programs that have established successful models for community-based education is valuable for the creation and development of new programs. The community-based education model of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry (UMSOD) offers a useful guide for understanding the essential steps and challenges involved in developing a successful program. Initial steps in program development were as follows: raising funds, selecting an outreach clinical model, and recruiting clinics to become partners. As the program developed, the challenges of creating a sustainable financial model with the highest educational value required the inclusion of new clinical settings and the creation of a unique revenue-sharing model. Since the beginning of the community-based program at UMSOD in 2000, the number of community partners has increased to twenty-seven clinics, and students have treated thousands of patients in need. Fourth-year students now spend a minimum of ten weeks in community-based clinical education. The community-based program at UMSOD demonstrates the value of service-based education and offers a sustainable model for the development of future programs.

  3. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanofiltration-Enabled In Situ Solvent and Reagent Recycle for Sustainable Continuous-Flow Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodi, Tamas; Didaskalou, Christos; Kupai, Jozsef; Balogh, Gyorgy T; Huszthy, Peter; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-09-11

    Solvent usage in the pharmaceutical sector accounts for as much as 90 % of the overall mass during manufacturing processes. Consequently, solvent consumption poses significant costs and environmental burdens. Continuous processing, in particular continuous-flow reactors, have great potential for the sustainable production of pharmaceuticals but subsequent downstream processing remains challenging. Separation processes for concentrating and purifying chemicals can account for as much as 80 % of the total manufacturing costs. In this work, a nanofiltration unit was coupled to a continuous-flow rector for in situ solvent and reagent recycling. The nanofiltration unit is straightforward to implement and simple to control during continuous operation. The hybrid process operated continuously over six weeks, recycling about 90 % of the solvent and reagent. Consequently, the E-factor and the carbon footprint were reduced by 91 % and 19 %, respectively. Moreover, the nanofiltration unit led to a solution of the product eleven times more concentrated than the reaction mixture and increased the purity from 52.4 % to 91.5 %. The boundaries for process conditions were investigated to facilitate implementation of the methodology by the pharmaceutical sector. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Competence-Based Approach to Sustainable Innovation Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2007-01-01

    on sustainable innovation. By focusing particularly on the Design & Innovation programme’s fifth semester, which is entitled Innovation for Sustainability, the efforts we have made to renew the educational approach and contents in our engineering teaching will be shown in this paper. This semester has been...... the object of a research exercise, to affect and observe various approaches to the teaching of design. Particular attention will be paid in this case to competencies, both initiated in the teaching and the evaluated in the students’ interpretation of the theoretical contents. The lessons learned from...... the first three years of this semester’s application and teaching to approximately 55 students per year are presented and discussed. After introducing the motivation and background for establishing the education programme, the consideration of competence-based education is described, in the context...

  6. Enabling Sustainability: Hierarchical Need-Based Framework for Promoting Sustainable Data Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Yawson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents thoughts on Sustainable Data Infrastructure (SDI development, and its user requirements bases. It brings Maslow's motivational theory to the fore, and proposes it as a rationalization mechanism for entities (mostly governmental that aim at realizing SDI. Maslow's theory, though well-known, is somewhat new in geospatial circles; this is where the novelty of the paper resides. SDI has been shown to enable and aid development in diverse ways. However, stimulating developing countries to appreciate the utility of SDI, implement, and use SDI in achieving sustainable development has proven to be an imposing challenge. One of the key reasons for this could be the absence of a widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the purpose of SDI development. As a result, it is reasonable to explore Maslow’s theory of human motivation as a psychological theory for promoting SDI in developing countries. In this article, we review and adapt Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for the assessment of the needs of developing nations. The paper concludes with the implications of this framework for policy with the view to stimulating the implementation of SDI in developing nations.

  7. Nuclear energy in Europe: uranium flow modeling and fuel cycle scenario trade-offs from a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendall, Danielle M; Binder, Claudia R

    2011-03-15

    The European nuclear fuel cycle (covering the EU-27, Switzerland and Ukraine) was modeled using material flow analysis (MFA).The analysis was based on publicly available data from nuclear energy agencies and industries, national trade offices, and nongovernmental organizations. Military uranium was not considered due to lack of accessible data. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios varying spent fuel reprocessing, depleted uranium re-enrichment, enrichment assays, and use of fast neutron reactors, were established. They were then assessed according to environmental, economic and social criteria such as resource depletion, waste production, chemical and radiation emissions, costs, and proliferation risks. The most preferable scenario in the short term is a combination of reduced tails assay and enrichment grade, allowing a 17.9% reduction of uranium demand without significantly increasing environmental, economic, or social risks. In the long term, fast reactors could theoretically achieve a 99.4% decrease in uranium demand and nuclear waste production. However, this involves important costs and proliferation risks. Increasing material efficiency is not systematically correlated with the reduction of other risks. This suggests that an overall optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle is difficult to obtain. Therefore, criteria must be weighted according to stakeholder interests in order to determine the most sustainable solution. This paper models the flows of uranium and associated materials in Europe, and provides a decision support tool for identifying the trade-offs of the alternative nuclear fuel cycles considered.

  8. Integrated Systems Health Management for Sustainable Habitats (Using Sustainability Base as a Testbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.

    2017-01-01

    Habitation systems provide a safe place for astronauts to live and work in space and on planetary surfaces. They enable crews to live and work safely in deep space, and include integrated life support systems, radiation protection, fire safety, and systems to reduce logistics and the need for resupply missions. Innovative health management technologies are needed in order to increase the safety and mission-effectiveness for future space habitats on other planets, asteroids, or lunar surfaces. For example, off-nominal or failure conditions occurring in safety-critical life support systems may need to be addressed quickly by the habitat crew without extensive technical support from Earth due to communication delays. If the crew in the habitat must manage, plan and operate much of the mission themselves, operations support must be migrated from Earth to the habitat. Enabling monitoring, tracking, and management capabilities on-board the habitat and related EVA platforms for a small crew to use will require significant automation and decision support software.Traditional caution and warning systems are typically triggered by out-of-bounds sensor values, but can be enhanced by including machine learning and data mining techniques. These methods aim to reveal latent, unknown conditions while still retaining and improving the ability to provide highly accurate alerts for known issues. A few of these techniques will briefly described, along with performance targets for known faults and failures. Specific system health management capabilities required for habitat system elements (environmental control and life support systems, etc.) may include relevant subsystems such as water recycling systems, photovoltaic systems, electrical power systems, and environmental monitoring systems. Sustainability Base, the agency's flagship LEED-platinum certified green building acts as a living laboratory for testing advanced information and sustainable technologies that provides an

  9. OpenFlow-based Link Dimensioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Hendriks, Luuk; Pras, Aiko; van der Pol, Ronald

    In this demo we will demonstrate the possibility of using OpenFlow traffic measurements for link dimensioning purposes. Our solution runs on top of the Ryu OpenFlow controller and retrieves per-flow statistics metered at the OpenFlow switch. The statistics are obtained by using messages defined by

  10. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-08-16

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production.

  11. Sustainability and evidence-based design in the healthcare estate

    CERN Document Server

    Phiri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to deepen our understanding of the role played by technical guidelines and tools for the design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities, ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Using case studies largely drawn from the UK, Europe, China and Australasia, design approaches such as sustainability (e.g. targets for energy efficiency, carbon neutrality, reduction of waste), evidence-based design (EBD), and Post-Project Evaluation (PPE) are examined in order to identify policies, mechanisms and strategies that can promote an integrated learning environment that in turn supports innovation in healthcare.

  12. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial distribution of groundwater recharge and base flow: Assessment of controlling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zomlot

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The average resulting recharge is 235 mm/year and occurs mainly in winter. The overall moderate correlation between base flow estimates and modeled recharge rates indicates that base flow is a reasonable proxy of recharge. Groundwater recharge variation was explained in order of importance by precipitation, soil texture and vegetation cover; while base flow variation was strongly controlled by vegetation cover and groundwater depth. The results of this study highlight the important role of spatial variables in estimation of recharge and base flow. In addition, the prominent role of vegetation makes clear the potential importance of land-use changes on recharge and hence the need to include a proper strategy for land-use change in sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  14. Sustainable hemp-based composites for the building industry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Stevulova, Nadezda; Junak, Jozef; Hospodarova, Viola

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability goals are essential driving principles for the development of innovative materials in the building industry. Natural plant (e.g. hemp) fibers represent an attractive alternative as reinforcing material due to its good properties and sustainability prerequisites. In this study, hemp-based composite materials, designed for building application as non-load bearing material, providing both thermal insulation and physico-mechanical properties, are presented. Composite materials were produced by bonding hemp hurds with a novel inorganic binder (MgO-based cement) and then were characterized in terms of physical properties (bulk density, water absorption), thermal properties (thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength). The composites exhibited promising physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, generally comparable to commercially available products. In addition, the hemp-based composites have the advantage of a significantly low environmental impact (thanks to the nature of both the dispersed and the binding phase) and no negative effects on human health. All things considered, the composite materials seem like very promising materials for the building industry application.

  15. A power function method for estimating base flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A; Stewart, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    Analytical base flow separation techniques are often used to determine the base flow contribution to total stream flow. Most analytical methods derive base flow from discharge records alone without using basin-specific variables other than basin area. This paper derives a power function for estimating base flow, the form being aQ(b) + cQ, an analytical method calibrated against an integrated basin variable, specific conductance, relating base flow to total discharge, and is consistent with observed mathematical behavior of dissolved solids in stream flow with varying discharge. Advantages of the method are being uncomplicated, reproducible, and applicable to hydrograph separation in basins with limited specific conductance data. The power function relationship between base flow and discharge holds over a wide range of basin areas. It better replicates base flow determined by mass balance methods than analytical methods such as filters or smoothing routines that are not calibrated to natural tracers or empirical basin and gauge-specific variables. Also, it can be used with discharge during periods without specific conductance values, including separating base flow from quick flow for single events. However, it may overestimate base flow during very high flow events. Application of geochemical mass balance and power function base flow separation methods to stream flow and specific conductance records from multiple gauges in the same basin suggests that analytical base flow separation methods must be calibrated at each gauge. Using average values of coefficients introduces a potentially significant and unknown error in base flow as compared with mass balance methods. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  16. VisFlow - Web-based Visualization Framework for Tabular Data with a Subset Flow Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bowen; Silva, Claudio T

    2017-01-01

    Data flow systems allow the user to design a flow diagram that specifies the relations between system components which process, filter or visually present the data. Visualization systems may benefit from user-defined data flows as an analysis typically consists of rendering multiple plots on demand and performing different types of interactive queries across coordinated views. In this paper, we propose VisFlow, a web-based visualization framework for tabular data that employs a specific type of data flow model called the subset flow model. VisFlow focuses on interactive queries within the data flow, overcoming the limitation of interactivity from past computational data flow systems. In particular, VisFlow applies embedded visualizations and supports interactive selections, brushing and linking within a visualization-oriented data flow. The model requires all data transmitted by the flow to be a data item subset (i.e. groups of table rows) of some original input table, so that rendering properties can be assigned to the subset unambiguously for tracking and comparison. VisFlow features the analysis flexibility of a flow diagram, and at the same time reduces the diagram complexity and improves usability. We demonstrate the capability of VisFlow on two case studies with domain experts on real-world datasets showing that VisFlow is capable of accomplishing a considerable set of visualization and analysis tasks. The VisFlow system is available as open source on GitHub.

  17. Material flow and sustainability analyses of biorefining of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents material flow and sustainability analyses of novel mechanical biological chemical treatment system for complete valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW). It integrates material recovery facility (MRF); pulping, chemical conversion; effluent treatment plant (ETP), anaerobic digestion (AD); and combined heat and power (CHP) systems producing end products: recyclables (24.9% by mass of MSW), metals (2.7%), fibre (1.5%); levulinic acid (7.4%); recyclable water (14.7%), fertiliser (8.3%); and electricity (0.126MWh/t MSW), respectively. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) and non-recyclable other waste, char and biogas from MRF, chemical conversion and AD systems, respectively, are energy recovered in the CHP system. Levulinic acid gives profitability independent of subsidies; MSW priced at 50Euro/t gives a margin of 204Euro/t. Global warming potential savings are 2.4 and 1.3kg CO2 equivalent per kg of levulinic acid and fertiliser, and 0.17kg CO2 equivalent per MJ of grid electricity offset, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable assessment of learning experiences based on projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio TRAVERSO RIBÓN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a project-based learning experience, the detailed monitoring of the activities in which team members participate can be useful to evaluate their work. Using learning-oriented assessment procedures, supervisors can assess the teamwork abilities with a formative purpose. Evaluation strategies such as self-assessment, peer assessment and co-assessment are often used to make evaluation formative and sustainable. Conducting an assessment strategy is not easy for team members, since they need before to have a reasonable understanding of the evaluation process and criteria. This paper describes a learning-oriented evaluation methodology and an open data framework that can be applied to collaborative project settings. An evaluation rubric and a series of indicators that provide evidences about the developed skills have been elaborated and applied in a small-scale project-based course. Projects were managed and developed with the help of an open source software forge that contains a ticketing tool for planning and tracking of tasks, a version control repository to save the software outcomes, and using a wiki to host text deliverables. The experience provides evidences in favor of using the assessment method and open data framework to make teamwork evaluation more sustainable.

  19. Rapid flow-based peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark D; Heider, Patrick L; Adamo, Andrea; Vinogradov, Alexander A; Mong, Surin K; Li, Xiyuan; Berger, Tatiana; Policarpo, Rocco L; Zhang, Chi; Zou, Yekui; Liao, Xiaoli; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Jensen, Klavs F; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2014-03-21

    A flow-based solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology that enables the incorporation of an amino acid residue every 1.8 min under automatic control or every 3 min under manual control is described. This is accomplished by passing a stream of reagent through a heat exchanger into a low volume, low backpressure reaction vessel, and through a UV detector. These features enable continuous delivery of heated solvents and reagents to the solid support at high flow rate, thereby maintaining maximal concentration of reagents in the reaction vessel, quickly exchanging reagents, and eliminating the need to rapidly heat reagents after they have been added to the vessel. The UV detector enables continuous monitoring of the process. To demonstrate the broad applicability and reliability of this method, it was employed in the total synthesis of a small protein, as well as dozens of peptides. The quality of the material obtained with this method is comparable to that for traditional batch methods, and, in all cases, the desired material was readily purifiable by RP-HPLC. The application of this method to the synthesis of the 113-residue Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RNase and the 130-residue DARPin pE59 is described in the accompanying manuscript. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The method and index of sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects based on system dynamics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As one of the most important overhead capital of urban economics and social development, the sustainable development of urban infrastructure is becoming a key issue of prosperous society growing. The purpose of this paper is to establish a basic model to analysis certain infrastructure project’s sustainable construction and operation. Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics is an effective stimulation method and tool to deal with such complex, dynamics, nonlinear systems, which could be used in analyzing and evaluating all aspects of infrastructure sustainability internally and externally. In this paper, the system is divided into four subsystems and 12 main impact indicators. Through setting the boundary and other basic hypothesis, this paper designs the basic causal loop diagrams and stock & flow diagrams to describe the relationship between variables and establish a quantifiable structure for the system. Findings: Adopting a sewerage treatment in China as a case to test our model, we could conclude that the model of internal sustainable subsystem is reasonable. However, this model is a basic model, and it need to be specific designed for the certain project due to the diversity of infrastructure types and the unique conditions of each projects. Originality/value: System Dynamics (SD is widely used in the study of sustainable development and has plentiful research achievements from macro perspective but few studies in the microcosmic project systems. This paper focuses on the unique characteristics of urban infrastructure in China and selects infrastructure project which is based on micro-system discussion. The model we designed has certain practical significance in policy setting, operation monitoring and adjustment of the urban projects with high rationality and accuracy.

  1. Sustainability benefits and challenges of inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wubben, Emiel F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore

  2. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... the motion estimation becomes more robust to noise and large displacements, and the computational workload is more than halved compared to usual bidirectional methods. Finally we consider two applications of frame interpolation for distributed video coding. The first of these considers the use of depth data...... to improve interpolation, and the second considers using the information from partially decoded video frames to improve interpolation accuracy in high-motion video sequences....

  3. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Acute Pain Management Practices for Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Xie, Xian-Jin; Herr, Keela A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-11-01

    Little is known regarding sustainability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) following implementation. This article reports sustainability of evidence-based acute pain management practices in hospitalized older adults following testing of a multifaceted Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) implementation intervention. A cluster randomized trial with follow-up period was conducted in 12 Midwest U.S. hospitals (six experimental, six comparison). Use of evidence-based acute pain management practices and mean pain intensity were analyzed using generalized estimating equations across two time points (following implementation and 18 months later) to determine sustainability of TRIP intervention effects. Summative Index scores and six of seven practices were sustained. Experimental and comparison group differences for mean pain intensity over 72 hours following admission were sustained. Results revealed most evidence-based acute pain management practices were sustained for 18 months following implementation. Further work is needed to identify factors affecting sustainability of EBPs to guide development and testing of sustainability strategies.

  4. Sustainability benefits and challenges of inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wubben, Emiel F.M; Omta, S.W.F

    2016-01-01

    .... The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses, while considering the three aspects of sustainability...

  5. Crossing boundaries – competence-based learning for sustainable development in a virtual mobility setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron; Ivens, Wilfried; Lansu, Angelique; Van Dam-Mieras, Rietje

    2010-01-01

    To contribute effectively to sustainable development, professionals should have the competence to communicate and collaborate across the traditional boundaries of, for example, discipline, nation, or culture. Important ingredients of competence-based learning environments for sustainable development

  6. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  7. Comparative assessment of smallholder sustainability using an agricultural sustainability framework and a yield based index insurance: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Mehrdad; Adla, Soham; Pande, Saket; Disse, Markus; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainability is central to smallholder agriculture as subsistence farming is constantly impacted by livelihood insecurity and is constrained by access to capital, water technology and alternative employment opportunities. This study compares two approaches which aim at quantifying smallholder sustainability but differ in their underlying principles, methodologies for assessment and reporting, and applications. The yield index based insurance can protect the smallholder agriculture and help it to more economic sustainability because the income of smallholder depends on selling crops and this insurance scheme is based on crop yields. In this research, the trigger of this insurance sets on the basis of yields in previous years. The crop yields are calculated every year through socio-hydrology modeling and smallholder can get indemnity when crop yields are lower than average of previous five years (a crop failure). The FAO Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA) is an inclusive and comprehensive framework for sustainability assessment in the food and agricultural sector. It follows the UN definition of the 4 dimensions of sustainability (good governance, environmental integrity, economic resilience and social well-being) and includes 21 themes and 58 sub-themes with a multi-indicator approach. The direct sustainability corresponding to the FAO SAFA economic resilience dimension is compared with the indirect notion of sustainability derived from the yield based index insurance. A semi-synthetic comparison is conducted to understand the differences in the underlying principles, methodologies and application of the two approaches. Both approaches are applied to data from smallholder regions of Marathwada in Maharashtra (India) which experienced a severe rise in farmer suicides in the 2000s which has been attributed to a combination of socio-hydrological factors.

  8. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  9. Water Hyacinth in China: A Sustainability Science-Based Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China’s territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  10. Water hyacinth in China: a sustainability science-based management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China's territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  11. The effect of knowledge based view on sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quantitative relationship between knowledge based view (i.e. empowering employees, promoting confidence, coding rules and sustainability competitive advantage (i.e. market, customer, financial within the banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires are returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used and Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (KBV questionnaire 0.886, SCA questionnaire 0.843. Utilizing the structural equation modeling, and after a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, it was found that KBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  12. Sustainable Mining Land Use for Lignite Based Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Krysa, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to discuss complex lignite based energy projects economic viability and its impact on sustainable land use with respect to project risk and uncertainty, economics, optimisation (e.g. Lerchs and Grossmann) and importance of lignite as fuel that may be expressed in situ as deposit of energy. Sensitivity analysis and simulation consist of estimated variable land acquisition costs, geostatistics, 3D deposit block modelling, electricity price considered as project product price, power station efficiency and power station lignite processing unit cost, CO2 allowance costs, mining unit cost and also lignite availability treated as lignite reserves kriging estimation error. Investigated parameters have nonlinear influence on results so that economically viable amount of lignite in optimal pit varies having also nonlinear impact on land area required for mining operation.

  13. Historical Maps Potential on the Assessment of the Hydromorphological Changes in Large Rivers: Towards Sustainable Rivers Management under Altered Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriqi, Alban; Rosário Fernandes, M.; Santos, Artur; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Hydromorphological patterns changes in large rivers, result from a long history of human interventions. In this study, we evaluate the causes and effects of hydromorphological alterations in the Iberian Minho River using a planform change analysis. We performed a temporal comparison using historical maps (nineteen century) and contemporaneous maps. The studied river was divided in 2.5 km long river stretches in a total of 25 sampling units. The historical maps were initially georeferenced for the WGS84 coordinate system. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) to extract the hydromorphological features and to store and organised the spatial data. The hydromorphological features (sinuosity index, braiding intensity, river corridor and active channel width, lotic and lentic habitats) were mapped by visual interpretation of the historical and the contemporaneous maps on a scale 1:2500 by applying the same methodology. Also, we analysed certain Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) based on pre- and post-dam daily streamflow data obtained from the Spanish Water Information System (SIA). The results revealed a significant reduction in the active channel width and all sinuosity indexes representing an overall degradation of river conditions. We also noticed a drastic diminution in the number and total area of lentic habitats causing fish habitat shifts. Changes were less evident in upstream sampling units due to diverse Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes combine with some geological constraints. These responses were consistent with reductions in mean annual discharge, flood disturbance decrease and minimum flow increase during the summer season. This work allows to understand the evolutionary trajectory of large fluvial system over more than 100 years and to implement concrete measures for sustainable river management. Keywords: historical maps, large rivers, flow alteration, sinuosity index, lotic and lentic habitats, regulated rivers, river restoration.

  14. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

  15. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola; Luke, Douglas; Calhoun, Annaliese; McMillen, Curtis; Brownson, Ross; McCrary, Stacey; Padek, Margaret

    2015-06-11

    Little is known about how well or under what conditions health innovations are sustained and their gains maintained once they are put into practice. Implementation science typically focuses on uptake by early adopters of one healthcare innovation at a time. The later-stage challenges of scaling up and sustaining evidence-supported interventions receive too little attention. This project identifies the challenges associated with sustainability research and generates recommendations for accelerating and strengthening this work. A multi-method, multi-stage approach, was used: (1) identifying and recruiting experts in sustainability as participants, (2) conducting research on sustainability using concept mapping, (3) action planning during an intensive working conference of sustainability experts to expand the concept mapping quantitative results, and (4) consolidating results into a set of recommendations for research, methodological advances, and infrastructure building to advance understanding of sustainability. Participants comprised researchers, funders, and leaders in health, mental health, and public health with shared interest in the sustainability of evidence-based health care. Prompted to identify important issues for sustainability research, participants generated 91 distinct statements, for which a concept mapping process produced 11 conceptually distinct clusters. During the conference, participants built upon the concept mapping clusters to generate recommendations for sustainability research. The recommendations fell into three domains: (1) pursue high priority research questions as a unified agenda on sustainability; (2) advance methods for sustainability research; (3) advance infrastructure to support sustainability research. Implementation science needs to pursue later-stage translation research questions required for population impact. Priorities include conceptual consistency and operational clarity for measuring sustainability, developing evidence

  16. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank

    2016-01-19

    As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.

  18. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  19. Sustainability assessment of electricity production technologies based on the turkish RES scenario in 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Tunarli, Korhan

    2014-01-01

    Environmental protection, economic development and social development are known to be three pillars of sustainability that should exist together for sustainable development. Sustainability assessment can be carried out for products, technologies, policies and processes. In this master thesis project, three pillars of sustainability are deeply studied with regards to electricity production technologies in Turkey for year 2020, in which futuristic projections are based on one chosen renewable e...

  20. Reciprocating flow-based centrifugal microfluidics mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Micic, Miodrag; Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian; Princevac, Marko; Zoval, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Proper mixing of reagents is of paramount importance for an efficient chemical reaction. While on a large scale there are many good solutions for quantitative mixing of reagents, as of today, efficient and inexpensive fluid mixing in the nanoliter and microliter volume range is still a challenge. Complete, i.e., quantitative mixing is of special importance in any small-scale analytical application because the scarcity of analytes and the low volume of the reagents demand efficient utilization of all available reaction components. In this paper we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a novel centrifugal force-based unit for fast mixing of fluids in the nanoliter to microliter volume range. The device consists of a number of chambers (including two loading chambers, one pressure chamber, and one mixing chamber) that are connected through a network of microchannels, and is made by bonding a slab of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to a glass slide. The PDMS slab was cast using a SU-8 master mold fabricated by a two-level photolithography process. This microfluidic mixer exploits centrifugal force and pneumatic pressure to reciprocate the flow of fluid samples in order to minimize the amount of sample and the time of mixing. The process of mixing was monitored by utilizing the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. A time series of high resolution images of the mixing chamber were analyzed for the spatial distribution of light intensities as the two fluids (suspension of red fluorescent particles and water) mixed. Histograms of the fluorescent emissions within the mixing chamber during different stages of the mixing process were created to quantify the level of mixing of the mixing fluids. The results suggest that quantitative mixing was achieved in less than 3 min. This device can be employed as a stand alone mixing unit or may be integrated into a disk-based microfluidic system where, in addition to mixing, several other sample preparation steps may be

  1. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    of sustaining ecosystems but also a matter of supporting humankind/livelihoods. One reason for the marginalisation of environmental flows is the lack of operational methods to demonstrate the inherently multi-disciplinary link between environmental flows, ecosystem services and economic value. This paper aims......An important challenge of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users and uses. While economically and/or politically powerful users have relatively well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case...... for ecosystems – the silent water user. Therefore, ecosystems are frequently omitted from water allocation decision-making. In IWRM, environmental flows may serve to represent water for ecosystems. As ecosystems, in turn, provide services to people, providing for environmental flows is not exclusively a matter...

  2. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  3. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  4. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Podobnik, Boris; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  5. Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single

  6. City Sustainable Development Evaluation Based on Hesitant Multiplicative Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development evaluation is the basis of city sustainable development research, and effective evaluation is the foundation for guiding the formulation and implementation of sustainable development strategy. In this paper, we provided a new city sustainable development evaluation method called hesitant multiplicative fuzzy TODIM (HMF-TODIM. The main advantage of this method is that it can deal with the subjective preference information of the decision-makers. The comparison study of existing methods and HMF-TODIM is also carried out. Additionally, real case analysis is presented to show the validity and superiority of the proposed method. Research results in this paper can provide useful information for the construction of sustainable cities.

  7. Improving Organizational Citizenship Behavior based on Flow Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecxandrina Deaconu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on previous research on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB and its influence on the performance of SMEs, this article intends to expand the investigation area to the concept of Flow and its relationship with OCB. In this paper we performed an analysis of the two theoretical constructs, we highlighted similarities and complementarities and we formulated arguments supporting the need to implement strategies that promote a state of flow. Our study points out that through these strategies, employees are encouraged to perform an extra role, beyond their formal duties, which generates an increase of OCB and favorable conditions for sustainable development.

  8. Entropy-Based Economic Denial of Sustainability Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Sotelo Monge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their operational capabilities. Inspired by these methods, Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS attacks pose a similar motivation, but adapted to Cloud computing environments, where the denial is achieved by damaging the economy of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, the most common EDoS approach is making the offered services unsustainable by exploiting their auto-scaling algorithms. In order to contribute to their mitigation, this paper introduces a novel EDoS detection method based on the study of entropy variations related with metrics taken into account when deciding auto-scaling actuations. Through the prediction and definition of adaptive thresholds, unexpected behaviors capable of fraudulently demand new resource hiring are distinguished. With the purpose of demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal, an experimental scenario adapted to the singularities of the EDoS threats and the assumptions driven by their original definition is described in depth. The preliminary results proved high accuracy.

  9. Spanish strategy on bioeconomy: Towards a knowledge based sustainable innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainez, Manuel; González, José Manuel; Aguilar, Alfredo; Vela, Carmen

    2018-01-25

    Spain launched its own strategy on bioeconomy in January 2016 aiming at boosting a bioeconomy based on the sustainable and efficient production and use of biological resources. It highlights global societal challenges related with agricultural and biotechnological sciences in Spain and the great dynamism of the private sectors involved, particularly the agri-food, biotech and biomass sectors. The targeted sectors are food, agriculture and forestry, conditioned by water availability. It also includes the production of those industrial bioproducts and bioenergy obtained from the use and valorisation of wastes and residues and other non-conventional sources of biomass, in a circular economy. The strategy also puts a focus on rural and coastal development through several uses and services linked to ecosystems. The capacity to generate know-how in this area and the promotion of public and private collaboration are important pillars in order to enhance existing value chains and to create new ones. The strategy is led by R&I and Agriculture, Food and Environment policy managers and largely supported at regional level too. The strategic objective is the maintenance of the bioeconomy as an essential part of Spanish economy to contribute to the economic growth by creating new jobs and fostering investments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  12. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  13. Optical Flow Based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  14. Improving energy and material flows: a contribution to sustainability in megacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Dugand, Santiago; Hjelm, Olof; Baas, Leenard (Div. of Environmental Technology and Management, Dept. of Management and Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: santiago.mejia.dugand@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As cities have become home for 50% of the world's population, urban systems have definitely caught public attention. The urban metabolism can be improved by transforming their linear behavior into a more circular one. This paper is based on a project initiated by the Div. of Environmental Technology and Management at Linkoeping Univ., financed by Vinnova: Megatech. The aim is to study the megacities of Cairo and Mexico City in order to understand some of the problems they are facing. By improving their energy and material flows behavior, these megacities can benefit from the reduction of their dependence on fossil fuels and virgin materials; the protection of part of their social, economic and productive systems from external factors (e.g. political drawbacks, shortage/distribution problems, international prices); an increased effectiveness of their planning activities-as they would be based to a large extent on their own resources-and the reduction of their environmental burden. An in situ study will take place with the participation of local stakeholders. Information about environmental problems will be collected and potential solutions will be analyzed and suggested. A tentative model is presented, showing how the reinsertion of the outflows into the urban system could benefit these cities. overall environmental performance

  15. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  16. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Christoph; Pallejà Rubio, Jaume; Kibler, Sebastian; Häfner, Johannes; Richter, Martin; Kutter, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout—differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors—are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved. PMID:28368344

  17. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jenke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout—differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors—are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved.

  18. Sustainable Production of Bio-Based Chemicals by Extremophiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.; Oost, van der J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kranenburg, van R.

    2013-01-01

    To improve microbial fermentation as an efficient way to sustainably produce green chemicals from renewable resources, novel production organisms are being explored. Extremophiles, in general, and moderate thermophiles in particular, offer important advantages over well-known mesophilic

  19. Developing More Insights on Sustainable Consumption in China Based on Q Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Being an important aspect of sustainable development, sustainable consumption has attracted great attention among Chinese politicians and academia, and Chinese governments have established policies that encourage sustainable consumption behaviors. However, unsustainable consumption behavior still remains predominant in China. This paper aims to classify consumers with similar traits, in terms of the characteristics of practicing sustainable consumption, into one group, so that their traits can be clearly understood, to enable governments to establish pointed policies for different groups of consumers. Q methodology, generally used to reveal the subjectivity of human beings involved in any situation, is applied in this paper to classify Chinese consumers based on Q sample design and data collection and analysis. Next, the traits of each group are analyzed in detail and comparison analyses are also conducted to compare the common and differentiating factors among the three groups. The results show that Chinese consumers can be classified into three groups: sustainable (Group 1, potential sustainable (Group 2 and unsustainable consumers (Group 3, according to their values and attitudes towards sustainable consumption. As such, Group 1 cares for the environment and has strong environmental values. They understand sustainable consumption and its functions. Group 2 needs more enlightenments and external stimuli to motivate them to consume sustainably. Group 3 needs to be informed about and educated on sustainable consumption to enable them to change their consumption behavior from unsustainable to sustainable. Suggestions and implications of encouraging each group of consumers to engage in sustainable consumption are also provided.

  20. X-ray-based flow visualization and measurement: application in multiphase flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Axel; Affeld, Klaus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Delfos, Rene

    2002-10-01

    Information concerning continuous or discreet phase flow in multiphase systems is desired for various practical and analytical applications. The potential of X-ray-based flow visualization and measurement of multiphase flow is demonstrated here by two non-intrusive methods: (1) Measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity field of the continuous liquid phase in a bubble column by X-ray-based particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) of seeded particles. (2) Liquid flow visualization in a bubble column by injecting an X-ray absorbing liquid into the bubble column. X-rays have the advantage that they are not affected by the various refraction indices of the multiphase system and penetrate the multiphase flow in undistorted straight lines. Hence, in contrast to optical methods, both of these X-ray-based methods are independent of the void fraction and are applicable to opaque liquids.

  1. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    water quality turns worse. Following above procedures, this project aims to establish the groundwater management system for sustainable utilization in the view point of water quantity and quality. At first, the evaluation of the local groundwater flow system by using 3D groundwater flow simulation including NO3-N contamination will be applied to the Kumamoto area, the most advanced groundwater utilization area in Japan. This model will be used to estimate the maximum amount of local groundwater pumping for sustainable utilization, to simulate the reduction of nitrate contamination, and to propose the reasonable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological system. Then, these newly developed research techniques and methodologies will apply to the remote coral islands where stands on the edge of a precipice of groundwater quantity and quality caused by the nitrate contamination and sea level rising with global warming. Finally, this project will plan to propose the policy of sustainable groundwater utilization based on the regional hydrological cycle.

  2. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various...... kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used...... to evaluate the sustainability efficiencies of these options, and the biodiesel production systems based on soybean, sunflower, and palm are considered as DEA efficient, whereas rapeseed-based and jatropha-based scenarios are needed to be improved, and the improved methods have also been specified....

  3. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Scipioni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used to evaluate the sustainability efficiencies of these options, and the biodiesel production systems based on soybean, sunflower, and palm are considered as DEA efficient, whereas rapeseed-based and jatropha-based scenarios are needed to be improved, and the improved methods have also been specified. PMID:23766723

  4. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum component, with higher rates of sustainability for the social-emotional component (Preschool PATHS) than for the language and literacy components. Estimates of sustainability were affected by the method of measurement, with REDI coach ratings and qualitative teacher interviews more closely aligned than teacher ratings. Responses from qualitative interviews identified the main factors that teachers thought affected sustainability. Teacher responses suggest that efforts to promote sustainability are best targeted at reducing barriers, such as competing demands, rather than simply highlighting the benefits of the new curriculum. PMID:22408287

  5. Interconnected place-based social-ecological research can inform global sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvanera, P.; Calderó n-Contreras, R.; Castro, A.J.; Felipe-Lucia, M.R.; Geijzendorffer, I.R.; Jacobs, S.; Martí n-Ló pez, B.; Arbieu, U.; Ifejika Speranza, C.; Locatelli, B.; Pé rez-Harguindeguy, N.; Ruiz-Mercado, I.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Vallet, A.; Lynes, L.; Gillson, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global sustainability initiatives are gaining momentum and impact, and place-based research can provide complementary insights to strengthen them. Here, we explore the current and potential role of place-based research into informing global sustainability initiatives by assessing the strengths,

  6. Global Assessment of Groundwater Sustainability Based On Storage Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Caineta, Júlio; Nanteza, Jamiat

    2017-11-01

    The world's largest aquifers are a fundamental source of freshwater used for agricultural irrigation and to meet human water needs. Therefore, their stored volume of groundwater is linked with water security, which becomes more relevant during periods of drought. This work focuses on understanding large-scale groundwater changes, where we introduce an approach to evaluate groundwater sustainability at a global scale. We employ a groundwater drought index to assess performance metrics (reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and a combined sustainability index) for the largest and most productive global aquifers. Spatiotemporal changes in total water storage are derived from remote sensing observations of gravity anomalies, from which the groundwater drought index is inferred. The results reveal a complex relationship between the indicators, while considering monthly variability in groundwater storage. Combining the drought and sustainability indexes, as presented in this work, constitutes a measure for quantifying groundwater sustainability. This framework integrates changes in groundwater resources due to human influences and climate changes, thus opening a path to assess progress toward sustainable use and water security.

  7. Flow properties of water-based drilling fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this master thesis was to investigate the flow properties of water based drilling fluids, utilizing measurements in both the micro and macro scale. The research was performed on two realistic drilling fluids by the use of a viscometer, a rheometer and a realistic flow loop, where the latter represents the macro scale. The research outcome could possibly improve the understanding of flow behavior in wellbores, and remove uncertainties associated with annular friction. The two...

  8. Flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiskounsky, Alexander E; Smyslova, Olga V

    2003-04-01

    Hackers' psychology, widely discussed in the media, is almost entirely unexplored by psychologists. In this study, hackers' motivation is investigated, using the flow paradigm. Flow is likely to motivate hackers, according to views expressed by researchers and by hackers themselves. Taken as granted that hackers experience flow, it was hypothesized that flow increases with the increase of hackers' competence in IT use. Self-selected subjects were recruited on specialized web sources; 457 hackers filled out a web questionnaire. Competence in IT use, specific flow experience, and demographic data were questioned. An on-line research was administered within the Russian-speaking community (though one third of Ss are non-residents of Russian Federation); since hacking seems to be international, the belief is expressed that the results are universal. The hypothesis is not confirmed: flow motivation characterizes the least and the most competent hackers, and the members of an intermediate group, that is, averagely competent Ss report the "flow crisis"-no (or less) flow experience. Two differing strategies of task choice were self-reported by Ss: a step-by-step increase of the difficulty of choices leads to a match of challenges and skills (and to preserving the flow experience); putting choices irrespective of the likelihood of solution leads to a "flow crisis." The findings give productive hints on processes of hackers' motivational development. The flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation was developed. It combines both empirically confirmed and theoretically possible ways of hackers' "professional" growth.

  9. Flow of natural versus economic capital in industrial supply networks and its implications to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2005-12-15

    Appreciating the reliance of industrial networks on natural capital is a necessary step toward their sustainable design and operation. However, most contemporary accounting techniques, including engineering economics, life cycle assessment, and full cost accounting, fail in this regard, as they take natural capital for granted and concentrate mainly on the economic aspects and emissions. The recently developed "thermodynamic input-output analysis" (TIOA) includes the contribution of ecological goods, ecosystem services, human resources, and impact of emissions in an economic input-output model. This paper uses TIOA to determine the throughputs of natural and economic capitals along industrial supply networks. The ratios of natural to economic capitals of economic sectors reveals a hierarchical organization of the U.S. economy wherein basic infrastructure industries are at the bottom and specialized value-added industries constitute the top. These results provide novel insight into the reliance of specific industrial sectors and supply chains on natural capital and the corresponding economic throughput. Such insight is useful for understanding the implications of corporate restructuring on industrial sustainability metrics and of outsourcing of business activities on outsourcer, outsourcee, and global sustainability. These implications are discussed from the standpoints of weak and strong sustainability paradigms. The calculated ratios can also be used for hybrid thermodynamic life cycle assessment.

  10. Planning-Based Approaches for Supporting Sustainable Landscape Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Albert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Planning often yields only limited influence on policy making. This paper explores how planning could address this challenge and support most effectively transitions towards sustainable landscape change. In merging insights from sustainability science research and nine recently concluded case studies of landscape planning, the paper reflects upon the applicability of the concept of “transition support”, discusses planning approaches and their perceived effectiveness to induce change in landscape governance, and identifies lessons learned. The paper’s outcomes include insights and potentially useful approaches that can be attributed to four emerging cross-cutting themes: approaches for (i dealing with the high degree of complexity and uncertainty of landscape systems, (ii integrating the various perspectives of experts, decision makers, and stakeholders in the assessment process (transdisciplinarity, (iii enhancing policy influence, and (iv initiating and sustaining learning and adaptive governance.

  11. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  12. Creating sustainable students through project-based teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    impact on the environment. The intensive nature of the course described in the case study allowed for a whole project approach to be applied, where important teaching elements were encapsulated in project tasks, thus making the material and methods learned directly relevant and applicable to the project......Design for Sustainability is difficult! Not least because there are few, if any operational definitions of sustainability that will allow us to move beyond speculation to planning and action for radically new ways in which to satisfy our needs at vastly reduced environmental and social loads [WCED...

  13. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  14. Comparative Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Fibre Reinforcement Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte; Birkved, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and flax/carbon, flax/glass mixed fibres) are compared in terms of environmental sustainability. Applying one of the most recent life cycle impact assessment methods, we demonstrate that the environmental sustainability of natural fibre based composite materials is similar or even lower, within certain......Over the recent decades biomaterials have been marketed successfully supported by the common perception that biomaterials and environmental sustainability de facto represents two sides of the same coin. The development of sustainable composite materials for wind turbine blades for small-scale wind...... categories, not only climate change, actually is supporting sustainable development or if the development of sustainable composite materials is more complex and perhaps even contra-intuitive due to complex trade-offs. Based on a case study 4 different types of fibres and fibre mixtures (flax, carbon, glass...

  15. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  16. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pin-Chih Wang; Yuh-Ming Lee; Chiu-Yang Chen

    2014-01-01

    .... We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA) database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan...

  17. Sustainable Entrepreneurship (SE): A Revised Model Based on Triple Bottom Line (TBL)

    OpenAIRE

    Izaidin Abdul Majid; Wei-Loon Koe

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the years, researchers have suggested several fields of entrepreneurship studies, such as regular entrepreneurship, green entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship and sustainable entrepreneurship. This literature review focused on sustainable entrepreneurship, in which a definition was proposed. Then, based upon the concept of triple bottom line, a revised model of sustainable entrepreneurship was suggested at the end of paper. The model consisted of four domains, namely economica...

  18. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  19. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...

  20. TGV-based flow estimation for 4D leukocyte transmigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerking, L.; Burger, M.; Vestweber, D.; Brune, Christoph; Louis, Alfred K.; Arridge, Simon; Rundell, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to track transmigrating leukocytes via TGV flow estimation. Recent results have shown the advantages of the nonlinear and higher order terms of TGV regularizers, especially in static models for denoising and medical reconstruction. We present TGV-based models for flow

  1. A MEMS-Based Flow Rate and Flow Direction Sensing Platform with Integrated Temperature Compensation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD. In the proposed device, the flow rate is inversely derived from the change in the resistance signal of the flow meter when exposed to the sensed air stream. To compensate for the effects of the ambient temperature on the accuracy of the flow rate measurements, the output signal from the flow meter is compensated using the resistance signal generated by the RTD. As air travels over the surface of the cross-form cantilever structure, the upstream cantilevers are deflected in the downward direction, while the downstream cantilevers are deflected in the upward direction. The deflection of the cantilever beams causes a corresponding change in the resistive signals of the piezoresistors patterned on their upper surfaces. The amount by which each beam deflects depends on both the flow rate and the orientation of the beam relative to the direction of the gas flow. Thus, following an appropriate compensation by the temperature-corrected flow rate, the gas flow direction can be determined through a suitable manipulation of the output signals of the four piezoresistors. The experimental results have confirmed that the resulting variation in the output signals of the integrated sensors can be used to determine not only the ambient temperature and the velocity of the air flow, but also its direction relative to the sensor with an accuracy of ± 7.5o error.

  2. Enhancing Sustainable Food Cultures by Experience Based Learning in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    The paper describes the results and niche forming methodology used in the commercial and in the R&D parts along the product-service chain of regional tourism. Obstacles and window of opportunities for further sustaining the tourism trade by enhancing the experience part of the business....

  3. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, A.H.M.; Woudstra, N.

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  4. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  5. Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services - Part 1: Theory on flow persistence, flashiness and base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noordwijk, Meine; Tanika, Lisa; Lusiana, Betha

    2017-05-01

    Flood damage reflects insufficient adaptation of human presence and activity to location and variability of river flow in a given climate. Flood risk increases when landscapes degrade, counteracted or aggravated by engineering solutions. Efforts to maintain and restore buffering as an ecosystem function may help adaptation to climate change, but this require quantification of effectiveness in their specific social-ecological context. However, the specific role of forests, trees, soil and drainage pathways in flow buffering, given geology, land form and climate, remains controversial. When complementing the scarce heavily instrumented catchments with reliable long-term data, especially in the tropics, there is a need for metrics for data-sparse conditions. We present and discuss a flow persistence metric that relates transmission to river flow of peak rainfall events to the base-flow component of the water balance. The dimensionless flow persistence parameter Fp is defined in a recursive flow model and can be estimated from limited time series of observed daily flow, without requiring knowledge of spatially distributed rainfall upstream. The Fp metric (or its change over time from what appears to be the local norm) matches local knowledge concepts. Inter-annual variation in the Fp metric in sample watersheds correlates with variation in the flashiness index used in existing watershed health monitoring programmes, but the relationship between these metrics varies with context. Inter-annual variation in Fp also correlates with common base-flow indicators, but again in a way that varies between watersheds. Further exploration of the responsiveness of Fp in watersheds with different characteristics to the interaction of land cover and the specific realisation of space-time patterns of rainfall in a limited observation period is needed to evaluate interpretation of Fp as an indicator of anthropogenic changes in watershed conditions.

  6. Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.

  7. City traffic flow breakdown prediction based on fuzzy rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Da-wei, Hu; Bing, Su; Duo-jia, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    In city traffic management, traffic breakdown is a very important issue, which is defined as a speed drop of a certain amount within a dense traffic situation. In order to predict city traffic flow breakdown accurately, in this paper, we propose a novel city traffic flow breakdown prediction algorithm based on fuzzy rough set. Firstly, we illustrate the city traffic flow breakdown problem, in which three definitions are given, that is, 1) Pre-breakdown flow rate, 2) Rate, density, and speed of the traffic flow breakdown, and 3) Duration of the traffic flow breakdown. Moreover, we define a hazard function to represent the probability of the breakdown ending at a given time point. Secondly, as there are many redundant and irrelevant attributes in city flow breakdown prediction, we propose an attribute reduction algorithm using the fuzzy rough set. Thirdly, we discuss how to predict the city traffic flow breakdown based on attribute reduction and SVM classifier. Finally, experiments are conducted by collecting data from I-405 Freeway, which is located at Irvine, California. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve lower average error rate of city traffic flow breakdown prediction.

  8. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  9. Information-flow-based Access Control for Virtualized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Postoev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the method of information-flow-based access control, adopted for virtualized systems. General structure of access control system for virtual infrastructure is proposed.

  10. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  11. A System for Ontology-Based Sharing of Expert Knowledge in Sustainability Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kraines

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work towards creation of a knowledge sharing system for sustainability science through the application of semantic data modeling is described. An ontology grounded in description logics was developed based on the ISO 15926 data model to describe three types of sustainability science conceptualizations: situational knowledge, analytic methods, and scenario frameworks. Semantic statements were then created using this ontology to describe expert knowledge expressed in research proposals and papers related to sustainability science and in scenarios for achieving sustainable societies. Semantic matching based on logic and rule-based inference was used to quantify the conceptual overlap of semantic statements, which shows the semantic similarity of topics studied by different researchers in sustainability science, similarities that might be unknown to the researchers themselves.

  12. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Niemisto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.

  13. Flow cytometry what you see matters: Enhanced clinical detection using image-based flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Gary, Melody A

    2017-01-01

    Image-based flow cytometry combines the throughput of traditional flow cytometry with the ability to visually confirm findings and collect novel data that would not be possible otherwise. Since image-based flow cytometry borrows measurement parameters and analysis techniques from microscopy, it is possible to collect unique measures (i.e. nuclear translocation, co-localization, cellular synapse, cellular endocytosis, etc.) that would not be possible with traditional flow cytometry. The ability to collect unique outcomes has led many researchers to develop novel assays for the monitoring and detection of a variety of clinical conditions and diseases. In many cases, investigators have innovated and expanded classical assays to provide new insight regarding clinical conditions and chronic disease. Beyond human clinical applications, image-based flow cytometry has been used to monitor marine biology changes, nano-particles for solar cell production, and particle quality in pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes work from the major scientists working in the field of image-based flow cytometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Supporting Structures for Education for Sustainable Development and School-Based Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…

  15. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI…

  16. Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    ) and its Special Interest group Environmental Informatics, Informatics for Environmental Protection, Sustainability and Risk Management, which has a longstanding tradition of discussing fundamental aspects in the field of Environmental Informatics.   ICT4S is a series of research conferences bringing...... together leading researchers, developers and government and industry representatives, dedicated to exploring and proposing how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can be used as a tool to reach sustainability goals. EnviroInfo is about discussing concepts, methods and tools to process, analyse...... 14 countries, ensuring a conference of high scientific standard. An important part of any conference is the keynote speakers. This time was no exception. Contributions from, Katherine Richardson, Professor at University of Copenhagen Mattias Höjer, Professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology...

  17. Functionality and sustainability of peat fiber-based textile

    OpenAIRE

    Čepukonė, Lina; Daiva MIKUČIONIENĖ

    2017-01-01

    Textiles from natural fibres have exclusive properties as no release substances harmful for health, do not cause allergy effect, have got high heat absorption, high air permeability, high hygroscopicity. Thus, importance and impact of fibres of natural origin grows and stimulates demand for them by promoting their efficiency and sustainability. Majority of mechanical and physical properties of knitted fabrics depend on technical characteristics of knitting machine, on properties of yarns, as ...

  18. Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    To obtain accurate blood flow velocity estimates it is important to remove the clutter signal originating from tissue. Conventionally, the clutter signal has been separated from the blood signal based on the difference of their spectral frequencies. However, this approach is not enough for obtain......To obtain accurate blood flow velocity estimates it is important to remove the clutter signal originating from tissue. Conventionally, the clutter signal has been separated from the blood signal based on the difference of their spectral frequencies. However, this approach is not enough...... for obtaining vector flow measurements, since the spectra overlaps at high beam-to-flow angles. In this work a distinct approach is proposed, where the energy of the velocity spectrum is used to differentiate among the two signals. The energy based method is applied by limiting the amplitude of the velocity...

  19. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  20. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan

    2013-01-01

    biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network......Designs of flow-based microfluidic biochips are receiving much attention recently because they replace conventional biological automation paradigm and are able to integrate different biochemical analysis functions on a chip. However, as the design complexity increases, a flow-based microfluidic...

  1. Measuring sustainability based upon various perspectives: a case study of a hill station in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A hill station is a town or city situated in mountain regions in the tropics founded during the western colonization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hill stations have moderate temperatures, and are known for their relatively good natural environments, which generate valuable ecosystem services that benefit the local population. However, rapid urbanization threatens the sustainability of these areas. This study evaluates the sustainability of the urbanization process of Baguio City, a hill station city in Southeast Asia and the summer capital of the Philippines, by determining the relationship between its velocity of urbanization and velocity of urban sustainability based upon various perspectives. From an equal weight perspective (of the triple bottom line of sustainability components, namely environmental, social, and economic) and a pro-economic perspective, the results revealed that the urbanization of Baguio City has been moving toward a "sustainable urbanization." However, from the environmental and eco-sustainable human development perspectives, the results indicated that it has been moving toward an "unsustainable urbanization." The paper discusses the implications of the findings for the planning of sustainable development for Baguio City, including some critical challenges in sustainability assessment and the applicability of the framework used for future sustainability assessments of the other hill stations in Southeast Asia.

  2. Self-sustained Flow-acoustic Interactions in Airfoil Transitional Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    layers remain laminar and unstable. In this case the instability waves radiate without amplification of tones, producing a spectral hump. The feedback...even higher flow speeds the hump broadens and multiple tones are simultaneously observed with some intermittency of the sound emission. (iii...Comparisons with other related works of either experimental or numerical nature show significant discrepancies. The latter are attributed to installation

  3. Sustainable High-Potential Career Development: A Resource-Based View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Paul

    1997-01-01

    In the current economic climate, fast-track career models pose problems for individuals and organizations. An alternative model uses a resource-based view of the company and principles of sustainable development borrowed from environmentalism. (SK)

  4. Pilot Study of a Plug Load Management System: Preparing for Sustainability Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. high-performance office building targeting a LEED Platinum rating. Plug loads are expected to...

  5. Agroecology as a means of sustainability for family-based agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Fernandes dos Santos; Elisabete Stradiotto Siqueira; Iriane Teresa de Araújo; Zildenice Matias Guedes Maia

    2014-01-01

    ... Agroecological Producers Association) family farmers, who commercialize their production at the Agroecological Fair, intending to analyze whether or not such practices provide sustainable development of family-based agriculture...

  6. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  7. Performance analysis of vortex based mixers for confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhagen, Timo

    The hybrid rocket is still sparsely employed within major space or defense projects due to their relatively poor combustion efficiency and low fuel grain regression rate. Although hybrid rockets can claim advantages in safety, environmental and performance aspects against established solid and liquid propellant systems, the boundary layer combustion process and the diffusion based mixing within a hybrid rocket grain port leaves the core flow unmixed and limits the system performance. One principle used to enhance the mixing of gaseous flows is to induce streamwise vorticity. The counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) mixer utilizes this principle and introduces two vortices into a confined flow, generating a stirring motion in order to transport near wall media towards the core and vice versa. Recent studies investigated the velocity field introduced by this type of swirler. The current work is evaluating the mixing performance of the CVP concept, by using an experimental setup to simulate an axial primary pipe flow with a radially entering secondary flow. Hereby the primary flow is altered by the CVP swirler unit. The resulting setup therefore emulates a hybrid rocket motor with a cylindrical single port grain. In order to evaluate the mixing performance the secondary flow concentration at the pipe assembly exit is measured, utilizing a pressure-sensitive paint based procedure.

  8. Green Net Value Added as a Sustainability Metric Based on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability measurement in economics involves evaluation of environmental and economic impact in an integrated manner. In this study, system level economic data are combined with environmental impact from a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a common product. We are exploring a costing approach that captures traditional costs but also incorporates externality costs to provide a convenient, easily interpretable metric. Green Net Value Added (GNVA) is a type of full cost accounting that incorporates total revenue, the cost of materials and services, depreciation, and environmental externalities. Two, but not all, of the potential environmental impacts calculated by the standard LCIA method (TRACI) could be converted to externality cost values. We compute externality costs disaggregated by upstream sectors, full cost, and GNVA to evaluate the relative sustainability of Bounty® paper towels manufactured at two production facilities. We found that the longer running, more established line had a higher GNVA than the newer line. The dominant factors contributing to externality costs are calculated to come from the stationary sources in the supply chain: electricity generation (27-35%), refineries (20-21%), pulp and paper making (15-23%). Health related externalities from Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions appear largely driven by electricity usage and emissions by the facilities, followed by pulp processing and transport. Supply

  9. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  10. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  11. Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Finis, David; Kleinbongard, Petra; Hoffmann, Arne; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte; Sies, Helmut

    2007-02-01

    A single-dose ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely reverses endothelial dysfunction. To investigate the time course of endothelial function during daily consumption of high-flavanol cocoa, we determined flow-mediated dilation (FMD) acutely (for up to 6 hours after single-dose ingestion) and chronically (administration for 7 days). The study population represented individuals with smoking-related endothelial dysfunction; in addition to FMD, plasma nitrite and nitrate were measured. The daily consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink (3 x 306 mg flavanols/d) over 7 days (n=6) resulted in continual FMD increases at baseline (after overnight fast and before flavanol ingestion) and in sustained FMD augmentation at 2 hours after ingestion. Fasted FMD responses increased from 3.7 +/- 0.4% on day 1 to 5.2 +/- 0.6%, 6.1 +/- 0.6%, and 6.6 +/- 0.5% (each P flavanols led to dose-dependent increases in FMD and nitrite, with a maximal FMD at 2 hours after consumption. The dose to achieve a half-maximal FMD response was 616 mg (n=6). Generally applied biomarkers for oxidative stress (plasma, MDA, TEAC) and antioxidant status (plasma ascorbate, urate) remained unaffected by cocoa flavanol ingestion. The daily consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has the potential to reverse endothelial dysfunction in a sustained and dose-dependent manner.

  12. Multidimensional upwinding for incompressible flows based on characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzamian, Kamiar; Razavi, Seyed Esmail

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the multidimensional characteristic based upwind scheme (MCB) which has been recently introduced by the authors is applied to two another benchmark problems namely flow in a channel with a backward facing step and two-dimensional steady and unsteady flows past a circular cylinder. Extension of MCB scheme for calculating convective fluxes on non-Cartesian grids is presented here. For the flow over backward facing step, obtained results were compared against well-known experimental data and the results show high accuracy of MCB scheme and faster convergence rate with respect to conventional CB scheme. In the case of flow over circular cylinder, the flow at steady and transient regimes is investigated by MCB scheme. Again, the results obtained by MCB are compared to the other results in the literature and show good agreement with them. Also, rapid convergence rate of MCB was observed in this case too. It is concluded that, the genuinely multidimensional characteristic based (MCB) scheme, has been introduced earlier by the authors, is a robust and powerful scheme for modeling incompressible viscous flows for achieving the high accuracy and remarkable advantage in convergence rate with respect to conventional characteristic based schemes.

  13. Computer-Aided Test Flow in Core-Based Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper copes with the efficient test-pattern generation in a core-based design. A consistent Computer-Aided Test (CAT) flow is proposed based on the required core-test strategy. It generates a test-pattern set for the embedded cores with high fault coverage and low DfT area overhead. The CAT

  14. Ditch network sustains functional connectivity and influences patterns of gene flow in an intensive agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bac, L; Mony, C; Ernoult, A; Burel, F; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-02-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, plant species previously relying on semi-natural habitats may persist as metapopulations within landscape linear elements. Maintenance of populations' connectivity through pollen and seed dispersal is a key factor in species persistence in the face of substantial habitat loss. The goals of this study were to investigate the potential corridor role of ditches and to identify the landscape components that significantly impact patterns of gene flow among remnant populations. Using microsatellite loci, we explored the spatial genetic structure of two hydrochorous wetland plants exhibiting contrasting local abundance and different habitat requirements: the rare and regionally protected Oenanthe aquatica and the more commonly distributed Lycopus europaeus, in an 83 km(2) agricultural lowland located in northern France. Both species exhibited a significant spatial genetic structure, along with substantial levels of genetic differentiation, especially for L. europaeus, which also expressed high levels of inbreeding. Isolation-by-distance analysis revealed enhanced gene flow along ditches, indicating their key role in effective seed and pollen dispersal. Our data also suggested that the configuration of the ditch network and the landscape elements significantly affected population genetic structure, with (i) species-specific scale effects on the genetic neighborhood and (ii) detrimental impact of human ditch management on genetic diversity, especially for O. aquatica. Altogether, these findings highlighted the key role of ditches in the maintenance of plant biodiversity in intensive agricultural landscapes with few remnant wetland habitats.

  15. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  16. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  17. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  18. [Analysis on barriers of urban sustainable development based on DEMATEL: a case of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Rong; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Ren, Wan-Xia; Dong, Hui-Juan

    2012-10-01

    To scientifically identify the key barriers which the urban sustainable development is facing and to analyze the interrelationships among the barriers are of significance to promote urban sustainable development. Through literature review, site investigation and structural interview, 21 factors affecting the Shenyang City's sustainable development were recognized, and based on questionnaire survey and statistics analysis, 12 main factors were screened. Further, by employing decision-making and trial evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the interrelationships among these factors were analyzed. The key factors affecting the Shenyang's sustainable development included the lack of leaders' attention, the economy-oriented governmental performance evaluation system, the lower public awareness on sustainable development, and the lack of academic understanding on regional eco-carrying capacity and related key projects. It was suggested that the local government should pay more attention on sustainable development, increase propaganda activities, reform governmental performance evaluation system, establish a reward-punishment system for promoting sustainable development and an effective monitoring mechanism, and enhance the implementation of related regulations, the local enterprises should establish research and development funds to support the researches of key technologies and introduce key projects, and general publics should improve their awareness on sustainable development and actively participate in related activities.

  19. The Development of a GIS-Based Model for Campus Environmental Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability indicators and assessments are vital in promoting campus sustainability. Despite the plethora of indicator frameworks, campus sustainability assessment in developing countries encounters many challenges including lack of, or restricted access to, data and difficulties in measuring indicators. There is also a limited application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS in campus environmental sustainability assessment, although campus operations have spatial dimensions. This article proposes a GIS-based model for environmental sustainability assessment of campus operations and demonstrates its usefulness using King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia. The model applies spatial analysis techniques, including inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation, to statistically assess the various campus operational activities by using land use data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, water consumption, solid waste, and transportation. The integration of spatial dimension in the model facilitates the collection and measurement of spatially related indicators, helps identify hotspots of campus operations, and provides better visualization of the existing condition and future scenario of campus environmental sustainability status. This model can assist decision-makers to construct strategies for improving the overall environmental sustainability of university campuses. The paper concludes by highlighting how the model can address some challenges of campus sustainability assessment in developing countries.

  20. Dissipative effects on the sustainment of a magnetorotational dynamo in Keplerian shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Longaretti, P.-Y.

    2015-03-01

    The magnetorotational (MRI) dynamo has long been considered one of the possible drivers of turbulent angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. However, various numerical results suggest that this dynamo may be difficult to excite in the astrophysically relevant regime of magnetic Prandtl number (Pm) significantly smaller than unity, for reasons currently not well understood. The aim of this article is to present the first results of an ongoing numerical investigation of the role of both linear and nonlinear dissipative effects in this problem. Combining a parametric exploration and an energy analysis of incompressible nonlinear MRI dynamo cycles representative of the transitional dynamics in large aspect ratio shearing boxes, we find that turbulent magnetic diffusion makes the excitation and sustainment of this dynamo at moderate magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) increasingly difficult for decreasing Pm. This results in an increase in the critical Rm of the dynamo for increasing kinematic Reynolds number (Re), in agreement with earlier numerical results. Given its very generic nature, we argue that turbulent magnetic diffusion could be an important determinant of MRI dynamo excitation in disks, and may also limit the efficiency of angular momentum transport by MRI turbulence in low Pm regimes.

  1. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1997-12-31

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  2. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-05-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  3. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  4. Doppler-Based Flow Rate Sensing in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Stern

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a novel generic method to detect flow rates and precise changes of flow velocity in microfluidic devices. Using our method we can measure flow rates of ~2 mm/s with a resolution of 0.08 mm/s. The operation principle is based on the Doppler shifting of light diffracted from a self-generated periodic array of bubbles within the channel and using self-heterodyne detection to analyze the diffracted light. As such, the device is appealing for variety of “lab on chip” bio-applications where a simple and accurate speed measurement is needed, e.g., for flow-cytometry and cell sorting.

  5. An optical flow-based state-space model of the vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    High-speed movies of the vocal fold vibration are valuable data to reveal vocal fold features for voice pathology diagnosis. This work presents a suitable Bayesian model and a purely theoretical discussion for further development of a framework for continuum biomechanical features estimation. A linear and Gaussian nonstationary state-space model is proposed and thoroughly discussed. The evolution model is based on a self-sustained three-dimensional finite element model of the vocal folds, and the observation model involves a dense optical flow algorithm. The results show that the method is able to capture different deformation patterns between the computed optical flow and the finite element deformation, controlled by the choice of the model tissue parameters.

  6. Promoting Sustainability Transparency in European Local Governments: An Empirical Analysis Based on Administrative Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro-Galera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the transparency of governments with respect to the sustainability of public services is a very interesting issue for stakeholders and academics. It has led to previous research and international organisations (EU, IMF, OECD, United Nations, IFAC, G-20, World Bank to recommend promotion of the online dissemination of economic, social and environmental information. Based on previous studies about e-government and the influence of administrative cultures on governmental accountability, this paper seeks to identify political actions useful to improve the practices of transparency on economic, social and environmental sustainability in European local governments. We perform a comparative analysis of sustainability information published on the websites of 72 local governments in 10 European countries grouped into main three cultural contexts (Anglo-Saxon, Southern European and Nordic. Using international sustainability reporting guidelines, our results reveal significant differences in local government transparency in each context. The most transparent local governments are the Anglo-Saxon ones, followed by Southern European and Nordic governments. Based on individualized empirical results for each administrative style, our conclusions propose useful policy interventions to enhance sustainability transparency within each cultural tradition, such as development of legal rules on transparency and sustainability, tools to motivate local managers for online diffusion of sustainability information and analysis of information needs of stakeholders.

  7. Assessing Rural Sustainable Development potentialities using a Dominance-based Rough Set Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Antonio; Rocchi, Lucia; Paolotti, Luisa; Musotti, Francesco; Greco, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Rural Development is a priority in Europe and it is supported by specific, financial programmes. At the same time, sustainability is the key word for the European Union to construct programmes and policies for all human activities. However, measuring sustainability of rural areas is not easy, due to their particular features. The improvement of knowledge on sustainability in rural areas is important to build long term policies and strategies for those territories. The objective of this study is the development of a decision support system based on the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA), to assess the level of Rural Sustainable Development in specific areas. We used DRSA to analyze the level of sustainability of the 92 municipalities of the Region of Umbria, Italy. The results were synthesized in a final ranking, taking into account the equilibrium and the integration between development and sustainability of each municipality. DRSA showed a high potential in the context of management or planning, and for supporting Decision Makers. DRSA is able to give a ranking as well as an explanation of the main factors driving sustainable development in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimum forest cover required for sustainable water flow regulation of a watershed: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarigan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many tropical regions, the rapid expansion of monoculture plantations has led to a sharp decline in forest cover, potentially degrading the ability of watersheds to regulate water flow. Therefore, regional planners need to determine the minimum proportion of forest cover that is required to support adequate ecosystem services in these watersheds. However, to date, there has been little research on this issue, particularly in tropical areas where monoculture plantations are expanding at an alarming rate. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the influence of forest cover and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations on the partitioning of rainfall into direct runoff and subsurface flow in a humid, tropical watershed in Jambi Province, Indonesia. To do this, we simulated streamflow with a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and observed several watersheds to derive the direct runoff coefficient (C and baseflow index (BFI. The model had a strong performance, with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.80–0.88 (calibration and 0.80–0.85 (validation and percent bias values of −2.9–1.2 (calibration and 7.0–11.9 (validation. We found that the percentage of forest cover in a watershed was significantly negatively correlated with C and significantly positively correlated with BFI, whereas the rubber and oil palm plantation cover showed the opposite pattern. Our findings also suggested that at least 30 % of the forest cover was required in the study area for sustainable ecosystem services. This study provides new adjusted crop parameter values for monoculture plantations, particularly those that control surface runoff and baseflow processes, and it also describes the quantitative association between forest cover and flow indicators in a watershed, which will help regional planners in determining the minimum proportion of forest and the maximum proportion of plantation to ensure that a

  9. Flow Formulations for Curriculum-based Course Timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two mixed-integer programming formulations for the Curriculum based Course Timetabling Problem (CTT). We show that the formulations contain underlying network structures by dividing the CTT into two separate models and then connect the two models using flow formulation...... lower bound on one data instance in the benchmark data set from the second international timetabling competition. Regarding upper bounds, the formulation based on the minimum cost flow problem performs better on average than other mixed integer programming approaches for the CTT....

  10. A Self Sustaining Solar-Bio-Nano Based Wastewater Treatment System for Forward Operating Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-21

    USA ). Total organic carbon (TOC) was calculated using TC to subtract IC. Total suspended solid (TSS) and total dissolved solid (TDS) were analyzed...MACRS) was used to calculate the annual depreciation of CapEx. In addition, an annual inflation of 3% was set for OpEx and revenues based on the five...year average inflation rate. The net cash flow based on depreciated CapEx and inflated OpEx and revenues was conducted to determine the payback period

  11. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  12. Will it rise or will it fall? Managing the complex effects of urbanization on base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi; Beesley, Leah; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, T. D.; Hamel, Perrine; Oldham, Carolyn; Roy, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Sustaining natural levels of base flow is critical to maintaining ecological function as stream catchments are urbanized. Research shows a variable response of stream base flow to urbanization, with base flow or water tables rising in some locations, falling in others, or elsewhere remaining constant. The variable baseflow response is due to the array of natural (e.g., physiographic setting and climate) and anthropogenic (e.g., urban development and infrastructure) factors that influence hydrology. Perhaps as a consequence of this complexity, few simple tools exist to assist managers to predict baseflow change in their local urban area. This paper addresses this management need by presenting a decision support tool. The tool considers the natural vulnerability of the landscape, together with aspects of urban development in predicting the likelihood and direction of baseflow change. Where the tool identifies a likely increase or decrease it guides managers toward strategies that can reduce or increase groundwater recharge, respectively. Where the tool finds an equivocal result, it suggests a detailed water balance be performed. The decision support tool is embedded within an adaptive-management framework that encourages managers to define their ecological objectives, assess the vulnerability of their ecological objectives to changes in water table height, and monitor baseflow responses to urbanization. We trial our framework using two very different case studies: Perth, Western Australia, and Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Together, these studies show how pre-development water table height, climate and geology together with aspects of urban infrastructure (e.g., stormwater practices, leaky pipes) interact such that urbanization has overall led to rising base flow (Perth) and falling base flow (Baltimore). Greater consideration of subsurface components of the water cycle will help to protect and restore the ecology of urban freshwaters.

  13. Propulsive jet influence on generic launcher base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, S.; Wu, J.; Radespiel, R.

    2015-12-01

    Afterbody flow phenomena represent a significant source of uncertainties in the design of a launcher. Therefore, there is a demand for measuring such flows in wind tunnels. For propulsive jet simulation a new jet facility was integrated into a hypersonic/supersonic wind tunnel. The jet simulation resembles the generic model of a staged rocket launcher. The design and the qualification of the facility are reported. This includes measurements of pressure, temperature and Mach number distribution. Pressure and Schlieren measurements are conducted in the wake of the generic launcher. The unsteady pressure characteristics at the generic rocket base and fairing are analyzed for supersonic and hypersonic freestream. The influence of the under-expanded jet is reported and the jet temperatures are varied. On the base fluctuations at a Strouhal number around 0.25 dominates supersonic freestream flows. Additionally, a fluctuation level increase on the base is observed for Strouhal numbers above 0.75 in hypersonic flow regime, which is attributed to the interactions of wake flow and jet.

  14. Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cörvers, Ron; Wiek, Arnim; de Kraker, Joop; Lang, Daniel; Martens, Pim; Heinrichs, Harald; Martens, Pim; Michelsen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Universities hold a crucial responsibility and role to contribute to sustainable development, alson in their education task. The concept of competencies for sustainable development and the idea of using real-world sustainability issues in education are promising approaches to transform

  15. Integrated radar-photometry sensor based on constrained optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, Youenn; Agam, Gady; Cohen, Paul

    2000-06-01

    Robotic teleoperation is a major research area with numerous applications. Efficient teleoperation, however, greatly depends on the provided sensory information. In this paper, an integrated radar- photometry sensor is presented. The developed sensor relies on the strengths of the two main modalties: robust radar-based range data, and high resolution dynamic photometric imaging. While radar data has low resolution and depth from motion in photometric images is susceptible to poor visibility conditions, the integrated sensor compensates for the flaws of the individual components. The integration of the two modalities is achieved by us ing the radar based range data in order to constrain the optical flow estimation, and fusing the resulting depth maps. The optical flow computation is constrained by a model flow field based upon the radar data, by using a rigidity constraint, and by incorporating edge information into the optical flow estimation. The data fusion is based upon a confidence estimation of the image based depth computation. Results with simulated data demonstrate the good potential of the approach.

  16. A sustainability assessment framework for an algal-based biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, Gwenny; Van Dael, Miet; Lemmens, Bert; Van Passel, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Algal-based biorefineries are proposed as a solution to current environmental and economic problems of algal-based biofuels. This multi-product perspective decreases the environmental impacts of the main product and increases the economic viability of the conversion facility. These statements are validated by different assessments from a technological, environmental and economic perspective. However, the analysis of environmental impacts of algal-based biorefineries is characterized by the la...

  17. Modeling and Simulation Framework for Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten Foged; Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the fluidic flow is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combinin...... developed for the top-down design of flow-based biochips. We show how the IDE can be used to design biochips for several applications....... several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. Such biochips are becoming increasingly complex, with thousands of components, but are still designed manually using a bottom-up full-custom design approach, which is extremely labor intensive...

  18. Modal Decomposition of Synthetic Jet Flow Based on CFD Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes results of numerical simulation of synthetic jet flow using modal decomposition. The analyzes are based on the numerical simulation of axisymmetric unsteady laminar flow obtained using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. Three typical laminar regimes are compared from the point of view of modal decomposition. The first regime is without synthetic jet creation with Reynolds number Re = 76 and Stokes number S = 19.7. The second studied regime is defined by Re = 145 and S = 19.7. The third regime of synthetic jet work is regime with Re = 329 and S = 19.7. Modal decomposition of obtained flow fields is done using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD where energetically most important modes are identified. The structure of POD modes is discussed together with classical approach based on phase averaged velocities.

  19. Video Texture Synthesis Based on Flow-Like Stylization Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an NP-video rendering system based on natural phenomena. It provides a simple nonphotorealistic video synthesis system in which user can obtain a flow-like stylization painting and infinite video scene. Firstly, based on anisotropic Kuwahara filtering in conjunction with line integral convolution, the phenomena video scene can be rendered to flow-like stylization painting. Secondly, the methods of frame division, patches synthesis, will be used to synthesize infinite playing video. According to selection examples from different natural video texture, our system can generate stylized of flow-like and infinite video scenes. The visual discontinuities between neighbor frames are decreased, and we also preserve feature and details of frames. This rendering system is easy and simple to implement.

  20. Sustainability of evidence-based community-based physical activity programs for older adults: lessons from Active for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Smith-Ray, Renae L; Dzewaltowski, David A; Dowdy, Diane; Lattimore, Diana; Rheaume, Carol; Ory, Marcia G; Bazzarre, Terry; Griffin, Sarah F; Wilcox, Sara

    2011-06-01

    Program sustainability in community and healthcare settings is critical to realizing the translation of research into practice. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation and assessment of an intervention to increase organizational maintenance of evidence-based physical activity programs and the factors that impede or facilitate sustainability. All organizations implemented a sustainability action plan that included identifying factors related to sustainability, examining resources available, identifying program modifications to enhance sustainability, and long-term action planning. A mixed methods approach was used. Organizational (n = 12 sites) ability to demonstrate program effectiveness, align priorities with the organizational mission, and integrate the program within the existing infrastructure were strengths related to sustainability. Sites were more optimistic about program sustainability when they had less reliance on internal financial, but more reliance on internal human resources to run the program post-funding. The study resulted in a number of tools that can help community organizations plan for sustainability of physical activity programs.

  1. An Integrated Approach to “Sustainable Community-Based Tourism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Dangi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two rich knowledge domains have been evolving along parallel pathways in tourism studies: sustainable tourism (ST and community-based tourism (CBT. Within both lie diverse definitions, principles, criteria, critical success factors and benefits sought or outcomes desired, advocated by different stakeholders ranging from quasi-governmental and non-profit organizations to public-private sector and academic interests. This poses significant challenges to those interested in theory building, research and practice in the sustainable development and management of tourism. The paper builds on a previous article published in Sustainability by presenting an integrated framework based on a comprehensive, in-depth review and analysis of the tourism-related literature. The study reveals not just common ground and differences that might be anticipated, but also important sustainability dimensions that are lagging or require much greater attention, such as equity, justice, ethical and governance issues. A preliminary framework of “sustainable community-based tourism” (SCBT is forwarded that attempts to bridge the disparate literature on ST and CBT. Critical directions forward are offered to progress research and sustainability-oriented practices towards more effective development and management of tourism in the 21st century.

  2. Nanoparticle-based topical ophthalmic formulations for sustained celecoxib release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Mostafa; Abd-Elgawad, Abd-Elgawad Helmy; Soliman, Osama Abd-Elazeem; Jablonski, Monica M

    2013-03-01

    Celecoxib-loaded NPs were prepared from biodegradable polymers such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), poly(L-lactide) (PLA), and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Different concentrations of polymers, emulsifier, and cosurfactants were used for formulation optimization. Nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized regarding their particle size, PDI, zeta potential, shape, morphology, and drug content. Celecoxib-loaded NPs were incorporated into eye drops, in situ gelling system, and gel and characterized regarding their pH, viscosity, uniformity of drug content, in vitro release, and cytotoxicity. The results of optimized celecoxib-loaded PCL-, PLGA-, and PLA-NPs, respectively, are particle size 119 ± 4, 126.67 ± 7.08, and 135.33 ± 4.15 nm; zeta potential -22.43 ± 2.91, -25.46 ± 2.35, and -31.81 ± 2.54 mV; and encapsulation efficiency 93.44 ± 3.6%, 86.00 ± 1.67%, and 79.04 ± 2.6%. TEM analyses revealed that NPs have spherical shapes with dense core and distinct coat. Formulations possessed uniform drug content with pH and viscosity compatible with the eye. Formulations showed sustained release without any burst effect with the Higuchi non-fickian diffusion mechanism. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that all formulations are nontoxic. Our formulations provide a great deal of flexibility to formulation scientist whereby sizes and zeta potentials of our NPs can be tuned to suit the need using scalable and robust methodologies. These formulations can thus serve as a potential drug delivery system for both anterior and posterior eye diseases. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adjoint-based Optimal Flow Control for Compressible DNS

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, J Javier; Sandberg, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    A novel adjoint-based framework oriented to optimal flow control in compressible direct numerical simulations is presented. Also, a new formulation of the adjoint characteristic boundary conditions is introduced, which enhances the stability of the adjoint simulations. The flow configuration chosen as a case study consists of a two dimensional open cavity flow with aspect ratio $L/H=3$ and Reynolds number $Re=5000$. This flow configuration is of particular interest, as the turbulent and chaotic nature of separated flows pushes the adjoint approach to its limit. The target of the flow actuation, defined as cost, is the reduction of the pressure fluctuations at the sensor location. To exploit the advantages of the adjoint method, a large number of control parameters is used. The control consists of an actuating sub-domain where a two-dimensional body force is applied at every point within the sub-volume. This results in a total of $2.256 \\cdot 10^6$ control parameters. The final actuation achieved a successful ...

  4. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  5. Sustainability and factors affecting the success of community-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various Community-Based Reproductive Health interventions were initiated in many developing countries but their effectiveness has not been evaluated as much as needed. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out in February 2002 among women who participated in community based reproductive health ...

  6. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  7. Towards an Agent Based Framework for Modelling Smart Self-Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustainability is a property of a system; a system is considered to be self-sustainable if it can sustain itself without external support in an observed period of time. If this property is mapped to a human settlement in context of resources (water, energy, food, etc., it would describe a human settlement which is independent of external resources (like the national electrical grid or a central water distribution system, where such external resources are either not available, or not desirable. This article contributes to presenting the state-of-the-art overview of self-sustainability-related research. While self-sustainability as in the above described form was not a direct subject of research, there are several fields which are either related to, or could be of significant value to the self-sustainability research in this context. The extensive literature overview also showed no frameworks for modeling self sustainable systems in the context of human settlements. Herein a motivation for using agent-based modeling and simulation techniques will be given.

  8. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  9. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  10. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Forest Sciences, Research Institute for Agriculture & Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and. Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-921, Korea. ∗ e-mail: junie@snu.ac.kr. Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are ...

  11. Investigation of RFID Based Sensors for Sustainable Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    Through support of a University Transportation Research Center Faculty Development Minigrant an investigation was made into the use of RFID based sensing technologies for transportation purposes. Transportation applications would potentially include ...

  12. Carbohydrate-based Advanced Biomaterials for Food Sustainability: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés García, Arantzazu; Garrigós Selva, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of processed food strongly depend on their packaging and the protection that it provides. The increasing accumulation of synthetic non-biodegradable plastics in the environment represents a threat to the natural habitats. This has lead companies and researchers to explore different ways to develop bio-based polymers made from a variety of agricultural commodities and/or food waste products. Recently, plant-based polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses and celluloses have...

  13. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  14. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  15. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-18

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  16. Maintaining Perioperative Normothermia: Sustaining an Evidence-Based Practice Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rona F; Wright, Fay; Pecoraro, Kathleen; Kopec, Wendy

    2016-02-01

    Unintentional perioperative hypothermia has been shown to cause serious patient complications and, thus, to increase health care costs. In 2009, an evidence-based practice improvement project produced a significant decrease in unintentional perioperative hypothermia in colorectal surgical patients through monitoring of OR ambient room temperature. Project leaders engaged all interdisciplinary stakeholders in the original project, which facilitated the sustainability of the intervention method. An important aspect of sustainability is ongoing monitoring and evaluation of a new intervention method. Therefore, continued evaluation of outcomes of the protocol developed in 2009 was scheduled at specific time points after the initial small test of change with colorectal patients. This article focuses on how attention to sustainability factors during implementation of an improvement project led to the sustainability of a protocol for monitoring OR ambient room temperature with all types of surgical patients five years after the initial project. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  18. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  19. A turbulence model for buoyant flows based on vorticity generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domino, Stefan Paul; Nicolette, Vernon F.; O' Hern, Timothy John; Tieszen, Sheldon R.; Black, Amalia Rebecca

    2005-10-01

    A turbulence model for buoyant flows has been developed in the context of a k-{var_epsilon} turbulence modeling approach. A production term is added to the turbulent kinetic energy equation based on dimensional reasoning using an appropriate time scale for buoyancy-induced turbulence taken from the vorticity conservation equation. The resulting turbulence model is calibrated against far field helium-air spread rate data, and validated with near source, strongly buoyant helium plume data sets. This model is more numerically stable and gives better predictions over a much broader range of mesh densities than the standard k-{var_epsilon} model for these strongly buoyant flows.

  20. Polyaffine parametrization of image registration based on geodesic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Thorup, Signe Strann; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Image registration based on geodesic flows has gained much popularity in recent years. We describe a novel parametrization of the velocity field in a stationary flow equation. We show that the method offers both precision, flexibility, and simplicity of evaluation. With our representation, which ...... of geodesic shooting for computational anatomy. We avoid to do warp field convolution by interpolation in a dense field, we can easily calculate warp derivatives in a reference frame of choice, and we can consequently avoid interpolation in the image space altogether....

  1. Sustainability in a Hospital-Based Biobank and University-Based DNA Biorepository: Strategic Roadmaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Catherine Y; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Bowser, Robert; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Sustainability in the biobanking community has recently become an important and oft-discussed issue as biorepositories struggle to balance limited external funding and complex cost recovery models with high operating costs and the desire to provide the highest quality materials and services to the research community. A multi-faceted view of biobanking sustainability requires consideration of operational and social sustainability in addition to the historical focus exclusively on financial sustainability. Planning and implementing this three pillar model creates a well-rounded biorepository that meets the needs of all the major stakeholders: the funders, the patients/depositors, and the researcher recipients. Often the creation of a detailed business plan is the first step to develop goals and objectives that lead down a path towards sustainability. The definition of sustainability and the complexity of a sustainable business plan may differ for each biorepository. The DNASU Plasmid Repository at Arizona State University stores and distributes DNA plasmids to researchers worldwide, and the Biobank Core Facility at St. Joseph's Hospital and Barrow Neurological Institute consents patients and collects, stores, and distributes human tissue and blood samples. We will discuss these two biorepositories, their similar and different approaches to sustainability and business planning, their challenges in creating and implementing their sustainability plan, and their responses to some of these challenges. From these experiences, the biobanks share lessons learned about planning for sustainability that are applicable to all biorepositories.

  2. Sustainability in a Hospital-Based Biobank and University-Based DNA Biorepository: Strategic Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbacher, Jennifer; Bowser, Robert; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the biobanking community has recently become an important and oft-discussed issue as biorepositories struggle to balance limited external funding and complex cost recovery models with high operating costs and the desire to provide the highest quality materials and services to the research community. A multi-faceted view of biobanking sustainability requires consideration of operational and social sustainability in addition to the historical focus exclusively on financial sustainability. Planning and implementing this three pillar model creates a well-rounded biorepository that meets the needs of all the major stakeholders: the funders, the patients/depositors, and the researcher recipients. Often the creation of a detailed business plan is the first step to develop goals and objectives that lead down a path towards sustainability. The definition of sustainability and the complexity of a sustainable business plan may differ for each biorepository. The DNASU Plasmid Repository at Arizona State University stores and distributes DNA plasmids to researchers worldwide, and the Biobank Core Facility at St. Joseph's Hospital and Barrow Neurological Institute consents patients and collects, stores, and distributes human tissue and blood samples. We will discuss these two biorepositories, their similar and different approaches to sustainability and business planning, their challenges in creating and implementing their sustainability plan, and their responses to some of these challenges. From these experiences, the biobanks share lessons learned about planning for sustainability that are applicable to all biorepositories. PMID:26697909

  3. Measuring sustainment of an evidence based treatment for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Hunter, Sarah B; Ayer, Lynsay; Han, Bing; Slaughter, Mary E; Garner, Bryan R; Godley, Susan H

    2017-12-01

    Measuring the extent a behavioral treatment is sustained in usual care practice settings after initial support for implementation ends is challenging. Oftentimes dichotomous self-report measures are used to measure health program sustainment, but these measures may not adequately capture the quality or extent of behavioral treatment delivery. Using data collected from community based organizations that received support to implement the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), a measure of the extent of sustainment was derived. Based on implementation theories and implementation support protocols, a total of 10 core treatment elements were identified to measure the extent of sustainment using information collected from key clinical staff. Item response theory (IRT) and principal component analyses (PCA) were used to further refine the 10 elements into composite measures of sustainment. The association between the 10 elements and the relationships between the comprehensive measures to a dichotomous sustainment measure were also examined. Results from PCA identified two components from the initial 10 elements for measuring the extent of A-CRA treatment sustainment. The two components described different aspects of organizational support for A-CRA treatment implementation, one representing the quality or extent of treatment staffing and delivery and the other representing the quality of or extent of clinical supervision. Using IRT and PCA, we were able to derive components that could be used to measure the extent of EBT sustainment and also better capture the quality of treatment delivery than the use of simple dichotomous measure. The methodological contribution of our study is that we have demonstrated a general analytic approach that may be applicable for other psychosocial treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainability Analysis of Coffee Farming in Protected Forestof West Lampung Based on Enviromental Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on sustainability of multistrata coffee systems is important related to community forest program. This research aims to study: (1 sustainability of coffee farming in protected forest of West Lampung (2 willingness to pay the external cost and its determinant factors. The study was conducted in Sumberjaya, West Lampung Regency from Juni to October 2009. The study used random sampling method with 50 protected forest farmers were interviewed. Extended Cost Benefit Analysis (ECBA was used to address the purpose (1 while analysis of ordinal logistic regression was to address the purpose (2 Financial analysis showed that coffee farming in protected forest is feasible with NPV of IDR 17,719,505/ha, BCR 1.86 and IRR 24.96%. Coffee with complex multipurpose shade (MPTS, multipurpose tree species generated highest NPV. Based on ECBA, sustainability depended on externality cost (environmental and social cost. Coffee farming was not sustainable (shown by negative NPV when externality cost was more than US $536/ha. When externality cost was 458 USD ha-1 year-1 (minimum value NPV is Rp1.648.633/ha, BCR 1,04 and IRR 26,88. Complex multipurpose shade coffee was the most sustainable among the systems. To sustain the environment, farmers willing to pay external cost in average of Rp475,660/year for soil conservation, planting more shade trees, environmental tax, and reforestation. Based on ordinal logistic regression, farm size, land productivity, household income, household size, and knowledge of forest benefits, positively influencid WTP. Policy of community forest (HKm permit that require a minimum of 400 trees/ha could improve sustainability of coffee farming.Key words: Coffee farming, sustainable, protection forest, economic value

  5. Modeling of Sustainable Base Production by Microbial Electrolysis Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Maxime; Sugnaux, Marc; Comninellis, Christos; Nealson, Kenneth; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-07-07

    A predictive model for the microbial/electrochemical base formation from wastewater was established and compared to experimental conditions within a microbial electrolysis cell. A Na2 SO4 /K2 SO4 anolyte showed that model prediction matched experimental results. Using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a strong base (pH≈13) was generated using applied voltages between 0.3 and 1.1 V. Due to the use of bicarbonate, the pH value in the anolyte remained unchanged, which is required to maintain microbial activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  7. Mobile inquiry-based learning for sustainability education in secondary schools. Effects on knowledge and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Firssova, Olga; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Prinsen, Fleur; Rusman, Ellen; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports about experiences and lessons learned from a recently conducted pilot study about sustainability education with mobile inquiry-based learning in a secondary school in the Netherlands. In the pilot study learners were involved in a mobile location-based game that was conducted in

  8. Phenomena Based Process Intensification of Toluene Methylation for Sustainable Para-xylene Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantasarn, Nateetorn; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to generate more sustainable intensified process designs for the production of important chemicals in the petrochemical sector. A 3-stage approach is applied. In stage 1, the base case design is generated or selected from literature. In stage 2, the base case design ...

  9. The Sustainability of Community-Based Adaptation Projects in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate resilience in subsistence agricultural communities depends strongly on the robustness and effective management of the agricultural natural resource base. For this reason, adaptation planning efforts frequently focus on natural resource conservation as the primary motivation for and primary outcome of adaptation activities. Here, we present an analysis of the sustainability of community based adaptation (CBA activities in 20 community based organizations (CBO that were established in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia in order to promote resilience to climate change. CBA sustainability was assessed through multi-criteria analysis using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sustainability was considered for social, institutional, technical, financial, and environmental dimensions, with second-order indicators or factors defined for each dimension. According to this analysis, CBA efforts of two thirds of the COBs studied were found to be unsustainable in all dimensions and CBA efforts of the remaining CBOs were found to be at risk of unsustainability. A number of barriers to CBA sustainability were identified, including inadequacies in community participation, training of local community members, local government commitment, farmer capacity, and bureaucratic efficiency. Participatory evaluation of CBA, however, revealed that many of these barriers can be attributed to the decision to use conservation of natural resources as the primary framework for CBA activities. Based on this evaluation, new efforts have been developed that use markets as the entry and exit points for sustainability activities. Lessons learned in this project are relevant for CBA efforts in other agricultural regions of the developing world.

  10. Training for Vigilance on the Move: A Video Game-Based Paradigm for Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, J L; Daly, T N; Teo, G W L; Hancock, G M; Hancock, P A

    2017-11-10

    The capacity for superior vigilance can be trained by using knowledge of results (KR). Ourpresent experiments demonstrate the efficacy of such training using a first-person perspective movement videogame-based platform in samples ofstudents and Soldiers.Effectiveness was assessedby manipulating KR during a training phase and withdrawing it in a subsequent transfer phase. Relative to a no KR control condition, KR systematically improved performance for both Soldiers and students. These results build upon our previous findings that demonstrated that a video game-based platform can be used to create a movement-centered sustained attention task with important elements of traditional vigilance. The results indicate that KR effects in sustained attention extend to a first person perspective movement based paradigm, and that these effects occur in professional military as well as a more general population.Such sustained attention training can save lives and the present findings demonstrate one particular avenue to achieve this goal. Practitioner Summary Sustained attention can be trained by means of knowledge of results using a videogame-based platform with samples of students and Soldiers.Four experiments demonstrate that a dynamic, first-person perspective video game environment can serve to support effective sustained attention training in professional military as well as a more general population.

  11. Sustainability and urban density a decision based design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, P.P.; De Graaf, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the definition, construction and application of a decision based design model which able the integration of the allocation of a variety of urban land uses with the distribution of different urban densities, in particular of residential urban areas. Urban planning is, among others

  12. Control volume based modelling of compressible flow in reciprocating machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    An approach to modelling unsteady compressible flow that is primarily one dimensional is presented. The approach was developed for creating distributed models of machines with reciprocating pistons but it is not limited to this application. The approach is based on the integral form of the unsteady...... conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum applied to a staggered mesh consisting of two overlapping strings of control volumes. Loss mechanisms can be included directly in the governing equations of models by including them as terms in the conservation laws. Heat transfer, flow friction......, and multidimensional effects must be calculated using empirical correlations; correlations for steady state flow can be used as an approximation. A transformation that assumes ideal gas is presented for transforming equations for masses and energies in control volumes into the corresponding pressures and temperatures...

  13. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  15. Planning for Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Mental Health Promotion Program in Canadian Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.

  16. Sustaining Evidence-based Interventions Under Real-world Conditions: Results from a Large-scale Diffusion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarger, Brian K.; Kyler, Sandee J.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the predicted and actual post-funding sustainability of evidence-based interventions implemented as part of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency’s Research-Based Delinquency and Violence Prevention Initiative. Correlates of predicted post-funding sustainability included program staff, overall school support, and school administrator support. Additionally, predicted post-funding sustainability was strongly associated with actual post-funding sustainability. Other correlates of actual post-funding sustainability included financial sustainability planning and aligning the intervention with the goals of the agency/school. Five years post-funding 33% of the interventions were no longer operating, 22% were operating at a reduced level, and 45% were operating at the same level or a higher level than the final year of funding. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for increasing intervention sustainability, as well as implications for future research on intervention sustainability. PMID:20229358

  17. Bio-based chemicals - green, but also sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögmundarson, Ólafur; Herrgard, Markus; Förster, Jochen

    by exclusively looking at reduced global warming impacts related to avoiding oil refining and related greenhouse gas emissions. However, there is big variation of which impacts are assessed and which life cycle stages are included between existing published studies focusing on assessing environmental...... production, the US Department of Energy proposed in 2004 a list of 12 building block chemicals which can either be converged through biological or chemical conversions. Moving toward more bio-based chemicals, the chemical industry does not only claim to reduce climate change impacts, but also......For almost two decades, the chemical industry has put great effort into developing bio-chemicals,among others to fight global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, one of the biggest threats that are faced by our society today. To facilitate a growing and versatile bio-based chemical...

  18. Nanotechnology Applications for Sustainable Cement-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raki, L.; Beaudoin, J. J.; Alizadeh, R.

    Concrete is a macro-material strongly influenced by the properties of its components and hydrates at the nanoscale. Progress at this level will engender new opportunities for improvement of strength and durability of concrete materials. This article will focus on recent research work in the field of nanoscience applications to cement and concrete at the NRC-IRC. A particular attention will be given to nanoparticles and cement-based nanocomposites.

  19. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...

  20. Design thinking to enhance the sustainable business modelling process - A workshop based on a value mapping process

    OpenAIRE

    Geissdoerfer, Martin; Bocken, Nancy MP; Hultink, Erik Jan

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier LtdSustainable business model innovation is an emerging topic, but only few tools are currently available to assist companies in sustainable business modelling. This paper works towards closing this gap by bringing together ‘design thinking’ and ‘sustainable business model innovation’ to refine the creative process of developing sustainable value propositions and improve the overall business modelling process. This paper proposes a new workshop framework based on a value mappi...

  1. Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Development in China Based on the Footprint Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Caihong; Zhao, Xiangui; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor comparability of results. By contrast, the Footprint Family (including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint) is not affected by subjective factors. The Footprint Family also covers the basic tenets of sustainable development. This paper proposes use of a sustainable development evaluation index system based on the principle of the Footprint Family, and including the ecological pressure index ( EPI ), the ecological occupancy index ( EOI ), the ecological economic coordination index ( EECI ), the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission index ( CEI ), the water resources stress index ( WSI ), and the sustainable development index ( SDI ). Furthermore, a standard for grading the evaluated results based on global benchmarks is formulated. The results of an empirical study in China were the following. The development situation deteriorated from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that the SDI decreased from a medium level (grade 5) to a lower-medium level (grade 4). The results of this empirical study also showed that the method of evaluation can avoid the influence of subjective factors and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development for various temporal and spatial conditions.

  2. The Integrated Model of Sustainability Perspective in Spermatophyta Learning Based on Local Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartadiyati, E.; Rizqiyah, K.; Wiyanto; Rusilowati, A.; Prasetia, A. P. B.

    2017-09-01

    In present condition, culture is diminished, the change of social order toward the generation that has no policy and pro-sustainability; As well as the advancement of science and technology are often treated unwisely so as to excite local wisdom. It is therefore necessary to explore intra-curricular local wisdom in schools. This study aims to produce an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material that is feasible and effective. This research uses define, design and develop stages to an integration model of sustainability perspectives based on local wisdom on spermatophyta material. The resulting product is an integration model of socio-cultural, economic and environmental sustainability perspective and formulated with preventive, preserve and build action on spermatophyta material consisting of identification and classification, metagenesis and the role of spermatophyta for human life. The integration model of sustainability perspective in learning spermatophyta based on local wisdom is considered proven to be effective in raising sustainability’s awareness of high school students.

  3. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterization of nonlinear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gregory A.

    Although the ubiquity of vortices in nature has been recognized by artists for over seven centuries, it was the work of artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci that provided the monumental transition from an aesthetic form to a scientific tool. DaVinci used vortices to describe the motions he observed in air currents, flowing water and blood flow in the human heart. Five centuries later, the Navier-Stokes equations allow us to recreate the swirling motions of fluid observed in nature. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have provided a lens through which to study the role of vortices in a wide variety of modern day applications. The research summarized below represents an effort to look through this lens and bring into focus the practical use of vortices in describing nonlinear flows. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterizations are obtained using two specific mathematical tools: vortex core lines (VCL) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). By applying these tools, we find that vortices continue to provide new insights in the realm of biofluids, urban flows and the phase space of dynamical systems. The insights we have gained are described in this thesis. Our primary focus is on biofluids. Specifically, we seek to gain new insights into the connection between vortices and vascular diseases in order to provide more effective methods for clinical diagnosis and treatment. We highlight several applications in which VCL and POD are used to characterize the flow conditions in a heart pump, identify stenosis in carotid arteries and validate numerical models against PIV-based experimental data. Next, we quantify the spatial complexity and temporal stability of hemodynamics generated by a database of 210 patient-specific aneurysm geometries. Visual classifications of the hemodynamics are compared to the automated, quantitative classifications. The quantities characterizing the hemodynamics are then compared to clinical data to determine conditions that are

  4. SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE DEMONSTRATION; 50, 300, 1000 PERSON BASE CAMP, ANALYSIS OF FY12 OPERATIONALLY RELEVANT TECHNICAL BASELINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/011 SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2012 – November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING – SCIENCE AND...Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center’s Sustainability /Logistics-Basing -Science and Technology Objective – Demonstration to

  5. Sustainability Benefits and Challenges of Inter-Organizational Collaboration in Bio-Based Business: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohar Nuhoff-Isakhanyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore collaboration possibilities with external partners. The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses, while considering the three aspects of sustainability: environmental, economic, and social. We collected data from three academic sources—Web of Science, Scopus, and EconLit—and conducted a systematic literature review. The results show the importance of geographical proximity and complementarity in creating sustainability benefits such as reduced emissions, reduced waste, economic synergies, and socio-economic activities. Based on the findings, we have developed a framework that illustrates sustainability benefits and challenges. Interestingly, the studies emphasize sustainability benefits more in emerging than in industrialised economies, especially relating to the social aspects of sustainability. In conclusion, although the scholars have not discussed mitigation of several sustainability challenges in bio-based businesses, such as land use conflicts, they have found evidence of vital sustainability benefits, such as energy availability, lower emissions, improved socio-economic life, and poverty reduction, which are essential in emerging economies.

  6. Developing a sustainable bioprocessing strategy based on a generic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C; Koutinas, Wang R; Wang, R

    2004-01-01

    Based on current average yields of wheat per hectare and the saccharide content of wheat grain, it is feasible to produce wheat-based alternatives to many petrochemicals. However, the requirements in terms of wheat utilization would be equivalent to 82% of current production if intermediates and primary building blocks such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene were to be produced in addition to conventional bioproducts. If only intermediates and bioproducts were produced this requirement would fall to just 11%, while bioproducts alone would require only 7%. These requirements would be easily met if the global wheat yield per hectare of cultivated land was increased from the current average of 2.7 to 5.5 tonnes ha(-1) (well below the current maximum). Preliminary economic evaluation taking into account only raw material costs demonstrated that the use of wheat as a generic feedstock could be advantageous in the case of bioproducts and specific intermediate petrochemicals. Gluten plays a significant role considering the revenue occurring when it is sold as a by-product. A process leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat has been devised and evaluated in terms of efficiency and economics. This feedstock aims at providing a replacement for conventional fermentation media and petrochemical feedstocks. The process can be divided into four major stages--wheat milling; fermentation of whole wheat flour by A. awamori leading to the production of enzymes and fungal cells; glucose enhancement via enzymatic hydrolysis of flour suspensions; and nitrogen/micronutrient enhancement via fungal cell autolysis. Preliminary costings show that the operating cost of the process depends on plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value by-products, labour costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous).

  7. Lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, immunochromatographic lateral flow test strips are used as a popular diagnostic tool. There are two formats (noncompetitive and competitive) in gold-based immunoassay. Noncompetitive gold-based immunoassay also called sandwich assay is applied for the detection of large molecular mass. For small molecular mass such as pesticide, competitive format of lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay is described in this chapter. The preparation of gold colloidal and the conjugation between antibody and gold colloidal are described. Hi-flow plus nitrocellulose membranes are separately coated with goat anti-rabbit IgG (control line) and hapten-OVA conjugate (test line). Thus, the degree of intensity of color of the test line is the reverse of the concentration of pesticide in the sample and the visual result is immediately observable. Colloidal gold-based immunoassay can also be applied for multianalysis in one test strip if the detected targets show different physico-chemical properties and their haptens show great differences in chemical structure.

  8. Transformational leadership required to design and sustain evidence-based practice: a system exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Linda Q; Sitterding, Mary Cathryn

    2011-04-01

    In a pay-for-performance environment, implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice (EBP) is no longer a luxury but a necessity. A critical driving force for EBP is that our communities-the people we serve-expect to receive care based on the best available evidence. Transformational nursing leadership is required to create an infrastructure that influences organizational factors, processes and expectations, thus enabling the sustainability of EBP. The American Nurses Credentialing Center and the American Organization of Nurse Executives provide a framework for nursing leaders to consider when designing EBP implementation structures. This exemplar illustrates nursing leadership competencies with regard to implementation and sustainability of EBP within a multihospital system.

  9. Green and Sustainable Cellular Base Stations: An Overview and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. This study presents an overview of sustainable and green cellular base stations (BSs, which account for most of the energy consumed in cellular networks. We review the architecture of the BS and the power consumption model, and then summarize the trends in green cellular network research over the past decade. As its major contribution, this study highlights the uses of renewable energy in cellular communication by: (i investigating the system model and the potential of renewable energy solutions for cellular BSs; (ii identifying the potential geographical locations for renewable-energy-powered BSs; (iii performing case studies on renewable-energy-powered cellular BSs and suggesting future research directions based on our findings; (iv examining the present deployment of sustainable and green BSs; and (v studying the barriers that prevent the widespread use of renewable-energy-powered BSs and providing recommendations for future work.

  10. Fluid mechanics of blood flow in human fetal left ventricles based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Jamil, Muhammad; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Biswas, Arijit; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of intracardiac blood flow and the epigenetic influence it exerts over the heart function have been the subjects of intense research lately. Fetal intracardiac flows are especially useful for gaining insights into the development of congenital heart diseases, but have not received due attention thus far, most likely because of technical difficulties in collecting sufficient intracardiac flow data in a safe manner. Here, we circumvent such obstacles by employing 4D STIC ultrasound scans to quantify the fetal heart motion in three normal 20-week fetuses, subsequently performing 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations on the left ventricles based on these patient-specific heart movements. Analysis of the simulation results shows that there are significant differences between fetal and adult ventricular blood flows which arise because of dissimilar heart morphology, E/A ratio, diastolic-systolic duration ratio, and heart rate. The formations of ventricular vortex rings were observed for both E- and A-wave in the flow simulations. These vortices had sufficient momentum to last until the end of diastole and were responsible for generating significant wall shear stresses on the myocardial endothelium, as well as helicity in systolic outflow. Based on findings from previous studies, we hypothesized that these vortex-induced flow properties play an important role in sustaining the efficiency of diastolic filling, systolic pumping, and cardiovascular flow in normal fetal hearts.

  11. Module based training improves and sustains surgical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, C G; Lindorff-Larsen, K; Funch-Jensen, P

    2015-01-01

    : A randomised controlled trial concerning supervised hernia repair in eight training hospitals in Denmark was performed. The participants were 18 registrars [Post graduate year (PGY) 3 or more] in their first year of surgical specialist training. The intervention consisted of different modules with a skills......PURPOSE: Traditional surgical training is challenged by factors such as patient safety issues, economic considerations and lack of exposure to surgical procedures due to short working hours. A module-based clinical training model promotes rapidly acquired and persistent surgical skills. METHODS......: In the intervention group (n = 10) the average rating of operative skills before intervention was 22.5 (20.6-24.3) and after 26.2 (23.5-28.8), p = 0.044. At follow-up after 1 year, rating was 26.9 (23.4-30.4), p = 0.019. In the conventionally trained group average rating was 23.4 (19.4-27.3) at start and 21.7 (17...

  12. Towards Domain-specific Flow-based Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.

    2018-01-01

    the concurrency within a component or across different independent components. In this paper, we introduce the concept of domain-specific flowbased languages which allows domain experts to use flow-based languages adapted to a particular problem domain. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrency, while......Due to the significant growth of the demand for data-intensive computing, in addition to the emergence of new parallel and distributed computing technologies, scientists and domain experts are leveraging languages specialized for their problem domain, i.e., domain-specific languages, to help them...... describe their problems and solutions, instead of using general purpose programming languages. The goal of these languages is to improve the productivity and efficiency of the development and simulation of concurrent scientific models and systems. Moreover, they help to expose parallelism and to specify...

  13. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  14. A fuzzy logic-based tool to assess beef cattle ranching sustainability in complex environmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra A; de Lima, Helano Póvoas; Massruhá, Silvia M F S; de Abreu, Urbano G P; Tomás, Walfrido M; Salis, Suzana M; Cardoso, Evaldo L; de Oliveira, Márcia Divina; Soares, Márcia Toffani S; Dos Santos, Antônio; de Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Calheiros, Débora F; Crispim, Sandra M A; Soriano, Balbina M A; Amâncio, Christiane O G; Nunes, Alessandro Pacheco; Pellegrin, Luiz Alberto

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant issues in discussion worldwide nowadays is the concept of sustainability. However, sustainability assessment is a difficult task due to the complexity of factors involved in the natural world added to the human interference. In order to assess the sustainability of beef ranching in complex and uncertain tropical environment systems this paper describes a decision support system based on fuzzy rule-approach, the Sustainable Pantanal Ranch (SPR). This tool was built by a set of measurements and indicators integrated by fuzzy logic to evaluate the attributes of the three dimensions of sustainability. Indicators and decision rules, as well as scenario evaluations, were obtained from workshops involving multi-disciplinary team of experts. A Fuzzy Rule-Based System (FRBS) was developed to each attribute, dimension and general index. The essential parts of the FRBS are the knowledge database, rules and the inference engine. The FuzzyGen and WebFuzzy tools were developed to support the FRBS and both showed efficiency and low cost for digital applications. The results of each attribute, dimension and index were presented as radar graphs, showing the individual value (0-10) of each indicator. In the validation process using the WebFuzzy, different combinations of indicators were made for each attribute index to show the corresponding output, and which confirm the feasibility and usability of the tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Obtaining Internet Flow Statistics by Volunteer-Based System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Bujlow, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how the Volunteer Based System for Research on the Internet, developed at Aalborg University, can be used for creating statistics of Internet usage. Since the data is collected on individual machines, the statistics can be made on the basis of both individual users......, and average flow durations. The paper is concluded with a discussion on what further statistics can be made, and the further development of the system....

  16. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Marieta L.C. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, João L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, André R.T.S. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Unidade de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento do Interior, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco de Sá Carneiro, n° 50, 6300-559 Guarda (Portugal)

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section.

  17. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Elizabeth L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Sanquist, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wolfe, Amy K. [ORNL; Diamond, Rick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dion, Jerry [ORNL

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  18. Values-Based Education for Sustainability Marketers: Two Approaches for Enhancing Student Social Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley Rountree, Melissa; Koernig, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has been a hot button issue for decades, and yet business schools continue to struggle with accessible, meaningful and effective strategies to incorporate the topic into their curricula. To extend the teaching toolbox of educators, we describe two complementary marketing courses that use values-based learning to incorporate…

  19. Sustainable employability - definition, conceptualization, and implications : A perspective based on the capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klink, J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.; Burdorf, A.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Zijlstra, F.R.H.; Abma, F.I.; Brouwer, S.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to propose a new model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Methods Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and

  20. Sustainable employability - definition, conceptualization, and implications : A perspective based on the capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute; Burdorf, Alex; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.; Abma, Femke I.; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to propose anew model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Methods Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and

  1. Assessing the sustainability of wheat-based cropping systems using APSIM: Model parameterisation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, C.; Pala, M.; Manschadi, A.M.; Meinke, H.B.; Sauerborn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of crop and soil management practices in wheat-based rotations requires a well-tested model with the demonstrated ability to sensibly predict crop productivity and changes in the soil resource. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) suite of models was

  2. An Information Theory-Based Approach to Assessing the Sustainability and Stability of an Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well-documented that a sustainable system is based on environmental stewardship, economic viability and social equity. What is often overlooked is the need for continuity such that desirable system behavior is maintained with mechanisms in place that facilitate the ability ...

  3. Sustaining Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods in the Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amy Fowler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation used a combination of case study and phenomenological research methods to investigate how individual teachers of middle school science in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) program sustain their use of inquiry-based methods of teaching and learning. While the overall context for the cases was the AMSTI…

  4. The Role of Indicator-Based Sustainability Assessment in Policy and the Decision-Making Process: A Review and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Dizdaroglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to regulate natural processes and control the scale of human activities, sustainability assessment needs to be integrated into urban planning. In this context, indicator-based sustainability assessment tools are fundamental instruments that provide information to support policy and decision-making. Indicators are necessary to monitor the implementation of the policies and provide feedback needed to accomplish the desirable state of sustainable urban development. This paper aims to explore the role of indicator-based sustainability assessment in policy and the decision-making process. Therefore, it reviews the identified sustainable development indicator initiatives and addresses the research gaps in the literature for future improvement of sustainability assessment frameworks. It concludes with a discussion that the major problem in sustainability assessment lies in the gathering of reliable and accessible data.

  5. Information-Flow-Based Access Control for Web Browsers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Sachiko; Tateishi, Takaaki; Tabuchi, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies such as Ajax and Mashup has revealed the weakness of the same-origin policy[1], the current de facto standard for the Web browser security model. We propose a new browser security model to allow fine-grained access control in the client-side Web applications for secure mashup and user-generated contents. We propose a browser security model that is based on information-flow-based access control (IBAC) to overcome the dynamic nature of the client-side Web applications and to accurately determine the privilege of scripts in the event-driven programming model.

  6. Flow logic for language-based safety and security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    2005-01-01

    -based safety and security, provide a feasible platform for developing software that can be verified and validated with a very high degree of assurance. Specifically, it is argued and demonstrated that static analysis is an indispensable technique for language- based safety and security and that the Flow Logic......Society is increasingly dependent on information and communication technology. Computers are integrated into everything from toasters to control systems for critical infrastructure. Consequently even simple programming errors have the potential to wreck havoc on practically every aspect of society...... with respect to the semantics and are then used to verify a wide spectrum of pertinent safety and security properties....

  7. Sustainable Forward Operating Base Nuclear Power Evaluation (Relationship Mapping System) Users’ Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-01-01

    The Sustainable Forward Operating Base (FOB) Nuclear Power Evaluation was developed by the Idaho National Laboratory Systems Engineering Department to support the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in assessing and demonstrating the viability of deploying small-scale reactors in support of military operations in theatre. This document provides a brief explanation of how to access and use the Sustainable FOB Nuclear Power Evaluation utility to view assessment results as input into developing and integrating the program elements needed to create a successful demonstration.

  8. Sustainability-based Study on the Development of Human Settlement in Traditional Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yali; Huang, Liping; Lu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the status quo of the living environment in traditional villages, and to identify current issues and developing strategies based on data analysis. It is proposed that comprehensive sustainable strategies for land use should be designed, defined and used as guidelines for the constructions of traditional villages in the process of rapid urbanization. Such sustainable strategies should be applicable for remediation and development of traditional villages. This will promote the coordinated development in society, economy and environment in traditional villages.

  9. A systems approach framework for the transition to sustainable development: Potential value based on coastal experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom S.; Bailly, Denis; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical...... aspects of (a) governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b) sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social–ecological problems, and (c) simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our......-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development...

  10. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  11. Design for Sustainability of Industrial Symbiosis based on Emergy and Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative...... approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable...... performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied...

  12. Good production rate forecast based on flow, reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Feky, S.A.

    1987-03-16

    Well bore flow efficiencies under expected modes of production operations, coupled with a detailed reservoir description, are necessary for an accurate evaluation of production rate forecast. A production rate forecast for an offshore water-drive oil reservoir in the Gulf of Suez has been prepared. The best overall completion that exhibits both the highest initial producing rates and the long term producing efficiencies was determined for different wells. Three different flow configurations were examined. The wells were classified according to their productivity indices into Group I, Group II, and Group III, having average productivity indices of 53, 18 and 6 b/d/psi, respectively. The study was based on the performance of the three well groups. The Orkiszewski correlation for vertical multiphase pressure gradient calculation program available from Garrett Computing Systems was used to calculate bottom hole flowing pressures at a wide range of oil and water production rates with and without gas lift. Analysis of the expected reservoir performance was essential in evaluating the production forecast. Based on the results of the evaluation, reservoir operations, including well completions, control of water production, and gas lift requirements, have been recommended.

  13. Locative Meaning-making: An Arts-based Approach to Learning for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E.J. Wals

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term sustainable development is often criticized for having lost credibility due to a lack of clear-cut delineation. The same holds true for education designed to foster sustainable development often referred to as education for sustainable development (ESD. This contribution agrees that the term suffers from a want of meaning, but argues that the persistent hunt for a definition—i.e., a fixed generic description—produces rather than resolves this deficit. What sustainable development means is context and time dependent and is therefore necessarily ambiguous, open-ended and dynamic. Hence, the success of ESD depends on the paradoxical imperative of reducing vagueness while at the same time maintaining ambiguity. This paper explores how this can be established and proposes a process informed by the arts.  Drawing from dialogic practices, site-specific theatre and a project conducted in a British village, this writing discusses elements that constitute a process of “context-based meaning finding”. It concludes that ESD essentially starts with and revolves around re-embedding SD in life and the act of living, engaging people in place through processes in which communities yield their own, context and time specific interpretations of sustainable development.

  14. The sustainability of interventions of a community-based trial on children and adolescents' healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Wong, Fiona; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Noori, Fatemeh; Grainger-Gasser, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Sustainability is the core of a successful health-related intervention program. This study was conducted to evaluate the sustainability of interventions of the Heart Health Promotion from Childhood (HHPC) project, one of the 10 interventional projects of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. The evaluation of HHPC included administrating surveys to 500 elementary and middle, and 500 high school students. The study participants were randomly selected from all schools in Isfahan. The questionnaires were administered by interviews to evaluate the sustainability of interventions. The results of interviews showed that interventions were sustainable in 100% of elementary school, 99% of middle school, and 87% of high school students. Training of healthy lifestyle behaviors was significantly higher in all-girls middle schools (P schools (P schools (P schools, often because healthy behaviors have become institutionalized in the target population. However, now all schools have the same level of sustainability, especially the middle and high schools, and all-boys schools. Therefore, it is important for future projects to place additional emphasis on these institutions for future school-based interventions.

  15. The Sustainability of Evidence-Based Interventions and Practices in Public Health and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey

    2018-01-12

    There is strong interest in implementation science to address the gap between research and practice in public health. Research on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions has been growing rapidly. Sustainability has been defined as the continued use of program components at sufficient intensity for the sustained achievement of desirable program goals and population outcomes. This understudied area has been identified as one of the most significant translational research problems. Adding to this challenge is uncertainty regarding the extent to which intervention adaptation and evolution are necessary to address the needs of populations that differ from those in which interventions were originally tested or implemented. This review critically examines and discusses conceptual and methodological issues in studying sustainability, summarizes the multilevel factors that have been found to influence the sustainability of interventions in a range of public health and health care settings, and highlights key areas for future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 39 is April 1, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  17. Flow dynamic environment data base development for the SSME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, C. V.

    1985-01-01

    The fluid flow-induced vibration of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) components are being studied with a view to correlating the frequency characteristics of the pressure fluctuations in a rocket engine to its operating conditions and geometry. An overview of the data base development for SSME test firing results and the interactive computer software used to access, retrieve, and plot or print the results selectively for given thrust levels, engine numbers, etc., is presented. The various statistical methods available in the computer code for data analysis are discussed. Plots of test data, nondimensionalized using parameters such as fluid flow velocities, densities, and pressures, are presented. Results are compared with those available in the literature. Correlations between the resonant peaks observed at higher frequencies in power spectral density plots with pump geometry and operating conditions are discussed. An overview of the status of the investigation is presented and future directions are discussed.

  18. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2017-11-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  19. Real-Time and Resilient Intrusion Detection: A Flow-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Pras, Aiko

    Flow-based intrusion detection will play an important role in high-speed networks, due to the stringent performance requirements of packet-based solutions. Flow monitoring technologies, such as NetFlow or IPFIX, aggregate individual packets into flows, requiring new intrusion detection algorithms to

  20. An improved approach for flow-based cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2014-04-11

    Novel strategies are proposed to circumvent the main drawbacks of flow-based cloud point extraction (CPE). The surfactant-rich phase (SRP) was directly retained into the optical path of the spectrophotometric cell, thus avoiding its dilution previously to the measurement and yielding higher sensitivity. Solenoid micro-pumps were exploited to improve mixing by the pulsed flow and also to modulate the flow-rate for retention and removal of the SRP, thus avoiding the elution step, often carried out with organic solvents. The heat released and the increase of the salt concentration provided by an on-line neutralization reaction were exploited to induce the cloud point without an external heating device. These innovations were demonstrated by the spectrophotometric determination of iron, yielding a linear response from 10 to 200 μg L(-1) with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% (n=7). Detection limit and sampling rate were estimated at 5 μg L(-1) (95% confidence level) and 26 samples per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor was 8.9 and the procedure consumed only 6 μg of TAN and 390 μg of Triton X-114 per determination. At the 95% confidence level, the results obtained for freshwater samples agreed with the reference procedure and those obtained for digests of bovine muscle, rice flour, brown bread and tort lobster agreed with the certified reference values. The proposed procedure thus shows advantages in relation to previously proposed approaches for flow-based CPE, being a fast and environmental friendly alternative for on-line separation and pre-concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Sustained-Release Membrane of Thiazolidinedione-8: Effect on Formation of a Candida/Bacteria Mixed Biofilm on Hydroxyapatite in a Continuous Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs have been found to act as effective quorum sensing quenchers, capable of preventing biofilm formation. Our previous studies demonstrated a profound antibiofilm effect of the TZD derivative thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8, either in solution or incorporated into a sustained-release membrane (SRM-S-8 under batch conditions. In the present study, we used a constant depth film fermenter model in order to investigate the impact of SRM-S-8 on mixed C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm development, under flow conditions. We found that essential parameters of cospecies biofilm maintenance and maturation, such as metabolic activity, biofilm thickness, roughness, extracellular polysaccharides production, and morphology of both pathogens, were altered by SRM-S-8 in the flow system. We propose that prolonged and sustained release of S-8 in a flow-through system allows better penetration of the active agent to deeper layers of the mixed biofilm, thereby increasing its activity against both pathogens. In conclusion, the use of a locally applied sustained-release drug delivery system of S-8 can affect the dental polymicrobial biofilm, resulting in clinical improvements and a better patient compliance.

  2. A Sustained-Release Membrane of Thiazolidinedione-8: Effect on Formation of a Candida/Bacteria Mixed Biofilm on Hydroxyapatite in a Continuous Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark; Shenderovich, Julia; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been found to act as effective quorum sensing quenchers, capable of preventing biofilm formation. Our previous studies demonstrated a profound antibiofilm effect of the TZD derivative thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8), either in solution or incorporated into a sustained-release membrane (SRM-S-8) under batch conditions. In the present study, we used a constant depth film fermenter model in order to investigate the impact of SRM-S-8 on mixed C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm development, under flow conditions. We found that essential parameters of cospecies biofilm maintenance and maturation, such as metabolic activity, biofilm thickness, roughness, extracellular polysaccharides production, and morphology of both pathogens, were altered by SRM-S-8 in the flow system. We propose that prolonged and sustained release of S-8 in a flow-through system allows better penetration of the active agent to deeper layers of the mixed biofilm, thereby increasing its activity against both pathogens. In conclusion, the use of a locally applied sustained-release drug delivery system of S-8 can affect the dental polymicrobial biofilm, resulting in clinical improvements and a better patient compliance. PMID:29130039

  3. A review on flow characterization methods for cereal grain-based powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Jan, Shumaila; Siliveru, Kaliramesh

    2016-01-30

    Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain-based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non-uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain-based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost-effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no-flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  5. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  6. Sustainability Enhancement of a Turbine Vane Manufacturing Cell through Digital Simulation-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing systems should satisfy emerging needs related to sustainable development. The design of sustainable manufacturing systems can be valuably supported by simulation, traditionally employed mainly for time and cost reduction. In this paper, a multi-purpose digital simulation approach is proposed to deal with sustainable manufacturing systems design through Discrete Event Simulation (DES and 3D digital human modelling. DES models integrated with data on power consumption of the manufacturing equipment are utilized to simulate different scenarios with the aim to improve productivity as well as energy efficiency, avoiding resource and energy waste. 3D simulation based on digital human modelling is employed to assess human factors issues related to ergonomics and safety of manufacturing systems. The approach is implemented for the sustainability enhancement of a real manufacturing cell of the aerospace industry, automated by robotic deburring. Alternative scenarios are proposed and simulated, obtaining a significant improvement in terms of energy efficiency (−87% for the new deburring cell, and a reduction of energy consumption around −69% for the coordinate measuring machine, with high potential annual energy cost savings and increased energy efficiency. Moreover, the simulation-based ergonomic assessment of human operator postures allows 25% improvement of the workcell ergonomic index.

  7. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  8. Transgressing the norm: Transformative agency in community-based learning for sustainability in southern African contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona

    2017-11-01

    Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.

  9. Transgressing the norm: Transformative agency in community-based learning for sustainability in southern African contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona

    2017-12-01

    Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.

  10. In vitro, contrast agent-based evaluation of the influence of flow diverter size and position on intra-aneurysmal flow dynamics using syngo iFlow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Giorgio Franco Maria; Ding, Andreas; Jost, Tobias; Ley, Désirée; Mühl-Bennighaus, Ruben; Yilmaz, Umut; Körner, Heiko; Reith, Wolfgang; Simgen, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of intracranial aneurysm with flow-diverting devices has become widespread in recent years. Despite that, intra-aneurysmal flow changes are yet not fully understood and can lead to different complications. Our aim was an in vitro contrast-based evaluation of the influence of flow diverter size and position on intra-aneurysmal flow dynamics. Flow-diverting devices with different sizes (diameters 4.0, 4.5, and 6.0 mm) were deployed in seven silicone aneurysm models at different positions relative to the aneurysm neck (proximal, central, distal). Using syngo iFlow, we defined quantitative evaluation criteria based on contrast medium intensity and performed a flow evaluation. Intra-aneurysmal flows were heavily dependent on both size and position of flow-diverting devices at the aneurysm neck. We observed a higher peak intensity delay and intra-aneurysmal washout delay with the centrally placed 4.0- and 4.5-mm device, respectively, compared to the proximal and distal positions. Especially distally placed 4.0-mm devices led to an earlier filling of the aneurysm and increased intra-aneurysmal contrast agent intensity compared to the parent vessel, due to a potential endoleak. Not only size but also position of flow-diverting devices have a considerable impact on the intra-aneurysmal flow dynamics. The suggested evaluation criteria allowed a quantitative comparison of flow-diverting effect using syngo iFlow and could represent an efficient tool for predicting flow diversion pre-procedurally.

  11. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. File-Based Data Flow in the CMS Filter Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; et al.

    2015-12-23

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1, the CMS Data Acquisition system underwent a partial redesign to replace obsolete network equipment, use more homogeneous switching technologies, and prepare the ground for future upgrades of the detector front-ends. The software and hardware infrastructure to provide input, execute the High Level Trigger (HLT) algorithms and deal with output data transport and storage has also been redesigned to be completely file- based. This approach provides additional decoupling between the HLT algorithms and the input and output data flow. All the metadata needed for bookkeeping of the data flow and the HLT process lifetimes are also generated in the form of small “documents” using the JSON encoding, by either services in the flow of the HLT execution (for rates etc.) or watchdog processes. These “files” can remain memory-resident or be written to disk if they are to be used in another part of the system (e.g. for aggregation of output data). We discuss how this redesign improves the robustness and flexibility of the CMS DAQ and the performance of the system currently being commissioned for the LHC Run 2.

  13. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  14. Enacting sustainable school-based health initiatives: a communication-centered approach to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGreco, Marianne; Canary, Heather E

    2011-03-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices.

  15. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  16. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURIAN, STEVEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  18. An integral energy flow model and mass flow model as a basis for the evaluation of a sustainable Development of urban systems; Ein integrales Energie- und Stoffstrommodell als Grundlage zur Bewertung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung urbaner Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prytula, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Pre-industrial cities and their surrounding countryside used to strongly interact with one another. In a symbiotic relationship the towns received their subsistence goods from the urban hinterland, and by returning their waste products also returned important nutrient matter to the production process. Thus, size and growth of the cities were strongly limited by the productivity of the systems governing land use. Industrialization with its provision of fossil energy sources, artificial fertilizers and new infrastructure systems led to a regional expansion regarding the flow of materials and enabled a far reaching deconstruction of the original functional town country relationships. For a functioning supply with energy, material and water, modern urban systems currently depend on the continuous provision of fossil energy, which cannot be considered sustainable. This work focuses on the question of how urban systems with a high population density can be sustainably supplied with subsistence goods on the basis of renewable energy sources. Analysing the urban use of resources from an ecosystemic point of view, I have developed a model, that illustrates the relations between resource supply and systems of land use for the four subsystems food supply, thermal building performance, supply of domestic electricity and transport. I hereby differentiate between somatic energy (food and animal feed) and extra somatic energy (all other energy sources necessary for the functioning of an urban system). As these systems compete with one another for space as a limited resource, a spatial indicator is used for the evaluation. In contrast to the frequently employed ecological footprint method, my model attributes particular importance to the analysis of spatiotemporal relationships of the supply and use of resources. A classification based on the various types of urban structures forms the core of the performance calculation. These structure types are characterised by specific

  19. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  20. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  1. Model based flow measurement using venturi flumes for return flow during drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pirir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In an oil well drilling operation, a proper knowledge of the return fluid flowrate is necessary both for the stabilization of the bottom hole pressure of the well and also as a primary indication of a kick or loss. In practice, the drill fluid flowing through the return line is usually measured with Coriolis meters. However this method is both expensive and has some downsides. For instance there is a risk of blockage due to drill cuttings while measuring the discharge. The presence of gas and cuttings in the drilling fluid will also have a negative effect in the measurement i.e. for multi-phase fluid, the readings from Coriolis meters may not be accurate. A cheaper alternative would be to use an open channel for the measurement of the discharge from the return flowline. In this paper, a venturi rig is used as the open channel and modeled by the Saint Venant equations. Experimental verification of the simulation results show a promising behavior of the model based measurement of the return fluid flow.

  2. Sustainability Assessment and Identification of Determinants in Community-Based Water Supply Projects using Partial Least Squares Path Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects in four different states in Sudan was assessed using a set of multidimensional indicators. A sustainability index was developed using a set of sustainability criteria including technical, reliability/risk, social, organisational, financial as well as sustainability. Basic sustainability criteria were selected based on literature review and stakeholders discussion. For each criterion a set of observable indicators was identified, in total 23 indicators were identified. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis and model development was carried out to identify main sustainability determinants for community-based water supply projects in Sudan. Partial least squares-path modelling was used to determine and quantify relationships between the sustainability criteria. The results showed that although all analyzed projects were relatively young projects (1 to 4 years, all projects showed low sustainability performance. This was mainly due to organizational as well as financial aspects, which also was confirmed by path modeling analysis, the sustainability of community-based water supply projects was directly related to organizational aspects, but indirectly related to financial issues. There is a need to give more attention to the communities’ organizational and financial abilities and to leverage their ability through governmental and/or non-governmental organization support especially after project implementation phase.

  3. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  4. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    simulations are performed using molecular dynamics methodology to study several structural and morphological features such as effect of polymer molecular weight, polydispersity, rheology, nanoparticle volume fraction, size, shape and chemical nature on the bulk mechanical and self-cleaning properties of the coating film. At macro-scale, a paint spray system which is used for automotive coating application is studied by using CFD-based simulation methodology to generate crucial information about the effects of nanocoating technology on environmental emissions and coating film quality. The cradle-to-grave life-cycle based sustainability assessment study address all the critical issues related to economic benefits, environmental implications and societal effects of nanocoating technology through case studies of automotive coating systems. It is accomplished by identifying crucial correlations among measurable parameters at different stages and developing sustainability indicator matrices for analysis of each stage of life-cycle. The findings from the research can have great potential to draft useful conclusions in favor of future development of coating systems with novel functionalities and improved sustainability.

  5. A Systems Approach Framework for the Transition to Sustainable Development: Potential Value Based on Coastal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical aspects of (a governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social-ecological problems, and (c simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our perspectives on how research can be changed to better serve society. The infusion of systems thinking into research and policy making leads to a preference for multi-issue instead of single-issue studies, an expansion from static to dynamic indicators, an understanding of the boundaries between system-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development for coastal systems requires consideration of the scale interdependency from individual to global and recognition of the probable global reorganizational emergence of scale-free networks that could cooperate to maximize the integrated sustainability among them.

  6. Method-Based Higher Education in Sustainability: The Potential of the Scenario Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Beecroft

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sustainability and education are challenging process-oriented objectives. When the aim is to combine both notions, as in Higher Education in Sustainability (HES, it is indispensable to first establish a common ground between them. In this paper, we characterise this common ground in terms of four aspects: future orientation, normativity, global perspective, and theory engaged in practice. Based on an analysis of the common ground, one method that is well-established in a wide range of sustainability sciences shows high potential for use in HES because it covers all four aspects in detail: the scenario method. We argue that a didactical reconstruction of the scenario method is necessary to utilise its potential and develop adequate forms of teaching in higher education. The scenario method is used to construct and analyse a set of alternative future developments to support decisions that have to be made in the present. Didactical reconstruction reveals a spectrum of objectives for which the scenario method can be employed: (1 projection; (2 teleological planning and (3 an explorative search for possibilities not yet considered. By studying and experimenting with this spectrum of objectives, students in HES can develop fundamental reflexive competencies in addressing the future in different ways that are relevant for both sustainability and education.

  7. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

  9. Chemistry Resolved Kinetic Flow Modeling of TATB Based Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, P A; Fried, L E; Howard, W M; Levesque, G; Souers, P C

    2011-07-21

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB based explosives are believed to have multi-time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. They use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. They term their model chemistry resolved kinetic flow as CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. A HE-validation suite of model simulations compared to experiments at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures has been developed. They present here a new rate model and comparison with experimental data.

  10. Flow cytometry-based DNA hybridization and polymorphism analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Kommander, K.; White, P.S.; Nolan, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Functional analysis of the humane genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well-suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. The authors are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. The approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advances of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.

  11. A computer-based analysis of injuries sustained by victims of a major air disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmeyer, T D; Beer, B; Mullins, P R

    1982-03-01

    A computer-based analysis of the injury patterns sustained by victims in the DC-10 aircraft that crashed into Mt. Erebus, Antarctica, On November 28, 1979, is presented. The distribution of these injury patterns supports the hypothesis that at impact the plane was in a nose-high attitude with respect to the slope and the impact point was the underside of the rear section of the fuselage.

  12. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Shim

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals' smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20-49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users' smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries.

  13. Sustainability-Based Flood Hazard Mapping of the Swannanoa River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ahmadisharaf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated framework is presented for sustainability-based flood hazard mapping of the Swannanoa River watershed in the state of North Carolina, U.S. The framework uses a hydrologic model for rainfall–runoff transformation, a two-dimensional unsteady hydraulic model flood simulation and a GIS-based multi-criteria decision-making technique for flood hazard mapping. Economic, social, and environmental flood hazards are taken into account. The importance of each hazard is quantified through a survey to the experts. Utilizing the proposed framework, sustainability-based flood hazard mapping is performed for the 100-year design event. As a result, the overall flood hazard is provided in each geographic location. The sensitivity of the overall hazard with respect to the weights of the three hazard components were also investigated. While the conventional flood management approach is to assess the environmental impacts of mitigation measures after a set of feasible options are selected, the presented framework incorporates the environmental impacts into the analysis concurrently with the economic and social influences. Thereby, it provides a more sustainable perspective of flood management and can greatly help the decision makers to make better-informed decisions by clearly understanding the impacts of flooding on economy, society and environment.

  14. Comparative assessment of PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques applied to a transonic base flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N.; Rival, D.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A test case for PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a ZDES simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences of four subsequent particle images (representing multi-pulse data) as well as

  15. Traffic flow visualization based on line integral convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Na; Cao, Can; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Traffic flow visualization is an important tack in traffic management and computer vision field. Traditional methods use the velocities of particles of the moving vehicles such as optical flow to visualize the traffic flow. However, using optical flow can only gain a coarse description of traffic flow. Many details in the flow field are missed. Texture synthesizing technology is a suitable tool for flow field visualization, which can represent the flow field as a texture image. This paper proposed a visualization method to represent traffic flow as a texture image. Firstly, Horn-Schunck optical flow is calculated between two consecutive frames. In order to reveal more details of a traffic flow field, Line Integral Convolution (LIC) is used by convolute noise texture along the streamline of the optical flow field. Therefore, the moving vehicles can be represented as a texture images. On the contrary, the background regions are mapped as noise. Experimental results show the proposed method can show the traffic flow clearer than optical flow.

  16. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  17. An Emergy-Based Hybrid Method for Assessing Sustainability of the Resource-Dependent Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the natural resources are getting exhausted, the concept of sustainable development of regions has received increasing attention, especially for resource-dependent cities. In this paper, an innovative method based on emergy analysis and the Human Impact Population Affluence Technology (IPAT model is developed to analyze the quantitative relationship of economic growth, energy consumption and its overall sustainability level. Taiyuan, a traditional, resource-dependent city in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that the total emergy of Taiyuan increased from 9.023 × 1023 sej in 2007 to 9.116 × 1023 sej in 2014, with a 38% decline in non-renewable emergy and an increase of imported emergy up to 125%. The regional emergy money ratio (EMB was reduced by 48% from 5.31 × 1013 sej/$ in 2007 to 2.74 × 1013 sej/$ in 2014, indicating that the increasing speed of consuming resources and energy was faster than the increase of GDP, and that Taiyuan’s money purchasing power declined. The lower emergy sustainability index (ESI indicates that Taiyuan was explored and produced large quantities of mineral resources, which puts more stress on the environment as a consequence, and that this is not sustainable in the long run. The IPAT analysis demonstrates that Taiyuan sticks to the efforts of energy conservation and environmental protection. In order to promote regional sustainable development, it is necessary to have an integrated effort. Policy insights suggest that resourceful regions should improve energy and resource efficiency, optimize energy and resourceful structure and carry out extensive public participation.

  18. A new assessment method of new energy in regional sustainable development based on hesitant fuzzy information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdi Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The new energy has been an important driving force in region sustainable development. It is a critical issue to evaluate the role of new energy in region sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: To deal with this issue, this paper proposes a new score function, in which, both mean and variance are considered. Then it introduces the basic operators, such as hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging operator and hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric operator to get the comprehensive assessment provided by the decision maker on each attribute.Findings: Due to the drawbacks of existing methods with hesitant fuzzy information, this paper puts forward a method and the procedure to solve the MADM (multiple attribute decision making problem. And an illustrative example is demonstrated to verify the reliability of the proposed method.Research limitations/implications: The method can be used to evaluate the new energy in regional sustainable development, but it cannot solve the problems with many experts.Practical implications: Based on the new framework, a case study is carried out to verify its applicability and validity. The research can fill the gaps for the assessment framework of new energy in regional sustainable development. This paper is of practical value in real life, which is the application of some techniques.Originality/value: This paper describes in detail in evaluating the role of new energy in region sustainable development. And a new score function is proposed with hesitant fuzzy information, that is, the idea of variance is introduced to form a new score function to measure the deviation of hesitant fuzzy elements. Meanwhile, the basic operator, such as hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging operator and hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric operator are introduced to integrate the hesitant fuzzy information.

  19. Droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Rong; Lü, Shu-Hai; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yang, Yong-Jun

    2005-08-01

    Polymerase chain reactions (PCR), thermally activated chemical reactions which are widely used for nucleic acid amplification, have recently received much attention in microelectromechanical systems and micro total analysis systems because a wide variety of DNA/RNA molecules can be enriched by PCR for further analyses. In the present work, a droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip was designed and fabricated by the silicon microfabrication technique. Three different temperature zones, which were stable at denaturation, extension and annealing temperatures and isolated from each other by a thin-wall linkage, were integrated with a single, simple and straight microchannel to form the chip's basic functional structure. The PCR mixture was injected into the chip as a single droplet and flowed through the three temperature zones in the main microchannel in an oscillating manner to achieve the temperature maintenance and transitions. The chip's thermal performance was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated. The results indicated that the time needed for the temperature of the droplet to change to the target value is less than 1 s, and the root mean square error of temperature is less than 0.2 °C. A droplet of 1 µl PCR mixture with standard HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)-DNA sample inside was amplified by the present chip and the results were analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA markers in parallel. The electrophoresis results demonstrated that the micro oscillating-flow PCR chip successfully amplified the HPV-DNA, with a processing time of about 15 min which is significantly reduced compared to that for the conventional PCR instrument.

  20. Mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation: transformation toward sustainability in urban governance and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem-based adaptation is advocated at international, national, and regional levels. The concept is thought to foster sustainability transitions and is receiving increasing interest from academic and governmental bodies alike. However, there is little theory regarding the pathways for its systematic implementation. It furthermore remains unclear to what degree the concept is already applied in urban planning practice, how it is integrated into existing planning structures and processes, and what drivers exist for further integration. Against this background, this study examines potential ways to sustainably mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation into urban planning. Eight municipalities in Southern Germany were investigated to analyze the processes of mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation into current planning practice. Although the mainstreaming entry points for ecosystem-based adaptation were identified to be appreciably different, the results of the study show how mainstreaming has generally led to patterns of change in: (1 on-the-ground measures, (2 organizational structures and assets, (3 formal and informal policies and instruments, (4 external cooperation and networking, and (5 the general working language. In all these areas, ecosystem-based adaptation to heat and flood risk is highly compartmentalized. Furthermore, although scholars have drawn attention to the risk of "mainstreaming overload," the results suggest that at the local level, the integration of ecosystem-based adaptation is strongly driven by departments' experience in mainstreaming other cross-cutting issues, namely environmental planning, climate change mitigation, and disaster risk management. Based on the findings, ways to leverage sustainability transitions via mainstreaming are discussed. It is concluded that systematic mainstreaming is a promising avenue for initiating and promoting local transitions and transformative adaptation. The study

  1. Sustainability Criteria and Indicators for the Bio-Based Economy in Europe: State of Discussion and Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe R. Fritsche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong interest in the EU to promote the bioeconomy sector within the EU 2020 strategy. It is thus necessary to assure a sound sustainability framework. This paper reviews international and European sustainability initiatives mainly for biomass for bioenergy. The basic and advanced sustainability indicators are identified and described with particular attention to those points without agreement between stakeholders. Based on the state of the discussion, some suggestions to enhance the sustainable development of the bioeconomy sector are proposed.

  2. Bipartite graph-based control flow checking for COTS-based small satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Honghao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single event upset (SEU effect, caused by highly energized particles in aerospace, threatens the reliability and security of small satellites composed of commercial-off-the-shelves (COTS. SEU-induced control flow errors (CFEs may cause unpredictable behavior or crashes of COTS-based small satellites. This paper proposes a generic software-based control flow checking technique (CFC and bipartite graph-based control flow checking (BGCFC. To simplify the types of illegal branches, it transforms the conventional control flow graph into the equivalent bipartite graph. It checks the legality of control flow at runtime by comparing a global signature with the expected value and introduces consecutive IDs and bitmaps to reduce the time and memory overhead. Theoretical analysis shows that BGCFC can detect all types of inter-node CFEs with constant time and memory overhead. Practical tests verify the result of theoretical analysis. Compared with previous techniques, BGCFC achieves the highest error detection rate, lower time and memory overhead; the composite result in evaluation factor shows that BGCFC is the most effective one among all these techniques. The results in both theory and practice verify the applicability of BGCFC for COTS-based small satellites.

  3. Working Relationships for Sustainability: Improving Work-based Relationships in Local Government to bring about Sustainability Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Herriman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There’s no escape: we are always in relationship. Being aware of this matters. Doing something to build constructive relationships for sustainability, matters even more. This paper considers the connection between good relationships and effective sustainability work in local government. It draws on the collective experiences of four practitioners who have worked over many years in, with or for local government and argues that a good deal of project success is contingent upon the development of positive relationships with stakeholders, contractors, communities, businesses, colleagues, partners and other agencies and agency officers. Relationships can help or hinder project process, progress and outcomes. This paper identifies some approaches for building quality relationships and uses examples to highlight these strategies. These include: recognising that developing and maintaining resilient relationships and high quality communication is a critical foundation for success; designing projects with explicit relationship outcomes; and allocating time, money and other resources to support the development of effective relationships.

  4. Perception of User Criteria in the Context of Sustainability of Modern Methods of Construction Based on Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Švajlenka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the construction industry have brought more efficient and sustainable technologies, technological procedures, and materials. An example of this are modern methods of construction, which offer larger production volumes with a higher quality and shorter procurement time. The goal of those methods is to improve construction sustainability through quality improvement, customer satisfaction, shortened construction time, and reduced environmental impact. The main goal of this research is to demonstrate, by means of theoretical assumptions, surveys, and analyses, the sustainability of modern methods of construction based on wood. The work focuses on identifying the user criteria for construction sustainability. Selected user criteria of construction sustainability are applied in a socio-economic survey whose purpose is to determine how users perceive the efficiency of selected construction systems. We evaluate certain user parameters in the context of sustainability by relying on the users of buildings (family houses which have already been built and compare the results with declared design parameters.

  5. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  6. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.

  7. Hepatocyte-based flow analytical bioreactor for xenobiotics metabolism bioprediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Helvenstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research for new in vitro screening tools for predictive metabolic profiling of drug candidates is of major interest in the pharmaceutical field. The main motivation is to avoid late rejection in drug development and to deliver safer drugs to the market. Thanks to the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, a flow bioreactor has been developed which is able to perform xenobiotic metabolism studies. The selected cell line (HepaRG maintained its metabolic competencies once iron oxide nanoparticles were internalized. Based on magnetically trapped cells in a homemade immobilization chamber, through which a flow of circulating phase was injected to transport nutrients and/or the studied xenobiotic, off-line and online (when coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography chain metabolic assays were developed using diclofenac as a reference compound. The diclofenac demonstrated a similar metabolization profile chromatogram, both with the newly developed setup and with the control situation. Highly versatile, this pioneering and innovative instrumental design paves the way for a new approach in predictive metabolism studies.

  8. A new EAP based on electroosmotic flow: nastic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, Menake E.; Shapiro, Benjamin; Smela, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    A new type of polymeric actuator has been developed based on a micro-scale hydraulic mechanism, in which electroosmotic flow (EOF) is used to pump a fluid from one place to another in the device. This "nastic" actuator is in principle capable of producing both large displacements and high forces at reasonable speeds. Prototypes were fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by micro-molding a fluid supply chamber, an expansion chamber, and connecting channels, and then topping this layer with a thin PDMS membrane. Upon applying a voltage across the two chambers, fluid flowed into the expansion reservoir, deflecting the membrane upward by hundreds of μm within a few seconds. The performance of these prototypes have been characterized in terms of deflection under load at various applied voltages, deflection vs. time upon input of a step potential, and repeatability. The performance of the actuator has been modeled, and the experimental and theoretical results are in reasonable agreement. The modeling work predicts that as the channel size is scaled down, the actuation stress will increase substantially, up to GPa for nanochannels, rivaling piezoelectrics and shape memory alloys but with much higher strain. Future applications of these actuators may include valves, shape-changing materials, and soft robotics.

  9. A microfluidic diluter based on pulse width flow modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate that pulse width flow modulation (PWFM) can be used to design fast, accurate, and precise multistage dilution modules for microfluidic devices. The PWFM stage unit presented here yields 10-fold dilution, but several PWFM stages can be connected in series to yield higher-order dilutions. We have combined two stages in a device thus capable of diluting up to 100-fold, and we have experimentally determined a set of rules that can be conveniently utilized to design multistage diluters. Microfabrication with resist-based molds yielded geometrical channel height variances of 7% (22.9(16) microm) with corresponding hydraulic resistance variances of approximately 20%. Pulsing frequencies, channel lengths, and flow pressures can be chosen within a wide range to establish the desired diluter properties. Finally, we illustrate the benefits of on-chip dilution in an example application where we investigate the effect of the Ca(2+) concentration on a phospholipid bilayer spreading from a membrane reservoir onto a SiO(2) surface. This is one of many possible applications where flexible concentration control is desirable.

  10. Flow interaction based propagation model and bursty influence behavior analysis of Internet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Ren-Tao; Ji, Yue-Feng

    2016-11-01

    QoS (quality of service) fluctuations caused by Internet bursty flows influence the user experience in the Internet, such as the increment of packet loss and transmission time. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model to study the influence propagation behavior of the bursty flow, which is helpful for developing a deep understanding of the network dynamics in the Internet complex system. To intuitively reflect the propagation process, a data flow interaction network with a hierarchical structure is constructed, where the neighbor order is proposed to indicate the neighborhood relationship between the bursty flow and other flows. The influence spreads from the bursty flow to each order of neighbors through flow interactions. As the influence spreads, the bursty flow has negative effects on the odd order neighbors and positive effects on the even order neighbors. The influence intensity of bursty flow decreases sharply between two adjacent orders and the decreasing degree can reach up to dozens of times in the experimental simulation. Moreover, the influence intensity increases significantly when network congestion situation becomes serious, especially for the 1st order neighbors. Network structural factors are considered to make a further study. Simulation results show that the physical network scale expansion can reduce the influence intensity of bursty flow by decreasing the flow distribution density. Furthermore, with the same network scale, the influence intensity in WS small-world networks is 38.18% and 18.40% lower than that in ER random networks and BA scale-free networks, respectively, due to a lower interaction probability between flows. These results indicate that the macro-structural changes such as network scales and styles will affect the inner propagation behaviors of the bursty flow.

  11. Integrating Problem- and Project-Based Learning Opportunities: Assessing Outcomes of a Field Course in Environment and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricsfalusy, Vladimir; George, Colleen; Reed, Maureen G.

    2018-01-01

    Improving student competencies to address sustainability challenges has been a subject of significant debate in higher education. Problem- and project-based learning have been widely celebrated as course models that support the development of sustainability competencies. This paper describes a course developed for a professional Master's program…

  12. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  13. Mission-focused, productivity-based model for sustainable support of academic hematology/oncology faculty and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Randall F; Hollinger, Krista J

    2010-03-01

    Adoption of a mission-focused, productivity-based funds-flow model recognizes faculty activities regardless of their primary mission and incentivizes and financially rewards both academic and clinical productivity. We describe here how such a model could be utilized for an academic division of hematology and medical oncology. On the basis of our own experience in managing the Division of Hematology/Oncology at the University of California at Irvine, and results of a survey of hematology/oncology division chiefs, a new model was developed with clear definitions of missions (ascertaining faculty effort toward each mission and definition of productivity benchmarks for each), careful identification of revenue streams, and establishment of base and incentive salary support that rewards productivity. Ongoing performance improvement and monitoring was incorporated into the model. A model for sustainable support of hematology/oncology faculty and divisions was developed that was transparent, flexible, and had buy-in from both the faculty and departmental/school administration. Development of the model was supported by a survey of hematology/oncology division chiefs. It is possible to reorganize a faculty practice and salary structure to achieve a mission-focused, productivity-based paradigm. Although the model described is specifically targeted at academic hematology and medical oncology divisions, with modification, it could serve as a framework for other departments or throughout schools of medicine.

  14. A model for university-based international plastic surgery collaboration builds local sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, William Tyler; Agbenorku, Pius; Olson, Joshua; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Agarwal, Jayant P; Rockwell, William Bradford

    2015-04-01

    This article aimed to assess the sustainability from collaboration between international plastic surgery consultants and a hospital of a developing country in the promotion and delivery of quality health care to the local population. Humanitarian medical missions have evolved in structure and volume during the last 40 years. Medical mission trips were initially designed to treat local populations and help decrease the burden of disease. A limited number of the local population benefited from the mission. Some mission trips evolved from not only treating the local population but also teaching local physicians. These trips produced some local sustainability. Host physicians carried on a broader range of care after the mission trip had departed. Further evolution of these medical trips involves not only care and teaching but also involvement of host medical students and residents. Regularly scheduled Internet-based consultations and educational conferences expand the educational opportunities. The sustainability of medical trips based on this model is maximized. This process still has limitations: a limited number of the local population are treated during the in-country 1-week visits, Internet reliability may limit the transmission or quality of conferences, and differences in hospital resource availability may limit transference of US techniques to other hospitals.

  15. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  16. New concept of aging care architecture landscape design based on sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    As the aging problem becoming serious in China, Aging care is now one of the top issuer in front of all of us. Lots of private and public aging care architecture and facilities have been built. At present, we only pay attention to the architecture design and interior design scientific, ecological and sustainable design on aged care architecture landscape. Based on the social economy, population resources, mutual coordination and development of the environment, taking the elderly as the special group, this paper follows the principles of the sustainable development, conducts the comprehensive design planning of aged care landscape architecture and makes a deeper understanding and exploration through changing the form of architectural space, ecological landscape planting, new materials and technology, ecological energy utilization.

  17. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster's mitigation communication and education strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  18. KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY VS. SUSTAINABLE AGRO-FOOD SYSTEMS; BEST PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Beatrice PĂUNA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge based economy, found in more than one fields, started – considering agriculture – from a transition premise towards sustainable agro-food systems. The conceptual boundaries between the two major paradigms on sustainable development of agriculture, namely the agro-industrial paradigm and the integrated territorial paradigm, is used nowadays for teaching and research purpose, as a comparison basis with an ideal case, mostly because we only have hybrid models which tend to coexist, always improving the food and goods production, also promoting innovative agro-food systems. This paper highlights the idea that the establishment of an institutional and legal framework, will have a catalytic role acting as an engine of economic growth and boosting the development of agricultural systems by mobilizing entrepreneurs in agriculture and related areas. In this regard, we present best practices of economic actors engaged in meta network of agriculture clusters.

  19. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani, E-mail: nova.zp@gmail.com, E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id [Visual Communication Design Study Program, Faculty of Art and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  20. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  1. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  2. Sustaining area-based initiatives by developing appropriate "anchors": the role of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Roy, Parama; Leonardsen, Oystein

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘anchoring,’ understood as the process of building project-based organizational networks, or ‘anchors’, in order to sustain the efforts of area-based initiatives (ABIs) after they leave their targeted neighbourhoods. Drawing on the scholarly literature on social capital...... and an empirical examination of three different cases from an ABI in Copenhagen, the paper highlights why and how particular models of ‘anchors’ develop in specific local contexts. We conclude by emphasizing the value of the lens of social capital, particularly, in the ABIs’ strategic efforts towards ‘anchoring’....

  3. Making Nature-based Tourism Contribute to Sustainable Development: A Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Laarman; Hans Gregersen

    1994-01-01

    Revenues from ecotourism or nature-based tourism in 1988 were estimated as one-fourth the total of some $55 billion earned from tourism in developing countries. Ecotourism provides substantial flows of hard currencies to several economies of the developming world.

  4. An Integrated Web-Based 3d Modeling and Visualization Platform to Support Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirebrahimi, S.; Rajabifard, A.

    2012-07-01

    Sustainable Development is found as the key solution to preserve the sustainability of cities in oppose to ongoing population growth and its negative impacts. This is complex and requires a holistic and multidisciplinary decision making. Variety of stakeholders with different backgrounds also needs to be considered and involved. Numerous web-based modeling and visualization tools have been designed and developed to support this process. There have been some success stories; however, majority failed to bring a comprehensive platform to support different aspects of sustainable development. In this work, in the context of SDI and Land Administration, CSDILA Platform - a 3D visualization and modeling platform -was proposed which can be used to model and visualize different dimensions to facilitate the achievement of sustainability, in particular, in urban context. The methodology involved the design of a generic framework for development of an analytical and visualization tool over the web. CSDILA Platform was then implemented via number of technologies based on the guidelines provided by the framework. The platform has a modular structure and uses Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is capable of managing spatial objects in a 4D data store and can flexibly incorporate a variety of developed models using the platform's API. Development scenarios can be modeled and tested using the analysis and modeling component in the platform and the results are visualized in seamless 3D environment. The platform was further tested using number of scenarios and showed promising results and potentials to serve a wider need. In this paper, the design process of the generic framework, the implementation of CSDILA Platform and technologies used, and also findings and future research directions will be presented and discussed.

  5. Sustainable employability--definition, conceptualization, and implications: A perspective based on the capability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klink, Jac J L; Bültmann, Ute; Burdorf, Alex; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Abma, Femke I; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values. Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and employability, we concluded that prevailing models lack an emphasis on important work-related values. Amartya Sen's capability approach (CA) provides a framework that incorporates a focus on values and reflects the complexity of sustainable employability. We developed a model of sustainable employability based on the CA. This model can be used as starting point for developing an assessment tool to investigate sustainable employability. A fundamental premise of the CA is that work should create value for the organization as well as for the worker. This approach challenges researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners to investigate what people find important and valuable--what they would like to achieve in a given (work) context--and moreover to ascertain whether people are able and enabled to do so. According to this approach, it is not only the individual who is responsible for achieving this; the work context is also important. Rather than merely describing relationships between variables, as existing descriptive models often do, the CA depicts a valuable goal: a set of capabilities that constitute valuable work. Moreover, the CA fits well with recent conceptions of health and modern insights into work, in which the individual works towards his or her own goals that s/he has to achieve within the broader goals of the organization.

  6. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  7. An efficient and more sustainable one-step continuous-flow multicomponent synthesis approach to chromene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a continuous ...

  8. Sustainability of community based family planning services: experience from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, Shimeles; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    The important role of active Community Based Reproductive Health Services (CBRHS), formerly known us Community Based Distribution (CBD) of family planning program, in increasing contraceptive uptake has been reported from several studies. However, the sustainability of project based services has not been documented in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of community based Family planning services in rural communities of Ethiopia. The study was carried out in three sets of 30 peasant villages selected from five districts of Eastern Showa Zone in Ethiopia. Comparison was made between never former; and current CBRHS areas. Relevant information was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents were women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years). Knowledge about contraception was higher in both former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 6.89 (4.69, 10.17) and 12.48 (7.84, 20.25)], respectively. Ever use of modern contraception was significantly greater among women from former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS communities [MH-OR (95% CI) = 3.75 (2.54, 5.97) and 5.72 (3.93, 9.39), respectively]. Current use of modern contraception methods was however significantly better only in current CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 2.42; (1.16, 5.37)]; there was no statistically significant difference with former CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 1.13; (0.51, 2.49)]. Results of this study indicate that the effect of CBRHS in raising the level of modern contraception use in rural communities is transient. In order to sustain the effects of a good community based family planning services appropriate mechanisms must be designed to motivate and enable women to continuously utilize the services.

  9. Ecosystem's Modeling of Bhoj Wetland - A Base For Economic Valuation and Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Bakshi, N.; Nair, R.

    terms of productivity losses and health impacts? How feedback can be taken from these impacts to revise or develop management policies and to seek participation of stakeholders to check wet- land degradation or losses? What type of benefits accrues to people from this wetland? What is the willingness of the people to pay to conserve this important water body? Lake degradation is due to multiple causes hence lakeSs restoration requires multi- ple interventions. To suggest such interventions and above all their prioritizations, an 1 ecosystem model for the lake has been developed following the systemSs dynamics approach. The main objective of the Ecosystem Modeling of the wetland was to under- stand the changes in the hydrology of the wetland first on account of certain changes in the conditions of the surroundings such that valuation process can be followed with current and future scenarios of the lakes hydrology in hand. A sophisticated computer software called as STELLA was used for the modeling exercise. The model used wa- ter quality parameters to show the impact of flow of sewage on dissolved oxygen, bio-chemical oxygen demand, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, bacterial count and growth of weeds. A base scenario has been created and various simulation runs have been performed for the pre and ongoing restoration activities for next 25 years so as to represent the health of the wetlandSs ecosystem. These scenarios have then been used in the valuation exercise to estimate the conservation value of the lake. Various valuation techniques like contingent valuation, production function approach, hedonic pricing and supply cost have been used to capture the economic values as perceived by different stakeholders. These scenarios and the valuation exercises further throw light on the prioritization of future policy intervention for sustainable management of this urban wetland. Key words: Ecosystem Services, Water Quality Parameters, EcosystemSs Modeling, Economic

  10. Beyond Apprenticeship: Knowledge Brokers and Sustainability of Apprentice-Based Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge learning and diffusion have long been discussed in the literature on the dynamics of industrial clusters, but recent literature provides little evidence for how different actors serve as knowledge brokers in the upgrading process of apprentice-based clusters, and does not dynamically consider how to preserve the sustainability of these clusters. This paper uses empirical evidence from an antique furniture manufacturing cluster in Xianyou, Fujian Province, in southeastern China, to examine the growth trajectory of the knowledge learning system of an antique furniture manufacturing cluster. It appears that the apprentice-based learning system is crucial during early stages of the cluster evolution, but later becomes complemented and relatively substituted by the role of both local governments and focal outsiders. This finding addresses the context of economic transformation and provides empirical insights into knowledge acquisition in apprentice-based clusters to question the rationality based on European and North American cases, and to provide a broader perspective for policy makers to trigger and sustain the development of apprentice-based clusters.

  11. Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to theirhigh sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-timedetection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase theenzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower thedetection limits. These approaches are based on (i the design of novel matrices for enzymeimmobilisation, (ii new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes includingminiaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii the useof cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modifiedwith the aim of being more sensitive, (iv the incorporation of other highly specificenzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH or parathion hydrolase (PH and (v thecombination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses thesenovel strategies and their advantages and limitations.

  12. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Nourgaliev; Mark Christon; J. Bakosi

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL) for thermal-hydraulics applications ranging from grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) to multiphase flow subcooled boiling. Currently, Hydra-TH is based on the semi-implicit projection method, which provides an excellent platform for simulation of transient single-phase thermalhydraulics problems. This algorithm however is not efficient when applied for very slow or steady-state problems, as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant to nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require fully-implicit tightly-coupling algorithms. The major technical contribution of the present report is the formulation of fully-implicit projection algorithm which will fulfill this purpose. This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques.

  13. Maximum flow-based resilience analysis: From component to system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong; Li, Ruiying; Kang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel’s resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system. A Monte Carlo-based simulation method is also provided to verify the correctness of our analytic resilience models and to analyze the resilience of networked systems based on that of components. A road network example is used to illustrate the analysis process, and the resilience comparison among networks with different topologies but the same components indicates that a system with redundant performance is usually more resilient than one without redundant performance. However, not all redundant capacities of components can improve the system resilience, the effectiveness of the capacity redundancy depends on where the redundant capacity is located. PMID:28545135

  14. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  15. A Community-based Partnership for a Sustainable GNSS Geodetic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Geodetic networks offer unparalleled opportunities to monitor and understand many of the rhythms of the Earth most vital to the sustainability of modern and future societies, i.e., crustal motions, sea-level, and the weather. For crustal deformation studies, the advantage is clear. Modern measurements allow us to document not only the permanent strains incurred over a seismic cycle, for example, but also the ephemeral strains that are critical for understanding the underlying physical mechanism. To be effective for science, however, geodetic networks must be properly designed, capitalized, and maintained over sufficient time intervals to fully capture the processes in action. Unfortunately, most networks lack interoperability and lack a business plan to ensure long term sustainability. The USA, for example, lacks a unified nation-wide GNSS network that can sustain its self over the coming years, decades, and century. Current federal priorities do not yet envision such a singular network. Publicly and privately funded regional networks exist, but tend to be parochial in scope, and optimized for a special user community, e.g., surveying, crustal motions, etc. Data sharing is common, but the lack of input at the beginning limits the functionality of the system for non-primary users. Funding for private networks depend heavily on the user demand, business cycle, and regulatory requirements. Agencies funding science networks offer no guarantee of sustained support. An alternative model (GULFNet) developed in Louisiana is meeting user needs, is sustainable, and is helping engineers, surveyors, and geologists become more spatially enabled. The common denominator among all participants is the view that accurate, precise, and timely geodetic data have tangible value for all segments of society. Although operated by a university (LSU), GULFNet is a community-based partnership between public and private sectors. GULFNet simultaneously achieves scientific goals by providing

  16. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shamie, Jack S; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage...

  17. Regionalisation of the base flow index from dynamically simulated flow components — a case study in the Elbe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, U.; Klöcking, B.; Krysanova, V.; Becker, A.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates possibilities for the regionalisation of flow components within large river basins. One main purpose is the derivation of an empirical relationship for the estimation of the average base flow index (i.e. the ratio of base flow to total flow, BFI), which can be included into simplified models in form of decision support systems aimed at rapid integrated water resources assessment. Based on results from the hydrological models ARC/EGMO and HBV in 25 mesoscale sub basins of the macroscale Elbe River Basin, the modelled BFI is regionalised for the whole German part of the Elbe Basin, divided into 114 subbasins. For regionalisation of the average BFI multiple regression (MREG) and two geostatistical approaches (ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK)) are applied using different physical catchment attributes and observed climate data as independent variables. The average base flow index is strongly related to topographical, pedological, hydrogeological and precipitation characteristics and less influenced by land cover/land use properties of the catchments. As indicated by cross validations, both EDK and MREG are suitable for regionalising the BFI with coefficients of determination of 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. Furthermore, the plausibility of the estimated BFI values is shown by comparisons with parameters calculated from statistical and fractal analysis of daily flow time series, which represent a strong relation to the regionalised BFI values.

  18. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Ganfeng; Pähtz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets o...

  19. Innovative Production Scheduling with Customer Satisfaction Based Measurement for the Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Oh Shim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems for the sustainability of manufacturing firms in the era of the fourth industrial revolution is addressed in this research. In terms of open innovation, innovative production scheduling can be defined as scheduling using big data, cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing, mobile network, and so on. In this environment, one of the most important things is to develop an innovative scheduling algorithm for the sustainability of manufacturing firms. In this research, a flexible flowshop scheduling problem is considered with the properties of sequence-dependent setup and different process plans for jobs. In a flexible flowshop, there are serial workstations with multiple pieces of equipment that are able to process multiple lots simultaneously. Since the scheduling in this workshop is known to be extremely difficult, it is important to devise an efficient and effective scheduling algorithm. In this research, a heuristic algorithm is proposed based on a few dispatching rules and economic lot size model with the objective of minimizing total tardiness of orders. For the purposes of performance evaluation, a simulation study is conducted on randomly generated problem instances. The results imply that our proposed method outperforms the existing ones, and greatly enhances the sustainability of manufacturing firms.

  20. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  1. Dynamic material flow analysis to support sustainable built environment development : with case studies on Chinese housing stock dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Mingming

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability challenges raised by built environment development are two-folds: on the inflow side these include resource depletion and emission problems due to material production (pre-use); on the outflow side they include problems of construction and demolition waste (after-use). Understanding

  2. Biobutanol as a Potential Sustainable Biofuel - Assessment of Lignocellulosic and Waste-based Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Niemisto; Paula Saavalainen; Eva Pongracz; Riitta L. Keiski

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol. European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is perform...

  3. Entropy-viscosity based LES of turbulent flow in a flexible pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Xie, Fangfang; Triantafyllou, Michael; Constantinides, Yiannis; Karniadakis, George

    2016-11-01

    We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent flow in a flexible pipe conveying incompressible fluid. We are interested in quantifying the flow-structure interaction in terms of mean quantities and their variances. For the LES, we employ an Entropy Viscosity Method (EVM), implemented in a spectral element code. In previous work, we investigated laminar flow and studied the complex interaction between structural and internal flow dynamics and obtained a phase diagram of the transition between states as function of three non-dimensional quantities: the fluid-tension parameter, the dimensionless fluid velocity, and the Reynolds number. Here we extend our studies in the turbulence regime, Re from 5,000 to 50,000. The motion of the flexible pipe affects greatly the turbulence statistics of the pipe flow, with substantial differences for free (self-sustained) vibrations and prescribed (forced) vibrations.

  4. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sherwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  5. Recirculation: A New Concept to Drive Innovation in Sustainable Product Design for Bio-Based Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James; Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Herrero-Davila, Lorenzo; Moity, Laurianne

    2016-12-29

    Bio-based products are made from renewable materials, offering a promising basis for the production of sustainable chemicals, materials, and more complex articles. However, biomass is not a limitless resource or one without environmental and social impacts. Therefore, while it is important to use biomass and grow a bio-based economy, displacing the unsustainable petroleum basis of energy and chemical production, any resource must be used effectively to reduce waste. Standards have been developed to support the bio-based product market in order to achieve this aim. However, the design of bio-based products has not received the same level of attention. Reported here are the first steps towards the development of a framework of understanding which connects product design to resource efficiency. Research and development scientists and engineers are encouraged to think beyond simple functionality and associate value to the potential of materials in their primary use and beyond.

  6. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance...

  7. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua

    2018-01-24

    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  8. The subpixel resolution of optical-flow-based modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javh, Jaka; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2017-05-01

    This research looks at the possibilities for full-field, non-contact, displacement measurements based on high-speed video analyses. A simplified gradient-based optical flow method, optimised for subpixel harmonic displacements, is used to predict the resolution potential. The simplification assumes an image-gradient linearity, producing a linear relation between the light intensity and the displacement in the direction of the intensity gradient. The simplicity of the method enables each pixel or small subset to be viewed as a sensor. The resolution potential and the effect of noise are explored theoretically and tested in a synthetic experiment, which is followed by a real experiment. The identified displacement can be smaller than a thousandth of a pixel and subpixel displacements are recognisable, even with a high image noise. The resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio are influenced by the dynamic range of the camera, the subset size and the sampling length. Real-world experiments were performed to validate and demonstrate the method using a monochrome high-speed camera. One-dimensional mode shapes of a steel beam are recognisable even at the maximum displacement amplitude of 0.0008 pixel (equal to 0.2 μm) and multiple out-of-plane mode shapes are recognisable from the high-speed video of a vibrating cymbal.

  9. Model-based control of transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moarref, Rashad

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Dissipation of kinetic energy by turbulent flow around airplanes, ships, and submarines increases resistance to their motion (drag). In this dissertation, we have designed flow control strategies for enhancing performance of vehicles and other systems involving turbulent flows. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly numerical simulations and experiments, we have developed control-oriented models of wall-bounded shear flows that enable simulation-free and computationally-efficient design of flow controllers. Model-based approach to flow control design has been motivated by the realization that progressive loss of robustness and consequential noise amplification initiate the departure from the laminar flow. In view of this, we have used the Navier-Stokes equations with uncertainty linearized around the laminar flow as a control-oriented model for transitional flows and we have shown that reducing the sensitivity of fluctuations to external disturbances represents a powerful paradigm for preventing transition. In addition, we have established that turbulence modeling in conjunction with judiciously selected linearization of the flow with control can be used as a powerful control-oriented model for turbulent flows. We have illustrated the predictive power of our model-based control design in three concrete problems: preventing transition by (i) a sensorless strategy based on traveling waves and (ii) an optimal state-feedback controller based on local flow information; and (iii) skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows by transverse wall oscillations. We have developed analytical and computational tools based on perturbation analysis (in the control amplitude) for control design by means of spatially- and temporally- periodic flow manipulation in problems (i) and (iii), respectively. In problem (ii), we have utilized tools for designing structured optimal state

  10. Can Joint Forest Management Programme Sustain Rural Life: A Livelihood Analysis from Community-based Forest Management Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nimai

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study assesses the impact of community-based initiative under gender sensitive joint forest management (JFM) programme on sustainable rural livelihoods (SRL) across the socio-economic groups of forest fringe community based on JFM and non-JFM villages. The study suggests that strong livelihood sustainability criteria within the SRL framework meets for all marginal landholding and landless categories of households, which live below poverty line and that are almost dependent on f...

  11. Optic-flow based slope estimation for autonomous landing

    OpenAIRE

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Ho, H.W.; De Wagter, C.; Van Kampen, E.; Remes, B.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles need to have a robust landing capability, especially when they operate outside line-of-sight. Autonomous landing requires the identification of a relatively flat landing surface that does not have too large an inclination. In this article, a vision algorithm is introduced that fits a second-order approximation to the optic flow field underlying the optic flow vectors in images from a bottom camera. The flow field provides information on the ventral flow (vx/h), the time-to-...

  12. Agro-designing: sustainability-driven, vision-oriented, problem preventing and knowledge-based methodology for improving farming systems sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko; Goewie, Eric

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT While classical research focuses to problem solving, design is a problem- prevention methodology, and is suitable for multi- and and interdisciplinary research teams with the vision of how to improve the agricultural sustainability. Since organic agriculture is based on the holistic approach and is also problem-prevention oriented in that it refrains from certain inputs and practices, design is an interesting methodology that could be applied more often in organic agriculture. ...

  13. Correlation-based Transition Modeling for External Aerodynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medida, Shivaji

    Conventional turbulence models calibrated for fully turbulent boundary layers often over-predict drag and heat transfer on aerodynamic surfaces with partially laminar boundary layers. A robust correlation-based model is developed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to predict laminar-to-turbulent transition onset of boundary layers on external aerodynamic surfaces. The new model is derived from an existing transition model for the two-equation k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model, and is coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The transition model solves two transport equations for intermittency and transition momentum thickness Reynolds number. Experimental correlations and local mean flow quantities are used in the model to account for effects of freestream turbulence level and pressure gradients on transition onset location. Transition onset is triggered by activating intermittency production using a vorticity Reynolds number criterion. In the new model, production and destruction terms of the intermittency equation are modified to improve consistency in the fully turbulent boundary layer post-transition onset, as well as ensure insensitivity to freestream eddy viscosity value specified in the SA model. In the original model, intermittency was used to control production and destruction of turbulent kinetic energy. Whereas, in the new model, only the production of eddy viscosity in SA model is controlled, and the destruction term is not altered. Unlike the original model, the new model does not use an additional correction to intermittency for separation-induced transition. Accuracy of drag predictions are improved significantly with the use of the transition model for several two-dimensional single- and multi-element airfoil cases over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The new model is able to predict the formation of stable and long laminar separation bubbles on low-Reynolds number airfoils that

  14. Indicator-based approach to assess sustainability of current and projected water use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, I.; Kim, I., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Recently occurred failures in water supply system derived from lacking rainfall in Korea has raised severe concerns about limited water resources exacerbated by anthropogenic drivers as well as climatic changes. Since Korea is under unprecedented changes in both social and environmental aspects, it is required to integrate social and environmental changes as well as climate factors in order to consider underlying problems and their upcoming impacts on sustainable water use. In this study, we proposed a framework to assess multilateral aspects in sustainable water use in support of performance-based monitoring. The framework is consisted of four thematic indices (climate, infrastructure, pollution, and management capacity) and subordinate indicators. Second, in order to project future circumstances, climate variability, demographic, and land cover scenarios to 2050 were applied after conducting statistical analysis identifying correlations between indicators within the framework since water crisis are caused by numerous interrelated factors. Assessment was conducted throughout 161 administrative boundaries in Korea at the time of 2010, 2030, and 2050. Third, current and future status in water use were illustrated using GIS-based methodology and statistical clustering (K-means and HCA) to elucidate spatially explicit maps and to categorize administrative regions showing similar phenomenon in the future. Based on conspicuous results shown in spatial analysis and clustering method, we suggested policy implementations to navigate local communities to decide which countermeasures should be supplemented or adopted to increase resiliency to upcoming changes in water use environments.

  15. Community-based health information technology alliances: potential predictors of early sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lisa M; Wilcox, Adam B; Shapiro, Jason; Yoon-Flannery, Kahyun; Abramson, Erika; Barron, Yolanda; Kaushal, Rainu

    2011-04-01

    To determine potential predictors of sustainability among community-based organizations that are implementing health information technology (HIT) with health information exchange, in a state with significant funding of such organizations. A longitudinal cohort study of community-based organizations funded through the first phase of the $440 million Healthcare Efficiency and Affordability Law for New Yorkers program. We administered a baseline telephone survey in January and February 2007, using a novel instrument with open-ended questions, and collected follow-up data from the New York State Department of Health regarding subsequent funding awarded in March 2008. We used logistic regression to determine associations between 18 organizational characteristics and subsequent funding. All 26 organizations (100%) responded. Having the alliance led by a health information organization (odds ratio [OR] 11.4, P = .01) and having performed a community-based needs assessment (OR 5.1, P = .08) increased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. Having the intervention target the long-term care setting (OR 0.14, P = .03) decreased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. In the multivariate model, having the alliance led by a health information organization, rather than a healthcare organization, increased the odds of subsequent funding (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% confidence interval 0.8, 52.6; P = .08). Results from this longitudinal study suggest that both health information organizations and healthcare organizations are needed for sustainable HIT transformation.

  16. Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Wiegerink

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.

  17. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro Coriolis flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Katerberg, M.R.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 2 g/h (for water at a pressure drop of 2 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 ºC is below 1 mg/h/ºC. The meter is robust,

  18. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro coriolis flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; van de Geest, Jan; Katerberg, Marcel; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1

  19. Assessment of myocardial viability using 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid at sustained low flow or after acute infarction and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J Y; Ruiz, M; Calnon, D A; Watson, D D; Beller, G A; Glover, D K

    1999-05-01

    123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic fatty acid that may be useful for determination of myocardial viability. We investigated the uptake and clearance kinetics of this tracer in canine models of ischemia and infarction. In protocol 1, 185 MBq (5 mCi) 123I-IPPA were injected intravenously in 19 dogs with 50% left anterior descending artery (LAD) flow reduction. In 9 dogs, 201TI was coinjected. In protocol 2, 5 dogs underwent LAD occlusion for 3 h, and 123I-IPPA was injected 60 min after reperfusion. All dogs had flow measured by microspheres, regional systolic thickening by ultrasonic crystals and measurements of postmortem risk area and infarct size. Tracer activities were quantified by gamma well counting and by serial imaging. In protocol 1 dogs with sustained low flow (50% +/- 4%) and absence of systolic thickening (-3.2% +/- 1%), 123I-IPPA defect magnitude (LAD/left circumflex artery [LCX] count ratios) decreased from 0.65 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.02 at 30 min and to 0.84 +/- 0.03 at 2 h (P IPPA LAD/LCX activity ratio (0.99 +/- 0.05) was significantly greater than the flow ratio (0.53 +/- 0.04) at injection, confirming complete rest redistribution. The final 123I-IPPA activity ratio was significantly greater than the 201TI ratio over the 2-h period (P IPPA, because uptake averaged 64% of normal in the central necrotic region, where flow averaged IPPA imaging may be useful for assessing myocardial viability under conditions of sustained low flow and myocardial asynergy, such as appears to exist in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and depressed left ventricular function. In contrast, 123I-IPPA given early after reperfusion following prolonged coronary occlusion overestimates the degree of viability and therefore may not provide useful information pertaining to the degree of myocardial salvage after reflow in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

  20. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  1. THE COOPERATIVE WORK AND FAMILY FARMING ECOLOGICALLY BASED: ACTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM THE LOCAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana da Silva Andersson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the associated farmers to Cooperativa Sul Ecológica de Agricultores Familiares Ltda., and to understand the organization of the cooperative institution. For this, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the family farmers ecological base and development agents along Cooperative, together the use of secondary sources. Since the Cooperative presents their work ethics and press for horizontal beginning, it allows collective decision making. In addition, your audience - family farmers ecological base - has an active history of sustainable and cooperative work. Therefore, we can measure both the public research on the family farm as the institution Cooperativa Sul Ecológica actual actions and what Costabeber & Caporal established as ecologically based agriculture.

  2. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  3. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  4. An oxysulfate Fe₂O(SO₄)₂ electrode for sustainable Li-based batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meiling; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Abakumov, Artem M; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Courty, Matthieu; Doublet, Marie-Liesse; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2014-09-10

    High-performing Fe-based electrodes for Li-based batteries are eagerly pursued because of the abundance and environmental benignity of iron, with especially great interest in polyanionic compounds because of their flexibility in tuning the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox potential. We report herein the synthesis and structure of a new Fe-based oxysulfate phase, Fe2O(SO4)2, made at low temperature from abundant elements, which electrochemically reacts with nearly 1.6 Li atoms at an average voltage of 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li, leading to a sustained reversible capacity of ≈125 mAh/g. The Li insertion-deinsertion process, the first ever reported in any oxysulfate, entails complex phase transformations associated with the position of iron within the FeO6 octahedra. This finding opens a new path worth exploring in the quest for new positive electrode materials.

  5. Holistic and sustainable health improvement: the contribution of the settings-based approach to health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Highlighting the need for holistic and sustainable health improvement, this paper starts by reviewing the origins, history and conceptualization of the settings approach to health promotion. It then takes stock of current practice both internationally and nationally, noting its continuing importance worldwide and its inconsistent profile and utilization across the four UK countries. It goes on to explore the applicability and future development of settings-based health promotion in relation to three key issues: inequalities and inclusion; place-shaping and systems-based responses to complex problems. Concluding that the settings approach remains highly relevant to 21st century public health, the paper calls on the new "Royal" to provide much-needed leadership, thereby placing settings-based health promotion firmly on the national agenda across the whole of the UK.

  6. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A Palinkas

    Full Text Available This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs in Mexico.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs.Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1 characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2 characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs, including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3 characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4 characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization's central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5 outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention.Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected.

  7. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rafful, Claudia M.; Um, Mee Young; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs. Results Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1) characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2) characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs), including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3) characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4) characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization’s central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5) outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention. Conclusions Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected. PMID:26517265

  8. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Practices for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rafful, Claudia M; Um, Mee Young; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Staines, Hugo; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined service provider perceptions of requirements for successful sustainment of an efficacious intervention for preventing HIV/AIDS and STIs in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 77 leaders and counselors from 12 community-based reproductive health clinics located throughout Mexico participating in a large hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial to scale-up the use of Mujer Segura, a psychoeducational intervention designed to promote condom use and enhance safer sex negotiation skills among FSWs. Five sets of requirements for sustainment were identified: 1) characteristics of the provider, including competence in delivering the intervention, need for continued technical support and assistance from outside experts, and satisfaction with addressing the needs of this population; 2) characteristics of the clients (i.e., FSWs), including client need and demand for services and incentives for participation; 3) characteristics of the organization, including its mission, benefits, and operations; 4) characteristics of the outer setting, including financial support and relationship with the community-based organization's central offices, and transportation and security in areas where FSWs live and work; and 5) outcomes associated with the intervention itself, including a reduction of risk through education and increased outreach through referrals from FSWs who received the intervention. Although the requirements for successful sustainment of interventions like Mujer Segura are consistent with the factors identified in many models of implementation, the results illustrate the importance of local context in assigning priority to these model elements and suggest that the five categories are not discrete entities but interconnected.

  9. Simulation-based patient flow analysis in an endoscopy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koo, Pyung-Hoi; Nielsen, Karl Brian; Jang, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    , low quality of care and high healthcare cost. This article addresses patient flow problems at a Gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. We attempt to analyze the main factors that contribute to the inefficient patient flow and process bottlenecks and to propose efficient patient scheduling and staff...

  10. Large-Eddy-Simulation-based analysis of complex flow structures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taimoor Asim

    such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), where the flow within centrifugal pumps can be numerically modelled and important flow features can be analysed for better understanding of interactions amongst different process variables. CFD offers different turbulence modelling techniques with an aim to predict realistic ...

  11. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  12. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  13. Fifth Graders' Flow Experience in a Digital Game-Based Science Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Meixun; Spires, Hiller A.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined 73 5th graders' flow experience in a game-based science learning environment using two gameplay approaches (solo and collaborative gameplay). Both survey and focus group interview findings revealed that students had high flow experience; however, there were no flow experience differences that were contingent upon…

  14. Parallel Implementation of a Frozen Flow Based Wavefront Reconstructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, J.; Kelly, K.

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining high resolution images of space objects from ground based telescopes is challenging, often requiring the use of a multi-frame blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithm to remove blur caused by atmospheric turbulence. In order for an MFBD algorithm to be effective, it is necessary to obtain a good initial estimate of the wavefront phase. Although wavefront sensors work well in low turbulence situations, they are less effective in high turbulence, such as when imaging in daylight, or when imaging objects that are close to the Earth's horizon. One promising approach, which has been shown to work very well in high turbulence settings, uses a frozen flow assumption on the atmosphere to capture the inherent temporal correlations present in consecutive frames of wavefront data. Exploiting these correlations can lead to more accurate estimation of the wavefront phase, and the associated PSF, which leads to more effective MFBD algorithms. However, with the current serial implementation, the approach can be prohibitively expensive in situations when it is necessary to use a large number of frames. In this poster we describe a parallel implementation that overcomes this constraint. The parallel implementation exploits sparse matrix computations, and uses the Trilinos package developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Trilinos provides a variety of core mathematical software for parallel architectures that have been designed using high quality software engineering practices, The package is open source, and portable to a variety of high-performance computing architectures.

  15. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  16. Sustained release gastroretentive tablet of metformin hydrochloride based on poly (acrylic acid)-grafted-gellan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debjani; Nandi, Gouranga; Changder, Abhijit; Hudati, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Sayani; Ghosh, Lakshmi Kanta

    2017-03-01

    Development of a gastroretentive sustained release tablet of metformin based on poly (acrylic acid)-grafted-gellan (PAAc-g-GG) is the main purpose of this study. At first, PAAc-g-GG was synthesized by microwave-promoted free radical initiation method using cerric (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) as redox initiator and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, DSC-TGA, (13)C NMR, biodegradation and viscosity study. The synthetic parameters were optimized by 2(3) full factorial design using Design Expert software. Acute oral toxicity and histological studies were also performed as per OECD guideline. Tablets were then prepared employing wet granulation method using PAAc-g-GG and evaluated for various physical characters, in vitro drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesion and swelling. Compatibility between drug and excipients was checked by DSC and FTIR analysis. The F3 batch showed excellent mucoadhesion and sustained drug release over a period of 10h with dissolution similarity factor, f2=77.43. Kinetic modeling unveiled Case-1 Fickian diffusion based drug release mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Land-based production of animal protein: impacts, efficiency, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cross, H Russell

    2014-11-01

    Land-based production of high-quality protein by livestock and poultry plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, and health, as well as economical and social developments worldwide. With exponential growth of the global population and marked rises in meat consumption per capita, demands for animal-source protein are expected to increase by 72% between 2013 and 2050. This raises concerns about the sustainability and environmental impacts of animal agriculture. An attractive solution to meeting the increasing needs for animal products and mitigating undesired effects of agricultural practices is to enhance the efficiency of animal growth, reproduction, and lactation. Breeding techniques may help achieve this goal, but have only met with limited success. A promising, mechanism-based approach is to optimize the proportion and amounts of amino acids in diets for maximizing whole-body protein synthesis and feed efficiency. Improvements in farm animal productivity will not only decrease the contamination of soils, groundwater, and air by excessive manure, but will also help sustain animal agriculture to produce high-quality protein for the expanding population in the face of diminishing resources. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. A Sustainable City Planning Algorithm Based on TLBO and Local Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Lin, Li; Huang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, how to design a city with more sustainable features has become a center problem in the field of social development, meanwhile it has provided a broad stage for the application of artificial intelligence theories and methods. Because the design of sustainable city is essentially a constraint optimization problem, the swarm intelligence algorithm of extensive research has become a natural candidate for solving the problem. TLBO (Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization) algorithm is a new swarm intelligence algorithm. Its inspiration comes from the “teaching” and “learning” behavior of teaching class in the life. The evolution of the population is realized by simulating the “teaching” of the teacher and the student “learning” from each other, with features of less parameters, efficient, simple thinking, easy to achieve and so on. It has been successfully applied to scheduling, planning, configuration and other fields, which achieved a good effect and has been paid more and more attention by artificial intelligence researchers. Based on the classical TLBO algorithm, we propose a TLBO_LS algorithm combined with local search. We design and implement the random generation algorithm and evaluation model of urban planning problem. The experiments on the small and medium-sized random generation problem showed that our proposed algorithm has obvious advantages over DE algorithm and classical TLBO algorithm in terms of convergence speed and solution quality.

  19. An Open Source-Based Real-Time Data Processing Architecture Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafrudin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the manufacturing industry is experiencing a data-driven revolution. There are multiple processes in the manufacturing industry and will eventually generate a large amount of data. Collecting, analyzing and storing a large amount of data are one of key elements of the smart manufacturing industry. To ensure that all processes within the manufacturing industry are functioning smoothly, the big data processing is needed. Thus, in this study an open source-based real-time data processing (OSRDP architecture framework was proposed. OSRDP architecture framework consists of several open sources technologies, including Apache Kafka, Apache Storm and NoSQL MongoDB that are effective and cost efficient for real-time data processing. Several experiments and impact analysis for manufacturing sustainability are provided. The results showed that the proposed system is capable of processing a massive sensor data efficiently when the number of sensors data and devices increases. In addition, the data mining based on Random Forest is presented to predict the quality of products given the sensor data as the input. The Random Forest successfully classifies the defect and non-defect products, and generates high accuracy compared to other data mining algorithms. This study is expected to support the management in their decision-making for product quality inspection and support manufacturing sustainability.

  20. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  1. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  2. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...... access blood flow measured before and after every procedure. Two methods, catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound, were compared to the reference method of ultrasound dilution. Catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound were performed during the endovascular procedures while flow...

  3. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC -FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC -FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...the Plastic -Flow Response of a Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy Under Nominally-Isothermal and Transient-Heating Hot-Working Conditions S.L

  4. Mercury flow through an Asian rice-based food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Qiu, Guangle; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Evers, David C; Goodale, Morgan W; Hintelmann, Holger; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Quan, Rui-Chang; Wang, Jin; Wu, Pianpian; Xu, Xiao-Hang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally-distributed pollutant, toxic to humans and animals. Emissions are particularly high in Asia, and the source of exposure for humans there may also be different from other regions, including rice as well as fish consumption, particularly in contaminated areas. Yet the threats Asian wildlife face in rice-based ecosystems are as yet unclear. We sought to understand how Hg flows through rice-based food webs in historic mining and non-mining regions of Guizhou, China. We measured total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, rice, 38 animal species (27 for MeHg) spanning multiple trophic levels, and examined the relationship between stable isotopes and Hg concentrations. Our results confirm biomagnification of THg/MeHg, with a high trophic magnification slope. Invertivorous songbirds had concentrations of THg in their feathers that were 15x and 3x the concentration reported to significantly impair reproduction, at mining and non-mining sites, respectively. High concentrations in specialist rice consumers and in granivorous birds, the later as high as in piscivorous birds, suggest rice is a primary source of exposure. Spiders had the highest THg concentrations among invertebrates and may represent a vector through which Hg is passed to vertebrates, especially songbirds. Our findings suggest there could be significant population level health effects and consequent biodiversity loss in sensitive ecosystems, like agricultural wetlands, across Asia, and invertivorous songbirds would be good subjects for further studies investigating this possibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adjoint-based airfoil shape optimization in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramanzini, Joe-Ray

    The primary focus of this work is efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in transonic flow. Adjoint-based optimization techniques are employed on airfoil sections and evaluated in terms of computational accuracy as well as efficiency. This study examines two test cases proposed by the AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group. The first is a two-dimensional, transonic, inviscid, non-lifting optimization of a Modified-NACA 0012 airfoil. The second is a two-dimensional, transonic, viscous optimization problem using a RAE 2822 airfoil. The FUN3D CFD code of NASA Langley Research Center is used as the ow solver for the gradient-based optimization cases. Two shape parameterization techniques are employed to study their effect and the number of design variables on the final optimized shape: Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD) and the BandAids free-form deformation technique. For the two airfoil cases, angle of attack is treated as a global design variable. The thickness and camber distributions are the local design variables for MASSOUD, and selected airfoil surface grid points are the local design variables for BandAids. Using the MASSOUD technique, a drag reduction of 72.14% is achieved for the NACA 0012 case, reducing the total number of drag counts from 473.91 to 130.59. Employing the BandAids technique yields a 78.67% drag reduction, from 473.91 to 99.98. The RAE 2822 case exhibited a drag reduction from 217.79 to 132.79 counts, a 39.05% decrease using BandAids.

  6. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  7. In Transition towards Sustainability: Bridging the Business and Education Sectors of Regional Centre of Expertise Greater Sendai Using Education for Sustainable Development-Based Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ofei-Manu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a business-school collaborative learning partnership in the Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD in Greater Sendai. This partnership is further linked to a broader context of multi-stakeholder public participation in the RCE that was set up to advance the ESD agenda in the region. The authors propose a conceptual framework for multi-stakeholder, ESD-based social learning within the RCE with the aim of enabling the creation of a sustainability-literate society. This proposal is based on the results of students’ prior experience in ESD activities, optimal age for ESD learning and future job choices presented in this paper, together with a reported article that the levels of sustainability of the two sectoral organizations were mixed and hence need improvement. The paper argues that it will be good to focus on bridging the business and education sectors by building ESD capacity of the children and youth in the formal education sector. It contends this could be done through collaborative learning using the government-mandated “Period of Integrated Studies” (PIS in the Japanese primary and secondary school curriculum. Additionally, it will be appropriate for the RCE Greater Sendai Steering Committee to facilitate and coordinate the learning processes and also promote networking and cooperative interactions among the actors and stakeholders in the region. Recommendations for improvement of the learning partnerships in RCE Greater Sendai are made for consideration at the local and national policy levels.

  8. A sustainable city environment through child safety and mobility-a challenge based on ITS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Gårder, Per; Schirokoff, Anna; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Johansson, Charlotta; Basbas, Socrates

    2014-01-01

    Our cities should be designed to accommodate everybody, including children. We will not move toward a more sustainable society unless we accept that children are people with transportation needs, and 'bussing' them around, or providing parental limousine services at all times, will not lead to sustainability. Rather, we will need to make our cities walkable for children, at least those above a certain age. Safety has two main aspects, traffic safety and personal safety (risk of assault). Besides being safe, children will also need an urban environment with reasonable mobility, where they themselves can reach destinations with reasonable effort; else they will still need to be driven. This paper presents the results of two expert questionnaires focusing on the potential safety and mobility benefits to child pedestrians of targeted types of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Five different types of functional requests for children were identified based on previous work. The first expert questionnaire was structured to collect expert opinions on which ITS solutions or devices would be, and why, the most relevant ones to satisfy the five different functional requests of child pedestrians. Based on the first questionnaire, fifteen problem areas were defined. In the second questionnaire, the experts ranked the fifteen areas, and prioritized related ITS services, according to their potential for developing ITS services beneficial to children. Several ITS systems for improving pedestrian quality are discussed. ITS services can be used when a pedestrian route takes them to a dangerous street, dangerous crossing point or through a dangerous neighborhood. An improvement of safety and other qualities would lead to increased mobility and a more sustainable way of living. Children would learn how to live to support their own health and a sustainable city environment. But it will be up to national, regional and local governments, through their ministries and agencies and

  9. Developing a Sustainable Need-Based Pediatric Acute Care Training Curriculum in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ta Yo Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Emergency Department (PED was invited to collaborate with the National Referral Hospital (NRH, Solomon Islands, to establish an acute care pediatric education program for the country’s inaugural class of national medical graduate trainees.ObjectiveTo develop and evaluate a sustainable, need-based post-graduate training curriculum in pediatric acute care, resuscitation, and point-of-care ultrasound.MethodsA need-based training curriculum was developed utilizing the ADDIE model and was implemented and revised over the course of 2 years and two site visits. Implementation followed a train-the-trainer model. The curriculum consisted of high-yield didactics including workshops, simulations, hands-on ultrasound sessions, and lectures at the NRH. A mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the curriculum, including pre/posttesting, qualitative group discussions, and individual surveys. The curriculum was revised in response to ongoing learner evaluations and needs assessments. Continuing educational sessions after the site visit demonstrated sustainability.ResultsThe curriculum included 19 core topics with 42 teaching sessions during the two site visits. A total of 135 pre/posttests and 366 individual surveys were collected from 46 trainees. Completion rates were 78.2% for surveys and 71.3% for pre/posttests. Pre/posttest scores increased from 44 to 63% during the first site visit and 69.6 to 77.6% during the second. Learners reported a mean 4.81/5 on a standard Likert scale for curriculum satisfaction. Group discussions and surveys highlighted key areas of knowledge growth, important clinical care advances, and identified further needs. Initial sustainability was demonstrated by continued ultrasound sessions led by local graduate trainees.ConclusionA collaborative team including Johns Hopkins PED staff, Solomon Islands’ graduate trainees, and NRH administration initiated a professional education

  10. Dynamic Network Traffic Flow Prediction Model based on Modified Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hongying Jin; Linhao Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at effectively predicting the dynamic network traffic flow based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Firstly, the dynamic network traffic flow prediction problem is analyzed through formal description. Secondly, the structure of the network traffic flow prediction model is given. In this structure, Users can used a computer to start the traffic flow prediction process, and data collecting module can collect and return the data through the destination devi...

  11. Fusion of optical flow based motion pattern analysis and silhouette classification for person tracking and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is

  12. Estimation of the surface velocity of debris flow with computer-based spatial filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Inaba, H; Itakura, Y; Kasahara, M

    1998-09-10

    A computer-based spatial-filtering velocimeter to measure the surface velocity of natural debris flow is described. This is a simple and interesting technique implemented with a spatial filter constructed as a software program that processes the video image of debris flow instead of a hardware implementation. The surface velocity of the debris flow at the Mt. Yakedake Volcano, Japan, was estimated by this computer-based spatial-filtering method, and the results were compared with those obtained by a hardware-based spatial-filtering method. Computer-based spatial filtering has the important advantage of a capability for tuning the spatial-filter parameters to the target flow.

  13. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    ) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and conducted in cooperation with Direction Nationale de l’Energie (DNE) and Centre National de l’Energie Solaire et des Energies Renouvelables (CNESOLER) in Mali. The subcontracted institutions comprise Geographic Resource Analysis & Science A/S (GRAS), Department......The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind...... and solar resources in Mali 5) Screening of feasible applications of wind and solar energy in Mali: Assessment using the wind and solar maps for Mali The project is being carried out by a group of university departments, research institutions and consultants led by the UNEP Risø Centre (URC...

  14. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Composites Based on Recycled and Stabilized Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Besco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means of an innovative process using rice husk ash as a waste silica source, together with other fly ashes, such as coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization residues. The use of all waste materials to obtain a new filler makes the proposed technology extremely sustainable and competitive. The new composites, obtained by using the stabilized material as a filler for polypropylene, were characterized and their mechanical properties were also investigated. A comparison with a traditional polypropylene and calcium carbonate based compound was also done. This research activity was realized in the frame of the COSMOS-RICE project, financed by the EU Commission.

  15. A process synthesis-intensification framework for the development of sustainable membrane-based operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    is synthesized through the sequencing of unit operations and subsequently analyzed for identifying process hot-spots using economic, life cycle and sustainability metrics. These hot-spots are limitations/bottlenecks associated with tasks that may be targeted for overall process improvement. At the second level...... (task-scale) a task-based synthesis method is applied where one or more tasks representing unit operations are identified and analyzed in terms of means-ends for generating intensified flowsheet alternatives. At the third level (phenomena-scale) a phenomena-based synthesis method is applied, where...... the involved phenomena in various tasks are identified, manipulated and recombined to generate new and/or existing unit operations configured into flowsheet alternatives that target the tasks associated with hot-spots. Every lower-scale or higher-level, generates more alternatives than their corresponding...

  16. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  17. The Role of Place-based Education in Developing Sustainability as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conscious education and how these fairly new educational notions might assist in developing sustainability as a frame of mind. We also discuss the educational implications of practising a pedagogy of place with specific reference to sustainability.

  18. Bioenergy Potential Based on Vinasse From Ethanol Industrial Waste to Green Energy Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harihastuti Nani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste water from alcohol industry is called vinasse has a high organic content, with BOD5 = 109.038 mg / l, COD = 353.797 mg / l and TSS = 7200 mg / l, pH 4-5 with a temperature of around 40-50ºC. The current treatment of alcohol waste water, most still using facultative anaerobic technology with open ponds that are only covered with HDPE plastics. This technology produces less optimal biogas and has a weakness that is the hydraulic residence time (HRT for long (40-50 days, wide land needs, low COD reduction efficiency as well as high risk of fire and leakage of biogas release high to trigger the occurrence of greenhouse gas and global warming effects. Development of technology with innovation reactor integration model Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic Filter aims to expand the contact area between the substrate and microbial with modification of the substrate flow system and the area of the filter and integrate with the gas accumulator. The design of this Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic filter integration model technology, has the advantage of producing optimal bioenergy with CH4 more than 50% content with decrease of COD more than 85% and hydraulic residence time of about 10 (ten days, bioenergy result is renewable energy made from raw material vinasse from alcohol industrial waste which can be utilized for fuel substitution on the distillation process or boiler process of the industry in a sustainable and cleaner environment.

  19. Bioenergy Potential Based on Vinasse From Ethanol Industrial Waste to Green Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihastuti, Nani; Marlena, Bekti

    2018-02-01

    The waste water from alcohol industry is called vinasse has a high organic content, with BOD5 = 109.038 mg / l, COD = 353.797 mg / l and TSS = 7200 mg / l, pH 4-5 with a temperature of around 40-50ºC. The current treatment of alcohol waste water, most still using facultative anaerobic technology with open ponds that are only covered with HDPE plastics. This technology produces less optimal biogas and has a weakness that is the hydraulic residence time (HRT) for long (40-50 days), wide land needs, low COD reduction efficiency as well as high risk of fire and leakage of biogas release high to trigger the occurrence of greenhouse gas and global warming effects. Development of technology with innovation reactor integration model Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic Filter aims to expand the contact area between the substrate and microbial with modification of the substrate flow system and the area of the filter and integrate with the gas accumulator. The design of this Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic filter integration model technology, has the advantage of producing optimal bioenergy with CH4 more than 50% content with decrease of COD more than 85% and hydraulic residence time of about 10 (ten) days, bioenergy result is renewable energy made from raw material vinasse from alcohol industrial waste which can be utilized for fuel substitution on the distillation process or boiler process of the industry in a sustainable and cleaner environment.

  20. Lateral flow based immunobiosensors for detection of food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisossadati, Mohammad Javad; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Borna, Fazlollah; Gholamzad, Mehrdad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-15

    Safety of food is of great concern these days due to various contaminations including toxins, infectious agents and chemical contaminants. Therefore, there is a need to develop promising and user's friendly method to monitor food safety. Lateral flow tests are new, simple and rapid alternative for detection of food-borne pathogens compared with traditional methods. In this review article, we surveyed application of lateral flow biosensors in detection of different food contaminants and labels used to enhance the efficiency of the system. Finally, the unique feature of multi-parametric analysis of analytes by lateral flow device has been reported, proving a lateral flow system is able to be designed in a way to detect multiple targets, simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aircraft Proximity Maps Based on Data-Driven Flow Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the forecast increase in air traffic demand over the next decades, it is imperative to develop tools to provide traffic flow managers with the information...

  2. Improving Organizational Citizenship Behavior based on Flow Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alecxandrina Deaconu; Catalina Radu; Alexandra Mihaela Popescu

    2016-01-01

    Building on previous research on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and its influence on the performance of SMEs, this article intends to expand the investigation area to the concept of Flow and its relationship with OCB...

  3. Factors influencing base flow in the Swiss Midlands - Can results from different base flow separation methods help to identify these factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raphael; Schädler, Bruno; Viviroli, Daniel; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Base flow is a desirable entity to know, for water management in general and particularly for climate change impact studies. Base flow is most often defined as that part of total discharge which origins from delayed storages in a river catchment. During a prolonged period without rain, base flow is the sole contributor to discharge. Base flow therefore makes a river perennial. A high base flow contribution to total annual discharge makes a river more stable in respect of meteorological droughts. Annual base flow from a catchment cannot be determined exactly. Only total discharge can be measured with high accuracy. Therefore, base flow has to be estimated with appropriate methods. Calculating an entity which cannot be verified by measurements is easy. By defining the entity with a calculation procedure, the result is numerically always right. It is actually much more difficult to understand the results, i.e. how these outcomes should be interpreted. The present study investigates the application of three different base flow separation procedures for numerous (up to 40) meso-scale catchments in Switzerland. The methods Demuth (1993), Wittenberg (1999) and Institute of Hydrology (1980) are different approaches to determine base flow, based on daily runoff data. The method Demuth, and the separation of base flow according to Institute of Hydrology, are statistical methods. Demuth is based on the graphical approach of Kille (1970), and the procedure of the Institute of Hydrology is an empirical smoothing method. In contrast to this, the method by Wittenberg does not presume linearity between storage and outflow. Analyzing the results, among each other and in comparison with physiographic characteristics of the catchments under consideration, leads to a more detailed picture of the ongoing processes. At least the dominant control factors for base flow in the Swiss Midlands should be detectable. These are expected to be found first of all among geology and climate, which

  4. Sustainability assessment of roadway projects under uncertainty using Green Proforma: An index-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Umer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing environmental and socioeconomic concerns due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts have motivated decision-makers to incorporate sustainable best practices for transportation infrastructure development and management. A “sustainable” transportation infrastructure implies that all the sustainability objectives (i.e., mobility, safety, resource efficiency, economy, ecological protection, environmental quality are adequately met during the infrastructure life cycle. State-of-the-art sustainability rating tools contain the best practices for the sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects. Generally, the existing rating tools are not well equipped to handle uncertainties associated with data limitations and expert opinion and cannot effectively adapt to site specific constraints for reliable sustainability assessment. This paper presents the development of a customizable tool, called “Green Proforma” for the sustainability assessment of roadway projects under uncertainties. For evaluating how well the project meets sustainability objectives, a hierarchical framework is used to develop the sustainability objective indices by aggregating the selected indicators with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique. These indices are further aggregated to attain an overall sustainability index for a roadway project. To facilitate the decision makers, a “Roadway Project Sustainometer” has been developed to illustrate how well the roadway project is meeting its sustainability objectives. By linking the sustainability objectives to measurable indicators, the “Green Proforma” paves the way for a practical approach in sustainable planning and management of roadway projects.

  5. The Role of Place-based Education in Developing Sustainability as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) draws to an end, one could pose the question: what might education's response be to a deepening environmental crisis as we move beyond the decade? Sustainability as a frame of mind presents a different perspective to that of sustainable ...

  6. Locative Meaning-making: An Arts-based Approach to Learning for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eernstman, N.; Wals, A.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The term sustainable development is often criticized for having lost credibility due to a lack of clear-cut delineation. The same holds true for education designed to foster sustainable development often referred to as education for sustainable development (ESD). This contribution agrees that the

  7. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qian; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecolog...

  8. Using a crowdsourcing knowledge base to support the Sustainability and Social Compromise skill in Computer Science Engineering studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alier Forment, Marc; López Álvarez, David; Sánchez Carracedo, Fermín; García Almiñana, Jordi; Piguillem Poch, Jordi; Velasco Becerra, Martha Elena

    2011-01-01

    The Skill "Sustainability and Socia Commitment" is commonly accepted as essential in today's world. However it proves tricky to introduce into the curriculum, mainly because of lack of knowledgeable teachers. To address this issue we present a knowledge base that brings together scientific articles, books, videos, compilations of data, experiences, etc., related to sustainability and knowledge areas associated with computer science engineering. This is a valuable tool that should provide to t...

  9. Achieving Sustainable, Community-Based Health in Detroit Through Adaptation of the UNSDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, Alexander; Kaljee, Linda

    In 2012, the Rio+20 meeting initiated the concept of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a continuation of the Millennium Development Goals. The resulting document "The Future We Want" is best conceived as a roadmap toward poverty eradication and sustainable development. Although the SDGs were developed for low- and middle-income countries, many of these same issues face low-resource cities and communities in higher-income countries. The aim of this study was to use the SDGs as a platform to develop health-related goals for the city of Detroit. A 1-day workshop was convened in October 2015 including 55 representatives from government, academia, and community- and faith-based organizations. Four health-related SDGs were discussed: food security (SDG2); ensuring healthy lives at all ages (SDG3); access to potable water (SDG6); and making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable living environments (SDG11). Workshop attendees broke into 4 groups to determine how the SDG targets for these 4 goals could be adapted for Detroit. At the end of the day, each group presented its decisions to the larger group. Workshop participants expressed that the SDGs empower local communities to respond to their unique health challenges and to see themselves as part of a larger more global conversation about development and sustainability. Participants suggested that inclusive and participatory means of decision making were a significant component of the SDGs and that such a process is the direction needed to make community-focused changes in Detroit. Additionally, shortly after the workshop, a roundtable of participants representing 5 community partners began to meet monthly and has become an advocacy group for public health and addressing the city-order water shutoffs in neighborhoods throughout Detroit. For participants and organizers, the workshop reinforced the hypothesis that the SDGs are relevant to Detroit and other low-resource cities in the United States

  10. Novel Injectable Pentablock Copolymer Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Sustained Release Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbala, Sharan; Tamboli, Viral; McDowell, Arlene; Mitra, Ashim K; Hook, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need for multiple vaccinations to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines may be reduced by delivering the vaccine over an extended period of time. Here, we report two novel injectable pentablock copolymer based thermoresponsive hydrogels made of polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone-polylactide-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG) with varying ratios of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA), as single shot sustained release vaccines. Pentablock copolymer hydrogels were loaded with vaccine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) or with the soluble vaccine components. Incorporation of PLGA-NP into the thermoresponsive hydrogels increased the complex viscosity of the gels, lowered the gelation temperature, and minimized the burst release of antigen and adjuvants. The two pentablock hydrogels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The addition of PLGA-NP to the hydrogels sustained immune responses for up to 49 days. The polymer with a higher ratio of PCL to PLA formed a more rigid gel, induced stronger immune responses, and stimulated effective anti-tumor responses in a prophylactic melanoma tumor model.

  11. GIS based evaluation of crop suitability for agricultural sustainability around Kolaghat thermal power plant, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Subhas; Adhikari, Kalyan; Brahmachari, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    Fly ash exhaust from Kolaghat thermal power plant, West Bengal, India,?? affects the areas within the radius of 3 - 4 km. Land information system indicated that surface texture within 4 km was silty loam and clay content increased with increase of distance. Soil pH was alkaline (7.58-8.01) in affected circles, whereas soil was acidic (5.95-6.41) in rest of block. Organic carbon (OC) is roving from 0.36 to 0.64% in the nearer circles which is lesser from others. The present Crop suitability analysis revealed that 96.98 % area was suitable (S1) for maize, sesame, jute, whereas these were cultivated in less than 1% of land. Flowers are the best suitable (S1) in 88.9 % but it was grown in 6.02 % area.? The present rice area within 4 km of KTPP is showing moderately suitable (S2) and S1 for the rest. Wheat is moderately suitable (S2) in the almost all the circles.? Cultivation of vegetable crops is limited in the affected circles while the highly suitable (S1) comprises 67.49 % for the remaining areas though it covered only 6.01 % of the block.? This evaluation precisely improves more than 300% from the earlier cropping intensity of 177.95 %. Suitability based land use allocation serves as stepping stone to promote agricultural sustainability. Geographic information system (GIS) model has been developed to assess site specific crop suitability for sustainable agricultural planning.

  12. Human-Nature for Climate Action: Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Santiago Fink

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global climate change agenda proceeds at an incremental pace while the Earth is approaching critical tipping points in its development trajectory. Climate action at this pinnacle juncture needs to be greatly accelerated and rooted in the fundamentals of the problem—human beings’ disconnection from nature. This paper underscores the valuable role nature and nature-based solutions can play in addressing climate change at the city scale and its implications for broader sustainability. Urban ecosystems (nature in cities are seen as an integral part of a proposed local climate action rubric wherein policy measures and integrated planning guide lowcarbon/impact development to create more resilient and sustainable urban environments. The use of green infrastructure is highlighted as a cost-effective means to contribute to mitigation and adaptation needs as well as to promote human wellbeing. The paper takes an exploratory view of the influence of ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, and its economics in relation to the individual and society to understand how biophilia can be nurtured to promote environmental stewardship and climate action.

  13. Sustainability of market-based community distribution of Sprinkles in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Shah, Ami; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Eleveld, Alie; Patel, Minal; Stein, Aryeh D; Macdonald, Barbara; Ruth, Laird

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sustainability of market-based community distribution of micronutrient powders (Sprinkles(®), Hexagon Nutrition, Mumbai, India.) among pre-school children in Kenya, we conducted in August 2010 a follow-up survey, 18 months after study-related marketing and household monitoring ended. We surveyed 849 children aged 6-35 months randomly selected from 60 study villages. Nutritional biomarkers were measured by fingerstick; demographic characteristics, Sprinkles purchases and use were assessed through household questionnaires. We compared Sprinkles use, marketing efforts and biomarker levels with the data from surveys conducted in March 2007, March 2008 and March 2009. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between marketing activities and Sprinkles use in the 2010 survey. At the 2010 follow-up, 21.9% of children used Sprinkles in the previous 7 days, compared with 64.9% in 2008 (P anaemia and malaria (P iron deficiency (P = 0.44), compared with that in 2008. Sprinkles use in 2010 was associated with decreased iron deficiency (P = 0.03). Sprinkles coverage reduced after stopping household monitoring and reducing marketing activities. Continued promotion and monitoring of Sprinkles usage may be important components to sustain the programme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Sustainability of ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project based on participatory survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Li-Juan; Yu, Teng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the arid inland area of Northwest China, the ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project (EWTRP) is an important measure to restore the deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This research was based on results of the questionnaire from Ejina County's farmer households, which included the farmer households' attitude, livelihood and the efficiency of the water resource usage. The results showed that although the EWTRP had made great achievements in vegetation restoration, but the sustainability of the project was affected by the following factors: the ecologically-motivated relocated/resettled herdsmen mainly relied on the compensation from the project, causing them a hard living, and increasing the risk of maintaining the current achievement; the project didn't have a positive impact on water-saving agriculture, the efficiency of water usage was relatively low and had not yet reached the final goal; the compensation of the project only considered the loss of agriculture, but neglected the externality and publicity of eco-water. We suggest that developing education, offering job opportunity and training programs, improving the efficiency of water usage and establishing reasonable water resources compensation mechanisms are needed to be considered as main domain of environmental recovery as well as ecological water transfer and rehabilitation.

  15. Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M

    2005-03-01

    Animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a myriad of illnesses and diseases in practically every human culture. Although considered by many as superstition, the pertinence of traditional medicine based on animals cannot be denied since they have been methodically tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern medical science. The phenomenon of zootherapy represents a strong evidence of the medicinal use of animal resources. Indeed, drug companies and agribusiness firms have been evaluating animals for decades without paying anything to the countries from where these genetic resources are found. The use of animals' body parts as folk medicines is relevant because it implies additional pressure over critical wild populations. It is argued that many animal species have been overexploited as sources of medicines for the traditional trade. Additionally, animal populations have become depleted or endangered as a result of their use as experimental subjects or animal models. Research on zootherapy should be compatible with the welfare of the medicinal animals, and the use of their by-products should be done in a sustainable way. It is discussed that sustainability is now required as the guiding principle for biological conservation.

  16. Integrative gaming: a framework for sustainable game-based diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahol, Kanav

    2011-03-01

    Obesity and diabetes have reached epidemic proportions in both developing and developed nations. While doctors and caregivers stress the importance of physical exercise in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, many people have difficulty subscribing to a healthy lifestyle. Virtual reality games offer a potentially exciting aid in accelerating and sustaining behavior change. However, care needs to be taken to develop sustainable models of employing games for the management of diabetes and obesity. In this article, we propose an integrative gaming paradigm designed to combine multiple activities involving physical exercises and cognitive skills through a game-based storyline. The persuasive story acts as a motivational binder that enables a user to perform multiple activities such as running, cycling, and problem solving. These activities guide a virtual character through different stages of the game. While performing the activities in the games, users wear sensors that can measure movement (accelerometers, gyrometers, magnetometers) and sense physiological measures (heart rate, pulse oximeter oxygen saturation). These measures drive the game and are stored and analyzed on a cloud computing platform. A prototype integrative gaming system is described and design considerations are discussed. The system is highly configurable and allows researchers to build games for the system with ease and drive the games with different types of activities. The capabilities of the system allow for engaging and motivating the user in the long term. Clinicians can employ the system to collect clinically relevant data in a seamless manner. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Potentials for Improvement of Resource Efficiency in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing: A Case Study Based on Material Flow Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable resource use by manufacturing companies is driven by resource scarcity, environmental awareness, and cost savings potentials. To address these issues, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA has been developed and applied as an effective environmental management tool. Within MFCA’s general allocation, the accounts of products and losses are overrated by weight or volume. However, such a method is incompatible with Printed Circuit Board (PCB manufacturing because of industry characteristics in which primary inputs and products are measured by area. Based on MFCA, this case study systematically established several linear cost calculation models along the production process for capturing the actual waste flows as well as performing cost-benefit analysis. The recognition of previously ignored losses offered the incentive to find appropriate indicators to conduct cost-benefit analysis on hotspots for losses. Loss identification and analysis indicated that machining and wiring are the necessities and priorities of process optimization for resource efficiency improvement measures. Therefore, this research could not only advance the achievement of a profitable and sustainable production while improving resource efficiency at the source but could also provide support for decision making in PCB manufacturing.

  18. Sustaining and Expanding Evidence-Based Supported Employment: The Role of State Leaders Participating in a Learning Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Johnson-Kwochka, Annalee V; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Greene, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    State leaders often promote implementation of evidence-based practices but have difficulty sustaining and expanding them over time. This paper examines the activities of leaders in 13 states that have successfully implemented, sustained, and expanded evidence-based supported employment, known as Individual Placement and Support (IPS), for 4 to 12 years. We interviewed state leaders from 13 states participating in a learning community regarding the composition of their leadership team, participation in the learning community, interagency collaboration, state policy alignment, financing, training, and monitoring of fidelity and outcome. To assess state-level performance in implementing, sustaining, and expanding IPS services, we obtained measures of sustainment, expansion, program fidelity, and employment in the subsequent year and compared them to a priori benchmarks. The majority of states (between 69 % and 77 %) met benchmarks for sustainment, expansion, fidelity, and employment. States varied widely in specific actions to advance IPS, but all had established leadership teams, participated in the national learning community, and built an infrastructure supporting IPS. Leaders in 13 states participating in a learning community have adopted and maintained multiple strategies to sustain and expand evidence-based supported employment at a high level of fidelity with good employment outcomes.

  19. The sustainability of exercise capacity changes in home versus center-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadi, Ailar; Haennel, Robert G; Stone, James A; Arena, Ross; Threlfall, Tyler G; Hitt, Elizabeth; Aggarwal, Sandeep G; Haykowsky, Mark; Martin, Billie-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Although participation in either center- or home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can improve exercise capacity, the sustainability of this improvement following completion of the CR program is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate and 1-year effectiveness of center- versus home-based CR on exercise capacity in cardiac patients who were given the choice of participating in a center-based or home-based CR program. This was a retrospective study, which relied on the database from a large multidisciplinary CR program. A sample of 3488 cardiac patients participated either in center-based (n = 2803) or home-based (n = 685) CR. Participants underwent exercise testing at baseline, after 12 weeks of CR and again 1 year after completion of the CR programs. Following CR, exercise capacity (ie, peak metabolic equivalents [METs]) increased significantly in both groups (P < .05). From post-CR to the 1-year followup, exercise capacity remained unchanged in home-based CR participants (P = .183), whereas the center-based CR group demonstrated a decline in exercise capacity (P < .05). Although at the 1-year followup exercise capacity decreased in the center-based group, the observed decline did not seem to be clinically significant. The present findings indicate that when the patients were given a choice as to the delivery model (center- vs home-based) used for their CR program, they were relatively successful in retaining the improvement in exercise capacity 1 year post-CR irrespective of the exact location for their exercise training.

  20. Sustainable Poly(Ionic Liquids) for CO2 Capture Based on Deep Eutectic Monomers

    KAUST Repository

    Isik, Mehmet

    2016-10-05

    The design of high performance solid sorbent materials for CO2 capture is a technology which has been employed to mitigate global warming. However, the covalent incorporation of functionalities into polymeric supports usually involves multistep energy-intensive chemical processes. This fact makes the net CO2 balance of the materials negative even though they possess good properties as CO2 sorbents. Here we show a new family of polymers which are based on amines, amidoximes, and natural carboxylic acids and can be obtained using sustainable low energy processes. Thus, deep eutectic monomers based on natural carboxylic acids, amidoximes, and amines have been prepared by just mixing with cholinium type methacrylic ammonium monomer. The formation of deep eutectic monomers was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. In all cases, the monomers displayed glass transition temperatures well below room temperature. Computational studies revealed that the formation of eutectic complexes lengthens the distance between the cation and the anion causing charge delocalization. The liquid nature of the resulting deep eutectic monomers (DEMs) made it possible to conduct a fast photopolymerization process to obtain the corresponding poly(ionic liquids). Materials were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction to evaluate the properties of the polymers. The polymers were then used as solid sorbents for CO2 capture. It has been shown that the polymers prepared with citric acid displayed better performance both experimentally and computationally. The current endeavor showed that sustainable poly(ionic liquids) based on deep eutectic monomers can be easily prepared to produce low-energy-cost alternatives to the materials currently being researched for CO2 capture. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  1. GIS-Based Synthetic Measurement of Sustainable Development in Loess Plateau Ecologically Fragile Area—Case of Qingyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic measurement of regional sustainable development has been one of the key issues in the research field of sustainability. In this paper, Qingyang City located in the Loess Plateau ecologically fragile area of Northwest China is used for a case study, and the present study aims to investigate the degree of sustainable development by conducting temporal- and spatial-scale based analysis, with the assessment index system, assessment model and GIS approach well integrated. The results show that the development pattern of Qingyang generally fits the mode of unsustainable development, even in the presence of certain levels of spatial differences. The sustainable development state in ecologically fragile area of China’s Loess Plateau is non-optimistic, which is an uncoordinated status among subsystems of regional sustainable development. Although the level and tendency of regional sustainable development keeps increasing, such enhancement is abnormal. With the rapid deterioration of environmental and natural resources, their inhibitory effect on the economy and society would expand, eventually leading to the slow development rate or the recession of the entire system. The only solution is to change the traditional mode of economic development, to follow the guide of ecological economic conception so that the goal of achieving regional sustainable development strategies could be met ultimately. Meanwhile, the characteristics of different regions should be taken into account in order to achieve optimal spatial structure.

  2. Factors that influence evidence-based program sustainment for family support providers in child protection services in disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  4. Monocular Vision Obstacle Detection Method Based on Radial Optical Flow for Rotor UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of traditional Pyramid LK optical flow algorithm's poor accuracy and adaptability for rotor UAV to detect obstacle in complex outdoor environment, a monocular autonomous real-time obstacle detection method based on radial optical flow is proposed. In the optical flow, the radial optical flow is computed by fusing Pyramid LK optical flow with tangential optical flow, and a new obstacles decision strategy to detect obstacles based on the radial optical flow is put forward. Experimental results show that without increasing the complexity of algorithm, the proposed method can get a higher accuracy and better adaptability than traditional Pyramid LK algorithm, which can meet the requirements of UAV autonomous obstacle avoidance.

  5. Logistical and fiscal sustainability of a school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, John; Jue-Leong, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    To assess the fiscal and logistical viability of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. Econometric observational study. Nine schools in the Rincon Unified School District, Santa Rosa, CA. Safeway Pharmacies; Rincon Unified School District; California Department of Public Health, Immunization Branch; and University of California, San Diego. Assessment of direct workflow observations and administrative data. Unit costs, productivity, and effectiveness of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. The results showed a unit cost of $23.63 (compared with $25.60 for mass vaccination and $39.79 for walk-in shot-only vaccination clinics). The productivity index ($0.88) and efficiency index ($1.12) were better compared with data reported for comparable vaccination programs. School-based, pharmacist-administered vaccination programs are fiscally and logistically self-sustaining, viable alternatives to medical office-based or community-based mass vaccination clinics, and may offer a practical strategy for vaccinating children and adolescents.

  6. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  7. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  8. Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

    2006-03-15

    In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

  9. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification...

  10. Traditional products: Base for the sustainable development of Serbian animal origin products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jasna Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results on the diversity of traditional products of animal origin from certain areas of the Republic of Serbia, provides an opportunity to become part of the sustainable quality development, which would be based on their promotion and protection of local resources. Traditional products of animal origin are different and inseparable from the local identity, typical for nation and its food culture. Through confidence-building, and protection from oblivion, the value of domestic products, had preserved trough centuries-old tradition. Nowadays, each domestic product has its own recognisable taste, representing climate of the Republic of Serbia, from which it comes. Universally accepted model of rural institutional structure does not exist. Instead it accommodates and develops in accordance to needs, possibilities and area specific characteristics. By the efficient protection rural models becomes an investment incentives and contribute to general economic and industrial prosperity of the society.

  11. Human-Scale Sustainability Assessment of Urban Intersections Based upon Multi-Source Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sustainability of an enormous number of urban intersections, a novel assessment model is proposed, along with an indicator system and corresponding methods to determine the indicators. Considering mainly the demands and feelings of the urban residents, the three aspects of safety, functionality, and image perception are taken into account in the indicator system. Based on technologies such as street view picture crawling, image segmentation, and edge detection, GIS spatial data analysis, a rapid automated assessment method, and a corresponding multi-source database are built up to determine the indicators. The improved information entropy method is applied to obtain the entropy weights of each indicator. A case study shows the efficiency and applicability of the proposed assessment model, indicator system and algorithm.

  12. An Agent-based Extensible Climate Control System for Sustainable Greenhouse Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Klein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    that allows new requirements to be added without any need to identify or resolve conflicts beforehand. This is achieved by representing the climate control requirements as separate agents. Identifying and solving conflicts now become a negotiation problem among agents sharing the same controlled environment......The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent-based climate control system....... Negotiation is done using a novel multi-issue negotiation protocol that uses a generic algorithm to find an optimized solution within the search space. The Multi-Agent control system has been empirically evaluated in an ornamental floriculture research facility in Denmark. The evaluation showed...

  13. "Sustainability On Earth" WebQuests: Do They Qualify as Problem-Based Learning Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia

    2015-02-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), namely the Internet, can play a valuable educational role in several school subjects, including science education. The same applies to problem-based learning (PBL), that is, a student-centered active learning methodology that can prepare students for lifelong learning. WebQuests (WQs) combine PBL and Internet use, and they can reduce the probability of having students surfing the Internet without any clear purpose. The objective of this paper is to investigate to what extent WQs available from Portuguese schools' and universities' websites, focusing on the "Sustainability on Earth" eighth-grade school science theme, are consistent with a PBL perspective. Results from content analysis of 92 WQs indicate that the WQs selected for this paper are rarely consistent with PBL requirements. Teachers should be both aware of this issue and ready to improve the WQs available before using them in their science classes so that greater educational advantage can be generated from this powerful tool.

  14. A project-based Mine Closure Model (MCM) for sustainable asset Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fourie; A.C. Brent [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Engineering and Technology Management

    2006-07-01

    Responsible Life Cycle Management (LCM) of mines has received much attention in the South African legislation. However, there is currently a mis-alignment between the mining industry and the various government authorities pertaining to the issue of mine closure or end-of-life management. The main reasons for this are unclear and unformulated approaches to rehabilitation with a subsequent legacy of unsuccessful mine closures that have wrongly been issued by the government from a sustainability perspective; this has posed an excessive economical burden for the mining industry. In this paper, a Mine Closure Model (MCM) based on project management principles, including risk management and concurrent engineering, is proposed to manage the closure process and assist the governing body with the effective evaluation of closures and the issuance of certificates. Mine closure or rehabilitation objectives can be achieved whilst managing the resources (of industry) optimally and aligning the closure process to meet the end requirements of stakeholder groups.

  15. Flow cytometry-based diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kanegane

    2018-01-01

    Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs. Flow cytometry effectively identifies major forms of PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper IgM syndromes, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, IPEX syndrome, CTLA 4 haploinsufficiency and LRBA deficiency, IRAK4 and MyD88 deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, chronic mucocuneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. While genetic analysis is the definitive approach to establish specific diagnoses of PIDs, flow cytometry provides a tool to effectively evaluate patients with PIDs at relatively low cost.

  16. A Solvent-Free Base Liberation of a Tertiary Aminoalkyl Halide by Flow Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Skovby, Tommy; Mealy, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A flow setup for base liberation of 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl chloride hydrochloride and solvent-free separation of the resulting free base has been developed. Production in flow profits from an on-demand approach, useful for labile aminoalkyl halides. The requirement for obtaining a dry product...

  17. Real-Time and Resilient Intrusion Detection: A Flow-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Pras, Aiko

    Due to the demanding performance requirements of packet-based monitoring solutions on network equipment, flow-based intrusion detection systems will play an increasingly important role in current high-speed networks. The required technologies are already available and widely deployed: NetFlow and

  18. Separation of base flow from streamflow using groundwater levels - illustrated for the Pang catchment (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A new filter to separate base flow from streamflow has developed that uses observed groundwater levels. To relate the base flow to the observed groundwater levels, a non-linear relation was used. This relation is suitable for unconfined aquifers with deep groundwater levels that do not respond to

  19. The data collection/data distribution center: building a sustainable African-American church-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmon, Moses; Roberson, James T; Carey, Tim; Godley, Paul; Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton; Ammerman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Carolina-Shaw Partnership for the Elimination of Health Disparities efforts to engage a diverse group of Black churches in a sustainable network. We sought to develop a diverse network of 25 churches to work with the Carolina-Shaw Partnership to develop sustainable health disparities research, education, and intervention initiatives. Churches were selected based on location, pastoral buy-in, and capacity to engage. A purposive sampling technique was applied. (1) Collecting information on the location and characteristics of churches helps to identify and recruit churches that possess the desired qualities and characteristics. (2) The process used to identify, recruit, and select churches is time intensive. (3) The time, energy, and effort required managing an inter-institutional partnership and engage churches in health disparities research and interventions lends itself to sustainability. The development of a sustainable network of churches could lead to successful health disparities initiatives.

  20. Self-sustained cabinet based on fuel cell technology and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rafael Augusto de Oliveira; Valentim, Rafael Bertier; Glir, Joao Raphael Zanlorensi; Stall, Alexandre; Sommer, Elise Meister; Sanches, Luciana Schimidilin; Dias, Fernando Gallego; Korndorfer, Heitor Medeiros de Albuquerque; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: rafaelcorrea123@hotmail.com; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, Florida (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Center for Advanced Power Systems

    2010-07-01

    Along the past few years, there has been intensive research on clean and renewable energy production. Two main reasons have been pointed out: pollution caused by oil based fuels consumption and their availability diminution, which increases their production costs. Fuel Cells have shown to be a clean and renewable energy source, which reveals them as a promising solution, although their technology needs further development. Fuel Cells produce electricity, water and heat consuming hydrogen and oxygen, this provided pure or from a natural air source. Present research has combined different equipment to compose a self-sustaining fuel cells technology based cabinet for energy production, which is a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC). This system contains: fuel cells stack, electrolyzer, photovoltaic panel, batteries, current inverter and a charge controller. Photovoltaic panel charges the batteries, while charge controller controls the batteries loading. Batteries are connected to an inverter which converts direct current into alternating current. Inverter is connected to an electrolyzer (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the oxygen is released directly to the atmosphere. Fuel cell stacks power production is transformed into mechanical energy by a fan. Electrical power generated by Ballard stack is 5.124 W, with a voltage of 36.6 V and current of 0.14 A. The system proved to have a great efficiency and to be capable to assemble two renewable energy sources (solar and fuel cell technology) in a self-sustainable cabinet. It has also been shown that equipment such as Electrolyzer, Fuel Cell Stack and Photovoltaic panel can be fit together in the order to produce energy. Therefore, research on Fuel Cells Regenerative System reveals great importance for developing a new, clean, renewable and regenerative energy production system. (author)